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  • self-assembly  (23)
  • iron complexes  (12)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: catenanes ; polycatenanes ; polyrotaxanes ; rotaxanes ; self-assembly ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The self-assembly of three bis[2]catenanes and a bis[2]rotaxane, by two complementary strategies, is reported. A synthetic route to derivatives of bis-para-phenylene[34]crown-10 (BPP34C10) and 1,5-naphtho-para-phenylene[36]-crown-10 (1/5NPP36C10) containing a fused five-membered ring with a secondary amine function is described. These intermediate N-allylimido macrocyclic polyethers undergo template-directed reactions with 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)]bis-4,4′-bipyridinium bis-(hexafluorophosphate) and 1,4-bis(bromo-methyl)benzene to produce [2]catenanes containing an N-allyl functionality. The N-allylimido macrocyclic polyethers have also been reduced and deprotected to afford macrocycles possessing a free NH group, which are then linked through a 4,4′-biphenyldicarbonyl spacer to produce bis(crown ether)s, in which each crown ether moiety has two recognition sites. These ditopic BPP34C10 and 1/5NPP36C10 derivatives are capable of sustaining self-assembly reactions at both recognition sites to yield bis[2]catenanes. The self-assembly of a complementary bis[2]catenane, in which two tetracationic cyclophanes are linked together with a flexible hexyl chain, has also been achieved by treating 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]bis-4,4′-bipyridinium bis-(hexafluorophosphate) with a compound containing two linked 1,4-bis(bromomethyl)benzene units in the presence of BPP34C10. Replacing BPP34C10 with a dumbbell-shaped compound containing a linear polyether unit intercepted by a naphthalene residue and terminated by two bulky adamantoyl groups has led to the self-assembly of a bis[2]rotaxane. The X-ray crystal structures of one of the catenanes and its associated crown ether component are reported, together with solution state dynamic 1H NMR spectroscopic studies, showing that there is substantial degree of order characterizing the molecular structure of the catenanes.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chemistry - A European Journal 2 (1996), S. 83-87 
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: enzyme models ; iron complexes ; molybdenum complexes ; nitro genase ; semi-empirical calculations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A model for the active site of nitrogenase is suggested and examined by means of the intermediate neglect of differential overlap (INDO) quantum mechanical method. The initial steps of the nitrogen fixation process are discussed within the framework of the present model, and it is shown that of several binding sites, initial location of the nitrogen molecule inside the MoFe cofactor is favored. Possible pathways for electron and proton delivery to the active site are also suggested on the basis of electrostatic potential calculations.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: carbonyl complexes ; chiral ligands ; iron complexes ; phosphorus ligands ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Secondary phosphines such as HPPh2 and to the cationic iron dienyl complex [η5-(1R)-ethylnopadienyl)Fe-(CO)3]+ (1) by nucleophilic addition. The phosphonium salt initially formed is readily deprotonated to yield an optically active tertiary phosphine [(n4-(1 R)-ethylnopadienePPh2)Fe(CO)3] (2b). A similar reaction also occurs with [C6H7Fe-(CO)3]+ (3) and [C7H9Fe(CO)3]+ (4) to give [(C6H7PPh2)Fe(CO)3] (5) and [(C7H9PPh2)Fe(CO)3] (6) in good yields. The mechanism of formation of these novel phosphines is discussed. Complex 2 b crystallizes in the space group P212121 (no. 19); 5 crystallizes in the space group P21/c (no. 14). Like other monodentate optically active phosphines, 2 b is capable of coordinating to transition metal complexes. It forms palladium complexes on reaction with [{μ-chloro(allyl)palladium}2] as well as with [{μ-chloro[(N,N-dimethylamino-kN-2-methyl)phenyl-kC]palladium}2] (11). The latter reaction product crystallizes in the space group P31 (no. 144).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: clusters ; gas-phase chemistry ; ionmolecule reactions ; iron complexes ; mass spectrometry ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We report on the gas phase reactions of small Fe+n clusters (n = 2-10) with O2, N2O and CO2 in an FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Under our experimental conditions, clusters of all sizes reacted readily with O2 and all but the dimer reacted with N2O. Only the smallest Fe+n clusters (n = 2-4) appeared to activate CO2. For all X-O molecules (X = O, N2, CO), reaction pathways were observed that include the transfer of O atoms. In addition, the reactions with O2 and N2O were accompanied by the loss of one or two Fe atoms. Thermochemical considerations based upon the well-known X-O bond energies were used to calculate Fen-O+ bond dissociation energies (BDEs) for sizes n = 2-6; these amount to roughly 550 kJ mol-1 and thus are considerably higher than the BDE of the Fe-O+ ion. All oxidation reactions of the Fe+n clusters (n = 2-6) studied in more detail were terminated by products of FexOx+ stoichiometry (x = 1-4). These “microoxides of iron” are not able to activate any further X-O bonds. Secondary reactions of FexOx+ clusters with C6H6, C2H4 and NH3 were investigated for two selected sizes (x = 2, 3) and compared with reactions of the naked Fe+n clusters.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: lactam ; macrocycles ; rotaxanes ; self-assembly ; template syntheses ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two new rotaxane types, the [2]rotaxanes 12a,b and the [3]rotaxane 13, have been synthesised by treating the “axle” 7 with the stopper component 9 in the presence of the “wheel” 8. A nonionic template intermediate of type 10 is proposed. The [3]rotaxane 13 was only obtained when the chain of the “axle” had a certain length: with n = 1 only [2]rotaxane 12 a was isolated, whereas with n = 2 the [3]rotaxane 13 was formed besides the [2]rotaxane 12 b. This suggests that more extended rotaxanes and polyrotaxanes can be synthesised by the template strategy.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: iron complexes ; LIESST ; spin crossover ; tetrazoles ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The [Fe(etz),](BF,), spin-cross-over system (etz = 1-ethyl-1 H-tetrazole) crystallizes in space group P1, with the following lattice constants at 298 K: a 10.419(3), b=15.709(1), c = 18.890(2) Å = α = 71.223(9), β =77.986(10), and γ = 84.62(1)° V = 2862.0(9) Å3 and Z = 3. Two nonequivalent lattice sites, one without (site A) and one with (site B) inversion symmetry, are observed. The population of the two sites nA:nB is 2:l. Iron(II) on site A undergoes a thermal low-spin (LS) → high-spin (HS) transition with T1/2I, = 105 K. whereas that on site B remains in the high-spin state down to cryogenic temperatures. Application of external pressure of up to 1200 bar between 200 and 60 K does not cause formation of the low-spin state on site B. On site A the high-spin state can be populated as a metastable state at 20 K by irradiating the sample with λ = 514.5 nm; on site B a light-induced population of the low-spin state can be achieved with λ = 820 nm.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: hysteresis ; iron complexes ; LIESST ; spin crossover ; tetrazoles ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the [Fe(etz)6](BF4)2 spincrossover system the iron(II) complexes occupy two nonequivalent lattice sites, sites A and B. Complexes on site A show a thermal high-spin (HS) → low-spin (LS) transition at 105 K, whereas complexes on site B remain in the HS state down to 10 K. Complexes on both sites exhibit light-induced spin state conversions (LIESST) at 20 K: LS → HS on site A with λ = 514.5 nm, and HS → LS on site B with λ = 820 nm. The relaxation processes subsequent to the HS ⇌ LS conversion on site B reveal a light-induced HS⇌LS bistability for the complexes on site B at 70 K. The bistability as well as the absence of a thermal spin transition on site B are attributed to a thermal hysteresis for the B-site complexes with a critical temperature T↑c≍77 K on heating. This hysteresis can be interpreted in terms of strong cooperative effects of elastic origin, which, in addition, cause characteristic deviations of the relaxation on site B from first-order kinetics (self-acceleration). In contrast, the HS → LS relaxation at 60 K on site A after irradiation with λ = 514.5 nm shows an unusual self-retardation.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: boron compounds ; fluxionality ; iron complexes ; NMR spectroscopy ; rearrangements ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The fluxional behavior of [1-4-η4 - exo - 7 - dipropylborylcyclohepta - 1,3,5-triene]tricarbonyliron (14) has been studied by dynamic NMR. The 2 D 1H and 13C EXSY NMR experiments carried out at various temperatures revealed that three independent fluxional processes occur in 14. The fastest rearrangement is a [1,7] B sigmatropic shift accompanied by [1,2] Fe migration (EA = 71.2±2.3 kJ mol-1, ln A = 32±1). Two other rearrangements also take place: [1,3] B sigmatropic and [1,3] Fe haptotropic migrations. The analysis of the observed selectivity towards [1,j] B sigmatropic shifts ([1,3] and [1,7] B shifts are observed, but [1,5] B shifts are not) in terms of theoretical predictions gives reason to assume that the [1,j] boron migrations occur with inversion of configuration at the migrating atom.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: alkylthiols ; gold ; nanoparticles ; phase transitions ; self-assembly ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-alkanethiolates on gold, silver, and copper have been intensively studied both as model organic surfaces and as modulators of metal surface properties. Sensitivity restrictions imposed by monolayer coverage and the low surface area of planar metal substrates, however, limit the characterization of these films in molecular terms to surface enhancement techniques. As a result, key aspects such as film dynamics and alkyl chain ordering remain ill-defined. The characterization of the thermal behaviour of SAMs is important not only for the design of stable, well-ordered organic superlattices, but also for the fundamental understanding of the factors that drive molecular interactions in two dimensions. Phase properties in SAMs have been addressed here through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of 20-30 Å in diameter and fully covered with alkylthiol chains. These thiolmodified gold nanoparticles with large surface areas have enabled the monolayer film structure to be uniquely characterized by transmission FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Our studies reveal that for long-chain thiols (≥ C16), the alkyl chains exist predominantly in an extended, all-trans ordered conformation at 25°C. Furthermore, calorimetry, variable temperature transmission FT-IR spectroscopy, and solid-state 13C NMR studies have established that a cooperative chain melting process occurs in these alkylated metal colloids. How this arises is not immediately evident, given the relation between the extended chain conformation and the geometry of the spherical nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that adjacent gold particles are separated by approximately one chain length; this suggests that chain ordering arises from an interdigitation of chains on neighboring particles. The thermotropic behavior is sensitive to the alkyl chain length and chain packing density. The alkylated nanoparticles can thus serve as a highly dispersed analogue to the much-studied planar SAMs.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0947-6539
    Keywords: bridging ligands ; chelate ligands ; copper complexes ; self-assembly ; structure elucidation ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The “self-assembly” reaction between bischelating 2,2′-bipyrimidine, metallic copper, Cu2+, and two equivalents of bidentate Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2 produces crystallographically characterized dinuclear complexes with a [Cu1(μ-bpym)-Cu1]2+ core and chelating (n = 5; type I) or bridging diphosphine ligands (n = 6, 8; type II). Structures II may be designated as “inverse cryptate” arrangements. The structural data of the solids and the spectroscopic results for the dissolved species indicate a strained configuration in the case of complex [(μ-bpym)Cu2{μ-Ph2P-(CH2)n]2+ (6) with n = 6. Once the polymethylene chain length is reduced one notch further to n = 5 (5), the diphosphines can no longer bridge but help to form eight-membered chelate rings (structure I). In this complex there is a distortion towards a trigonal-pyramidal coordination geometry at the copper(I) centers, which is supported by the formation of an “organic sandwich” arrangement between the central bpym acceptor and two phosphino phenyl rings.
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