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  • Stable isotopes  (7)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Stable isotopes ; Carbonate cements ; Pobitite Kamani, Bulgaria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The Precipitation of carbonate cements in the Pobitite Kamani area (Lower Eocene) began during early diagenesis of sediments. There is evidence, however, that calcite is still forming today. The negative δ13C values to −29.2‰ suggest that the carbonate formed during degradation of 12C-enriched organic matter (perhaps partly from oxidation of methane). The δ18O values of −0.9 to −1.6‰ reflect the marine origin of the early diagenetic carbonate cements. Most of the carbonates, however, formed during late diagenesis (at approximately 1300 m burial depth) and/or recently (after uplift) from percolating groundwaters. These carbonates have an isotopic composition characteristic of carbonates which precipitated from meteoric waters under normal sedimentary temperatures in isotopic equilibrium with 12C-enriched soil carbon dioxide.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Key words Planktic foraminifera ; Quantitative analysis ; Stable isotopes ; Biostratigraphy ; Chronostratigraphy ; Paleoceanography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The interval spanning the Paleocene–Eocene (P/E) transition in the Possagno section consists of 1 m of red marls, including a 4-cm-thick, dark-red "dissolution" clay, which represents the Paleocene/Eocene boundary event. The Possagno section is much more condensed than other Tethyan and North Atlantic sections previously studied; however, in this section the most significant biotic, isotopic and sedimentological events across the P/E boundary can be recognized. The Possagno section spans the following planktic foraminiferal subzones: upper part of M. gracilis Subzone, A. berggreni Subzone, A. sibaiyaensis Subzone and probably lowermost part of P. wilcoxensis Subzone. The quantitative analysis indicates a major increase of low-latitude acarininids, including compressed tropical acarininids just above the boundary clay. This acarininid incursion begins just below the boundary clay but reaches its maximum just above the clay. The planktic foraminiferal faunal turnover is gradual except for the acarininid incursion. The isotopic results show a negative excursion in ∂13C values at the small benthic foraminifera mass extinction event. The acarininid maximum diversity coincides with this isotopic excursion, and reflects an increase in surface seawater temperature. Despite being very condensed, the Possagno section allows us to further confirm that the different biotic, isotopic and sedimentological events recognized in the Spanish sections (Alamedilla, Campo, Caravaca, Zumaya) are not local in nature and allows the establishment of a detailed chronostratigraphic framework to define the P/E boundary stratotype.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Key words Northeastern Tethys ; Late Paleocene ; Thermal maximum ; Climate ; Clay minerals ; Stable isotopes ; Organic matter ; Biomarkers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We studied two sections that accumulated during the Paleocene–Eocene transition in shelf waters in the northeastern Tethys. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of marine and terrestrial biomarkers are consistent with a 13C depletion in the oceanic and atmospheric carbon dioxide pools during the Late Paleocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM; Subzone P5b). The 2–3‰ negative δ 13C excursion in planktic foraminifera coincides with minimum δ 18O values, an incursion of transient subtropical planktic foraminiferal fauna, and the occurrence of an organic-rich sapropelite unit in Uzbekistan, which accumulated at the onset of a transgressive event. Biomarker distributions and hydrogen indices indicate that marine algae and bacteria were the major organic matter sources. During the Late Paleocene (Subzones P4 and P5a), the marginal northeastern Tethys experienced a temperate to warm climate with wet and arid seasons. Most likely, warm and humid climate initiated during the LPTM (Subzone P5b) and subsequently extended during the Eocene (Zone P6) onto adjacent land areas of the marginal northeastern Tethys.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Key words Rudist bivalves ; Cretaceous ; Stable isotopes ; Sclerochronology ; Palaeotemperatures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Isotopic (δ13C, δ18O) and elemental (Mg, Sr, Mn, Fe) compositions were analysed in sclerochronological profiles of several shells of late Cretaceous rudist bivalves from Greece, Turkey, Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula. The preservation of original compositions of low-Mg calcite of outer shell layers is indicated by constant and high Sr, generally low Fe and Mn, and the preservation of fibrous-prismatic ultrastructures. Cyclic variations in δ18O and Mg are interpreted to reflect seasonal temperature/salinity cycles and, thus, annual growth increments. In shells of Torreites, amplitudes of correlated δ13C and δ18O cycles cannot be related to reasonable palaeotemperatures or salinity. This isotopic pattern reflects vital fractionations of an extent which is unknown from modern bivalves. In contrast, almost identical ranges and amplitudes of δ18O cycles are observed in 13 shells of five species from Santonian-Campanian localities in central Greece and northern Turkey, suggesting that seasonal variations in environmental conditions were recorded without significant vital fractionations. The effect of seasonal salinity changes on δ18O of the shells is evaluated, and mean palaeotemperatures are constrained within the range of 30–32.5  °C. The annual range of temperature was estimated to be 7  °C, assuming a constant salinity. This agrees with other isotopic proxies of Late Cretaceous palaeotemperatures, and with global circulation models which predict higher low-latitude sea-surface temperatures than the present ones.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Stable isotopes ; Jurassic ; Palaeoecology ; Palaeosalinity ; Portugal ; Lusitanian Basin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Carbon and oxygen isotopes were determined on 40 recrystallized shells of Late Jurassic bivalves from the Lusitanian Basin of Portugal. In contrast with the oxygen isotopes, which exhibited considerable diagenetic distortion, the carbon isotopes are thought to preserve a record of the salinity of the Jurassic marginal marine seas in which these bivalves lived. The reconstructed palaeosalinities range from 35%o (euhaline) to 5% (oligohaline). Comparing these values with the palaeosalinity reconstructed from a palaeoecological analysis of 17 stratigraphic levels within the basin, the independently derived values agree in most cases. Strongly differing values are explained as being due to biotic factors and to diagenetic distortion of the isotopic signal; they are less likely to be due to smallscale time-averaging or insufficient microstratigraphic sampling. On the whole, the carbon isotope analyses are thought to produce reasonable palaeosalinity values, although data from infaunal, originally aragonitic bivalves appear to be less reliable than those from epifaunal bivalves with a predominantly or exclusively calcitic shell. As diagenetic alteration of the carbon isotope signal is, however, unpredictable and biotic effects on the isotopic composition are insufficiently known, palaeosalinity reconstructions based on stable isotope data should be supported by palaeoecological data.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Key words Corals ; Stable isotopes ; Australia ; Leeuwin Current ; Ningaloo Reef ; Cooling events
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  116-year record of coral skeletal δ18O is presented from a colony of Porites lutea from Ningaloo Reef, western Australia. Interannual variability of sea-surface temperatures (SST) inferred from skeletal δ18O is dominated by a 9.5-year period, and may constitute a characteristic signal of the Leeuwin Current. On long-terms coral skeletal δ18O indicates a near-continuous increase of SST at Ningaloo Reef over one century. The skeletal δ18O time series was checked for the presence of seasonal cooling events resulting from major volcanic eruptions. An ∼1  °C cooling is evident following the eruption of Pinatubo in 1991, which reproduces the results of previous investigations. However, only weak or no signals can be related to the eruptions of Krakatau (1883) and Agung (1963).
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Key words African monsoon ; Corals ; Holocene ; Northern Red Sea ; Stable isotopes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We present a study based on X-ray chronologies and the stable isotopic composition of fossil Porites spp. corals from the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) covering the mid-Holocene period from 5750 to 4450 14C years BP (before present). The stable oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of five specimens reveal regular annual periodicities. Compared with modern Porites spp. from the same environment, the average seasonal δ 18O amplitude of the fossil corals is higher (by ca. 0.35–0.60‰), whereas annual growth rates are lower (by ca. 3.5 to 2 mm/year). This suggests stronger seasonality of sea surface temperatures and increased variability of the oxygen isotopic composition of the sea water due to changes in the precipitation and evaporation regime during the mid-Holocene. Most likely, summer monsoon rains reached the northern end of the Red Sea at that time. Average annual coral growth rates are diminished probably due to an increased input and resuspension of terrestrial debris to the shallow marine environment during more humid conditions. Our results corroborate published reports of paleodata and model simulations suggesting a northward migration of the African monsoon giving rise to increased seasonalities during the mid-Holocene over northeastern Africa and Arabia.
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