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  • climate change  (25)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: chaos ; climate change ; complexity ; ecosystems ; prediction ; semi-stability ; sudden change
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Complex systems are characterizedby surprising switches to new behaviours. Evaluating and predicting these changes demands anunderstanding of the behaviour of the whole system. The combined ecosystem-climate system shows chaoticor pseudorandom behaviour, stochastic or trulyrandom behaviour, as well as simple bifurcation andsemi-stability. Semistability involves the suddenchange from a destabilized ’attractor‘ to a newstable attractor which may occur after an apparentlyunpredictable time delay. We present some recentresults for analyzing time series data and for usingsimulations of non-linear models to predict these changes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: atmospheric change ; climate change ; integrated assessment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Integrated assessments (IAs) and integrated assessment models (IAMs) arerecent responses to the inter-disciplinary challenges provided by complexglobal environmental issues such as atmospheric change. This paper discussesan array of integrated assessments, providing an overview of the role of IAsas bridges or foundations for ’epistemic communities‘. Formal as well associal, political, and ethical issues are presented. As well as a definition of anIA and an IAM, different forms and approaches of current or proposed IAsare reviewed. Particular stress is laid on the need to maintain the integrity ofthe diverse components of an IA. Finally, reference is made to the need tounderstand the underlying ethical and normative concerns that have promotedthe current interest in IA.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: acidic deposition ; air issues ; air toxics ; climate change ; global warming ; ground-level ozone ; hazardous air pollutants ; smog ; stratospheric ozone depletion ; suspended particulate matter ; UV-B radiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Six air issues are currently on science and policy agendas in Canadaand elsewhere. These are climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion(increased UV-B radiation), acidic deposition, SMOG (increasedground-level ozone), suspended particulate matter, and hazardous airpollutants. Atmospheric scientists and decision makers have largelyaddressed these issues individually resulting in single-issue policies. However, it is now recognized that these issues are inter-related, andthey may interact to cause negative as well as some beneficial effects,not only on the state of the atmosphere but also on societal andecological systems. This paper illustrates through several examples theatmospheric dysfunction caused by the linkages among the six airissues. It also points to potentially conflicting policies arising from thesingle-issue approach, and it emphasizes the need for better integrationof air issues. The linkages are summarized qualitatively in Table I.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: biodiversity ; carbon storage ; climate change ; conservation ; creative destruction ; ecological succession ; ecosystem stability ; Holling figure-eight ; nitrogen ; resilience
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Holling proposed a four-phase conceptual model of ecosystem dynamics that includes exploitation, conservation, and destructive and renewal components to explain the failure of many natural resource management schemes. The model is drawn as a sideways figure-eight i.e. ∞. There are two dimensions in this model, connectivity (abscissa) and the amount of capital stored in the system (ordinate). This conceptual model has been suggested as a guide to thinking about the impact of climate change on biodiversity, but the two dimensions are insufficient and the alignment of the figure-eight model is problematic when compared with actual data. Kay has adjusted the dimensions of the figure-eight model and renamed the abscissa as exergy stored and the ordinate as exergy consumed. We realign the original figure-eight model, labeling the abscissa as carbon stored and the ordinate as nutrients, such that the relative values of both axes are in qualitative agreement with data from four different studies. This new alignment is then shown to fit relatively well with Holling's original labels. This revision of the figure-eight model brings Holling's model into agreement with observations and provides insight into the linkages between biodiversity and climate change.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: Amazon ; Brazil ; deforestation ; carbon sink ; climate change ; climatic variability ; forest conservation ; habitat fragmentation ; logging ; tropical forests
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This paper describes four global-change phenomena that are having major impacts on Amazonian forests. The first is accelerating deforestation and logging. Despite recent government initiatives to slow forest loss, deforestation rates in Brazilian Amazonia have increased from 1.1 million ha yr−1 in the early 1990s, to nearly 1.5 million ha yr−1 from 1992–1994, and to more than 1.9 million ha yr−1 from 1995–1998. Deforestation is also occurring rapidly in some other parts of the Amazon Basin, such as in Bolivia and Ecuador, while industrialized logging is increasing dramatically in the Guianas and central Amazonia. The second phenomenon is that patterns of forest loss and fragmentation are rapidly changing. In recent decades, large-scale deforestation has mainly occurred in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon — in the Brazilian states of Pará, Maranhāo, Rondônia, Acre, and Mato Grosso, and in northern Bolivia. While rates of forest loss remain very high in these areas, the development of major new highways is providing direct conduits into the heart of the Amazon. If future trends follow past patterns, land-hungry settlers and loggers may largely bisect the forests of the Amazon Basin. The third phenomenon is that climatic variability is interacting with human land uses, creating additional impacts on forest ecosystems. The 1997/98 El Niño drought, for example, led to a major increase in forest burning, with wildfires raging out of control in the northern Amazonian state of Roraima and other locations. Logging operations, which create labyrinths of roads and tracks in forsts, are increasing fuel loads, desiccation and ignition sources in forest interiors. Forest fragmentation also increases fire susceptibility by creating dry, fire-prone forest edges. Finally, recent evidence suggests that intact Amazonian forests are a globally significant carbon sink, quite possibly caused by higher forest growth rates in response to increasing atmospheric CO2 fertilization. Evidence for a carbon sink comes from long-term forest mensuration plots, from whole-forest studies of carbon flux and from investigations of atmospheric CO2 and oxygen isotopes. Unfortunately, intact Amazonian forests are rapidly diminishing. Hence, not only is the destruction of these forests a major source of greenhouse gases, but it is reducing their intrinsic capacity to help buffer the rapid anthropogenic rise in CO2.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: climate change ; adaptation ; economic development
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Many developing countries, especially in Africa, contribute only very small amounts to the world total of greenhouse gas emissions. For them, the reduction of such emissions is not a priority, and the more important issue is to find ways to reduce their vulnerability to the projected climate change which is being imposed upon them largely as a result of emissions from developed countries. This priority does not accord with the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reports upon studies in Uganda designed to help in the development of a national adaptation strategy, and addresses the need to reconcile such a strategy with the global priority accorded to mitigation and with national economic development priorities. Some features of a national climate change adaptation strategy are identified and questions are raised about the need for an international regime to facilitate and support adaptation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: adaptation measures ; water resources ; climate change ; Central Asia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A large part of the Central Asian region is located within the inner flow of the Aral Sea basin. The water resources are formed from renewed superficial and underground waters of natural origin, and also with returnable waters. The intensive increase of water intake, that took place in the second half of the twentieth century caused practically complete assimilation of the river inflow. That was the main reason for the Aral Sea crisis. On the basis of the analysis of long periodical rows of observation by meterological and hydrological stations, the estimation of regional water resources and calculations of changes of some components of the hydrological cycle due to the expected climate changes are presented. Measures for adaptation in the southern part of the Aral Sea region are considered.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: biodiversity ; climate change ; embedded society ; adaptation ; biogenetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The social and economic implications of atmospheric change on biodiversity need to be seen in a global context of major shifts in the conceptualization and management of our relationship with nature. Traditionally, we have conceptualized the atmosphere and the other creatures of the biosphere as separate from the human, but their quasi-autonomy is now becoming subject to more and more human management. This raises not only economic issues, but social, political, and ethical concerns that will have substantial influence on public policy. Among these are the commodification of genetic material; the privatization of traditional knowledge; and the management of information. In this broader context, the paper examines an array of current and proposed strategies of response to changes in biodiversity as a result of climatic and other stresses.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental monitoring and assessment 49 (1998), S. 195-212 
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: analogue pollen ; biodiversity ; British Columbia ; climate change ; forests ; management ; paleoecology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Predicted atmospheric change, mainly climate change, will have profound effects on the biodiversity of Canadian forests. Predictions derived from forest models, responses of species and ecosystems related to modern ecological characteristics and paleoecological studies suggest large-scale, wide-ranging changes from the biome to physiological levels. Paleoecological analogues in B.C. and other parts of Canada reveal that major changes must be expected in forest composition, range, structure and ecological processes. In B.C., past warmer and drier climates supported a different forest pattern, including forest types with no modern analogue. This produced dramatically different disturbance regimes, specifically more fires, and affected tree growth rates. The relationship of forests with non-forest habitats, especially wetlands and grasslands was different suggesting implications for wildlife biodiversity. British Columbia's Forest Practices Code prescribes guidelines for biodiversity objectives but ignores the issue of atmospheric change. This omission may result from a lack of understanding of the profound potential effects of atmospheric change on forest biodiversity in the next harvest cycle and lack of mechanisms to assess impacts and develop management strategies for specific sites. An example of a simple paleoecological assessment method involving pollen ratios is proposed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: biodiversity ; boreal forest ; Choristoneura fumiferana ; climate change ; disturbance ; insect outbreaks ; spruce budworm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Insect outbreaks are a major disturbance factor in Canadian forests. If global warming occurs, the disturbance patterns caused by insects may change substantially, especially for those insects whose distributions depend largely on climate. In addition, the likelihood of wildfire often increases after insect attack, so the unpredictability of future insect disturbance patterns adds to the general uncertainty of fire regimes. The rates of processes fundamental to energy, nutrient, and biogeochemical cycling are also affected by insect disturbance, and through these effects, potential changes in disturbance patterns indirectly influence biodiversity. A process-level perspective is advanced to describe how the major insect outbreak system in Canadian forests, that of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem. [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae]), might react to global warming. The resulting scenarios highlight the possible importance of natural selection, extreme weather, phenological relationships, complex feedbacks, historical conditions, and threshold behavior. That global warming already seems to be affecting the lifecycles of some insects points to the timeliness of this discussion. Some implications of this process-level perspective for managing the effects of global warming on biodiversity are discussed. The value of process-level understanding and high-resolution, long-term monitoring in attacking such problems is emphasized. It is argued that a species-level, preservationist approach may have unwanted side-effects, be cost-ineffective, and ecologically unsustainable.
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