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  • chimpanzee  (9)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 11 (1996), S. 35-41 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: human evolution ; hominids ; apes ; skull ; Australopithecus ; Homo erectus ; chimpanzee ; gorilla
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This paper attempts to quantify the morphological difference between fossil and living species of hominoids. The comparison is based upon a balanced list of craniodental characters corrected for size (Wood & Chamberlain, 1986). The conclusions are: craniodentally the australopithecine species are a unique and rather uniform group, much nearer to the great apes than to humans; overall, their skull and dentition do not resemble the human more than the chimpanzee’s do.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: chimpanzee ; consonant perception ; the phoneme-boundary effect ; categorical perception
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The perception of consonants which were followed by the vowel [a] was studied in chimpanzees and humans, using a reaction time task in which reaction times for discrimination of syllables were taken as an index of similarity between consonants. Consonants used were 20 natural French consonants and six natural and synthetic Japanese stop consonants. Cluster and MDSCAL analyses of reaction times for discrimination of the French consonants suggested that the manner of articulation is the major determinant of the structure of the perception of consonants by the chimpanzees. Discrimination of stop consonants suggested that the major grouping in the chimpanzees was by voicing. The place of articulation from the lips to the velum was reproduced only in the perception of the synthetic unvoiced stop consonants in the two dimensional MDSCAL space. The phoneme-boundary effect (categorical perception) for the voicing and place-of-articulation features was also examined by a chimpanzee using synthetic [ga]-[ka] and [ba]-[da] continua, respectively. The chimpanzee showed enhanced discriminability at or near the phonetic boundaries between the velar voiced and unvoiced and also between the voiced bilabial and alveolar stops. These results suggest that the basic mechanism for the identification of consonants in chimpanzees is similar to that in humans, although chimpanzees are less accurate than humans in discrimination of consonants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 7 (1992), S. 11-15 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: chimpanzee ; exchange ; reciprocity ; gift ; intelligence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Intelligent resource exchange usually has been thought of as a strictly human phenomenon. Some searchers demonstrated experimentally that chimpanzees have the necessary cognitive capacities to exchange food with humans. This short article presents the first example of an immediate and spontaneous exchange of objects between chimpanzees. This exchange between Spock and Maya is not a direct exchange of objects, from hand to hand, as would be observed among humans. This leads us to suppose that exchange, if it really occurs amongst wild chimpanzees, is done indirectly, through the more or less concomitant deposit of the objects or food items on the ground, maybe because chimpanzees are quadrupedal animals. This observation is discussed in relation to the notion of reciprocity used in anthropological and sociological studies.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 7 (1992), S. 17-30 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: chimpanzee ; tool use ; observational learning ; imitation ; dominance ; intelligence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Wild chimpanzees commonly use sticks to fish for termites, ants or honey. This ability seems to be socially transmitted to juveniles by their mothers across generations. In a natural environment, the limited visibility of this behavior with regards to the extent of stick's insertion and about the success or failure in fishing hinders the study of the underlying learning processes. This study explores the discovery and learning of tool use for fishing honey in an artificial hive by a group of four captive chimpanzees. The discovery of tool use was accidental and coactive. The speed with which the group of experimentally naive chimpanzees discovered and learned tool use suggests that wild chimpanzees of different populations independently discovered the fishing behavior. The alpha male and his ally learned before the subordinates. Here, trial-and-error learning was, as in monkeys, the main process allowing the acquisition of the tool-use technique. However, the observation of conspecifics allowed the orientation of the experimentation by the selection of clues. As suggested by Tomaselloet al. (1987). it is the understanding of the function of the tool,i.e. the cause-effect relations between the action of the demonstrator, the type of tool and the task to accomplish which confer to chimpanzees and advantage over monkeys.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 9 (1994), S. 121-139 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Hominid evolution ; Australopithecus ; robust polyphyly ; gorilla ; chimpanzee ; bonobo ; Lucy ; Taung ; molecular clock
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Since australopithecines display humanlike traits such as short ilia, relatively small front teeth and thick molar enamel, they are usually assumed to be related toHomo rather than toPan orGorilla. However, this assumption is not supported by many other of their features. This paper briefly surveys the literature concerning craniodental comparisons of australopith species with those of bonobos, common chimps, humans and gorillas, adult and immature. It will be argued, albeit on fragmentary data, that the large australopiths of East Africa were in many instances anatomically and therefore possibly also evolutionarily nearer toGorilla than toPan orHomo, and the South African australopiths nearer toPan andHomo than toGorilla. An example of a possible evolutionary tree is provided. It is suggested that the evidence concerning the relation of the different australopithecines with humans, chimpanzees and gorillas should be re-evaluated.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 10 (1995), S. 225-231 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: genocide ; warfare ; chimpanzee ; striatum ; displays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The striatum which constitutes most of the forebrain of the early lower vertebrates, controls displays, of which aggression is an integral component in ranking, territory, and courtship. The displays persist in all vertebrates, as does the enlarged and modified striatum. Submissive displays controlled killing in conspecific conflicts. Beginning with the growth of the neocortex in mammals during the Cenozoic period, aggression became more complex, culminating in warfare and genocide. Agonistic/submissive display controls may become inoperative in the chimpanzee, which has the critical amount of intelligence required for genocide, as confirmed by the field observations of Goodall and others.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Bonobo ; chimpanzee ; mirror ; Pan paniscus ; self-recognition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This research examined the responses of bonobos (Pan paniscus) to their mirror images. Nine bonobos were presented alternately with the reflective and non-reflective sides of a mirror. The apes exhibited considerable interest in the mirror, and immature animals exhibited higher frequencies of contingent action and inactive looking than did adults. four animals used the mirror to inspect parts of their bodies that were otherwise not visible to them, indicating that bonobos are capable of self-recognition.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 5 (1990), S. 295-297 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Hominid evolution ; gorilla ; chimpanzee ; Australopithecus ; Lucy ; Taung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract It is commonly believed that the australopithecines are more closely related to humans than to African apes. This view is hardly compatible with the biomolecular data which place theHomo/Pan split at the beginning of the australopithecine period. Nothing in the fossil hominid morphology precludes the possibility that some australopithecines were ancestral to gorillas or chimpanzees and others to humans.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 2 (1987), S. 107-119 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: chimpanzee ; foot force ; locomotion ; development ; walking ; bipedalism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate kinesiologically the development of the unique characteristics of the level locomotion of the chimpanzee. The data were obtained semi-longitudinally from six chimpanzees eleven weeks through nineteen years of age. The posture, footfall order, phase duration, speed and foot force (including the hand force) in level locomotion were observed by means of foot contact switches, a 16 mm cine-camera or a video tape recorder and a force plate. The speed or the pattern of locomotion was not particularly controlled. The infants moved freely without any attachments on the body. The age change in locomotion is described. The particular characteristics of the infant chimpanzees compared with those of the adults were: 1) long stance phase duration, 2) wide variety in the difference in the cycle duration between forward movement of the limbs one after another, 3) wide variety in phase duration, speed and foot force, and 4) the forelimbs of the infant just started to stand quadrupedally to carry the larger part of the body weight than the hindlimbs. The dominance of the hindlimbs in locomotor and weight-bearing characteristics becomes clearly fixed at about one year of age. The wide variety of the locomotion pattern will be one of the characteristics of the chimpanzees of all age groups. The human acquisition of bipedal walking is discussed in connection with chimpanzee locomotion.
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