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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (3,404)
  • Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry  (1,576)
  • 1995-1999  (3,353)
  • 1950-1954  (1,627)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: guanosine ; nitrenium ; DNA structure ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The N-acetyl-N-(2-fluorenyl)nitrenium ion (2a) reacts very efficiently with monomeric 2′-deoxyguanosine (d-G) to form a C-8 adduct, N-(2′-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene (6), in an aqueous environment, with a selectivity ratio, kd-G/ks, of 13.1 × 103 M-1 at 0°C and 4.8 × 103 M-1 at 30°C. The reactivity of the self-complementary oligomer d-ATGCAT with 2a can be separated into components due to the single-stranded (SS) and double-stranded (DS) forms. Within the error limits of the measurements kSS/kd-G ≈ 0.27 and kDS/kd-G ≈ 0. Another measure of the reactivity of d-G moieties in the DNA double helix can be obtained from measurements with the circular super-coiled plasmid pUC19. This plasmid provides an upper limit for kpUC19/kd-G of 0.02, where kpUC19 is the average trapping rate constant per d-G moiety in pUC19. The strong inhibition of the trapping reaction caused by the tertiary structure of the DNA double helix may be responsible for the change in product distribution of 2a-d-G adducts found from reaction with d-G, and denatured DNA (exclusive C-8 adduct, 6) and native DNA [5-20% N-2 adduct,3-(2′-deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene, 7]. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: phenyl salicylate ; ethane-1,2-diol ; urea ; sodium salt ; lithium salt ; transesterification ; kinetics ; intramolecular general base catalysis ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Pseudo-first-order rate constants (k1) for the reaction of ethane-1,2-diol (DOL) with ionized phenyl salicylate (PS-), obtained in mixed DOL-CH3CN solvent at constant [H2O] and [NaOH], obey the relationship k1  =  α[DOL]T/(1 + 2KA[DOL]T), where α is the apparent second-order rate constant, KA is the association constant for the dimerization of DOL and [DOL]T is the total concentration of DOL. The values of KA, in the presence of Na+ ions, decrease with increase in [H2O]. Lithium ions cause almost complete depolymerization of polymeric DOL (i.e. KA ≈ 0) under the experimental conditions imposed. The effect of 0.5 M urea on the structural behavior of the mixed solvent is kinetically insignificant. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: [2 + 2] ; photocycloaddition ; quantum yield ; oligooxyehylene linkage ; cyclophane ; styrene derivatives ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: There are two possible explanations for the high yields in the intramolecular [2 + 2] photocycloaddition of compounds 3a-d in which two styrene moieties are bridged by an oligooxyethylene linkage: one is the electronic effects of phenoxy oxygen atoms at the para-position of the vinyl group and the other is the steric effects due to the flexibility of oligooxyethylene linkages. In order to clarify the contributions of the two effects, a study was made of the photoreaction of similar compounds in which oxygen atoms are present only at the ends of the chain, and therefore only the electronic effects are involved. In these compounds, the quantum yields of the photocycloaddition were found to be low. Hence the high yields in the photocycloaddition of 3a-d are concluded to be ascribable to the flexibility of oligooxyethylene linkages. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: nitro derivatives of phenols ; pyrolysis initiation reactions ; impact sensitivity ; UHF-SCF-AM1 MO method ; activation energy. ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The UHF-SCF-AM1 MO method was applied to the study of two kinds of pyrolysis reactions of six nitro derivatives of phenols (homolysis reaction by rupture of the C - NO2 bond into radicals and isomerization reaction involving phenolic hydrogen transferring to oxygen on the NO2 group). The molecular geometries of reactants, transition states and products were fully optimized. The potential energy curves and activation energies were first obtained. The results show that this category of compounds is more easily initiated via isomerization reactions than by homolysis reactions. The parallel relationship among the Wiberg bond order of the pyrolysis-initiation H - O bond in the molecule of a reactant, the activation energy of the isomerization reaction breaking the H - O bond and impact sensitivity of the reactant gives ‘the principle of the smallest bond order’ (PSBO) powerful support. The sensitizing effect of a phenol group was elucidated based on calculation results. The different influences of OH and NO2 groups on the heat of formation of a molecule are discussed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: intramolecular thermal (4σ + 2π) dyotropy ; kinetic isotope effects ; limiting barrier parameters ; quantum tunnelling ; 2H transfer processes ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects (PDKIE) in parazoline-annelated syn-sesquinorbornenes exhibiting irreversible intramolecular (4σ + 2π) thermal dyotropy reveal unambiguous evidence for a tunnelling contribution to the kinetics in one instance but not for a close analogue. For analogous dyotropy of a cyclohexadiene-annelated syn-sesquinorbornene, the tunnelling components of the kinetic behaviour is small by comparison. The H atom traverse between alternative loci for the pyrazolines, deduced from x-ray and neutron diffraction data, is in agreement with approximate barrier parameters obtained by fitting of the PDKIE data to the Bell equation; barrier penetration is 3.22 kcal below the computed barrier corrected for the tunnelling contribution. The relative kinetic effect of systematic variation of the π-donor/acceptor groups on aryl ring substituents at C and N in the pyrazoline ring is consistent with a pericyclic process for dyotropy of these compounds, but not with rearrangement mediated by biradicals resulting from single H atom transfer in the rate-limiting step. Computer modelling of the transition state for dyotropy of these compounds is also consistent with a thermal, orbital symmetry conserved pericyclic reaction. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: 1-amino-2,4-dinitrobenzenes ; structures ; single-crystal x-ray diffraction ; UV-visible spectrophotometry ; NMR spectroscopy ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The crystal structures of 1-pyrrolidino-2,4-dinitrobenzene (3) and 1-morpholino-2,4-dinitrobenzene (4) were determined by single-crystal x-ray diffraction and the structures in solution were investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and 13C and 1H NMR spectrosccopy. Compound 4 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with one independent molecule per asymmetric unit and 3 crystallizes in triclinic P-1 with three independent molecules per asymmetric unit. Rotation of the o-nitro group and of the amino group out of the aromatic plane was observed in both the solid state and in solution for both compounds. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: cryptand ; fluorescence titration ; lanthanide coordination ; proton transfer ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Lanthanide [lanthanum(III), 2; europium(III), 3; and gadolinium(III), 4] cryptates of a tris-phenylphenol N8O3 Schiff-base cryptand (H3L) were synthesized by transmetallation with [Na(H3L)]ClO4·3H2O (1) and characterized by spectroscopic and crystal structure analyses. Both 3 and 4 are isomophous and isostructural. The complexes crystallize in the triclinic space group P-1 with cell parameters for 3 of a = 14.9833(2), b = 15.42670(10), c = 16.3770(3) Å, α = 75.3760(10), β = 68.2640(10), γ = 77.0540(10)° and Z = 2 and for 4 of a = 14.9976(3), b = 15.4417(3), c = 16.35350(10) Å, α = 75.4980(10), β = 68.3180(10), γ = 76.8790(10)° and Z = 2. The structures reveal that one lanthanide ion is unsymmetrically encapsulated in the cryptand cavity with a second ligand (solvent DMF). Solution NMR and solid structural studies demonstrated that there are intracavity and intermolecular proton transfer processes during lanthanide complexation towards the cryptand. A fluorimetric titration in acetonitrile for Eu(III) ion to 1 afforded a novel fluorescence intensity (IF)-equivalents of Eu(III) ion (x) plot signaling a quenching (0 〈 x 〈 0.2)-enhancement (0.2 〈 x 〈 1) change with formation of the kinetically stable 1:1 cryptate. An energy-transfer mechanism is discussed. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Conjugate addition ; α-carbonylcarbenes ; water ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: α-Carbonylcarbenes (2a-c) generated by UV photolysis of 2-diazophenylacetic acid (1a), its methyl ester (1b) and 4-diazo-3-isochromanone (1c) in aqueous solution undergo conjugate addition of water across the entire carbonylcarbene moiety to give enols (3a-c) of the corresponding α-hydroxycarbonyl compounds. These carbenes are long-lived, with microsecond lifetimes in aqueous solution. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: reactant-solute encounters ; aqueous solutions ; water ; kinetic methods ; hydration cosphere destructive overlap ; camouflage effects ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Rates of chemical reactions in aqueous solutions are often sensitive to low concentrations of added solutes such as ureas, alcohols, α-amino acids and carbohydrates. In this work, several simple chemical reactions were used to probe this sensitivity, which arises from interactions between added solute and the reacting solute. It was found that derived interaction parameters provide a novel insight into interactions between solute molecules in aqueous solution. For example, it was possible to identify two interesting effects, which are termed (i) ‘destructive overlap’ of hydration cospheres and (ii) ‘camouflage effects’ by water-solute interactions. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Yukawa-Tsuno equation ; substituent effect ; α-hydroxybenzylic cation ; benzoyl compound ; ab initio calculation ; basicity ; proton affinity ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Structures of α-hydroxybenzylic cations and their conjugate bases, which cover a wide variation of stability, were optimized by means of ab initio molecular orbital method at the RHF/6-31G* level. Total energies were calculated at the MP2/6-31G*//RHF/6-31G* + ZPE (scaled 0.9) level. Calculated relative proton affinities of the respective neutral molecules (benzoyl compounds; conjugate bases of α-hydroxybenzylic cations) agreed well with the corresponding basicities in the gas phase. The geometries of α-amino-α-hydroxybenzyl and α-hydroxy-α-dimethylaminobenzyl cations were also optimized at the fixed dihedral angles between the cationic 2pπ orbital and the benzene π orbital (φ), and between the cationic 2pπ orbital and lone pair electron orbital of the α-substituent (θ). The changes in Wiberg bond orders and the rotational potentials about φ and θ showed that the degree of resonance interaction between the cationic center and phenyl ring is balanced by the electronic effects of α-substituents in benzylic cations. The obtained theoretical indices of all parent cations such as Mulliken population, Wiberg bond order and bond lengths were correlated linearly with the resonance demand parameter (r value) which were given by the Yukawa-Tsuno substituent effect analysis in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. These relationships are consistent with those for other benzylic cations such as destabilized carbocations and sterically hindered cations studied previously. This confirms that the empirical r value has a definitive physical meaning, i.e. a measure of the resonance interaction between the cationic center and the aryl moiety. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: proton binding ; zinc ion binding ; transition states ; α-heterocyclic ketones ; tautomerization ; enzymatic reactions ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The description of catalysis in terms of binding of a catalyst to the transition state propoposed by Kurz is applied to tautomerization of the α-heterocyclic ketones phenacylpyridine, phenacylpyrazine, phenacylphenanthroline and phenylacetylpyridine catalysed by protons and zinc ions. Binding constants for protonated and zinc-coordinated transition states, KB≠ are reported and Brønsted coefficients are calculated from comparison of KB≠ with binding constants for the keto reactant and enolate anion intermediate. The formal equivalence of the binding formalism to a conventional Brønsted analysis is emphasized, and the results are compared with those from a ‘generalised’ Brønsted plot of rate constants against equilibrium constants for reactions of uncomplexed, protonated and zinc ion-coordinated ketones. This plot confirms that intrinsic reactivities of metal-coordinated and protonated substrates are similar even where differences exist between substrates. Application of a comparable Kurz-Brønsted treatment to enzymatic reactions depends in principle upon (a) dissecting binding contributions to catalysis from approximation of covalently reacting groups and (b) separating binding at the reaction site of the substrate, to which Kurz's treatment applies, from ‘remote’ binding, which, to a first approximation, is unchanged between Michaelis complex and transition state. The Brønsted relationship highlights stabilization of reactive intermediates as a thermodynamic driving force for binding catalysis at the reaction site. A formal expression which describes this stabilization, and also accommodates stabilization by remote binding of the substrate and intermediate by the enzyme, is proposed. Its relationship to the usual expression for application of the Kurz approach to enzyme catalysis, (kcat/k0)/Km = KB≠, is discussed and the usefulness of the Brønsted and Marcus relationships for interpreting KB≠ is emphasized. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: pyrenyl-DNA complexes and adducts ; photoinduced electron transfer ; strand cleavage ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The fluorescence of pyrenyl residues in complexes with the nucleic acid bases G, C and T, but not A, is strongly quenched by photoinduced electron transfer mechanisms. Site-specifically modified 11-mer oligonucleotide duplexes containing a single modified guanosyl base G* bearing a covalently attached pyrenyl residue were prepared in order to probe for photochemical damage associated with these photoinduced electron transfer reactions. When the pyrenyl residue positioned at G* is photoexcited with 355 nm light, direct strand cleavage is observed at that site with low quantum yield. Frank strand breaks are also observed up to five base pairs away from G*, suggesting that intrastrand migration of a reactive intermediate from base to base is occurring. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: metallodendrimers ; molecularly thin films ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A non-covalent synthesis route to assemble metallodendrimers was extended to the fifth generation. Generation four (G4) was characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry. Thin films of generation five (G5) metallodendrimers were studied by tapping mode scanning force microscopy. Both on graphite and on mica spherical particles with a diameter of ca 15 nm were observed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: ruthenium (II) complexes ; photoreactivity ; targeted DNA sites ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Several luminescent ruthenium(II) complexes were designed whose main characteristic is their photoreactivity towards mononucleotides and DNA. It was clearly demonstrated that this photoreactivity originates from a photoinduced electron transfer from a guanine to the excited complex. This process leads to the formation of an adduct which was characterized. The structure shows that the complex is anchored to the nucleotidic base via one of its polyazaaromatic ligands, thus marking irreversibly the DNA guanines. Interestingly, this property can be used in order to target, for example, (i) specific DNA sequences and (ii) particular DNA topologies. For each purpose a specific Ru(II) complex was designed. Synthetic oligonucleotides derivatized with mononuclear complexes were prepared to target and damage specific DNA sequences containing G sites. In these systems, it is shown that the DNA damage consists of an irreversible photo-crosslinking of the derivatized oligonucleotide with the complementary strand. In order to target portions of important deformation along double-stranded DNA, the dinuclear complex [Ru(phen)2]2HAT4+ was prepared and studied. This complex is too large to penetrate inside the major or minor grooves of a DNA double helix, so that only single-stranded portions of denatured DNA are accessible to this compound. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 11 (1998), S. 536-539 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: enzyme design ; enzyme mechanism ; genetic engineering ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Aspartate aminotransferase (AATase) and aminocyclopropane carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase) are pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes whose common junction of mechanistic divergence is after the formation of a Cα carbanion from the amino acid substrate bound to PLP as a Schiff base (aldimine). AATase catalyzes the reversible interconversion of α-amino acids and α-keto acids, while ACC synthase effects the irreversible decomposition of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) and 5′-methylthioadenosine (MTA). ACC is subsequently converted to ethylene, the plant ripening and senescence hormone, by ACC oxidase, the next enzyme in the pathway. AATase and ACC synthase exhibit many similar phenomenological characteristics that result from different detailed mechanistic origins. The kcat/KM versus pH profiles for both enzymes are similar (AATase, acidic pKa = 6.9, basic pKa = 9.6; ACC synthase, acidic pKa = 7.5, basic pKa = 8.9); however the acidic pKa of AATase reflects the ionization of an enzyme proton from the internal Schiff base, and the basic one is that of the α-amino group of the substrate, while the opposite situation obtains for ACC synthase, i.e. the apparent pKa of 7.4 is due to the α-amino group of SAM, whereas that of 9 reflects the Schiff base pKa. The mechanistic imperative underlying this reversal is dictated by the reaction mechanism and the low pKa of the α-amino group of SAM. The low pKa of SAM requires that the enzyme pKa be moved upward in order to have sufficient quantities of the reacting species at neutral pH. It is shown by viscosity variation experiments with wild-type and active site mutant controls of both enzymes that the reaction of SAM with ACC synthase is 100% diffusion controlled (kcat/KM = 1.2 × 106 l mol-1 s-1) while the corresponding reaction for the combination of L-aspartate with AATase is insensitive to viscosity, and is therefore chemically not diffusion limited. Tyr225 (AATase) or Tyr233 (ACC synthase) forms a hydrogen bond with the PLP in both enzymes, but that formed with the former enzyme is stronger and accounts for the lower pKa of the Schiff base. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: pericyclic reaction transition structures ; aromaticity ; magnetic susceptibility ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The transition states of thermally allowed pericyclic reactions are aromatic. They not only have highly delocalized structures and large resonance stabilizations (energies of concert), but also strongly enhanced magnetic susceptibilities (Λ) and appreciable NICS (nucleus-independent chemical shifts) values arising from the diatropic ring currents. Aromaticity is the consequence of cyclic electron delocalization, which can have σ and hybrid, and not just π character. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: intermediates ; spectroscopy ; polymers ; hydrogenation ; supercritical fluids ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: IR spectroscopy has transformed the study of mechanistic organometallic chemistry. Reaction intermediates can now be detected and characterized; their kinetics can be measured and their behaviour understood. However, the field is not static. New techniques are still being developed. We focus here on hydrogenation and related reactions describing (i) a miniature low-temperature/high-pressure cell, which allows photochemical reactions to be studied under high pressures of gases, (ii) the use of flow reactors for continuous reactions in supercritical fluids, including hydrogenation of organic compounds, and (iii) the use of supercritical fluid solutions for studying weak metal-ligand interactions by nanosecond time-resolved IR spectroscopy (TRIR) and the application of TRIR to the detection of intermediates in organic reactions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: linear free energy relationships ; organic synthesis ; organometallic synthesis ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Structure-reactivity relationships are usually investigated within relatively narrow classes of compounds, where structural variation can unequivocally be assigned to certain electronic and steric effects. We present a novel, semiquantitative approach to predict possible reactions of cationic electrophiles (carbenium ions, metal π-complexes, diazonium ions) with neutral nucleophiles (alkenes, alkynes, arenes, hydrides, organometallics and n-nucleophiles). It is shown that the rate constants for these reactions are given with a precision better than a factor of 10-100 by the linear free enthalpy relationship log k(20 °C) = s (E + N), where E characterizes the strengths of the electrophiles, N characterizes the strengths of the nucleophiles and s is a nucleophile-dependent slope parameter, usually close to 1. This deviation appears tolerable in view of the reactivity range extending over more than 30 orders of magnitude, the large structural variety of compounds included and the neglect of solvent and steric effects. The simultaneous treatment of aliphatic, aromatic and organometallic compounds, which becomes possible in this way, provides new qualitative insights, and it is shown how the rule of thumb that reactions proceed at 20 °C if E + N 〉 -5 can be used for rationalizing and designing organic reactions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: 4-formyl-, methyl- and -vinylcyclohexene ; stereodynamics ; conformation ; dynamic NMR ; molecular mechanics ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The 1H and 13C{1H} NMR spectra of 4-formylcyclohexene in 50% CF2Cl2-50% CHF2Cl decoalesce at very low temperatures and, at 108 K, have sharpened into a major (77%) and a minor (23%) subspectrum. Based on the NMR spectra and molecular mechanics calculations, the major subspectrum is assigned to a family of equatorial conformations and the minor subspectrum to a family of axial conformations. The free energy of activation for conversion of the equatorial conformations to the axial forms is 5.6 kcal mol-1 (1 kcal  =  4.184 kJ) at 117 K. Within a family of conformations, interconversion occurs rapidly at 108 K via formyl group rotation. The conformational preference in 4-formylcyclohexene is solvent dependent. In 50% CF2Cl2-50% CHF2Cl, CHF2Cl and CF2Cl2, the respective ratios of equatorial to axial conformations are 77:23, 77:23, and 89:11 at 108 K. The 1H and 13C{1H} NMR spectra of 4-methylcyclohexene and 4-vinylcyclohexene in 50% CF2Cl2-50% CHF2Cl show no evidence of decoalescence at very low temperatures but do show differential broadening and subsequent sharpening of various resonances characteristic of exchange between strongly dominant equatorial conformations and axial conformations present at too low a concentration to be detectable by NMR. A lower limit on the free energy preference for the equatorial conformations is estimated to be 1.0 kcal mol-1. Molecular mechanics calculations also predict a stronger preference for equatorial conformations in 4-methylcyclohexene and 4-vinylcyclohexene than in 4-formylcyclohexene. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: 1,2,5-thiadiazole ; 1,1-dioxide derivatives ; single-crystal x-ray diffraction ; ab initio MO calculations ; structure ; conformation ; reactivity ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Single-crystal x-ray diffraction studies are reported for 3,4-dimethyl (I), 3-methyl-4-phenyl (II) and 3,4-diphenyl (III) derivatives of 1,2,5-thiadiazole 1,1-dioxide. Ab initio MO calculations on the electronic structure, conformation and reactivity of I, II and III are also reported and compared with the x-ray results. The structural data are related to previous kinetic and electrochemical experimental results on these compounds. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: 3-methyl-2, 4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9α-ol esters ; analgesics ; synthesis ; structure ; conformation ; pharmacological assays ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A series of esters derived from 3-methyl-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9α-ol (1) was synthesized and studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and the crystal structure of 3-methyl-2,4-diphenyl-9α-(3,5-dimethylbenzoyloxy)-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (2) was determined by x-ray diffraction. The compounds studied display in CDCl3 a preferred flattened chair-chair conformation. This bicycle conformation is similar to that found for 2 in the crystal state. Pharmacological assays on mice were performed to evaluate drug-induced behavioral alteration, peripheral or central acute toxicity and analgesic activity. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: methylbenzoic acids ; infrared spectra ; conformation ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Infrared spectra of all isomers of polymethyl-substituted benzoic acids were recorded in the carbonyl and hydroxyl regions in tetrachloromethane at various concentrations and interpreted in terms of conformation. According to a plot of ν(C=O) of the monomeric form vs Hammett substituent constants σ, these compounds may be classified into two classes. Derivatives with none or only one methyl group in the ortho position are concluded to exist in an equilibrium of two planar conformations, unless the equilibrium is degenerate. Derivatives with two ortho-situated methyl groups are concluded to take up one non-planar conformation. These findings are supported by the shape of the hydroxyl and carbonyl bands, which are unsymmetrical in the former class, although they could not be reliably separated into bands pertinent to the individual conformers. This conclusion is at variance with the common interpretation which has invariably ascribed to these and similar ortho derivatives non-planar conformations with a variable torsional angle. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: aromaticity ; Diels-Alder transition states ; Diels-Alder adducts ; reaction mechanism ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Semiempirical, ab initio and DFT investigations on the mechanism of the Diels-Alder reactions of a set of masked dienes (ring-fused dienes), viz. o-quinodimethane, anthracene and α-vinylnaphthalene, with ethylene, and reactions of α-vinylnaphthalene with maleic anhydride and p-benzoquinone were performed with a view to understanding the role of masking factors on the activation and reaction energies. The reactions were found to occur in a concerted fashion through synchronous transition states (TSs) in the first two reactions and through asynchronous TS in the other case. Of the compounds studied, o-quinodimethane is the most reactive diene both in a kinetic and a thermodynamic sense. α-Vinylnaphthalene reacts faster with maleic anhydride than p-benzoquinone, as expected, and two possible stereoselective TSs, one endo and the other exo, have been located for the reactions of α-vinylnaphthalene with the above dienophiles. Calculations show that the relative gain or loss of aromatic stabilization of the benzonoid ring in the transition state and in the product seems to play a major role in the kinetic and thermodynamic control of these reactions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: cross-interaction constants ; gas-phase nucleophilic substitution reactions ; PM3 MO ; benzyl chlorides ; phenoxides ; thiophenoxides ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Gas-phase nucleophilic substitution reactions of Y-benzyl chlorides with X-phenoxide and X-thiophenoxide nucleophiles were investigated theoretically using the PM3 semi-empirical MO method. The Leffler-Grunwald rate-equilibrium and Brønsted correlations predict that the degree of bond formation in the transition state (TS) is approximately 45 and 40% on the reaction coordinate for the phenoxides and thiophenoxides, respectively. For a weaker nucleophile, a later TS is obtained with an increased bond making and breaking. The variation of the TS structure with substituents in the nucleophile is thermodynamically controlled and is well correlated by rate-equilibrium relationships. In contrast, the TS variation (a tighter TS) with substituent (for a stronger acceptor Y) in the substrate is dependent only on variations of the intrinsic barrier and so cannot be correlated by such thermodynamically based rate-equilibrium relationships. The gas phase ρX and ρY values are much greater in magnitude than those in solution. A similar gas-phase theoretical cross-interaction constant, ρXY (ca -0.60), is obtained for both phenoxides and thiophenoxides, which is in good agreement with the experimental value (-0.62) for the thiophenoxide reactions in MeOH at 20.0 °C. The oxy and sulfur anion bases lead to a similar TS structure, but a lower reactivity for the former is due to a greater endothermicity of the reaction. A relatively wide range variation of the reaction energies, ΔG°, can be ascribed to the loss of resonance stabilization of anion nucleophiles upon product formation. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: P - C bond cleavage ; phosphoranyl radicals ; organophosphonate biodegradation ; ab initio calculations ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Barrier heights for P - C bond homolysis in P-hydroxy-P-methyl-P,P-dioxophosphoranyl and P,P,P-trihydroxy-P-methylphosphoranyl were calculated using well correlated levels of electronic structure theory. The best estimate for the difference in barriers between the two indicates that homolysis is more facile for P,P,P-trihydroxy-P-methylphosphoranyl by roughly 9 kcal mol-1. This result suggests that bacterial pathways leading to P - C bond cleavage in organophosphonate derivatives will preferentially proceed via initial one-electron reduction of substrates rather than oxidation. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: indolizines ; cycloaddition ; reaction mechanism ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The peculiarities of [8+2] cycloaddition reactions of indolizines with dienophiles are reviewed. Quantum chemical SINDO1, AM1 and ab initio calculations of transition states were performed for [8+2] cycloaddition reactions of indolizine and 6-nitroindolizine with a series of alkenes with donor and acceptor groups. The calculations predict a dipolar cycloaddition mechanism (electrophilic addition and ring closure) for reactions of indolizine and 6-nitroindolizine with nitroethylene. For the reaction of 6-nitroindolizine with N,N-dimethylaminoethylene, the predicted mechanism corresponds to a previously unknown ‘inverse’ dipolar cycloaddition (nucleophilic addition and ring closure). © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: acetaldehyde ; oxidation ; periodate ; osmium (VIII) catalysis ; ruthenium (III) catalysis ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Os(VIII) and Ru(III) catalysis of the periodate oxidation of acetaldehyde in aqueous alkaline medium was investigated. The catalytic efficiency is Ru(III)〈Os(VIII). The product of oxidation in both cases is acetate and IO3-. The stoichiometry is the same in both catalyzed reactions, i.e. [IO4-]:[CH3CHO] = 1:1. Probable mechanisms are proposed and discussed. The reaction constants involved in the mechanisms are derived. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Solvolysis ; Grunwald-Winstein-type analysis ; Hammett-type analysis ; YxBnCl scale ; 1-aryl-1-phenylmethyl cations ; Mulliken population analysis ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Rate constants of solvolysis of α-tert-butyl(2-naphthyl)methyl chloride (1), 9-fluorenyl chloride (2) and a series of monosubstituted benzhydryl chlorides (3) in a wide range of solvents were measured. Grunwald-Winstein-type correlation analysis of log k for 2 and 3 against YBnCl, with or without nucleophilicity N, yielded less satisfactory linear correlations than that against log k(1). A new scale of solvent ionizing power, YxBnCl, for the correlation of solvolytic reactivities of benzylic chlorides with extended charge delocalization based on log k(1) was developed. Application to the mechanistic study suggested the solvolysis of 2 and 4-nitrobenzhydryl chloride were non-limiting. Hammett plots against σ+ constants exhibited more negative ρ values in less nucleophilic solvents. In a benzhydryl chloride containing a strong deactivating substituent, such as 4-nitro, the positive charge delocalizes mainly over the unsubstituted ring in the cationic transition state. The uneven charge distribution was also confirmed by Mulliken population analysis at the level of the RHF/6-31G*//RHF/3-21G(*) basis set for cations. Comparison of the results of correlation analysis using the equation log(k/k0) = mY vs the equation log(k/k0) = mY+hI, and using the equation log(k/k0) = mY+lN vs the equation log(k/k0) = mY+lN+hI indicated the use of YBnCl or YxBnCl could give a better understanding of solvolytic mechanisms than the combinatorial use of YCl and I. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: o-carboxybenzohydroxamic acid ; phthalic anhydride ; phthalic acid ; hydrolysis ; intramolecular acid catalysis ; kinetics ; activation parameters ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Phthalic anhydride was detected spectrophotometrically in the hydrolysis of o-carboxybenzohydroxamic acid (OCBA) in CH3CN-H2O solvent containing 0.03 mol dm-3 HCl. Pseudo-first-order rate constants (k1) for hydrolysis of OCBA are almost independent of the change in CH3CN content from 10 to 80% (v/v) in mixed aqueous solvents. The rate constants k1 are more than 10-fold larger than the corresponding rate constants for hydrolysis of phthalamic acid. These observations are explained in terms of a mechanism slightly different from the mechanism for hydrolysis of phthalamic acid. The activation parameters, ΔH* and ΔS*, are not affected appreciably by an increase in CH3CN content from 10 to 80% in mixed aqueous solvents. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: solute-solvent interactions ; solvent-solvent interactions ; binary solvents ; alcohol-water mixtures ; water structure ; solvatochromic indicators ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A preferential solvation model that takes into account the enhancement of the structure of water when small amounts of alcohol are added was applied to solvatochromic data for binary mixtures of water with 2-methylpropan-2-ol, propan-2-ol, ethanol and methanol. Application of the model allows the calculation of the effect of the enhancement of the water structure on solvatochromic solvent properties. It is demonstrated that the enhancement of water structure increases the solvent dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen-bond donor acidity and decreases the solvent hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity. The effect decreases in the order 2-methylpropan-2-ol-water, propan-2-ol-water, ethanol-water and methanol-water. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: heterolytic bond dissociation energy ; carbon-carbon σ bonds ; hydrocarbons ; structural dependence ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The coordination of a resonance-stabilized hydrocarbon cation and anion yielded a series of unprecedented hydrocarbons, which are susceptible to thermal heterolytic cleavage of carbon-carbon σ bonds in polar media, generating the original ions under reversible conditions. When the component ions were sufficiently stabilized, some ion pairs were even isolated as solids, thus providing the first examples of hydrocarbon salts. The direct observation of the heterolysis by means of spectroscopy permitted reliable thermodynamic treatments of the observed degree of ionic dissociation. Correlation of the free energy of heterolysis with solvent dielectric constants and parameters of ion stabilities such as pKHA, pKR+ and redox potentials revealed the importance of the thermodynamic stabilities of ions, the degree of solvation and steric congestion in the starting molecule as major controlling factors in the heterolysis. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: securinine ; cationic micelles ; anionic micelle ; non-ionic micelle ; alkaline hydrolysis ; kinetics ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The effects of micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr), tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTABr), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polyoxyethylene 10 lauryl ether (C12E10) on the rates of alkaline hydrolysis of securinine were studied at a constant [-OH] (0.05 M). An increase in the total concentrations of CTABr, TTABr, SDS and C12E10 from 0.0 to 0.2 M causes a decrease in the observed pseudo-first-order rate constants (kobs) by factors of ca 2.5, 3, 7 and 4, respectively. The observed data are explained in terms of pseudophase and pseudophase ion-exchange (PIE) models of micelle. The binding constants, KS, of securinine with SDS, C12E10, CTABr and TTABr micelles are 32.4, 14.8, 22.1, and 9.1 M-1, respectively. The magnitudes of the second-order rate constants, kM, for the reactions in the micellar pseudophase are negligible compared with the corresponding rate constant, kW, for the reaction occurring in the aqueous pseudophase for CTABr, TTABr, SDS and C12E10. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: N,N-diphenylcarbamoylpyridinium ion ; solvolysis ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Solvolyses of the N,N-diphenylcarbamoylpyridinium ion are subject to specific and/or general base catalysis, which can be eliminated by addition of perchloric acid or increased, especially in fluoroalcohol-containing solvents, by addition of pyridine. The uncatalyzed solvolyses in aqueous methanol and aqueous ethanol involve a weakly nucleophilically assisted (l  =  0.22) heterolysis and the solvolyses in the pure alcohols are anomalously slow. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Menschutkin reaction ; duality of SN1, SN2 mechanisms ; benzyl tosylates ; Yukawa-Tsuno equation ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rate data for the Menschutkin reaction between strongly activated Z-substituted benzyl p-toluenesulfonates and Y-substituted N,N-dimethylanilines in acetonitrile at 35 °C fit the equation, kobs  =  k1 + k2 [DMA], which is consistent with concurrent first- and second-order processes. The k1 and k2 values for each substrate were separated based on the above equation. The SN1 rate constant, k1, is unaffected by the nature of the nucleophile, whereas the SN2 rate constant, k2, increased with the electron-donating substituent of the N,N-dimethylaniline. The substituent effect on the k1 values is linearly correlated by the Yukawa-Tsuno equation with ρ  =  -5.2 and r  =  1.3. The unimolecular reaction can be regarded as a classical SN1 mechanism. In contrast, that on the k2 values shows an upward curvature when analyzed by the Brown σ+ treatment. These results are ascribed to the simultaneous and independent occurrence of SN1 and SN2 mechanisms in the present Menschutkin reaction. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: colloidal CdS-induced photochemical reactions ; photocatalytic reactions ; photooxidation ; 2-methylindole ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: 2-Methylindole (2-MI) is adsorbed on the surface of colloidal CdS particles with an adsorption intensity of 0.6 × 103 dm3 mol-1. A new emission band at 530 nm is produced by forming an exciplex between excited CdS and 2-MI and the red emission due to CdS is simultaneously quenched. The emission maxima of green bands for different indoles increase in the order indole 〈 tryptophan 〈 2-MI 〈 3-MI and are observed at 508, 520, 530 and 540 nm, respectively. The shift in emission maxima is related to the oxidation potential of these substrates. The irradiation of an aerated reaction mixture containing CdS and 2-MI with visible light induces the oxidation of adsorbed 2-MI by photogenerated holes to produce 2-methyl-3-indolinone and 2-acetamidobenzaldehyde. The latter product is formed due to oxidative C - C bond cleavage of the pyrrole ring. The reactivity of trapped holes towards the adsorbed 2-MI is evidenced by a decrease in the lifetime of the red emission of CdS in the presence of 2-MI. In this reaction the possibility of the participation of singlet oxygen is ruled out. A general mechanism of CdS-induced oxidation of indoles is discussed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: calorimetry ; IR spectra ; ketones ; solvation ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Solution enthalpies of n-hexane, acetone, butan-2-one and octan-2-one in a series of tetrachloromethane-acetonitrile mixtures and the carbonyl stretching absorption frequencies in the IR spectra of these ketones were determined. It was found that over the whole range of concentrations (varying from neat tetrachloromethane up to neat acetonitrile) the solvation enthalpy of these compounds can be obtained additively from the contributions of the alkyl and carbonyl fragments. The solvent effect on the solvation enthalpy of the carbonyl group was found to be satisfactorily correlated with the corresponding IR frequency shifts of the C=O group. It was also found that the sensitivities of the carbonyl IR frequencies to the solvent composition are different for various ketones. From both IR and calorimetric data, the preferential solvation parameters were evaluated. The differences between the IR spectroscopic and calorimetric data are discussed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 37
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 11 (1998), S. 231-231 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: No Abstract
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: crown dithioether ; conformational analysis ; multicomponent equilibrium ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The solid-state molecular structure and the conformational behaviour in solution of the 12-membered crown dithioether 8-methyl-1,4-dioxa-7,10-dithiacyclododecane-5,12-dione were studied by x-ray crystallography, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics. The conformational rigidity of some constituent structural fragments allowed a detailed analysis of the structure and distribution of the conformers. A protocol for studies of multiconformational equilibrium was developed by means of the combined use of structure calculations and dynamic NMR measurements. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: 1-substituted 2-pyrrolidinones ; C=O stretching frequencies ; solvent effects ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: In an effort to model solute-solvent interactions, the C=O stretching frequencies of five 1-substituted 2-pyrrolidinones and four other carbonyl-containing compounds were measured for 30 common solvents. These were then correlated with four empirical parameter sets and one theoretical (computational) parameter set. While an empirical parameter set gave the best correlation equations, the theoretical parameter equations are physically and statistically significant. Solvent volume, polarizability and hydrogen bond donor acidity (capacity) terms are significant in the correlation equations. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: metal-catalyzed carbenoid reactions ; iodonium ylides ; sulfonium ylides ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Transition metal-catalyzed decomposition of phenyliodonium and diphenylsulfonium ylides was investigated with regard to application in asymmetric carbenoid reactions. Phenyliodonium ylides react in the presence of Rh(II) catalysts with the same selectivity in inter- and intramolecular cyclopropanations as the corresponding diazo compounds, and intramolecular CH insertions proceed with identical enantioselectivities. With diphenylsulfonium ethoxycarbonylmethylide the Cu(I)-catalyzed cyclopropanation of olefins affords trans/cis ratios and asymmetric inductions identical with those of diazo compounds, but with Rh(II) catalysts some small, although significant, selectivity variations occur, which are ascribed to coordination of diphenyl sulfide to one of the coordination sites of the catalyst. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: P - S bond cleavage ; hydroperoxidolysis ; nerve agent VX ; molecular orbital calculations ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The P - S bond cleavage process in the hydroperoxidolysis of a model system for the nerve agent VX was studied using ab initio and semiempirical molecular orbital methods. Aqueous solvation effects were included through single-point calculations using the semiempirical SM5.2PD/A continuum solvation model and geometries optimized at the HF/MIDI! level of theory. The predominant pathway for P - S bond cleavage involves pseudorotation of a low-energy trigonal bipyramidal intermediate followed by apical ligand ejection. In aqueous solution, the free energy barriers for these processes are found to be 14.3 and 4.6 kcal mol-1, respectively, with electronic energies calculated at the MP2/cc-pVDZ//HF/MIDI! level of theory. By comparison with another continuum model of solvation (PCM), it is concluded that the SM5.2PD/A model performs well even for hypervalent phosphorus species, in spite of not having included any such molecules in the model's parameterization set. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 42
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 11 (1998), S. 299-304 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: molecular architecture ; molecule-based magnets ; biopolymers ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Application of the principles of physical organic chemistry to the construction of molecule-based magnets is discussed. Not only the magnetic structures of conventional magnets but also secondary and tertiary structures of biopolymers are instrumental in the molecular design. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium halides) ; aggregation behavior ; polyelectrolytes ; polysoaps ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes (polysoaps) are a unique class of water-soluble polymers containing distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. Above a certain concentration, polysoaps form intramolecular and intermolecular aggregates in aqueous solution. They have attracted much attention not only for their ability to mimic some functions demonstrated by biopolymers but also for their important industrial applications. This review highlights some interesting features of novel non-cross-linked and cross-linked poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium halides) that have been described in recent years. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: 1,ω-bis(2-bromopyridinium)alkanes ; hydroxide ion ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The reaction of OH- ion with 1,ω-bis(2-bromopyridinium)alkanes, where the reaction centers are separated by a varying number of methylene groups, was investigated to model the increased velocity of OH- attack on premicellar aggregated N-alkylpyridinium compounds. 1,ω-Bis(2-bromopyridinium)alkanes (RPBr) [R  =  propane (I), butane (II), pentane (III), hexane (IV) and octane (V)] were synthesized and characterized by standard procedures. The kinetics of I-V with OH- ion fitted two consecutive first-order reactions. The intermediate products, 1-(2-pyridone)-ω-(2-bromopyridinium)alkane, and also the final products 1,ω-bis(2-pyridone)alkanes, were isolated. Deuterium isotope effects, activation parameters and salt effects on the reaction rates suggest that OH- attack is rate limiting and there is a through-space acceleration of the initial attack due to the proximity of the positive charges. These results place an upper limit of 20-fold for the electrostatic acceleration in OH- attack in premicellar aggregates. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: benzothiazole-2-thiol ; formation mechanism ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The formation of benzothiazole-2-thiol from aniline, carbon disulphide and sulphur at 230°C was shown to occur by a sequence of three principal steps. Labelling experiments confirmed that both sulphur atoms originate from carbon disulphide. An initial polar reaction to form thiocarbanilide via phenylcarbamic acid and a tetrahedral intermediate is followed by radical cyclization of these to benzothiazole-2-thiol and 2-phenylaminobenzothiazole; the latter is converted into the desired product by a polar displacement of aniline by H2S. Mechanisms for the formation of minor byproducts are also considered. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 46
    Electronic Resource
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 11 (1998), S. 341-349 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: vicarious nucleophilic substitution ; hydrogen ; mechanism ; orientation ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Hydrogens located at activated positions in electrophilic arenes, e.g. ortho and para hydrogens in nitrobenzenes, can be replaced with a nucleophile moiety provided there is at least one nucleofuge X connected to the nucleophilic centre. As the group really leaving in this hydrogen substitution process is not the hydride anion but X, the reaction has been named vicarious nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen (VNS). The concepts on the mechanism of the reaction and their experimental background are presented. Reactivity and orientation - the fundamental questions concerning synthetical applications of VNS - are discussed in light of the supposed mechanistic picture.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: abnormal Reimer-Tiemann reaction ; theoretical study ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The molecular mechanism for the pyrrole ring expansion to yield 3-chloropyridine, as a model of the abnormal Reimer-Tiemann rearrangement, was characterized theoretically in vacuo by means of the HF/6-31G* computational method. The electron correlation was estimated at the MP2/6-31G* level and by calculations based on density functional theory, B3LYP/6- 31G* and B3LYP/6- 31+G*. Solvent effects of the diethyl ether and ethanol media were analyzed by using a polarizable continuum model. The stationary points were characterized with analytical gradient techniques in the gas phase and insolvents. The topology of the potential energy surfaces calculated at the MP2/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* levels shows that the molecular mechanism corresponds to an inverted energy profile along one intermediate, associated with the addition of dichlorocarbene at the β-position of the pyrrole anion, and only one transition structure related to the ring expansion associated with the breaking and forming of Cα - Cβ and C - Cα bonds, respectively, and the Cl- leaving process. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: ipso proton affinities ; additivity ; disubstituted toluenes ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The problem of the ipso protonation of toluene and its predominantly disubstituted derivatives was considered by the MP2(fc)/6-31G**//HF/6-31G*+ZPE(HF/6-31G*) theoretical model. The substituents involved covered a wide range of different donor-acceptor capabilities. It is shown that the calculated MP2 ipso proton affinities of substituted toluenes follow mutatis mutandis the same additivity rule which was found earlier to be operative in polysubstituted benzenes, naphthalenes and biphenylenes. The additivity equation is both intuitively appealing and useful, being able to offer quantitative estimates of the proton affinity by very simple calculation. It is based on the concept of the increment, which in turn describes the influence of a single substituent on the proton affinity. Any substituent behaves as a rule as if the other were non-existent, thus giving rise to the independent substituent approximation (ISA). The performance of the additivity rule of thumb is very good, as evidenced by the average absolute deviation of 1 kcal mol-1. Larger deviations are possible, but they rarely occur, being indicative of a difference in interactions between substituents in the initial neutral base and in the final cationic conjugate acid. Finally, it follows as a corollary of the present analysis that protonation ipso to the CH3 group is never thermodynamically the most favourable site of proton attack in the benzene ring, provided that there is a single unsubstituted carbon atom within the aromatic moiety. The relevance of ipso protonation in persubstituted benzenes is briefly discussed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 49
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 11 (1998), S. 678-683 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: phosphatetrahedrane ; diphosphatetrahedrane ; phosphorus bases ; carbon bases ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The protonation processes of phosphotetrahedrane (PTH) and diphosphatetrahedrane (DPTH) were studied using density functional theory approaches. The geometries of the neutrals and the protonated species were optimized at the B3LYP/6- 31G(d) level and the final energies were obtained using the B3LYP/6- 311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. Both PTH and DPTH are tetrahedral compounds which behave as carbon bases in the gas phase. In contrast with what was found for other phosphorus-containing cage structures such as tetraphosphacubane, the nature of the basic center does not change when the hydrogen atoms are substituted by bulky substituents. This is a consequence of the fact that both phosphorus and carbon protonation processes lead to C - P bond fission, so that the repulsive interactions between the susbtituents are not significantly different in carbon- or phosphorus-protonated structures. Protonation of DPTH at the P - P bond yields a local minimum with a P - H - P linkage similar to that described before for the most stable protonated form of P4. This seems to indicate that the existence of P - P linkages in strained structures clearly favors the formation of non-classical protonated species where the proton bridges the two phosphorus atoms. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: N-methyl-N-nitroso-p-toluenesulphonamide ; hydrolysis ; micellar media ; pseudophase model ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The acid and basic hydrolysis of N-methyl-N-nitroso-p-toluenesulphonamide (MNTS) was studied in different micellar aggregates (CTACl, CTABr, TTABr, LTABr, and OTACl). The effect of mixed micelles (OTAX-LTAX) was also studied. The kinetic behaviour was explained on the basis of the pseudophase model, from which the binding constants of MNTS to different micelles, the ion exchange constants and the reactivity constants in the micellar pseudophase were obtained. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: flash-photolysis ; short-lived reaction intermediates ; mandelic acid ; keto-enol tautomers ; enzyme-catalyzed racemization ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The advantage of adding more structure-diagnostic information to the simple detection of flash photolytically generated transient species by changes in UV-visible light absorbance is illustrated by a case study involving the mandelic acid keto-enol system. An early report based on preliminary evidence proposed that flash photolysis of phenyldiazoacetic acid produces the enol of mandelic acid by hydration of phenylhydroxyketene, itself generated by a photo-Wolff reaction of the diazo acid. Further examination, however, shows that this is only a minor route, and that the major pathway is a new enol-forming reaction involving what appears to be hydration of a carboxycarbene formed by dediazotization of the diazo compound. Hydration of phenylhydroxyketene is nevertheless the reaction by which mandelic acid enol is generated when esters of benzoylformic acid are the flash photolysis substrates. These mechanisms, and also identification of the enol as a tranisent species, are supported by detailed arguments involving acid-base catalysis, solvent isotope effects, and the use of oxygen-18 as a tracer. The work produces a keto-enol equilibrium constant for the mandelic acid system, pKE  =  16.19, and also acidity constants of the enol ionizing as an oxygen acid, pKEa  =  6.39, and the keto isomer ionizing as a carbon acid, pKKa  =  22.57. The bearing of these results on the enzyme-catalyzed racemization of mandelic acid is discussed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: 2,2′-bisbenzimidazolyl ; tautomerism ; NMR ; semi-empirical calculations ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A dynamic NMR study of the tautomerism of 2,2′-bisbenzimidazolyl in DMSO-d6 and a mechanistic interpretation of the process, based on a stepwise, single-proton transfer and formation of a zwitterionic intermediate, are presented. This interpretation is substantiated by semi-empirical calculations of the postulated intermediate and transition state, that yield results which are compared with previous studies on related aliphatic systems. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: bond dissociation energy ; acidity ; phenylsulfenylamides ; phenylsulfenylanilides ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Acidities and bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the N-H bond in two phenylsulfenylamides, PhSNHBz and PhSNH-t-Bu, and four phenylsulfenylanilides, 4-GC6H4NHSPh, where G  =  MeO, H, Br and CN, were measured in order to compare the effects of substituents on acidities and BDEs of N - H bonds with those of C - H bonds. The effects of PhS groups on acidities and BDEs in a series of C - H acids were found to be comparable to those on acidities and BDEs of PhS in a similar series of N - H acids. Comparisons were also made of the effects of changing the oxidation state of sulfur in the series PhS, PhSO and PhSO2 on the acidities and BDEs of adjacent N - H and C - H bonds in weak acids. Hammett-type plots of pKHA values for phenyl benzyl sulfones (4-GC6H4CH2SO2Ph) and phenylsulfenylanilides (4-GC6H4NHSPh) were linear vs σp- values. A linear plot was obtained and explained for a plot of BDE of the N - H bonds in remotely substituted phenylsulfonylanilides with σ+ values. Plots of BDEs vs Eox(A-) were also linear for 4-substituted phenylsulfenylanilides (4-GC6H4NHSPh), phenylsulfonylanilides (4-GC6H4NHSO2Ph) and phenyl benzyl sulfones (4-GC6H4CH2SO2Ph). © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 54
    Electronic Resource
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 11 (1998), S. 387-391 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: α-diamides ; 17O NMR ; conformation ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: 17O NMR spectra of several α-diamides were obtained at natural isotopic abundance in acetonitrile solution in order to study the conformations of these compounds in solution. The 17O NMR shifts vary with the intercarbonyl dihedral angle α in a sense opposite to that observed for α-diketones. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 55
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 11 (1998), S. 377-377 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: 5-nitro-5′-dimethylamino-2,2′-bisthiophene ; π* probe dye ; cyclic voltammetry ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Cyclic voltamograms of the solvatochromic dye 5-nitro-5′-dimethylamino-2,2′-bisthiophene (1), introduced recently as a sensitive π* probe, were recorded in different solvents. An EPR spectrum of the anionic radical of 1 in DMSO was obtained and compared with other spectra of analogous substituted bisthiophene radicals. It was found that the presence of a donor- acceptor pair of substituents in 1-⋅ reduces significantly the rotational barrier of the radical compared with the unsubstituted bithienyl radical anion 2-⋅. This is the result of an electronic repulsion between the donor ring fragment and the added electron in the coplanar radical, which does not exist in 2-⋅. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: 8-azaadenine ; tautomerism ; theoretical study ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The prototropic tautomerism of 8-azaadenine (azaade) was studied theoretically by means of ab initio methods, in both the gas phase and aqueous solution. A number of tautomeric forms were not included in the calculations after applying a stepwise elimination procedure based on both AM1 and HF/6-31G* energy values. The tautomers 9H-azaade, 8H-azaade and 7H-azaade survived to this elimination and their optimized geometries and energies were calculated at the MP2/6-31*//HF/6-31G* level. To include the solvent effects, two self-consistent reaction field method were used: (1) Onsager's SCRF with multipolar expansion up to the hexadecapolar term and (2) the isodensity polarizable continuum method (IPCM). Both methods produce similar results, although the latter represents better the situation in aqueous solution. The stability order in solution, 8H- 〉 9H- 〉 7H-azaade, differs slightly from that found in the gas phase, implying that in general the electrostatic effects in solution are important, but the intrinsic stability of these species in the gas phase overcomes the solvent effect. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: calix[4]resorcinarenes ; organophosphorus compounds ; solvatophobic interactions ; host-guest complexation ; high-performance liquid chromatography ; x-ray analysis ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography [LiChrosorb RP-18,UV detection at 254 nm and acetonitrile-water (86:14,v/v) as mobile phase] was applied to studies of the host-guest complexation of tetraalkylcalix[4]resorcinareneoctols and their upper rim phosphoryl, sulfonyl and dialkylaminomethyl derivatives with some aromatic guests in the mobile phase. It was shown that the formation of the inclusion complexes results in changes in the retention of aromatic guests and improves their separation. Stability constants of the complexes were calculated from the dependences of the l/k′ values of the aromatic guest on the concentration of the calix[4]resorcinarene in the mobile phase. The molecular structure of 4,6,16,18-tetrahydroxy-10,12,22,24-tetrakis(dipropoxyphosphoryloxy)-2,8,14,20-tetramethylcalix[4]resorcinarene (12) was determined. Crystal data for 12 are P21/n, a  =  16.708(9) Å, b  =  18.683(6) Å, c  =  20.243(5) Å, β  =  95.75(3)°, V  =  6287(4) Å3 and Z  =  4. Compound 12 exists in a boat conformation, in which two opposite unsubstituted resorcinol rings of the macrocyclic skeleton lie in the plane formed by four methine bridges and two diphosphorylated rings are perpendicular to the plane. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: alkylboronic acids ; arylboronic acids ; ab initio ; MM3 ; molecular mechanics ; force field parameters ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The boronic acid functional group has been incorporated into various biologically important compounds. In order to study this class of compounds better with molecular mechanics, five alkyl- and arylboronic acids were calculated using ab initio methods (Spartan) at the RHF/6-31G* level. MM3 force field parameters were developed based on the theoretically calculated geometries, vibrational spectra, and torsional profiles. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: γ-lactones ; base-catalysed hydrolysis ; reactivity-structure correlations ; isobenzofuranones ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000