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  • kinetics  (17)
  • molecular recognition  (16)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: barbiturates ; macrocycles ; molecular recognition ; receptors ; zinc complexes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new bis-zinc(II) receptor (Zn2L), which has two macrocyclic 12-membered tetraamine (cyclen) ZnII complexes connected through a p-xylene bridge, has been synthesized as a novel host molecule to recognize barbiturates (such as barbital (bar)) in aqueous solution. Each of the zinc(II) ions in the biszinc(II) receptor was originally intended to match the dianionic barbital anion (bar2-) with supplementary hydrogen bonds between the cyclen NH's and the three carbonyl oxygens in complementary positions to yield a 1:1 complex, Zn2L-bar2-. From an aqueous solution of equimolar Zn2L and barbital at pH 8, however, a cyclic 2:2 complex, (Zn2L-bar2-)2, was isolated and characterized by X-ray crystal analysis. The NMR study in 10% (v/v) D2O/H2O has revealed dissociation of (Zn2L-bar2-)2 solely into the original target 1:1 complex Zn2L-bar2- and established the dimerization constant for 2Zn2L-bar2- → (Zn2L-bar2-)2, Kd ( = [(Zn2L-bar2-)2]/[Zn2L-bar2-]2) to be 103.4 M-1. The thermodynamic parameters were evaluated from the NMR measurements at 25, 35, 45, and 55°C: ΔG = -1.9 × 104 J mol-1, ΔH = - 3.3 × 104 J mol-1, ΔS = - 49 J mol-1 K-1 at 25°C. Potentiometric pH titration of Zn2L (1 mM) and barbital (1 mM) disclosed extremely facile deprotonation of the two imido groups of barbital at pH less than 7 to form the dianionic barbital-bound ZnII complexes Zn2L-bar2- and (Zn2L-bar2-)2, where-by the barbital binding affinity for Zn2L was estimated to be Kbar ( = [Zn2L-bar2-]/[uncomplexed Zn2L][uncomplexed barbital]) = 105.8 M-1 at pH 8 and 25°C with I = 0.10 (NaNO3). The significance of the bis-zinc(II) receptor in stabilizing the dianionic barbital is evident by comparison with the interaction of ZnII-cyclen complex (ZnL) with barbital, which yields only a 1:1 monoanionic barbital complex, ZnL-bar- (Kbar = [ZnL-bar-]/[uncomplexed ZnL][uncomplexed barbital] = 104.2M-1 at pH 8 and 25°C with I = 0.10 (NaNO3)).
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: antithrombotics ; conformation ; molecular recognition ; oligosaccharides ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An octasulfated pentasaccharide 1 having an L-iduronic acid moiety in a fixed 1C4 conformation was synthesized by the coupling of a triosyl donor 3 with a disaccharide acceptor 4 followed by deprotection and O-sulfation. The acceptor 4 was prepared from the fully acetylated 5-C-allyl-β-D-glucose building block 7 by means of a TMSOTf-promoted glycosylation, intramolecular substitution and ozonolysis of the olefinic bond as the key reactions. Compound 1 showed very low activity in an antithrombin 111-mediated anti-Xa assay; this reflects the importance of the presence of a flexible L-iduronic acid moiety in heparin-like antithrombotics.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: iron complexes ; kinetics ; magnetic susceptibility ; Mössbauer spectroscopy ; spin crossover ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The thermal and light-induced spin transitions in [Fe(bpen)(NCS)2] and [Fe(bpen)(NCSe)2] have been investigated by means of magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer measurements. The HS → LS transition in [Fe(bpen)(NCS)2] is detected at temperatures below 120 K (T1/2 [when the fraction of high-spin species γHS = 0.5] = 68 K) with a residual HS fraction of 8% at 20 K. The transition is fairly abrupt and no hysteresis is observed, in contrast to earlier studies (ref. [8]). The generation of metastable HS states in [Fe(bpen)(NCS)2] is achieved by rapid cooling of the sample and by irradiating the compound at low temperatures with light of appropriate wavelengths (LIESST). The HS → LS relaxation of the metastable spin states after rapid cooling is observed at temperatures between 35 and 42.5 K and shows strong deviations from single exponential behavior. The spin-transition behavior changes drastically on substitution of the thiocyanate ions by NCSe-. In [Fe(bpen)(NCSe)2] a gradual and complete spin transition between 140 and 250 K is observed (T1/2 = 181 K). Irradiation of the compound with green light at low temperatures does not result in formation of long-lived metastable HS states. The spintransition curves derived from magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer studies show good agreement for each compound, and no hints of significantly different Lamb-Mössbauer factors for the HS and LS states are observed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: electron transfer ; indene ; kinetics ; rhodium ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reduction of the indenyl complex [Rh(η5-C9H7)(η4-cod)] has been investigated in the context of structural effects induced by the transfer of one electron. The reduction of this complex occurs in two steps, leading first to the radical anion and then to the highly frangible dianion. Both species eliminate the indenyl anion. In the presence of free cyclooctadiene, the related cleavage leading to the indenyl anion and bis-cyclooctadiene rhodium fragments now follows a Michaelis-Menten-type mechanism involving precoordination of one extra COD ligand to the initial radical anion. These results suggest the modification of the hapticity of the indenyl ligand in connection with 17- and 19-electron metalcentered intermediates.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: bipyridine ligands ; helicates ; kinetics ; mass spectrometry ; self-assembly ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The self-assembly of the pentanuclear double helicates Hh, Ha and He from the corresponding oligobipyridine strands Lh, La and Le and Cu1 ions has been investigated by NMR and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS). Where as Hh is assembled rapidly (in less than 20 min), He (about 20 h) and especially Ha (about 60 h) form much more slowly. The rate decreases strongly with increasing steric bulk of the substituents in the 4,4′-positions on the bipyridine units; this indicates that the search processes (wrapping, unwrapping) that lead to the final helicate are strongly hindered by the size of the substituents. The ESMS data give information about the species present in solution under different conditions and allow the formulation of possible formation pathways, which may involve, in particular, helicates of hairpin type.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: hydrogen bonds ; LFER ; molecular recognition ; NMR spectroscopy ; nucleobases ; thermodynamics ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Association energies ΔGt in chloroform, in part also in carbon tetrachloride, were determined by NMR titrations of suitably substituted nucleosides and several synthetic analogues. Based on these and on many literature data, two simple free energy increments were derived describing the ΔGt values of 58 complexes within 1.8 kJ mol-1. With chloroform as solvent the increment for the primary interaction between donor and acceptor is 7.9 kJ mol-1, for the secondary one 2.9 kJ mol-1, irrespective of whether the latter is attractive or repulsive. Addition of only 1% methanol to CCl4 led to a decrease in association constants by a factor of 25. Calorimetric titrations of G-C nucleoside derivatives in CCl4 showed substantial contributions from G dimers, in line with NMR titrations, and surprisingly small decreases in entropy. Preliminary NOE measurements allowed us to single out some of the possible association modes; they are also in line with expected self- and triple-association modes of the nucleobases. These modes are generally in accord with nucleobase associations predicted by MM calculations in the literature, which in turn agree with predictions based solely on the increments derived in the present work.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: hydrogen bonds ; molecular recognition ; polyelectrolyte multilayers ; surface chemistry ; thin films ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Functional polyanions were prepared by copolymerization of sulfopropyl acrylate and sulfopropyl methacrylate with monomers bearing triaminopyrimidine or barbituric acid functionalities, respectively. Functionalized polyelectrolyte multilayers were assembled from these copolymers by stepwise alternating adsorption with poly(choline methacrylate). These multilayers are suited for molecular recognition of substrates that are complementary to the functional groups incorporated. Thus, multilayers containing triaminopyrimidine moieties selectively bind barbituric acid, and vice versa, when exposed to solutions of the 1:1 complex of barbituric acid and triaminopyrimidine. The molecular recognition process was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), and photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Remarkably, after successful recognition and binding of the complementary substrates to the multilayers, the stepwise layering could be continued.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: chemoselectivity ; enzyme inhibitors ; glycosidases ; kinetics ; pyridazines ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: (3,4-trans-4,5-trans)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylhexahydropyrida-zine (16) was synthesized in four steps from 2,4-pentadienol (22) and 4-phenyl-triazolin-3,5-dione (18) in an overall yield of 32%. In the first step a Diels-Alder reaction between 18 and 22 gave (π)-2-hydroxymethyl-8-phenyl-1,6,8-triazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-3-ene-7,9-dione (23c) in 88% yield. Epoxidation of 23c with trifluoromethyl(methyl)dioxirane, generated in situ, gave the trans epoxide 24c in 62% yield. Hydrolysis of the epoxide with perchloric acid gave stereoselectively (2,3-trans-3,4-trans)-3,4-dihydroxy-2-hydroxy-methyl-8-phenyl-1,6,8-triazabicyclo[4.3.0]-nonane-7,9-dione (26) in 73% yield. In the fourth and final step, hydrazinolysis of 26 gave 16 in 84% yield. Pyridazine 16 was found to be a potent inhibitor of α-and β-glucosidase, isomaltase and glyco-gen phosphorylase, while galactosidases and α-mannosidase were not inhibited. The inhibition of β-glucosidase is independent of pH, and was found to be due to unprotonated 16.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: autocatalysis ; coiled coil ; kinetics ; peptides ; self-replication ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A 32-residue α-helical peptide with a sequence similiar to that of the GCN4 leucine zipper region is shown to catalyze its own formation by accelerating the amide bond formation of a 17-residue peptide, preactivated as a thiobenzyl ester, and a 15-residue peptide with a N-terminal cysteine. The self-replication process displays parabolic growth characteristics as revealed by a detailed kinetic analysis. Control reactions with single-mutant peptides strongly support a mechanism in which a ternary and/or quaternary complex of the product with both peptide fragments act(s) as the catalytically active intermediate(s). Furthermore, these experiments reveal a remarkable sequence selectivity, as evidenced by the loss of autocatalytic activity as a result of a single replacement of leucine or valine residues with an alanine at the recognition interface.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: hydrogen bonds ; metalloreceptor ; molecular recognition ; nucleobases ; pi interactions ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Thiacyclophane ligands 1 and 2, containing a meta-xylyldithiaether unit, an aromatic spacing unit and a polyether chain, were prepared in good yield in a three-step synthesis. The macrocyclic organopalladium complexes [Pd(L)-(MeCN)][BF4] (3: L = 1; 4: L = 2) were prepared through palladation of the respective thiacyclophane ligand by reaction with [Pd(MeCN)4][BF4]2. These complexes act as metalloreceptors to aromatic amines such as p-aminopyridine (pap), m-aminopyridine (map) and the DNA nucleobases adenine and guanine. Binding occurs through simultaneous first- and second-sphere coordination. This involves three separate interactions: first-sphere σ donation from an aromatic N atom to the Pd centre, second-sphere hydrogen bonds between the NH2 group and polyether O atoms, and π stacking between the electron-poor aromatic rings of the substrate and the electron-rich aromatic spacing units of the receptor. 1H NMR spectra exhibit chemical shift changes indicative of the H-bonding and π-stacking interactions in solution. X-ray structures for thiacyclophane 1, metalloreceptor [Pd(1)(MeCN)][BF4] (3), metalloreceptor/model substrate complexes [Pd(1)(pap)][BF4 (5) and [Pd(2)-(pap)][BF4] (7), and metalloreceptor/nucleobase complexes [Pd(1)(adenine)][BF4] (13), [Pd(2)(adenine)][BF4] (14) and [Pd(1)(guanine-BF3)][BF4] (15b) show details of these interactions in the solid state.
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