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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Bioavailability ; Dissolution rate ; Drug evaluation ; Pharmacokinetics ; Side effects ; Tablets, sustained release ; Theophylline
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The sustained-release properties and relative bioavailability of Theolin® Retard and Pharphylline® Retard were studied in eight healthy adults after treatment for five days with twice daily 450 mg, respectively 425 mg. During the day-time dosing interval on the fourth and fifth day theophylline plasma concentrations were assayed by HPLC. After intake of Theolin® Retard, minimum theophylline plasma concentrations were significantly higher, fluctuations in theophylline plasma concentrations were significantly smaller andt 75 (the period within a dosing interval during which the plasma concentration exceeds 75% of the maximal concentration) was significantly longer than after Pharphylline® Retard. Maximal concentrations and AUC values were not significantly different. For both products the plasma concentration time-curves on day 5 were significantly lower than on day 4.In vitro dissolution tests confirmed the more sustained release of theophylline from Theolin® Retard. These results indicate an equal extent of absorption from the two products but better sustained-release properties for Theolin® Retard.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 14 (1992), S. 370-376 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Administration, rectal ; Atrial fibrillation ; Dosage forms ; Flecainide ; Pharmacokinetics ; Stereoisomers ; Clinical trials, Evening primrose oil ; Garlic ; Ginkgo biloba ; Homeopathy ; Meta-analysis ; Niacin ; Vitamins ; Clinical trials ; Drug interactions ; Epilepsy ; Loreclezole ; R 57720 ; Side effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Asparaginase ; Pancreatitis ; Side effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Drug therapy ; Hospitalization ; Lung diseases, obstructive ; Patient compliance ; Patient education ; Side effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Object of the study was to assess educative needs in the field of drug therapy among 99 chronic patients with advanced chronic lung disease admitted to the Respiratory Service of the Hospital Sta. Creu i Sant Pau (Barcelona, Spain). The knowledge of the patients about their previous drug treatment, sources of information as well as patients' conception of side-effects, was gathered from medical records and by means of a questionnaire. The majority of patients studied were male (63%), aged over 60 years (average 63±12), illiterate or with basic education (88%), had a chronic obstructive, pulmonary disease (76%) and with an important degree of chronicity. They had been treated for their condition during a mean of 8.4 years and took an average of 4.6 drugs. 31% Of patients did not answer any question about their medication properly and only 17% gave a correct answer to all the questions. The lower the age and the higher the educational level, the higher the proportion of correct answers to knowledge questions. 35% Of the patients stated not to have been informed about their medication and 55% stated that they had read the patient package inserts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Didanosine ; Drug evaluation ; Pharmacokinetics ; Pharmacology ; Side effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In this article the literature about didanosine, an antiretroviral drug, is reviewed. The mechanism of action, biochemical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical results of phase-I trials are discussed. Serious adverse effects such as pancreatitis and peripheral neuropathy have occurred in these trials. An antiretroviral effect was observed in terms of an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes and a decrease in p24 antigen levels in HIV-infected individuals. Didanosine seems to be a promising drug against HIV infection, but knowledge about its clinical efficacy is scanty.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Adherence ; Community pharmacy ; Diabetes mellitus type 2 ; General practitioner ; Implementation ; Oral hypoglycemic agents ; Patient education ; Pharmaceutical care ; Side effects ; Pharmacy technician
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The purpose of this study was to indicate which patient education activities directed at users of oral hypoglycemic agents are desirable in Dutch community pharmacies and to explore which preconditions should be considered when implementing the desired activities. A qualitative study was conducted with a panel composed of seven pharmacists and seven technicians with considerable experience in giving advice to people with diabetes mellitus type 2. A consensus method was used, which consisted of a written questionnaire and a feedback discussion, to determine which activities were considered desirable and to identify which other health care providers should be involved. The way these activities should be implemented was explored by a focus-group discussion. The following goals of patient education activities were studied: 1) adherence to the dosage regimen, 2) adherence to lifestyle advices,3) gaining awareness of effects and 4) self-monitoring. According to the members of the panel, patient education activities should be directed primarily at stimulating adherence to the dosage regimen, increasing awareness of side effects and improving the correct technical use of blood glucose meters. Activities directed at lifestyle advice seemed to be less desirable to the pharmacy staff. Preconditions that should be considered when implementing these activities were structural cooperation with GPs and diabetic nurses and specialization of tasks of pharmacy technicians. Our results indicate that deepening of existing tasks, such as stimulating adherence to the dosage regimen is desirable in developing patient education activities at users of oral hypoglycemic agents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 8 (1986), S. 40-41 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Drug evaluation, preclinical ; Drug resistance ; Pharmacokinetics ; Quinolones ; Side effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract On the basis of antimicrobial activity, resistance development, pharmacokinetics, side effects and pre-clinical results, the applicability of the quinolones ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin is assessed. These quinolones seem especially useful in infections in hospitalized patients, in gonococcal infections and in urinary tract infections. Also salmonellosis and shigellosis might be indications for quinolones.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 8 (1986), S. 46-52 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Ciprofloxacin ; Drug evaluation ; Norfloxacin ; Pefloxacin ; Prostatitis ; Side effects ; Urinary tract infections
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The new fluorinated quinolones norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin were evaluated in urinary infections. Bacteriological cure rates in both uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections ranged from 85% to 99%. Clinical cure rates were often lower due to the underlying conditions in the urinary tract. Patients with neurological bladder disease were cured in a relatively high percentage of theirPseudomonas infection after three months treatment with norfloxacin. Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in prostatic tissue and fluid will probably offer an advance in the treatment of chronic urinary infections due to an infectious prostatic focus. Definitely drug related side effects (of gastro-intestinal, neurological or allergic nature) were mild in most cases. The new 4-quinolones should be followed with interest concerning their activity in urological infections in general as well as specifically. The minor influence on the natural human flora and the possibility to decrease plasmid-mediated resistance are of major importance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis ; Ciprofloxacin ; Drug evaluation ; Enoxacin ; Gonorrhea ; Side effects ; Urethritis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract 123 Female patients suffering from uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhoea were treated with either 200 mg or 400 mg enoxacin. The cure rate in the 400 mg group was 100%; the cure rate in the 200 mg group was 95,7%. 212 Male patients suffering from urethral gonorrhoea were treated with either 250 mg or 500 mg ciprofloxacin (one tablet). Cure rates in both groups were 100%. Post-gonococcal urethritis was observed in 31 out of 85 (36%) patients in the first, and 21 out of 79 (27%) in the second group. In a pilot study 42 male patients suffering from non-gonococcal urethritis were treated during one week with 1 g ciprofloxacin daily. In 22 patientsChlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the urethra; in 20 of these 22 casesChlamydia trachomatis could not be cultured after- treatment (cure rate 91%), but in 4 of these 20 cases (20%) and in 8 of the 20Chlamydia trachomatis negative cases (40%) urine-sediment abnormalities were present after treatment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 11 (1989), S. 124-127 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Clinical trials ; Fluoroquinolones ; Product surveillance, postmarketing ; Side effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The knowledge of side effects of fluoroquinolones during clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance is reviewed. Gastro-intestinal side effects (observed in 3–6% of the patients) are the most frequently observed side effects followed by side effects of the central nervous system (0.5–1.5%) and skin reactions (0.5–2%). The incidence of severe side effects is very low and most effects can be reserved rapidly upon discontinuation of therapy. Reactions of the central nervous system (sometimes severe) were the most often spontaneously reported events during the postmarketing surveillance of ofloxacin. The incidence of adverse reactions is usually in the same range as that of other antimicrobial agents like the third generation cephalosporins, imipenem and aztreonam. Fluoroquinolones are usually well-tolerated and safe drugs, but more data is needed on the long-term safety of quinolones, the safety in children, in elderly people and in severely ill patients.
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