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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Dynamic parameters ; multibody dynamics ; four-bar mechanism ; simulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Dynamic equations of motion require a large number of parameters for each element of the system. These can include for each part their mass, location of center of mass, moment of inertia, spring stiffnesses and damping coefficients. This paper presents a technique for estimating these parameters in spatial mechanisms using any joint type, based on measurements of displacements, velocities and accelerations and of external forces and torques, for the purpose of building accurate multibody models of mechanical systems. A form of the equations of spatial motion is derived, which is linear in the dynamic parameters and based on multibody simulation code methodologies. Singular value decomposition is used to find the ‘essential parameter set’, and ‘minimum parameter set’. It is shown that a simulation of a four-bar mechanism (with spherical, universal, and revolute joints) and based on the estimated parameters gives accurate response.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Nonlinear dynamics ; control structure interaction ; multibody dynamics ; finite element method ; Lagrangian dynamics ; inverse dynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The effect of the control structure interaction on the feedforward control law as well as the dynamics of flexible mechanical systems is examined in this investigation. An inverse dynamics procedure is developed for the analysis of the dynamic motion of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. This method is used to examine the effect of the elastic deformation on the driving forces in flexible mechanical systems. The driving forces are expressed in terms of the specified motion trajectories and the deformations of the elastic members. The system equations of motion are formulated using Lagrange's equation. A finite element discretization of the flexible bodies is used to define the deformation degrees of freedom. The algebraic constraint equations that describe the motion trajectories and joint constraints between adjacent bodies are adjoined to the system differential equations of motion using the vector of Lagrange multipliers. A unique displacement field is then identified by imposing an appropriate set of reference conditions. The effect of the nonlinear centrifugal and Coriolis forces that depend on the body displacements and velocities are taken into consideration. A direct numerical integration method coupled with a Newton-Raphson algorithm is used to solve the resulting nonlinear differential and algebraic equations of motion. The formulation obtained for the flexible mechanical system is compared with the rigid body dynamic formulation. The effect of the sampling time, number of vibration modes, the viscous damping, and the selection of the constrained modes are examined. The results presented in this numerical study demonstrate that the use of the driving forees obtained using the rigid body analysis can lead to a significant error when these forces are used as the feedforward control law for the flexible mechanical system. The analysis presented in this investigation differs significantly from previously published work in many ways. It includes the effect of the structural flexibility on the centrifugal and Coriolis forces, it accounts for all inertia nonlinearities resulting from the coupling between the rigid body and elastic displacements, it uses a precise definition of the equipollent systems of forces in flexible body dynamics, it demonstrates the use of general purpose multibody computer codes in the feedforward control of flexible mechanical systems, and it demonstrates numerically the effect of the selected set of constrained modes on the feedforward control law.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Finite element modeling ; time-variant constraint ; multibody dynamics ; contact analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper a new method is developed for the dynamic analysis of contact conditions in flexible multibody systems undergoing a rolling type of motion. The relative motion between the two contacting bodies is treated as a constraint condition describing their kinematic and geometric relations. Equations of motion of the system are presented in a matrix form making use of Kane's equations and finite element method. The method developed has been implemented in a general purpose program called DARS and applied to the simulation and analysis of a rotating wheel on a track. Both the bodies are assumed flexible and discretized using a three dimensional 8-noded isoparametric elements. The time variant constraint conditions are imposed on the nodal points located at the peripheral surfaces of the bodies under consideration. The simulation is carried out under two different boundary conditions describing the support of the track. The subsequent constraint forces associated with the generalized coordinates of the system are computed and plotted. The effects of friction are also discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Composite plates ; nonlinear vibration ; finite element method ; multibody dynamics ; stress analysis ; and numerical methods
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The development of a shear-deformable laminated plate element, based on the Mindlin plate theory, for use in large reference displacement analysis is presented. The element is sufficiently general to accept an arbitrary number of layers and an arbitrary number of orthotrophic material property sets. Coordinate mapping is utilized so that non-rectangular elements may be modeled. The Gauss quadrature method of numerical integration is utilized to evaluate volume integrals. A comparative study is done on the use of full Gauss quadrature, reduced Gauss quadrature, mixed Gauss quadrature, and closed form integration techniques for the element. Dynamic analysis is performed on the RSSR (Revolute-Spherical-Spherical-Revolute) mechanism, with the coupler modeled as a flexible plate. The results indicate the differences in the dynamic response of the transverse shear deformable eight-noded element as compared to a four-noded plate element. Dynamically induced stresses are examined, with the results indicating that the primary deformation mode of the eight-noded Mindlin plate model being bending.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Head collision ; contact models ; viscoelastic material ; multibody dynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract To improve aircraft crash safety, conditions critical to occupants survival during a crash must be known. In view of the importance of this problem, studies of post-crash dynamic behavior of victims are necessary in order to reduce severe injuries. In this study, crash dynamics program SOM-LA/TA, incorporating a dynamic model of the human body with a finite element model of the seat structure was used. Modifications were performed in the program for reconstruction of an occupant's head impact with the interior walls or bulkhead. A viscoelastic-type contact force model was used to represent the compliance characteristics of the bulkhead. Correlated studies of analytical simulations with impact sled test results were accomplished. A parametric study of the coefficients in the contact force model was then performed in order to obtain the correlations between the coefficients and the Head Injury Criteria. A measure of optimal values for the bulkhead compliance and displacement requirements was thus achieved in order to keep the possibility of a head injury as little as possible. This information could in turn be used in the selection of suitable materials for the bulkhead, instrument panel, or interior walls of an aircraft.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Nonlinear dynamics 9 (1996), S. 21-36 
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Beams ; finite elements ; multibody dynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A spatial beam element for static and dynamic problems which involve large displacements and rotations is described. This beam element is applied to static linear buckling problems, the simulation of the motion of a slider-crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod and a planar and spatial spin-up motion of a flexible beam. Results are compared with those from the open literature.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Flexible articulated structures ; multibody dynamics ; actuator redundancy ; trajectory tracking ; inverse dynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We address the problem of inverse dynamics for flexible multibodies, which arises, in trajectory tracking control of flexible multibodies such as space manipulators and articulated flexible structures. Previous research has resolved this trajectory tracking problem by computing the system inputs for feedforward control of actuators at the joints. Recently, the use of distributed actuators like electro-strictive actuators in flexible structures has introduced a new dimension to this trajectory tracking problem. In this paper we optimally utilize such actuators to aid joint actuators for tracking control, and introduce a new inverse dynamics scheme for simultaneously (1) tracking a prescribed trajectory and (2) minimizing ensuing elastic deflections. We apply this scheme for trajectory tracking of a two-link two-joint planar manipulator with joint motors and distributed electro-strictive actuators. Experimental results are presented to contrast our new scheme with other existing methods.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Nonlinear dynamics 6 (1994), S. 391-417 
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Tracked vehicles ; recursive methods ; augmented formulation ; multibody dynamics ; Lagrangian dynamics ; singular configurations ; numerical methods
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this investigation, the solution of the nonlinear dynamic equations of the multibody tracked vehicle systems are obtained using different procedures. In the first technique, which is based on the augmented formulation that employes the absolute Cartesian coordinates and Lagrange multipliers, the generalized coordinate partitioning of the constraint Jacobian matrix is used to determine the independent coordinates and the associated independent differential equations. An iterative Newton-Raphson algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear constraint equations for the dependent variables. The numerical problems encountered when one set of independent coordinates is used during the simulation of large scale tracked vehicle systems are demonstrated and their relationship to the track dynamics is discussed. The second approach employed in this investigation is the velocity transformation technique. One of the versions of this technique is discussed in this paper and the numerical problems that arise from the use of inconsistent system of kinematic equations are reported. In the velocity transformation technique, the tracked vehicle system is assumed to consist of two kinematically decoupled subsystems; the first subsystem consists of the chassis, the rollers, the sprocket and the idler, while the second subsystem consists of the track which is represented as a closed kinematic chain that consists of rigid links connected by revolute joints. It is demonstrated that the use of one set of recursive equations leads to numerical difficulties because of the change in the track configuration. Singular configurations can be avoided by repeated changes in the recursive equations. The sensitivity of the predictor-corrector multistep numerical integration schemes to the method of formulating the state equations is demonstrated. The numerical results presented in this investigation are obtained using a planner tracked vehicle model that consists of fifty four rigid bodies.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Crashworthiness ; multibody dynamics ; finite element analysis ; vehicle occupants modelling ; crash sled tests ; computer simulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Methods that treat rigid/flexible multibody systems undergoing large motion as well as deformations are often accompanied with inefficiencies and instabilities in the numerical solution due to the large number of state variables, differences in the magnitudes of the rigid and flexible body coordinates, and the time dependencies of the mass and stiffness matrices. The kineto-static methodology of this paper treats a multibody mechanical system to consist of two collections of bulky (rigid) bodies and relatively flexible ones. A mixed boundary condition nonlinear finite element problem is then formulated at each time step whose known quantities are the displacements of the nodes at the boundary of rigid and flexible bodies and its unknowns are the deformed shape of the entire structure and the loads (forces and moments) at the boundary. Partitioning techniques are used to solve the systems of equations for the unknowns, and the numerical solution of the rigid multibody system governing equations of motion is carried out. The methodology is very much suitable in modelling and predicting the impact responses of multibody system since both nonlinear and large gross motion as well as deformations are encountered. Therefore, it has been adopted for the studies of the dynamic responses of ground vehicle or aircraft occupants in different crash scenarios. The kineto-static methodology is used to determine the large motion of the rigid segments of the occupant such as the limbs and the small deformations of the flexible bodies such as the spinal column. One of the most dangerous modes of injury is the amount of compressive load that the spine experiences. Based on the developed method, a mathematical model of the occupant with a nonlinear finite element model of the lumbar spine is developed for a Hybrid II (Part 572) anthropomorphic test dummy. The lumbar spine model is then incorporated into a gross motion occupant model. The analytical results are correlated with the experimental results from the impact sled test of the dummy/seat/restraint system. With this extended occupant model containing the lumbar spine, the gross motion of occupant segments, including displacements, velocities and accelerations as well as spinal axial loads, bending moments, shear forces, internal forces, nodal forces, and deformation time histories are evaluated. This detailed information helps in assessing the level of spinal injury, determining mechanisms of spinal injury, and designing better occupant safety devices.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-269X
    Keywords: Dynamics ; finite element method ; triangular elements ; multibody dynamics ; component mode synthesis ; nonlinear vibration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Finite elements with different orders can be used in the analysis of constrained deformable bodies that undergo large rigid body displacements. The constrained mode shapes resulting from the use of finite elements with different orders differ in the way the stiffness of the body bending and extension are defined. The constrained modes also depend on the selection of the boundary conditions. Using the same type of finite element, different sets of boundary conditions lead to different sets of constrained modes. In this investigation, the effect of the order of the element as well as the selection of the constrained mode shapes is examined numerically. To this end, the constant strain three node triangular element and the quadratic six node triangular element are used. The results obtained using the three node triangular element are compared with the higher order six node triangular element. The equations of motion for the three and six node triangular elements are formulated from assumed linear and quadratic displacement fields, respectively. Both assumed displacement fields can describe large rigid body translational and rotational displacements. Consequently, the dynamic formulation presented in this investigation can also be used in the large deformation analysis. Using the finite element displacement field, the mass, stiffness, and inertia invariants of the three and six-node triangular elements are formulated. Standard finite element assembly techniques are used to formulate the differential equations of motion for mechanical systems consisting of interconnected deformable bodies. Using a multibody four bar mechanism, numerical results of the different elements and their respective performance are presented. These results indicate that the three node triangular element does not perform well in bending modes of deformation.
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