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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: estimation ; geostatistics ; interpolation ; radionuclides ; soil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Many environmental surveys require the implementation of estimation techniques to determine the spatial distribution of the variable being investigated. Traditional methods of interpolation and estimation, for example, inverse distance squared and triangulation often ignore features of the data set such as anisotropy which may have a significant impact on the quality of the estimates produced. Geostatistical techniques may offer an improved method of estimation by modelling the spatial continuity of the variable using semi-variogram analysis. The theoretical model fitted to the semi-variogram is then used in the assignation of weighting factors to the samples surrounding the location to be estimated. This paper outlines the results of a comparison between three common estimation methods, polygonal, triangulation and inverse distance squared and a geostatistical method, in the estimation of soil radionuclide activities. The geostatistical estimation method known as kriging performed best over a range of parameters used to test the performance of the methods. Kriging exhibited the best correlation between actual and estimated values, the narrowest error distribution and the lowest overall estimation error. Polygonal estimation was best at reproducing the data set distribution. Conditional bias was evident in all the methods, low values being over-estimated and high values being under-estimated.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: bioavailable ; lead ; sediment ; soil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This study determined the spatial distribution of soiland of sediment-associated lead in Iqaluit, Nunavut.Samples were collected from the following areas:outside the built-up area of the town to reflectbackground concentrations; known or potential pointsources of lead, such as the Upper Base, the SylviaGrinnell Dump and the Metal Dump (North 40); andresidential and commercial areas of Iqaluit and Apex,a satellite community. In the laboratory, the 〈63 μm sample fraction was analyzed for total lead andbioavailable lead, estimated by non-residual acidextractable lead content. The research findings revealthat elevated levels of bioavailable lead are presentin the study area. Total lead concentrations generallydo not exceed environmental guidelines. However, leadconcentrations in the Sylvia Grinnell Dump, and Apexand Iqaluit grid areas exceed health-based guidelines.The research concludes that there is not a serioushealth hazard posed by lead levels in the soil andsediment in the study area. However, severalenvironmental (elevated lead levels, bioavailableforms of lead and bare soil surfaces) and behaviouralfactors (vigorous and unsupervised play outside) maycreate a risk of lead exposure.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: gas chromatography and ultraviolet spectroscopy ; organic compounds ; soil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Samples of compost-amended soil from waste dumping sites in Lagos Metropolis were extracted with dichloromethane (3 × 20 cm3) and the extract was evaporated at 35 °〉C. The residue was extracted with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and portions of the solution were applied to a column containing silica gel from which aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were eluted with n-hexane and toluene respectively. Analysis of the n-hexane fraction using gas chromatography showed the presence of a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons, ranging from C9 to C25, while ultraviolet analysis of the toluene fraction suggested 1,2-benzanthracene; 2,3-benzphenanthrene, chrysene and pyrene as polyaromatic compounds present in samples analyzed. The crude extracts were highly coloured and viscous. Total extractable organic residues in the 2,2,4-trimethylpentane extracts ranged from 36 to 89 mg g-1 of soil.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: biological activity ofsoil ; constant-pressure volumetric respirometer ; heavy metals ; respirometry methods ; soil ; soil degradation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A main goal of investigations is to determine could a soilrespiration be an indicator of the soil pollution. In this case a measured levelof the soil oxygen consumption depends of its pollution. It alsomeans that the pollution reduces biological processes in edaphon.Investigated soil samples were taken from polluted andnon-polluted places in the Baix Llobregat near Barcelona (Catalonia, NE Spain). Soil samples were taken from the top ofsoil (0–5 cm) without a litter. Soil analysis were done, determining percentage shares of coarsefragments, coarse sand, fine sand, coarse silt, fine silt, clay,CaCO3, organic matter as well as water pH and conductivityCE (1:5 [mS cm-1]). Also were determined (in mg kg-1)quantities of heavy metals, as Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Pb.The soil respiration was investigated in temperatures15 and 30 °C and with controlled humidity.The respiration in 30 °C is number of times greater thenin 15 °C both for polluted and non-polluted soils.Particularly high coefficients of correlation between the soilrespiration and soil pollution in polluted soils were obtainedfor Pb: r = 0.75 in 15 °C and r = 0.98 in30 °C; for Ba: 0.90 and 0.57; for V: 0.99 and 0.81. In non-polluted soils highest correlation coefficients are for Pb: r = 0.70 in 15 °C; Fe: 0.60 and 0.72; Al: 0.68 and0.64; Mn: 0.51 and 0.66; Ba: 0.63 and 0.61; Cr: 0.94 and0.70; Ni: 0.64 and 0.65; Cu: 0.69 and 0.48; as well as V: 0.62in 15 °C; and Cd: 0.69 in 15 °C.This way the soil respiration could be a good indicator of the soil pollution.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: bioaccumulation ; Italy ; lichens ; soil ; trace elements
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Total concentrations of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in the epiphytic lichen Parmelia sulcata and superficial soils from 60 remote sampling sites in Tuscany (central Italy) were determined to evaluate the contribution of soil to the elemental composition of the lichen. The results showed that in the Mediterranean environment, the trace element content of unwashed lichen samples is greatly affected by soil contamination. However, despite the strong correlations between the concentrations of lithogene elements such as Al, Fe and Ti in P. sulcata, lichen levels of these elements were not at all linearly correlated with their concentrations in the soil, suggesting that dust contamination is highly variable and probably dependent on local site characteristics. All methods evaluated to minimize soil contamination indicated Cu, Pb and Zn as elements of atmospheric origin. However, while levels of Pb were similar to those reported for background areas, moderate pollution by Cu and Zn, probably from fertilizers used in agriculture, was revealed. For elements such as Cd and Mo, identified as atmophile, some uncertainty exists due to the fact that they are essential for lichen metabolism and accumulate intracellularly in lichens; they may therefore occur in soluble form in the lichen thallus.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: copper-nickel smelter ; ICP mass spectrometry ; Kola peninsula ; pollution ; soil ; trace elements ; vegetation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Concentrations of 34 elements determined by ICP mass spectrometry were studied in surface soil and vegetation along a north–south gradient through the ‘Pechenganickel’ smelter complex in Kola peninsula, northern Russia. Strong influence from the smelter was evident for Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, mainly associated with dry deposition of large particles. Also for As, Se, Mo, Sb, Te, Bi, and Pb the smelter or associated sources appeared to be distinct contributors of contamination consisting presumably of smaller particles. Significant but less distinct effects leading to enhanced concentration levels were observed for P, S, V, Cr, Zn, and Tl. In the case of Mn, Rb, Sr, Cs, and Ba the concentrations in vegetation were generally lower near the source, which may be due to cation exchange with protons or heavy metal cations in the soil and subsequent leaching from the root zone. For Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Y, Cd, La, Th, and U no particular influence from the smelter complex was observed. Some characteristic differences observed in element concentrations in different plant species and between different years of Pinus sylvestris needles are discussed. The high concentrations observed for many trace elements in the humus horizon indicates that it acts as an active biogeochemical barrier against downward transport of these elements.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: cellulose ; charcoal kiln ; decomposition ; herb seeds ; moisture ; respiration ; smoke pollution ; soil ; temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Long-term charcoal production in small private charcoal kilns (CK) in Eastern Bieszczady Mts. (SE Poland) can cause local smoke contamination of the ambient forest environment. Responses of model soil systems, contaminated or not contaminated by CK smoke, to contrasting combinations of hydrothermic regimes were compared in laboratory microcosms (respiration of soil community, decomposition rate of soil organic matter and cotton stripes, herb seeds germination were studied). The majority of the obtained data show a markedly higher level of soil biological activity in the CK versus the control series. In some cases CK and control soil systems show different patterns of reactions to the tested combinations of microclimate regime. These phenomena should at least partly be attributed to the effects of CK pollution.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: biological activity of soil ; constantpressure volumetric respirometer ; flow-through respirometer ; respirometry methods ; soil ; soil respiration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Among commonly employed methods of fast estimation of the soil biological activity a method of the oxygen consumption determination is used. The main goal of this research was an estimation of a soil respiratory metabolism using the constant pressure volumetric respirometer and also using the flow-through respirometer UNI-RES10.Soil respiration measurements were done using both types of respirometers in temperatures 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C, keeping up the constant humidity. The investigated soil was a soil humus belonged to organic soils from the Dziekanów Leśny field. The soil respiration was also measured for 8 plant communities in Sudeten Mountains with various respiration intensity.After the experiments it was stated that both measuring instruments could be used for the soil metabolism evaluation. Readouts obtained from the UNI-RES10 respirometer are smaller then readouts when using the constant pressure volumetric respirometer. The flow-through respirometers have to be calibrated to obtain results comparable with these from volumetric ones. The volumetric and flow-through respirometry methods are useful for the comparative analysis of metabolism levels.
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