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  • heavy metals  (14)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: heavy metals ; organochlorines ; red fox
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Heavy metals and organochlorine contamination were analyzed in tissues of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the Province of Siena (central Italy). Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were assessed in liver tissues and the data were analyzed for differences in relation to sex and age. Overall Hg, Cd and Pb mean values were 0.16, 0.62 and 0.64 μg g_1 d.w., respectively. HCB, DDT and PCB concentrations were assayed in fatty tissues and muscle. The highest levels of those pollutants were found in muscle (0.47, 1.16 and 20.2 μg g_1 lipid basis of HCB, DDTs and PCBs respectively), rather than in fat (0.23, 0.49 and 7.2 μg g_1 l.b. of HCB, DDTs and PCBs respectively). Pollutant accumulation was analyzed in relation to sex, age and sexual maturity of females.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: agar diffusion assay ; Arabian Gulf ; chromogenic bacteria ; heavy metals ; toxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A simple method – direct agar diffusion assay – was optimised for rapid assessment of heavy metal toxicity to marine chromogenic and non-chromogenic bacteria. The procedure involved spotting of a 10 microliter test solution on the seeded agar plate and incubation of the plates at 30°C to accelerate bacterial growth. Under optimum conditions, test results were obtainable within 12–18 hr instead of 96 hr incubation time generally required for a marine bacterial assay by conventional agar plate methods. A range of sixteen heavy metals, each at 5 different concentrations was tested. Toxicity was demonstrated by the formation of a clear zone of growth inhibition around the point of application. Toxicity of tested chemicals could be easily demonstrated at concentrations as low as 0.1 μg per spot on the agar plate. A dose dependent relation between metal concentration (μg/spot) and the diameter of the clear zone on agar plate was observed, suggesting potential of this method as an easy and economical tool in quantitative toxicology studies.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: birds ; environmental pollutants ; heavy metals
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Levels of environmental pollutants are usually higher in mainland and coastal areas than in offshore or oceanic islands due to higher inputs from agricultural and industrial sources. Levels of heavy metals are usually higher in adult than in young birds, because they have had longer to accumulate metals in their tissues, and/or because they may eat larger, more contaminated, prey. We examined the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the adults and young of Bonin petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca), Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and red-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda) on Midway Atoll, and adult wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) on Midway Atoll and on Manana Island (off Oahu) in the northern Pacific. All birds were analyzed individually except for Christmas Shearwater chicks where samples were pooled to obtain sufficient quantities for analysis. Significant (p〈0.05) age-related differences were found for mercury, selenium, manganese and chromium in Bonin petrels, for selenium and mercury in Christmas shearwaters, and for chromium and mercury in Red-tailed Tropicbirds. Lead approached significance for all three species. Adults had higher levels than young except for chromium and manganese in the petrels and arsenic in all three species. There were significant interspecific differences in concentrations of all metals except arsenic for the adults nesting on Midway. Christmas shearwaters had the highest levels of all metals except mercury and chromium. Bonin petrels, the smallest species examined, had mercury levels that were over three times higher than any of the adults of the other three species. For wedge-tailed shearwaters, levels of chromium and lead were significantly higher, and manganese and selenium were lower on Midway than Manana. Knowledge of the foraging ranges and habits of these far-ranging seabirds is inadequately known, but does not currently explain the observed differences among species. We could not find a consistent pattern of differences between the burrow nesting species (Bonin petrel, Wedge-tailed shearwater) and the surface nesting tropicbirds. There was no consistent pairwise correlation between any metals across all species.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: herring gulls ; heavy metals ; selenium ; feathers ; bioindicator ; mercury ; lead ; cadmium ; chromium ; manganese
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract With increasing interest in assessing the health or well-being ofcommunities and ecosystems, birds are being used asbioindicators. Coloniallynesting species breed mainly in coastal areas that are alsopreferred for humandevelopment, exposing the birds to various pollutants. Inthis paper concentrations of heavy metal and selenium in the feathers ofHerring Gulls(Larus argentatus) nesting in several colonies fromMassachusetts toDelaware are reported. There were significant differencesamong colonies forall metals, with metal concentrations being two to nearly fivetimes higher atsome colonies than others. Selenium showed the leastdifference, and cadmium showed the greatest difference among sites. Concentrations of lead werehighest at Prall‘s Island; mercury was highest at Shinnecock,Huckleberry andHarvey, and manganese was highest at Captree.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: heavy metals ; ions ; New Brunswick ; precipitation ; snowpack ; soils ; vegetables
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Concentrations of heavy metals and major ions were measured in precipitation, snowpack, garden soils and vegetables from urban and rural sites in New Brunswick in Atlantic Canada. Atmospheric loading of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, strontium, and vanadium need further assessment. Vanadium concentrations in precipitation, snowpack, soils and vegetables showed an urban influence. Vanadium concentrations in the snowpack ranged between 〈2.0 ppb at 50 kilometers from the city center to 31.4 ppb in the city. Concentrations of all heavy metals in urban soils were less than CCME remediation guidelines but selected metals exceeded the assessment benchmark non-regulatory guidelines. Major ions were consistently higher in event precipitation than the snowpack. The order of ion elution from the snowpack was NO3 〉 SO4 〉 NH4 〉 H 〉 Mg 〉 Cl 〉 Na 〉 K. Hydrogen ion equivalents were highest in the snowpack and precipitation from urban samples. Mean hydrogen ion concentrations ranged from 11 to 22 μeq L-1 in the snowpack compared with 18 to 41 μeq L-1 in event precipitation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: bioindicator ; heavy metals ; moss
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The use of different moss species – Hylocomium splendens,Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete, Sphagnum and Rhytidiadelphus – was tested for the investigation of atmosphericheavy metal deposition. Maps representing heavy metal depositionpattern in Lithuania are presented for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and V.The most suitable species for heavy metal deposition studies was Hylocomium splendens in which the concentrations of metalswere found to be up to 25% higher than in other species. Interspeciesand interelemental comparison was also performed. Several well definedlocal pollution sources were identified.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: biological activity ofsoil ; constant-pressure volumetric respirometer ; heavy metals ; respirometry methods ; soil ; soil degradation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A main goal of investigations is to determine could a soilrespiration be an indicator of the soil pollution. In this case a measured levelof the soil oxygen consumption depends of its pollution. It alsomeans that the pollution reduces biological processes in edaphon.Investigated soil samples were taken from polluted andnon-polluted places in the Baix Llobregat near Barcelona (Catalonia, NE Spain). Soil samples were taken from the top ofsoil (0–5 cm) without a litter. Soil analysis were done, determining percentage shares of coarsefragments, coarse sand, fine sand, coarse silt, fine silt, clay,CaCO3, organic matter as well as water pH and conductivityCE (1:5 [mS cm-1]). Also were determined (in mg kg-1)quantities of heavy metals, as Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Pb.The soil respiration was investigated in temperatures15 and 30 °C and with controlled humidity.The respiration in 30 °C is number of times greater thenin 15 °C both for polluted and non-polluted soils.Particularly high coefficients of correlation between the soilrespiration and soil pollution in polluted soils were obtainedfor Pb: r = 0.75 in 15 °C and r = 0.98 in30 °C; for Ba: 0.90 and 0.57; for V: 0.99 and 0.81. In non-polluted soils highest correlation coefficients are for Pb: r = 0.70 in 15 °C; Fe: 0.60 and 0.72; Al: 0.68 and0.64; Mn: 0.51 and 0.66; Ba: 0.63 and 0.61; Cr: 0.94 and0.70; Ni: 0.64 and 0.65; Cu: 0.69 and 0.48; as well as V: 0.62in 15 °C; and Cd: 0.69 in 15 °C.This way the soil respiration could be a good indicator of the soil pollution.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: biomonitoring ; heavy metals ; Italy ; lichens ; waste incineration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The epiphytic lichen Parmelia caperata was usedas biomonitor in the area of a municipal solid wasteincinerator (Poggibonsi, central Italy) to investigatethe levels and the spatial distribution of the heavymetals Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn. Levels ofAl, Cu and Hg were similar to those in unpollutedareas, whereas high values were found for Cr, Zn andespecially Cd. The distribution pattern of the lastthree metals and the exponential relationship of theirconcentrations with distance from the incinerator,showed that the disposal plant is a local source ofatmospheric pollution due to Cd, Cr and Zn. For thesemetals, long-term hazard should be seriously taken into account.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: Delaware Bay ; eggs ; horseshoe crab ; heavy metals ; muscle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium and manganese concentrations were measured in the eggs of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) from 1993, 1994 and 1995; and from chelicera muscle in 1995 from Delaware Bay. Metal concentrations in the eggs represent levels derived from females. In eggs, mercury levels were below 100 ppb or were non-dectable; cadmium levels were generally low in 1993 and 1995 but were relatively higher in 1994; lead levels in eggs decreased from 558 ppb in 1993 to 87 ppm in 1995; selenium increased from 1993 to 1995; chromium decreased from 1993 to 1995; and manganese generally decreased. Leg muscles had significantly lower levels of all metals than eggs, except for mercury.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental monitoring and assessment 56 (1999), S. 177-193 
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: accumulation ; bioindicators ; concentrations ; heavy metals ; Karelia ; wildlife
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, nickel, zinc and iron were determined in samples of liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, heart, lungs and hair of moose (N = 67), reindeer (N = 45), brown bear (N = 18), wild boar (N = 10) and squirrel (N = 18) shot in Karelia from 1989 to 1991 during regular hunting. The highest heavy-metal concentrations were found in livers, kidney, lungs and hair samples. The samples of muscle contained lowest levels of these elements. The tissues of moose, reindeer and brown bear were contaminated with heavy metals to a greatest extent. Lowest levels of toxicants were recorded in wild boar. Results indicate a widespread presence of heavy metal in the environment and in wildlife, which may be linked to acid precipitation. There was no evidence of these elements accumulated to toxic levels, but Karelian public have been informed that the eating of moose liver and kidney would probably result in their exceeding WHO standard weekly intake limit for cadmium.
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