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  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae  (734)
  • Springer  (734)
  • MDPI Publishing
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Citrinin ; Pet mutants ; Mitochondrial biogenesis ; Vacuolar ATPase ; YKL118W disruption ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In countries with a hot climate the mycotoxin citrinin represents a serious problem in fungal food-poisoning. In humans the renal system is affected the most and the mitochondrial respiratory chain was identified as a possible sensitive target for this toxin. In addition, citrinin has an antifungal activity that also inhibits the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. So far the precise mode of action and the subcellular targets for citrinin have not been identified. Therefore, we decided to use the model organism yeast for a genetic approach to identify genes that play a role in the sensitivity against this mycotoxin. A large collection of conditional respiratory deficient yeast mutants was screened for sensitivity against citrinin. One special pet-ts mutant was identified that exhibited a higher sensitivity against citrinin. The genetic system of yeast allowed the isolation of the respective wild-type gene. This yeast gene encodes the Vph2p subunit that is essential for the correct assembly of the vacuolar ATPase. Isolation of the mutated gene and gene-disruption experiments of VPH2 and the partially overlapping small YKL118W gene verified this finding. The wild-type VPH2 gene restores all defects of the mutants. In contrast to this, YKL118W gave no complementation and the null mutant showed no phenotype. Thereby the yeast vacuolar ATPase was found to be important for the toxic effect of citrinin in yeast cells. The consequences of this finding for the molecular mechanism of citrinin action and its relation to the mitochondrial respiratory chain are discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key wordsPOL32 ; SRS2 ; DNA repair ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Pol32 is a subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase δ required in DNA replication and repair. To gain insight into the function of Pol32 and to determine in which repair pathway POL32 may be involved, we extended the analysis of the pol32Δ mutant with respect to UV and methylation sensitivity, UV-induced mutagenesis; and we performed an epistasis analysis of UV sensitivity by combining the pol32Δ with mutations in several genes for postreplication repair (RAD6 group), nucleotide excision repair (RAD3 group) and recombinational repair (RAD52 group). These studies showed that pol32Δ is deficient in UV-induced mutagenesis and place POL32 in the error-prone RAD6/REV3 pathway. We also found that the increase in the CAN1 spontaneous forward mutation of different rad mutators relies entirely or partially on a functional POL32 gene. Moreover, in a two-hybrid screen, we observed that Pol32 interacts with Srs2, a DNA helicase required for DNA replication and mutagenesis. Simultaneous deletion of POL32 and SRS2 dramatically decreases cellular viability at 15 °C and greatly increases cellular sensitivity to hydroxyurea at the permissive temperature. Based on these findings, we propose that POL32 defines a link between the DNA polymerase and helicase activities, and plays a role in the mutagenic bypass repair pathway.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Translation release factors ; Chromosome stability ; Microtubules ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Chromosome stability in suppressor mutants for SUP35 and SUP45 genes coding for translation release factors was studied. We obtained spontaneous and UV-induced sup35 or sup45 mutants in a haploid strain disomic for chromosome III and tested the stability of an extra copy of this chromosome. The majority of the mutants showed increased chromosome instability. This phenotype was correlated with an increased sensitivity to the microtubule-poisoning drug benomyl which affects chromosome segregation at anaphase. Our data suggest that termination-translation factors eRF3 and eRF1 control chromosome transmission at mitotic anaphase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Endopolygalacturonase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Kluyveromyces marxianus ; Pectinase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The gene encoding endopolygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) has been cloned, sequenced and expressed from three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (including non-secretors) and three strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Both control and coding regions showed small differences within each species, one including loss of a potential glycosylation site. Two non-secreting S. cerevisiae strains (FY1679 and var. uvarum) had non-transcribed copies of functional genes. Maximum enzyme activity was achieved with the S. cerevisiae FY1679 gene in an expressing vector, with an enzyme activity of 51 μmol of reducing sugar released from polygalacturonic acid μg protein−1 min−1, the highest so far reported for a yeast.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words DNA repair ; Helix-hairpin-Helix motif ; Methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; UV radiation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The gene MUS81 (Methyl methansulfonate, UV sensitive) was identified as clone 81 in a two-hybrid screen using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad54 protein as a bait. It encodes a novel protein with a predicted molecular mass of 72,316 (632 amino acids) and contains two helix-hairpin-helix motifs, which are found in many proteins involved in DNA metabolism in bacteria, yeast, and mammals. Mus81p also shares homology with motifs found in the XPF endonuclease superfamily. Deletion of MUS81 caused a recessive methyl methansulfonate- and UV-sensitive phenotype. However, mus81Δ cells were not significantly more sensitive than wild-type to γ-radiation or double-strand breaks induced by HO endonuclease. Double mutant analysis suggests that Rad54p and Mus81p act in one pathway for the repair of, or tolerance to, UV-induced DNA damage. A complex containing Mus81p and Rad54p was identified in immunoprecipitation experiments. Deletion of MUS81 virtually eliminated sporulation in one strain background and reduced sporulation and spore viability in another. Potential homologs of Mus81p have been identified in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana. We hypothesize that Mus81p plays a role in the recognition and/or processing of certain types of DNA damage (caused by UV and MMS) during repair or tolerance processes involving the recombinational repair pathway.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) ; Anti-bent DNA ; DNA structure ; Replication origin ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In order to better understand the involvement of the DNA molecule in the replication initiation process we have characterized the structure of the DNA at Autonomously Replicating Sequences (ARSs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a new method for anti-bent DNA analysis, which allowed us to take into account the bending contribution of each successive base plate, we have investigated the higher-order structural organization of the DNA in the region which immediately surrounds the ARS consensus sequence (ACS). We have identified left- and right-handed anti-bent DNAs which flank this consensus sequence. The data show that this organization correlates with an active ACS. Analysis of the minimum nucleotide sequence providing ARS function to plasmids reveals an example where the critical nucleotides are restricted to the ACS and the right-handed anti-bent DNA domain, although most of the origins considered contained both left- and right-handed anti-bent DNAs. Moreover, mutational analysis shows that the right-handed form is necessary in order to sustain a specific DNA conformation which is correlated with the level of plasmid maintenance. A model for the role of these individual structural components of the yeast replication origin is presented. We discuss the possible role of the right-handed anti-bent DNA domain, in conjunction with the ACS, in the process of replication initiation, and potentialities offered by the combination of left- and right-handed structural components in origin function.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Staurosporine ; Vacuolar-type proton pumping ATPase ; Vacuolar protein sorting ; ATP-binding cassette transporter ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mutations at several loci affect the sensitivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to staurosporine. We report here the characterization of novel staurosporine- and temperature-sensitive mutants (stt). Cloning and integration mapping showed that the genes STT2/STT6, STT5, STT7, STT8 and STT9 are allelic to VPS18, ERG10, GPI1, VPS34 and VPS11, respectively. The products of ERG10 and GPI1, respectively, catalyze mevalonate and glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor synthesis, while VPS18 and VPS11 genes belong to the class C VPS (Vacuolar Protein Sorting) genes, and the VPS34 gene is classified as a class D VPS. Therefore, staurosporine sensitivity is affected by ergosterol and glycolipid biosynthesis and by vacuolar functions. We found that other vps mutants belonging to classes C and D exhibit staurosporine sensitivity, and that they show calcium sensitivity and fail to grow on glycerol as the sole carbon source; both of the last two characteristics are shared by vacuolar H+-ATPase mutants (vma). As vma mutants were also found to show staurosporine-sensitive growth, staurosporine sensitivity is likely to be affected by acidification of the vacuole. Moreover, wild type yeast cells are more sensitive to staurosporine in alkaline media than in acidic media, suggesting that staurosporine is exported from the cytosol by H+/drug antiporters. Pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) genes also provide some resistance to staurosporine, because Δpdr5, Δsnq2 and Δyor1 strains are more sensitive to staurosporine than the wild-type strain. This suggests that staurosporine is also exported by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters on the plasma membrane. vma mutants and vps mutants of classes C and D vps are sensitive to hygromycin B and vanadate, while ABC transporter-depleted mutants do not show such sensitivity, indicating that two systems differ in their ability to protect the cell against different types of drug.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsGAL regulon ; Transcription ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Galactose suppression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A plasmid clone that suppresses galactose toxicity in a gal7 yeast strain has been isolated from a multicopy genomic DNA library. Molecular analysis revealed that the region responsible for the suppression of galactose toxicity corresponds to the ORF YPR030w, which was named MRG19. A CEN-based plasmid carrying the above ORF was unable to suppress the toxicity. Galactokinase activity was substantially reduced in cell extracts obtained from transformants bearing multiple copies of MRG19. Multiple copies of MRG19 were also able to suppress galactokinase expression driven by the CYC1 promoter but not the TEF1 promoter. Multiple copies of MRG19 could not suppress GAL1-driven galactokinase expression in a gal80 strain. However, MRG19-mediated suppression of CYC1-driven galactokinase expression was independent of GAL80 function. These results imply that multiple copies of MRG19 suppress galactokinase expression probably at the level of transcription. In agreement with this idea, multiple copies of MRG19 also suppress β-galactosidase expression driven by the GAL1 promoter in a GAL80-dependent manner. Disruption of MRG19 leads to an increase in the cell density at stationary phase in synthetic complete medium. MRG19 encodes a previously uncharacterised 124-kDa protein that shows no sequence homology to any known proteins.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsYarrowia lipolytica ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Ambient pH signalling ; Signal transduction ; Transmembrane protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In Yarrowia lipolytica, the transcription factor Rim101p mediates both pH regulation and control of mating and sporulation. Like its homologues PacC of Aspergillus nidulans and Rim101p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, YlRim101p is activated by proteolytic C-terminal processing, which occurs in response to a signal transduced by a pathway involving several PAL gene products. We report here the cloning and sequencing of two of these genes, PAL2 and PAL3. PAL2 encodes a putative 632-residue protein with six possible transmembrane segments, which differs from the transmembrane proteins Rim9p of S. cerevisiae and PalI of A. nidulans, but is homologous to A. nidulans PalH and to the product of the ORF YNL294c, a predicted polypeptide of unknown function in S. cerevisiae. PAL3 encodes an 881-residue polypeptide that is homologous to PalF of A. nidulans and to a newly identified putative polypeptide of S. cerevisiae. Both PAL2 and PAL3 are expressed constitutively, regardless of ambient pH. Mutations in these genes affect growth at alkaline pH and sporulation in both Y. lipolytica and in S. cerevisiae. They affect invasiveness of haploid strains in S. cerevisiae only, and conjugation in Y. lipolytica only. These results highlight the conservation of the Pal pathway initially described in A. nidulans.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Flp recombinase ; Site-specific recombination ; Homologous recombination ; RAD52 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Site-specific recombination within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2-micron DNA plasmid is catalyzed by the Flp recombinase at specific Flp Recognition Target (FRT) sites, which lie near the center of two precise 599-bp Inverted Repeats (IRs). However, the role of IR DNA sequences other than the FRT itself for the function of the Flp reaction in vivo is not known. In the present work we report that recombination efficiency differs depending on whether the FRT or the entire IR serves as the substrate for Flp. We also provide evidence for the involvement of the IR in RAD52-dependent homologous recombination. In contrast, the catalysis of site-specific recombination between two FRTs does not require the function of RAD52. The efficiency of Flp site-specific recombination between two IRs cloned in the same orientation is about one hundred times higher than that obtained when only the two FRTs are present. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single IR can activate RAD52-dependent homologous recombination between two flanking DNA regions, providing new insights into the role of the IR as a substrate for recombination and a new experimental tool with which to study the molecular mechanism of homologous recombination.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1573-8388
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; yeast invertase ; active enzyme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The substrate specificity of purified yeast invertase isolated fromSaccharomyces cerevisiae in transglycosylation reactions was determined. The enzyme is specific for primary alcohols. The yeast activity is a function of the alkyl length and substrate hydrophobicity (n-butyl, isobutyl, isoamyl alcohols).
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: gene expression ; heterologous expression ; H+/hexose symporter ; Lycopersicon esculentum ; quantitative PCR ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A full-length (LeHT2) and two partial (LeHT1 and LeHT3) cDNA clones, encoding hexose transporters, were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit and flower cDNA libraries. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of a gene family of hexose transporters in tomato consisting of at least three members. The full-length cDNA (LeHT2) encodes a protein of 523 amino acids, with a calculated molecular mass of 57.6 kDa. The predicted protein has 12 putative membrane-spanning domains and belongs to the Major Facilitator Superfamily of membrane carriers. The three clones encode polypeptides that are homologous to other plant monosaccharide transporters and contain conserved amino acid motifs characteristic of this superfamily. Expression of the three genes in different organs of tomato was investigated by quantitative PCR. LeHT1 and LeHT3 are expressed predominantly in sink tissues, with both genes showing highest expression in young fruit and root tips. LeHT2 is expressed at relatively high levels in source leaves and certain sink tissues such as flowers. LeHT2 was functionally expressed in a hexose transport-deficient mutant (RE700A) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LeHT2-dependent transport of glucose in RE700A exhibited properties consistent with the operation of an energy-coupled transporter and probably a H+/hexose symporter. The K m of the symporter for glucose is 45 μM.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: Homology modeling ; rotational energy barrier ; simulated annealing ; pyridoxal 5′-diphosphoadenosine ; pyridoxal 5′-triphosphoadenosine ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Molecular mechanics calculations have been employed to obtain models of the complexes between Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) kinase and the ATP analogs pyridoxal 5′-diphosphoadenosine (PLP-AMP) and pyridoxal 5′-triphosphoadenosine (PLP-ADP), using the crystalline coordinates of the ATP-pyruvate-Mn2+-Mg2+ complex of Escherichia coli PEP carboxykinase [Tari et al. (1997), Nature Struct. Biol. 4, 990–994]. In these models, the preferred conformation of the pyridoxyl moiety of PLP-ADP and PLP-AMP was established through rotational barrier and simulated annealing procedures. Distances from the carbonyl-C of each analog to ε-N of active-site lysyl residues were calculated for the most stable enzyme-analog complex conformation, and it was found that the closest ε-N is that from Lys290, thus predicting Schiff base formation between the corresponding carbonyl and amino groups. This prediction was experimentally verified through chemical modification of S. cerevisiae PEP carboxykinase with PLP-ADP and PLP-AMP. The results here described demonstrate the use of molecular modeling procedures when planning chemical modification of enzyme-active sites.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1572-8773
    Keywords: major facilitator superfamily ; iron transport ; siderophores ; enterobactin ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract While in fungi iron transport via hydroxamate siderophores has been amply proven, iron transport via enterobactin is largely unknown. Enterobactin is a catecholate-type siderophore produced by several enterobacterial genera grown in severe iron deprivation. By using the KanMX disruption module in vector pUG6 in a fet3Δ background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae we were able to disrupt the gene YOL158c Sce of the major facilitator super family (MFS) which has been previously described as a gene encoding a membrane transporter of unknown function. Contrary to the parental strain, the disruptant was unable to utilize ferric enterobactin in growth promotion tests and in transport assays using 55Fe-enterobactin. All other siderophore transport properties remained unaffected. The results are evidence that in S. cerevisiae the YOL158c Sce gene of the major facilitator super family, now designated ENB1, encodes a transporter protein (Enb1p), which specifically recognizes and transports enterobactin.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
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    ISSN: 1573-6881
    Keywords: ATP synthase ; F1-ATPase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; petite mutants ; epistasis ; mitochondrion ; pet mutants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a molecular motor that drives the phosphorylation ofADP to ATP. The yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase is composed of at least 19 differentpeptides, which comprise the F1 catalytic domain, the F0 proton pore, and two stalks, oneof which is thought to act as a stator to link and hold F1 to F0, and the other as a rotor.Genetic studies using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have suggested the hypothesis thatthe yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase can be assembled in the absence of 1, and even 2, ofthe polypeptides that are thought to comprise the rotor. However, the enzyme complexassembled in the absence of the rotor is thought to be uncoupled, allowing protons to freelyflow through F0 into the mitochondrial matrix. Left uncontrolled, this is a lethal process andthe cell must eliminate this leak if it is to survive. In yeast, the cell is thought to lose ordelete its mitochondrial DNA (the petite mutation) thereby eliminating the genes encodingessential components of F0. Recent biochemical studies in yeast, and prior studies in E. coli,have provided support for the assembly of a partial ATP synthase in which the ATP synthaseis no longer coupled to proton translocation.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1572-8943
    Keywords: drying ; intracellular water ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; TG
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular water content of a microorganism is an important parameter which is a determinant factor of its physiological properties. It is usually measured by complex and time consuming procedures. Thermogravimetry using infrared balance has been used for this purpose, through the identification of different drying steps occurring during the analysis. This work employs the same method with much smaller samples, using conventional thermogravimetric equipment in a simpler and faster way than other conventional procedures. Commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) washed samples are analyzed in isothermal procedures which are run in about 30 min. The drying rate curve, when plotted as a function of the residual mass of the cells, allows the identification of the step where the intracellular water is lost and the determination of its content. The obtained values, on extracellular water free basis, are in the range of 65 to 69% and agree with those measured by other techniques.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: electron microscopy ; killer effect ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A mesophilic wine yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CSIR Y217 K − R − was subjected to the K2 killer effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae T206 K + R + in a liquid grape medium. The lethal effect of the K2 mycoviral toxin was confirmed by methylene blue staining. Scanning electron microscopy of cells from challenge experiments revealed rippled cell surfaces, accompanied by cracks and pores, while those unaffected by the toxin, as in the control experiments, showed a smooth surface. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the toxin damaged the cell wall structure and perturbed cytoplasmic membranes to a limited extent.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Keywords: cAMP ; pseudohyphae ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In Saccharomyces cerevisiae pseudohyphae formation may be triggered by nitrogen deprivation and is stimulated by cAMP. It was observed that even in a medium with an adequate nitrogen supply, cAMP can induce pseudohyphal growth when S. cerevisiae uses ethanol as carbon source. This led us to investigate the effects of the carbon source and of a variety of stresses on yeast morphology. Pseudohyphae formation and invasive growth were observed in a rich medium (YP) with poor carbon sources such as lactate or ethanol. External cAMP was required for the morphogenetic transition in one genetic background, but was dispensable in strain Σ1278b which has been shown to have an overactive Ras2/cAMP pathway. Pseudohyphal growth and invasiveness also took place in YPD plates when the yeast was subjected to different stresses: a mild heat-stress (37 °C), an osmotic stress (1 m NACl), or addition of compounds which affect the lipid bilayer organization of the cell membrane (aliphatic alcohols at 2%) or alter the glucan structure of the cell wall (Congo red). We conclude that pseudohyphal growth is a physiological response not only to starvation but also to a stressful environment; it appears to require the coordinate action of a MAP kinase cascade and a cAMP-dependent pathway.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key wordsFLO8 ; Transcriptional regulation ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract It is thought that the FLO8 gene encodes a transcriptional activator of the dominant flocculation gene FLO1 in Saccharomycescerevisiae. To determine other genes which are regulated by FLO8, a detailed comparison of the transcripts from the FLO8 and Δflo8 strains was carried out. In addition to the FLO1 gene, it was found that transcription of the FLO11 and STA1 genes is positively regulated by FLO8. In flo8 strains, not only transcripts of the FLO11, STA1, and FLO1 genes but also invasive growth, extracellular glucoamylase production, and flocculation were undetected. From these results, it is suggested that FLO8 regulates these characteristics via the transcriptional regulation of the FLO11, STA1, and FLO1 genes.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Cysteine uptake ; Amino-acid permeases ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the sulphur-containing amino acid L-cysteine was found to be non-saturable under various conditions, and uptake kinetics suggested the existence of two or more transport systems in addition to the general amino-acid permease, Gap1p. Overexpression studies identified BAP2, BAP3, AGP1 and GNP1 as genes encoding transporters of cysteine. Uptake studies with disruption mutants confirmed this, and identified two additional genes for transporters of cysteine, TAT1 and TAT2, both very homologous to BAP2, BAP3, AGP1 and GNP1. While Gap1p and Agp1p appear to be the main cysteine transporters on the non-repressing nitrogen source proline, Bap2p, Bap3p, Tat1p, Tat2p, Agp1p and Gnp1p are all important for cysteine uptake on ammonium-based medium. Furthermore, whereas Bap2p, Bap3p, Tat1p and Tat2p seem most important under amino acid-rich conditions, Agp1p contributes significantly when only ammonium is present, and Gnp1p only contributes under the latter condition.
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  • 21
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    Current genetics 35 (1999), S. 77-81 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Adaptive mutations ; 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The frequency of reversion in a histidine-requiring mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases about ten-fold in stationary cells during histidine starvation. Histidine starvation enhances a similar frequency of reversion in a tryptophan-requiring mutant. Starvation, therefore, enhances mutation frequencies in a non-adaptive manner. The base analogue 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP) added prior to plating on medium with limited histidine strongly increases reversion of the histidine mutant. HAP-induced reversion increases further in stationary starving cells with the same kinetics as that which increases spontaneous reversion. Adding HAP to the stationary starving cells does not produce any effect.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Heteroduplex repair ; Strand discrimina-tion ; Strand interruptions ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Site-directed mutagenesis was used to construct yeast centromere plasmids in which a strand nick or gap could be placed 5′ or 3′, on either strand, to a reporter gene (SUP4-o) carrying defined base mismatches. The plasmids were then transformed into yeast cells and the direction and efficiency of mismatch repair were assayed by scoring colouring of the transformant colonies. Strands that were nicked were consistently corrected more often than intact strands, but the effect was very small. However, placement of a small gap at the same positions as the nicks resulted in a marked increase in selection for the gapped strand and an enhanced efficiency of mismatch repair. Both the preference for the gapped strand and correction of the mismatch were offset by deletion of the mismatch repair gene PMS1. Together, the results suggest that strand interruptions can direct intracellular mismatch correction of plasmid-borne base mispairs in yeast.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Psoralen sensitivity ; Cytochrome oxidase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Oxidative stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The yeast gene PSO7 was cloned from a genomic library by complementation of the pso7-1 mutant's sensitivity phenotype to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sequence analysis revealed that PSO7 is allelic to the 1.1-kb ORF of the yeast gene COX11 which is located on chromosome XVI and encodes a protein of 28-kDa localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Allelism of PSO7/COX11 was verified by non-complementation of 4NQO-sensitivity in diploids homo- and hetero-allelic for the pso7-1 and cox11::TRP1 mutant alleles. Sensitivity to 4NQO was the same in exponentially growing cells of the pso7-1 mutant and the cox11::TRP1 disruptant. Allelism of COX11 and PSO7 indicates that the pso7 mutant's sensitivity to photoactivated 3-carbethoxypsoralen and to 4NQO is not caused by defective DNA repair, but rather is due to an altered metabolism of the pro-mutagen 4NQO in the absence of cytochrome oxidase (Cox) in pso7-1/cox11::TRP1 mutants/disruptants. Lack of Cox might also lead to a higher reactivity of the active oxygen species produced by photoactivated 3-carbethoxypsoralen. The metabolic state of the cells is important for their sensitivity phenotype since the largest enhancement of sensitivity to 4NQO between wild-type (WT) and the pso7 mutant occurs in exponentially growing cells, while cells in stationary phase or growing cells in phosphate buffer have the same 4NQO resistance, irrespective of their WT/mutant status. Strains containing the pso7-1 or cox11::TRP1 mutant allele were also sensitive to the oxidative stress-generating agents H2O2 and paraquat. Mutant pso7-1, as well as disruptant cox11::TRP1, harboured mitochondria that in comparison to WT contained less than 5% and no detectable Cox activity, respectively.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Plasma membrane H+-ATPase ; PMA1 ; ATPase ; PMA2 ATPase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Copper stress ; Copper tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The major yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase is encoded by the essential PMA 1 gene. The PMA 2 gene encodes an H+-ATPase that is functionally interchangeable with the one encoded by PMA 1 , but it is expressed at a much lower level than the PMA 1 gene and it is not essential. Using genetically manipulated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that exclusively synthesize PMA1 ATPase or PMA2 ATPase under control of the PMA1 promoter, we found that yeast cultivation under mild copper stress leads to a similar activation of PMA2 and PMA1 isoforms. At high inhibitory copper concentrations (close to the maximum that allowed growth), ATPase activity was reduced from maximal levels; this decrease in activity was less important for PMA2 ATPase than for PMA1 ATPase. The higher tolerance to high copper stress of the artificial strain synthesizing PMA2 ATPase exclusively, as compared to that synthesizing solely PMA1 ATPase, correlated both with the lower sensitivity of PMA2 ATPase to the deleterious effects of copper in vivo and with its higher apparent affinity for MgATP, and suggests that plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity plays a role in yeast tolerance to copper.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsRAD54 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Recombination ; Mating-type ; DNA repair
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Homothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains switch their mating-type in a specific gene conversion event induced by a DNA double strand break made by the HO endonuclease. The RAD52 group genes control recombinational repair of DNA double strand breaks, and we examined their role in native homothallic mating-type switching. Surprisingly, we found that the Rad54 protein was important but not essential for mating-type switching under natural conditions. As an upper limit, we estimate that 29% of the rad54 spore clones can successfully switch their mating-type. The RAD55 and RAD57 gene products were even less important, but their presence increased the efficiency of the process. In contrast, the RAD51 and RAD52 genes are essential for homothallic mating-type switching. We propose that mating-type switching in RAD54 mutants occurs stochastically with a low probability, possibly reflecting different states of chromosomal structure.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Leucine transport ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Trifluoroleucine resistance ; LEP1 ; SAC3
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Leucine uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by three transport systems, the general amino acid transport system (GAP), encoded by GAP1, and two group-specific systems (S1 and S2), which also transport isoleucine and valine. A new mutant defective in both group-specific transport activities was isolated by employing a gap1 leu4 strain and selecting for trifluoroleucine-resistant mutants which also showed greatly reduced ability to utilize l-leucine as sole nitrogen source and very low levels of [14C]l-leucine uptake. A multicopy plasmid containing a DNA fragment which complemented the leucine transport defect was isolated by selecting for transformants that grew normally on minimal medium containing leucine as nitrogen source and subsequently assaying [14C]l-leucine uptake. Transformation of one such mutant, lep1, restored sensitivity to trifluoroleucine. The complementing gene, designated LEP1, was subcloned and sequenced. The LEP1 ORF encodes a large protein that lacks characteristics of a transporter or permease (i.e., lacks hydrophobic domains necessary for membrane association). Instead, Lep1p is a very basic protein (pI of 9.2) that contains a putative bipartite signal sequence for targeting to the nucleus, suggesting that it might be a DNA-binding protein. A database search revealed that LEP1 encodes a polypeptide that is identical to Sac3p except for an N-terminal truncation. The original identification of SAC3 was based on the isolation of a mutant allele, sac3-1, that suppresses the temperature-sensitive growth defect of an actin mutant containing the allele act1-1. Sac3p has been previously shown to be localized in the nucleus. When a lep1 mutant was crossed with a sac3 deletion mutant, no complementation was observed, indicating that the two mutations are functionally allelic.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Oxidative stress signalling ; Mitochondria ; Pos9 (Skn7) ; Ccp1 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In Saccharomyces cerevisiae two transcription factors, Pos9 (Skn7) and Yap1, are involved in the response to oxidative stress. Fusion of the Pos9 response-regulator domain to the Gal4 DNA-binding domain results in a transcription factor which renders the expression of a GAL1-lacZ reporter gene dependent on oxidative stress. To identify genes which are involved in the oxygen-dependent activation of the Gal4-Pos9 hybrid protein we screened for mutants that failed to induce the heterologous test system upon oxidative stress (fap mutants for factors activating Pos9). We isolated several respiration-deficient and some respiration-competent mutants by this means. We selected for further characterization only those mutants which also displayed an oxidative-stress-sensitive phenotype. One of the respiration-deficient mutants (complementation group fap6) could be complemented by the ISM1 gene, which encodes mitochondrial isoleucyl tRNA synthetase, suggesting that respiration competence was important for signalling of oxidative stress. In accordance with this notion a rho0 strain and a wild-type strain in which respiration had been blocked (by treatment with antimycin A or with cyanide) also failed to activate Gal4-Pos9 upon imposition of oxidative stress. Another mutant, fap24, which was respiration-competent, could be complemented by CCP1, which encodes the mitochondrial cytochrome c peroxidase. Mitochondrial cytochrome c peroxidase degrades reactive oxygen species within the mitochondria. This suggested a possible sensor function for the enzyme in the oxidative stress response. To test this we used the previously described point mutant ccp1 W191F , which is characterized by a 104-fold decrease in electron flux between cytochrome c and cytochrome c peroxidase. The Ccp1W191F mutant was still capable of activating the Pos9 transcriptional activation domain, suggesting that the signalling function of Ccp1 is independent of electron flux rates.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Gene expression ; Glycolysis ; GCR ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To determine whether similar regulatory mechanisms control the expression of glycolytic genes in yeast and human cells, we screened a human brain cDNA library for clones which complement the growth defect of the gcr2 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and isolated hSGT1 (human suppressor of GCR two). Further work confirmed that the rescue of growth was associated with recovery of glycolytic enzyme activities, and that hSGT1 did not complement the growth defect of a gcr1 mutant. A hybrid protein comprising hSgt1p and the DNA-binding domain of Gal4p (GBD) activated a GAL1-lacZ reporter gene fusion, suggesting that the cloned gene may be a transcriptional activator. Two-hybrid experiments in yeast also indicate that hSgt1p interacts with Gcr1p. Northern analysis showed that hSGT1 is highly expressed in muscle and heart. Although the predicted amino acid sequence of hSgt1p does not display significant similarity to Gcr2p, we speculate that their functions may be analogous.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsKluyveromyces lactis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; GAL1 ; GAL80 ; Protein interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Gal1p carries out two functions in the galactose pathway of yeast. It activates Gal4p by interacting with Gal80p – a function that can also served by Gal3p – and it catalyzes the formation of galactose-1-phosphate. Recently, we and others have presented biochemical evidence for complex formation between Gal1p and Gal80p. Here, we extend these data and present genetic evidence for an interaction between Gal1p and Gal80p in vivo, using a two-hybrid assay. Interaction between Gal1p and Gal80p depends on the presence of galactose, but not on the catalytic activity of Gal1p. A new class of Kluyveromyces lactis mutants was isolated, designated Klgal1-m, which have lost the derepressing activity but retain galactokinase activity, indicating that the two Gal1p activities are functionally independent. The KlGal1-m proteins are defective in their ability to interact with Gal80p in a two-hybrid assay. The locations of gal1-m mutations identify putative interaction sites in Gal1p and Gal80p. A dominant mutation, KlGAL1-d, leads to a high level of constitutive expression of genes of the galactose pathway. The behavior of chimeric proteins consisting of Gal3p and KlGal1p sequences indicates that both the N-terminal and C-terminal halves of KlGal1p are involved in specific interaction with KlGal80p.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Proteasome ; Synthetic lethality ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; AAA-ATPase ; 19S Regulatory particle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The 19S regulatory particle of the yeast 26S proteasome consists of six related ATPases (Rpt proteins) and at least 11 non-ATPase proteins (Rpn proteins). RPN12 (formerly NIN1) encodes an Rpn component of the 19S regulatory particle and is essential for growth. To determine which subunit(s) of the 26S proteasome interact(s) with Rpn12, we attempted to screen for mutations that cause synthetic lethality in the presence of the rpn12-1 (formerly nin1-1) mutation. Among the candidates recovered was a new allele of RPT1 (formerly CIM5). This mutant allele was designated rpt1-2; on its own this mutation caused no phenotypic change, whereas the rpn12-1 rpt1-2 double mutant was lethal, suggesting a strong interaction between Rpn12 and Rpt1. The site of the rpt1-2 mutation was determined by DNA sequencing of the RPT1 locus retrieved from the mutant, and a single nucleotide alteration was found. This changes amino acid 446 of the RPT1 product from alanine to valine. The alanine residue is conserved in all Rpt proteins, except Rpt5, but no function has yet been assigned to the region that contains it. We propose that this region is necessary for Rpt1 to interact with Rpn12. The terminal phenotype of the rpn12-1 rpt1-2 double mutant was not cell cycle specific, suggesting that in the double mutant cells the function of the 26S proteasome is completely eliminated, thereby inducing multiple defects in cellular functions.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsCAT8 ; Transcriptional regulation ; IDP2 ; JEN1 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The yeast transcriptional activator Cat8p has been identified as a factor that is essential for the derepression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis (like FBP1, PCK1, ACR1, ICL1 and MLS1) when only non-fermentable carbon sources are provided. Cat8p-dependent expression is mediated by cis-acting elements in the respective promoters, which are named UAS/CSREs (upstream activating sequence/carbon source responsive element). To establish whether the function of Cat8p is restricted to the activation of gluconeogenesis or is also involved in the regulation of a greater variety of genes, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of two genes, IDP2 and JEN1, which exhibit a similar expression pattern to gluconeogenic genes, although IDP2 at least is not linked directly to the gluconeogenic pathway. We identified functional UAS/CSRE elements in the promoters of both genes. Expression studies revealed that JEN1 is regulated negatively by the repressors Mig1p and Mig2p, and that Cat8p is needed for full derepression of the gene under non-fermentative growth conditions. Furthermore, we showed that Mig2p is also involved in the repression of CAT8 itself. The results presented in this study support a model in which Cat8p-dependent gene activation is not restricted to gluconeogenesis, but targets a wide variety of genes which are strongly derepressed under non-fermentative growth conditions.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Cse1p ; Srp1p ; Importin ; Nuclear transport ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The yeast Srp1p protein functions as an import receptor for proteins bearing basic nuclear localization signals. Cse1p, the yeast homolog of mammalian CAS, recycles Srp1p back to the cytoplasm after import substrates have been released into the nucleoplasm. In this report we describe genetic interactions between SRP1 and CSE1. Results from genetic suppression and synthetic lethality studies demonstrate that these gene products interact to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. We also describe new mutant alleles of CSE1 and analyze a new temperature-sensitive allele of CSE1, cse1-2. This allele causes high levels of chromosome missegregation and cell cycle arrest during mitosis at the nonpermissive temperature.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Ras/cAMP pathway ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Snf1 ; Mig1 ; Mediator
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cyclin C and the cyclin C-dependent protein kinase are associated with the RNA polymerase II Mediator complex, which regulates initiation of transcription in response to signals from activators and repressors bound to upstream promoter elements. Disruption of the corresponding genes, SRB11 and SRB10, in budding yeast causes a reduction in expression of the GAL genes, which is particularly pronounced in a mig1 snf1 background. We have screened two yeast genomic libraries for genes that can suppress this phenotype when overexpressed. Seven suppressor genes were identified, GIS1–7. GIS1 encodes one of two related zinc-finger proteins, which also share two other highly conserved domains present in several eukaryotic transcription factors. GIS2 encodes a homologue of the mammalian CNBP and fission yeast Byr3 proteins. GIS3 and GIS4 predict proteins with no obvious similarities to any known proteins. GIS5–7 are identical to the previously described genes PDE2, SGE1 and TUB3, respectively. None of the suppressor genes seem to be involved in Mediator function. Instead, we find that the GIS1, GIS2 and GIS4 genes interact with the CDC25 gene, indicating a possible involvement of these genes in the RAS/cAMP signaling pathway.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana ; heterologous expression ; isoprenoids ; mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase ; sterols ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Sequence comparison with the mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MVD) amino acid sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified an EST clone corresponding to a cDNA that may encode Arabidopsis thaliana MVD (AtMVD1). This enzyme catalyses the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the building block of sterol and isoprenoid biosynthesis, and uses mevalonate diphosphate as a substrate. Sequencing of the full-length cDNA was performed. The predicted amino acid sequence presents about 55% identity with the yeast, human and rat MVDs. The sequence of the genomic region of A. thaliana MVD was also obtained and Southern blot analysis on genomic DNA showed that A. thaliana could have at least one homologous MVD gene. In order to allow heterologous expression in S. cerevisiae, the MVD open reading frame (ORF) was then cloned under the control of the yeast PMA1 strong promoter. When expressed in yeast, the A. thaliana cDNA complemented both the thermosensitive MN19-34 strain deficient in MVD, and the lethal phenotype of an ERG19 deleted strain. However, the wild-type sterol content was not fully restored suggesting that the A. thaliana MVD activity may not be optimal in yeast. A two-hybrid assay was also performed to evaluate homodimer formation of the A. thaliana MVD and heterodimer formation between the plant and yeast heterologous enzymes.
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  • 35
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 190 (1999), S. 47-54 
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: calmodulin ; yeast calmodulin ; Ca2+ binding ; Ca2+ binding protein ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; interdomain interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Calmodulin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has different Ca2+ binding properties from other calmodulins. We previously reported that the maximum number of Ca2+ binding was 3 mol/mol and the fourth binding site was defective, which was different from 4 mol/mol for others. Their macroscopic dissociation constants suggested the cooperative three Ca2+ bindings rather than a pair of cooperative two Ca2+ bindings of ordinary calmodulin. Here we present evidence for yeast calmodulin showing the intramolecular close interaction between the N-terminal half domain and the C-terminal half domain, while the two domains of ordinary calmodulin are independent of each other. We will discuss the relationship of the shape and the shape change caused by the Ca2+ binding to the enzyme activation in yeast. The functional feature of calmodulin in yeast will also be considered, which might be different from the one of vertebrate calmodulin.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; atomic force microscope ; bioscope ; organic synthesis ; molecular biology ; oxidative stress ; pore enlargement ; cell wall ; baker's yeast ; biotechnology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We imaged pores on the surface of the cell wall of three different industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using atomic force microscopy. The pores could be enlarged using 10 mM diamide, an SH residue oxidant that attacks surface proteins. We found that two strains showed signs of oxidative damage via changes in density and diameter of the surface pores. We found that the German strain was resistant to diamide induced oxidative damage, even when the concentration of the oxidant was increased to 50 mM. The normal pore size found on the cell walls of American strains had diameters of about 200nm. Under conditions of oxidative stress the diameters changed to 400nm. This method may prove to be a useful rapid screening process (45-60 min) to determine which strains are oxidative resistant, as well as being able to screen for groups of yeast that are sensitive to oxidative stress. This rapid screening tool may have direct applications in molecular biology (transference of the genes to inside of living cells) and biotechnology (biotransformations reactions to produce chiral synthons in organic chemistry.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase ; oxaloacetate decarboxylase ; pyruvate kinase-like activity ; Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Two members of the ATP-dependent class of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinases (PEPCKs) (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens) have been comparatively studied with regard to their oxaloacetate (OAA) decarboxylase and pyruvate kinase-like activities. The pyruvate kinase-like activities were dependent on the presence of Mn2+; at the same concentrations Mg2+ was not effective. These activities were synergistically activated by a combination of both metal ions. V max for these activities in A. succiniciproducens and S. cerevisiae PEPCKs was 0.13% and 1.2% that of the principal reaction, respectively. The OAA decarboxylase activity was nucleotide independent and, with decreasing order of effectiveness, these activities were supported by Mn2+ and Mg2+. AMP is an activator of these reactions. V max for the OAA decarboxylase activities in A. succiniciproducens and S. cerevisiae PEPCKs was 4% and 0.2% that of the PEP-forming reaction, respectively.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: LEA protein ; osmotic stress ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; drought ; salt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The biased amino acid composition and aperiodic (random coil) configuration of Group 1 late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins imply that these proteins are capable of binding large amounts of water. While Group 1 LEAs have been predicted to contribute to osmotic stress protection in both embryonic and vegetative tissues, biochemical support has been lacking. We have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to test the putative osmoprotective function of a wheat Group 1 LEA protein, Em. We demonstrate that expression of Em protein in yeast cells is not deleterious to growth in media of normal osmolarity and attenuates the growth inhibition normally observed in media of high osmolarity. Enhanced growth is observed in the presence of a variety of osmotically active compounds indicating that Em protein is capable of mitigating the detrimental effect of low water potential in a relatively non-specific manner. These results are the first biochemical demonstration of an osmoprotective function for a Group 1 LEA and suggest that the yeast expression system will be useful in dissecting the mechanism of protection through structure-function studies.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: NF1 mutations ; IRA1 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; RAS2 ; GAP activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The 2818 amino acids of neurofibromin, the product of the human NF1 gene, include a 230 amino acid Ras-GAP related domain (GRD). Functions which may be associated with the rest of the protein remain unknown. However, many NF1 mutations in neurofibromatosis 1 patients are found downstream of the GRD, suggesting that the C-terminal region of the protein is also functionally important. Since the C-terminal region of neurofibromin encompassing these mutations is homologous with the corresponding regions in the two Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras-GAPs, Ira1p and Ira2p, we chose yeast as a model system for functional exploration of this region (Ira-C region). Three missense mutations that affect the Ira-C region of NF1 were used as a model for the mutagenesis of IRA1. The yeast phenotypes of heat shock sensitivity, iodine staining, sporulation efficiency, pseudohyphae formation, and GAP activity were scored. Even though none of the mutations directly affected the Ira1p-GRD, mutations at two of the three sites resulted in a decrease in the GAP activity present in ira1 cells. The third mutation appeared to disassociate the phenotypes of sporulation ability and GAP activity. This and other evidence suggest an effector function for Ira1p.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Ethanol ; multi-drug resistance ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; trichothecin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Trichothecin-resistant mutants were isolated from saké yeast. These mutants were subjected to saké brewing, and showed a higher ethanol productivity than did the parents. They showed multidrug resistance, and resistance to organic compounds. We considered that the higher ethanol productivity of the mutants was related to their resistance to organic compounds and to their ethanol tolerance.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: α-Amylase ; fusion protein ; glucoamylase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A fusion gene containing the Bacillus subtilis α-amylase gene and Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resulting bifunctional fusion protein having both α-amylase and glucoamylase activities secreted into the culture medium was purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity chromatography and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 150 kDa and showed an optimum pH and temperature of 6.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The main hydrolysis products from soluble starch were glucose and maltose.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1572-8773
    Keywords: accumulation ; gold ; proton efflux ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; toxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract This paper examines the effects of ionic gold on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as determined by long-term (growth in gold-containing media) and short-term interactions (H+ efflux activity). An increasing gold concentration inhibited growth and at 〈0.2 mM Au, growth was not observed. Transmission electron microscopy revealed no differences in ultrastructure but fine electron dense particles were observed in unstained preparations from gold-containing medium. After glucose addition (to 10mM) to starved suspensions of S. cerevisiae, glucose-dependent reduction of external pH occurred as the cells extruded protons. In the presence of increasing gold concentrations, the lag time before proton extrusion did not change but the rate and duration decreased significantly with a marked influence on proton efflux rate being observed at ≤ 10 μM. Extension of preincubation time of yeast cells in gold-containing medium resulted in a decreasing proton efflux rate and colloidal phase formation in the cell suspensions, the time between gold addition and the beginning of colloidal phase formation depending on the gold concentration used. Both Ca and Mg enhanced the inhibitory effect of gold on the yeast cells with Ca showing a stronger inhibitory effect than Mg.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1572-8773
    Keywords: iron ; siderophores ; transport ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Transport proteins of microorganisms may either belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily or to the major facilitator (MFS)-superfamily. MFS transporters are single-polypeptide membrane transporters that transport small molecules via uniport, symport or antiport mechanisms in response to a chemiosmotic gradient. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a non-siderophore producer, various bacterial and fungal siderophores can be utilized as an iron source. From yeast genome sequencing data six genes of the unknown major facilitator (UMF) family were known of which YEL065w Sce was recently identified as a transporter for the bacterial siderophore ferrioxamine B (Sit1p). The present investigation shows that another UMF gene, YHL047c Sce, encodes a transporter for the fungal siderophore triacetylfusarinine C. The gene YHL047c Sce (designated TAF1) was disrupted using the kanMX disruption module in a fet3 background (strain DEY 1394 Δfet3), possessing a defect in the high affinity ferrous iron transport. Growth promotion assays and transport experiments with 55Fe-labelled triacetylfusarinine C showed a complete loss of iron utilization and uptake in the disrupted strain, indicating that TAF1 is the gene for the fungal triacetylfusarinine transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and possibly in other siderophore producing fungi.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1573-6881
    Keywords: F1-ATPase ; β-barrel domain ; mitochondria ; assembly ; yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The crystal structure of mitochondrial F1-ATPase indicatesthat the α and β subunits fold into a structure defined by threedomains: the top β-barrel domain, the middle nucleotide-binding domain,and the C-terminal α-helix bundle domain (Abraham et al.1994); Bianchet et al., 1998). The β-barrel domains of theα and β subunits form a crown structure at the top ofF1, which was suggested to stabilize it (Abraham et al.1994). In this study. the role of the β-barrel domain in the α andβ subunits of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae F1,with regard to its folding and assembly, was investigated. The β-barreldomains of yeast F1 α and β subunits were expressedindividually and together in Escherichia coli. When expressedseperately, the β-barrel domain of the β subunit formed a largeaggregate structure, while the domain of the α subunit waspredominately a monomer or dimer. However, coexpression of the β-barreldomain of α subunit domain. Furthermore, the two domains copurified incomplexes with the major portion of the complex found in a small molecularweight form. These results indicate that the β-barrel domain of theα and β subunits interact specifically with each other and thatthese interactions prevent the aggregation of the β-barrel domain of theβ subunit. These results mimic in vivo results and suggest thatthe interactions of the β-barrel domains may be critical during thefolding and assembly of F1.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key wordsSaccharomyces bayanus ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Translocation ; Speciation ; Duplicated gene ; RPL2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract By a genomic comparison of two sibling yeasts, Saccharomyces bayanus and S. cerevisiae, we previously demonstrated that chromosomes II and IV of S. cerevisiae were rearranged into chromosomes 12 and 14 of S. bayanus or vice versa. In the present study we have delimited the translocation break sites in chromosomes II and IV by Southern hybridization using DNA fragments of S. cerevisiae cosmid clones as probes. The results suggest that the reciprocal translocation of chromosomes II and IV had occurred at duplicated RPL2 loci. Furthermore, the translocation sites in S. bayanus were confirmed by the cloning and sequence analysis of the regions flanking RPL2 loci. Several genes in the regions flanking the RPL2 loci were present in the order expected for a translocation at these loci between the two species. These results indicated that the reciprocal translocation between chromosomes II and IV was generated by homologous recombination at duplicated RPL2 loci on the two chromosomes. Therefore, we propose that duplicated genes or duplicated regions play an important role in altering genomic organization during the speciation of S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Mitotic recombination ; DNA double-strand breaks ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; 8-Methoxypsoralen plus UVA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mitotic recombination within the ARG4 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was analysed after treatment of cells with the recombinogenic agent 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus UVA. The appearance of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the ARG4 region during post-treatment incubation was also tested. The results obtained after 8-MOP plus UVA treatment indicate that in mitotic cells: (1) recombination at the ARG4 locus is increased 30 – 500 fold per survivor depending on the strains and the doses employed, (2) the increase of recombination results essentially from gene conversion events which involve the RV site located in the 5′ region of the ARG4 gene twice as often as the Bgl site at the 3′ end, (3) depending on 8-MOP/UVA dose, ectopic gene conversion is associated with reciprocal translocation, (4) DSBs occur preferentially in the ARG 5′ region during post-treatment incubation, as well as in other intergenic regions containing both promoters or/and terminators of transcription, and (5) changes in sequence content in the 5′ region of ARG4, which influences positions and frequencies of DSBs formed during repair, are correlated with a modification of the local chromatin structure.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key wordsPSO5/RAD16 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Nucleotide excision repair ; Oxidative stress ; Ribonucleotide reductase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The expression of β-galactosidase from DNA damage-inducible RNR2-lacZ and RNR3-lacZ fusion constructs was compared in wild-type (WT) and pso5/rad16 mutant strains after treatment with five mutagens/oxidative stressors. While exposure to the mutagens UVC, 4NQO and H2O2 induced expression of the RNR2-lacZ and RNR3-lacZ fusion constructs in two WT strains, treatment with the two oxidative stressors tBOOH and paraquat did not. In the pso5-1 mutant induction of RNR2-lacZ was largely reduced after UVC and H2O2 while there was no significant induction of β-galactosidase expression after 4NQO treatment for this construct. For RNR3-lacZ there was strongly reduced expression of pso5-1 after UVC and 4NQO while H2O2 failed to induce expression of β-galactosidase. In the WT strains the ranking of the inducing power of the mutagens at 90% survival (as measured in the pso5-1 mutant) was 4NQO〉UVC〉H2O2. Though the WT strains were clearly more resistant that the pso5-1 mutant to the two oxidative stressors paraquat and tBOOH, these substances failed to significantly enhance expression of the RNR2-lacZ and RNR3-lacZ fusion constructs in both the WT and the pso5-1 mutant. Our data suggest that Pso5p/Rad16p has a function in the signal transducing pathway controlling DNA damage-inducible components of nucleotide excision repair.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Cytochrome c oxidase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Complex assembly
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We report on the molecular and biochemical analysis of a set of 13 respiratory deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which are specifically altered in COX1, the gene encoding the subunit Cox1p of cytochrome c oxidase. DNA sequence analysis shows that three are due to frameshift mutations, two to nonsense mutations, and eight to missense mutations. All, except the missense mutant S157L, have impaired electron transfer and respiratory activity. Analysis of the mitochondrial translation products shows that when Cox1p is absent, Cox2p and Cox3p are still synthesized. In the missense mutants, the steady state levels in the mitochondrial membranes of the three mitochondrially encoded subunits Cox1p, Cox2p and Cox3p and the nuclear-encoded subunit Cox4p are reduced. In the frameshift and nonsense mutants, Cox1p is absent and Cox2p, Cox3p and Cox4p are considerably decreased or undetectable. A comparison of the steady state levels of Cox1p through Cox4p in the COX1, COX2, COX3 and COX4 mutants shows the interdependance of the accumulation of these four subunits in the mitochondrial membranes.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1423-0127
    Keywords: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ; Human immunodeficiency virus ; Nef protein ; Myristylation ; Membrane permeabilisation ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein is essential for AIDS pathogenesis, but its function remains highly controversial. During stresses such as growth in the presence of copper or at elevated temperature, myristylated Nef is released from yeast cells and, after extended culture in stationary phase, it accumulates in the supernatant as a dense membranous material that can be centrifuged into a discrete layer above the cell pellet. This material is unique to Nef-producing cells and represents a convenient source of Nef that may have application in further biological studies. Within the yeast cell, electron microscopic examination shows that Nef localises in novel, membrane-bound bodies. These data support the evidence for a role of Nef in membrane perturbation and suggest that there may be a similar localisation for myristylated Nef in HIV-1 infected cells.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Fructose-1 ; 6-bisphosphatase ; Catabolite repression ; Gluconeogenesis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have investigated the effect of different carbon sources and of different mutations on the capacity of two elements, UAS1 and UAS2, from the promoter of the FBP1 gene to form specific DNA-protein complexes and to activate expression of a reporter gene. The complexes are observed with nuclear extracts from yeast derepressed on glycerol or ethanol. When hxk2 mutants are grown on glucose the nuclear extracts are able to complex UAS1 but not UAS2, while for wild-type cells grown on galactose only the complex with UAS2 is formed. In contrast, in vivo the operation of both UASs is high in ethanol, moderate to low in glycerol, and negligible in galactose; no expression is observed in glucose even in a hxk2 background. There is no effect of a MIG1 deletion, either in the formation of DNA-protein complexes or on the expression of reporter genes.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Double-strand breaks ; Heteroduplex DNA ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Spontaneous and double-strand break (DSB)-induced gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assayed using non-tandem chromosomal direct repeat crosses and plasmid × chromosome crosses. Each cross involved identical ura3 alleles marked with phenotypically silent restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) mutations at approximately 100-bp intervals. DSBs introduced in vivo at HO sites in one allele stimulated recombination to Ura+ by more than two orders of magnitude. Spontaneous gene-conversion products were isolated from a related strain lacking a functional HO nuclease gene. The multiple markers did not appear to influence the frequency of direct repeat deletions for spontaneous or DSB-induced events. DSB-induced conversion reflected efficient mismatch repair of heteroduplex DNA. Conversion frequencies of equidistant markers on opposites sides of the DSB were similar in the direct repeat cross. In contrast, markers 5′ of the DSB (promoter-proximal) converted more often than 3′ markers in plasmid × chromosome crosses, a possible consequence of crossing-over associated with long conversion tracts. With direct repeats, bidirectional tracts (extending 5′ and 3′ of the DSB) occurred twice as often as in a plasmid × chromosome cross in which DSBs were introduced into the plasmid-borne allele. A key difference between the direct-repeat and plasmid×chromosome crosses is that the ends of a broken plasmid are linked, whereas the ends of a broken chromosome are unlinked. We tested whether linkage of ends influenced tract directionality using a second plasmid × chromosome cross in which DSBs were introduced into the chromosomal allele and found few bidirectional tracts. Thus, chromosome environment, but not linkage of ends, influences tract directionality. The similar tract spectra of the two plasmid × chromosome crosses suggest that similar mechanisms are involved whether recombination is initiated by DSBs in plasmid or chromosomal alleles.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Zinc-finger protein ; Nuclear localization ; Immuno electron microscopy ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In previous studies the AZF1 gene has been identified as a second high-copy number suppressor for a special mutant of the gene for the mitochondrial core enzyme of RNA polymerase. The first high-copy number suppressor of this mutant turned out to be the specificity factor MTF1 for mitochondrial transcription. Up to now, the influence of AZF1 on mitochondrial transcription, its precise localization in the cell and the regulation of its expression has not been determined. The putative protein contains a long stretch of poly-asparagine amino acids and a typical zinc-finger domain for DNA binding. These characteristic structural features were used to create the abbreviation AZF1 (Asparagine-rich Zinc Finger protein). An initial computer analysis of the sequence gave no conclusive results for the presence of a mitochondrial import sequence or a typical nuclear-targeting sequence. A recent more-detailed analysis identified a possible nuclear localization signal in the middle of the protein. Disruption of the gene shows no effect on plates with glucose-rich medium or glycerol. In this report a specific polyclonal antibody against Azf1p was prepared and used in cell-fractionation experiments and in electron-microscopic studies. Both of these clearly demonstrate that the AZF1 protein is localized exclusively in the nucleus of the yeast cell. Northern analysis for the expression of the AZF1 messenger RNA under different growth conditions was therefore performed to obtain new insights into the regulation of this gene. Together with the respective protein-expression analysis these data demonstrate that Azf1p is preferentially synthezised in higher amounts under non-fermentable growth conditions. Over-expression of Azf1p in the yeast cell does not influence the expression level of the mitochondrial transcription factor Mtf1p, indicating that the influence of Azf1p on the suppression of the special mitochondrial RNA polymerase mutant is an indirect one. Subcellular investigation of the deletion mutant by electron microscopy identifies specific ultrastructural cell-division defects in comparison to the wild-type.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Plasma membrane H+-ATPase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Copper stress ; PMA1 ; PMA2 ; Gene expression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exibited a more active plasma membrane H+-ATPase during growth in media supplemented with CuSO4 concentrations equal to or below 1 mM than did cells cultivated in the absence of copper stress. Maximal specific activities were found with 0.5 mM CuSO4. ATPase activity declined when cells were grown with higher concentrations up to 1.5 mM (the maximal concentration that allowed growth), probably due to severe disorganization of plasma membrane. Cu2+-induced maximal activation was reflected in an increase of V max (approximately threefold) and in the slight decrease of the K m for MgATP (from 0.93 ± 0.13 to 0.65 ± 0.16 mM). The expression of the gene encoding the essential plasma membrane ATPase (PMA1) was reduced with a dose-dependent pattern in cells grown with inhibitory concentrations of copper, while the weakly expressed PMA2 gene promoter was moderately more efficient in cells cultivated under mild copper stress (1.5-fold maximal activation). ATPase was activated by copper despite the slightly lower content of ATPase protein in the plasma membrane of Cu2+-grown cells and the powerful inhibitory effect of Cu2+ in vitro.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsZea mays ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Gene regulation ; Histone deacetylase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In mammals, yeast and Drosophila, the histone deacetylase RPD3 proteins can alter the expression of genes involved in fundamental biological processes by affecting the degree of acetylation of histones and changing chromatin structure. Here we report the isolation of a cDNA sequence encoding an RPD3 homologue from maize, which is able to complement the phenotype of an rpd3 null mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of the corresponding gene(s) was assessed in different maize tissues. The number of homologous loci was estimated by Southern hybridisation to be in the range of two to three, and the chromosomal location of one of these loci was determined. Phylogenetic analysis and tests for relative divergence rates, using related RPD3 sequences from different species, were performed, and suggest that different polymorphic forms of RPD3-like proteins that evolve at distinct rates are present in the species considered.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Dual-specificity phosphatase ; DNA synthesis ; Telophase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Cdc14 protein encodes a dual-specificity protein phosphatase which functions in late mitosis, and considerable genetic evidence suggests a role in DNA replication. We find that cdc14 mutants arrested in late mitosis maintain persistent levels of mitotic kinase activity, suggesting that Cdc14 controls inactivation of this kinase. Overexpression of Sic1, a cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, is able to suppress telophase mutants such as dbf2, cdc5 and cdc15, but not cdc14. It does, however, force cdc14-arrested cells into the next cell cycle, in which an apparently normal S phase occurs as judged by FACS and pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis. Furthermore, in a promoter shut-off experiment, cells lacking Cdc14 appear to carry out a normal S phase. Thus Cdc14 functions mainly in late mitosis and it has no essential role in S phase.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Adaptive mutation ; DNA repair ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Starvation ; RAD6
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The accumulation of Ade+ revertants during adenine starvation and Trp+ revertants during tryptophan starvation in haploid polyauxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs in a time-dependent manner. Accumulation of revertants is enhanced in Rad6− strains, suggesting that starvation-induced reversion is influenced by some of the RAD6 gene functions. The higher frequency of adaptive reversions in Rad6− strains is somewhat influenced by, but does not totally depend on, the genetic background. Therefore, the RAD6 gene product is involved in maintaining a low level not only of spontaneous mutation but also of starvation-induced reversion. The starvation-induced Ade+ and Trp+ reversions both appear to be adaptive. The analysis of growth characteristics and the genotype of revertants shows a difference between early and late-appearing revertants. These results support the hypothesis that the adaptivity of starvation-induced reversion is based on the selective fixation of random mutations, and particularly on transcription-enhanced repair and/or mutagenesis processes.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Phosphate transport ; PHO89 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Based on the high sequence homology between the yeast ORF YBR296c (accession number P38361 in the SWISS-PROT database) and the PHO4 gene of Neurospora crassa, which codes for a Na+/Pi cotransporter with twelve putative transmembrane domains, the YBR296c ORF was considered to be a promising candidate gene for a plasma membrane-bound phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, this gene, here designated PHO89, was cloned and a set of deletion mutants was constructed. We then studied their Pi uptake activity under different conditions. We show here that a transport activity displayed by PHO89 strains under alkaline conditions and in the presence of Na+ is absent in pho89 null mutants. Moreover, when the pH was lowered to pH 4.5 or when Na+ was omitted, this activity decreased significantly, reaching values close to those exhibited by the Δpho89 mutant. Studies of the acid phosphatase activity of these strains, as well as promoter sequence analysis, suggest that expression of the PHO89 gene is under the control of the PHO regulatory system. Northern analysis shows that this gene is only transcribed under conditions of Pi limitation. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that the PHO89 gene codes for the Na+/Pi cotransporter previously characterized by kinetic studies, and represents the only Na+-coupled secondary anion transport system so far identified in S. cerevisiae. Pho89p has been shown to have an apparent Km of 0.5 μM and a pH optimum of 9.5, and is highly specific for Na+; activation of transport is maximal at a Na+ concentration of 25 mM.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Protein kinase C ; Signal transduction ; Transposon mutagenesis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We employed the constitutive BCK1-20 allele of the gene for the MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) in the yeast Pkc signal transduction pathway to develop a genetic screen for mutants in genes encoding upstream components. Transposon mutagenesis yielded a mutant that was completely dependent on the active allele in the absence of osmotic stabilization. The transposon had integrated at the yeast SLG1 (HCS77) locus. This gene encodes a putative membrane protein. Haploid slg1 deletion strains are sensitive to caffeine, as expected for mutants in the Pkc pathway, as well as a variety of other drugs. The response to elevated temperatures and the dependence on osmotic stabilization depends on the genetic background. Thus, in the strain used for mutagenesis, disruption of SLG1 causes the cells to become non-viable in the absence of osmotic stabilization at both 30° C and 37° C. In a different genetic background this phenotype was not observed. Sensitivity of the haploid deletion mutants to caffeine can be partially suppressed by overexpression of genes for other components of the Pkc pathway, such as PKC1, SLT2, ROM2, and STE20. In addition, a SLG1-lacZ reporter construct shows higher expression in the presence of caffeine or magnesium chloride in a wild-type diploid background.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Homologous recombination ; Double-strand breaks ; Recombination intermediate ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In most eukaryotic organisms, recombination events leading to exchanges between homologous chromosomes link the homologs in a manner that allows their proper attachment to the meiotic spindle. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae these exchanges are initiated in early prophase as double-strand breaks in the DNA. These breaks are processed through a series of intermediates to yield mature crossovers late in prophase. The following experiments were designed to monitor the appearance of the earliest recombinant DNA strands formed in this process. A polymerase chain reaction assay was devised that allows the detection of recombinant strands at a known initiation site for meiotic recombination. The time and rate of appearance of recombinant strands was found to coincide with commitment to recombination, demonstrating that DNA strands bearing sequences from both parental chromosomes are rapidly formed after the initiation of meiotic recombination.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Protein phosphorylation ; Allosteric regulation ; DNA replication ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is required for the initiation of DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is not a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), but is regulated in a similar fashion in that the Cdc7 kinase subunit is inactive in the absence of the regulatory subunit Dbf4. In contrast to what is known about CDKs, Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is shown to be an oligomer in the cell in this report. Genetic data that support this claim include interallelic complementation between several cdc7ts alleles and the cdc7T281A allele and also the results of experiments using the two-hybrid system with Cdc7 in both DNA-binding and transactivation domain plasmids. A molecular interaction between two different Cdc7 molecules was shown by using a HA-tagged Cdc7 protein that differs in size from the wild-type Cdc7 protein: an anti-HA antibody immunoprecipitates both proteins in appproximately equal stoichiometry. Analysis of the native molecular weight of Cdc7/Dbf4 protein kinase is consistent with oligomerization of the Cdc7 protein in that complexes of about 180 and 300 kDa were found. Oligomers of Cdc7 protein may exist for the purpose of allosteric regulation or to allow phosphorylation of multiple substrate protein molecules.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Mitochondrial protein sorting ; Processing of Cox2 ; Kluyveromyces lactis ; Leishmania major ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The small nuclear gene SOM1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated as a multicopy suppressor of a mutation in the IMP1 gene, which encodes the mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase subunit 1 (Imp1). Analysis revealed that Som1 and Imp1 are components of a mitochondrial protein export system, and interaction between these two proteins is indicated by the genetic suppression data. Here we describe the identification of a gene from Kluyveromyces lactis, which restores respiratory function to a S. cerevisiae SOM1 deletion mutant at 28° C. The sequence of the K. lactis gene predicts a protein product of 8.1-kDa, comprising 71 amino acid residues, with a putative mitochondrial signal sequence at its N-terminus. The protein is 50% identical to its S.cerevisiae counterpart. The expression pattern of a homologous sequence in Leishmania major suggests a more general role for SOM1 in mitochondrial biogenesis and protein sorting. The various Som1 proteins exhibit a highly conserved region and a remarkable pattern of cysteine residues. A protein of the expected size was transcribed and translated in vitro. The Som1 protein was detected in fractions of S. cerevisiae enriched for mitochondria and found to be associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Manganese ; Divalent cations ; Transport ; HIP1 ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In a search for components involved in Mn2+ homeostasis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we isolated a mutant with modifications in Mn2+ transport. The mutation was found to be located in HIP1, a gene known to encode a high-affinity permease for histidine. The mutation, designated hip1–272, caused a frameshift that resulted in a stop codon at position 816 of the 1812-bp ORF. This mutation led to Mn2+ resistance, whereas the corresponding null mutation did not. Both hip1–272 cells and the null mutant exhibited low tolerance to divalent cations such as Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+. The Mn2+ phenotype was not influenced by supplementary histidine in either mutant, whereas the sensitivity to other divalent cations was alleviated by the addition of histidine. The cellular Mn2+ content of the hip1–272 mutant was lower than that of wild type or null mutant, due to increased rates of Mn2+ efflux. We propose that Hip1p is involved in Mn2+ transport, carrying out a function related to Mn2+ export.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Transcription factors Bas1p/Bas2p ; GLN1/SHM2/MTD1 ; Adenine repression ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Glutamine, glycine and 10-formyl tetrahydrofolate are consumed during de novo purine biosynthesis. We have found that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, synthesis of these cosubstrates is coregulated with synthesis of enzymes of the purine biosynthetic pathway. Analysis of three genes required for synthesis of glutamine, glycine and 10-formyl tetrahydrofolate (GLN1, SHM2 and MTD1, respectively) shows that their expression is repressed by adenine and requires the transcription factors Bas1p and Bas2p. Northern analysis reveals that regulation of SHM2 and MTD1 expression by adenine takes place at the transcriptional level. We also show that Bas1p and Bas2p bind in vitro to the promoters of the SHM2 and MTD1 genes, and that mutations in the consensus Bas1p binding sequences strongly affect expression of these genes in vivo. Finally, we have found that a SHM2-lacZ fusion is expressed at a significantly higher level in a bas2-2 disrupted strain than in bas1-2 or bas1-2 bas2-2 mutant strains. The BAS1-dependent, BAS2-independent expression of SHM2-lacZ suggests that, in the absence of Bas2p, Bas1p can interact with another protein partner to activate SHM2 expression.
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