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  • STRUCTURAL MECHANICS  (1,510)
  • 1970 - 1974  (1,510)
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Year
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2011-10-14
    Description: As the performance of aerospace vehicles has increased, the noise generated by the propulsion system and by the passage of the vehicle through the air has also increased. Further increases in performance are now underway for space vehicles such as the space shuttle vehicle and for short distance takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, and are being planned for supersonic aircraft. The flight profiles and design features of these high-performance vehicles are reviewed and an estimate made of selected noise-induced structural vibration problems. Considerations for the prevention of acoustic fatigue, noise transmission, and electronic instrument malfunction are discussed.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: AGARD Noise Mech.; 16 p
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-16
    Description: The mechanical properties of a symmetrical, eight-step, titanium-boron-epoxy joint are discussed. A study of the effect of adhesive and matrix stiffnesses on the axial, normal, and shear stress distributions was made using the finite element method. The NASA Structural Analysis Program (NASTRAN) was used for the analysis. The elastic modulus of the adhesive was varied from 345 MPa to 3100 MPa with the nominal value of 1030 MPa as a standard. The nominal values were used to analyze the stability of the joint. The elastic moduli were varied to determine their effect on the stresses in the joint.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-141311
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: A method is presented of determining the mean square transversal deflection of an isotropic and homogeneous linear viscoelastic beam having a certain number of lengthwise distributed lumped masses. It is assumed that the beam is acted upon by a stationary random process uniformly distributed along the beam. The method is useful in vibration level control by means of additional lumped masses.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: The 4th Natl. Conf. on Acoustics, Vol. 1A (NASA-TT-F-15375); p 36-42
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: The test program is described, which was conducted to provide the necessary experimental data to verify the design and analysis methods developed for beaded and tubular panels. Test results are summarized and presented for all local buckling and full size panel tests. Selected representative test data from each of these tests is presented in detail. The results of this program established a valid analysis and design procedure for circular tube panels. Test results from three other configurations show deformational modes which are not adequately accounted for in the present analyses.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-132515
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The concept of nonlinear coherence employed in carrier tracking to improve telecommunications efficiency is disclosed. A generic tracking loop for a coherent receiver is shown having seven principle feedback signals which may be selectively added and applied to a voltage controlled oscillator to produce a reference signal that is phase coherent with a received carrier. An eighth feedback signal whose nonrandom components are coherent with the phase detected and filtered carrier may also be added to exploit the sideband power of the received signal. A ninth feedback signal whose nonrandom components are also coherent with the quadrature phase detected and filtered carrier could be additionally or alternatively included in the composite feedback signal to the voltage controlled oscillator.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: A distortionless gated compressor for limiting the amplitude of a signal so as not to produce undesired signal levels responsive thereto is disclosed. The gated compressor includes a distortionless multiplier which multiplies an AC signal from a factor defined by a DC control signal. The compressor includes a plurality of channels each responsive to a signal produced in response to the multiplier's output. When the signal supplied to any channel exceeds a prescribed level, the level of the DC control signal is reduced to reduce the multiplier's output level and thereby prevent the signal applied to any channel from exceeding its prescribed level.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A method is presented for obtaining the mass, stiffness, and damping parameters of a linear mathematical model, having fewer degrees of freedom than the structure it represents, directly from dynamic response measurements on the actual helicopter without a priori knowledge of the physical characteristics of the fuselage. The only input information required in the formulation is the approximate natural frequency of each mode and mobility data measured proximate to these frequencies with sinusoidal force excitation applied at only one point on the vehicle. The practicality and numerical soundness of the theoretical development was demonstrated through a computer simulation of an experimental program.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center Rotorcraft Dyn.; p 239-248
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  • 8
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2012-05-22
    Description: An efficient automated minimum weight design procedure is presented which is applicable to sizing structural systems that can be idealized by truss, shear panel, and constant strain triangles. Static stress and displacement constraints under alternative loading conditions are considered. The optimization algorithm is an adaptation of the method of inscribed hyperspheres and high efficiency is achieved by using several approximation concepts including temporary deletion of noncritical constraints, design variable linking, and Taylor series expansions for response variables in terms of design variables. Optimum designs for several planar and space truss examples problems are presented. The results reported support the contention that the innovative use of approximation concepts in structural synthesis can produce significant improvements in efficiency.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: PAPER-73-341 , NASA-CR-140937 , AIAA/ASME/SAE 14th Struct.; 20-22 Mar. 1973; Williamsburg, VA; United States|AGARD Structural Optimization; 8 p
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-05-22
    Description: A summary of papers is presented which covers the following broad aspects of high temperature metal fatigue: (1) materials development and characterization; (2) environmental factors, including air, vacuum, helium, iodine, sodium, and radiation environments; (3) general fatigue life relationships; (4) crack growth laws; (5) design code activities; and (6) design and service experience. Illustrative tables accompany the summary.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: AGARD Low Cycle High Temp. Fatigue; 47 p
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-05-22
    Description: Practical design of large-scale structures can be accomplished with the aid of the digital computer by bringing together in one computer program algorithms of nonlinear mathematical programing and optimality criteria with weight-strength and other so-called engineering methods. Applications of this approach to aviation structures are discussed with a detailed description of how the total problem of structural sizing can be broken down into subproblems for best utilization of each algorithm and for efficient organization of the program into iterative loops. Typical results are examined for a number of examples.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: L-9738 , AGARD Structural Optimization; 19 p
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: For abstract, see N76-13529.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-132684-VOL-2-PT-2
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Error Correction Information System (ECIS) is a system for a two-way transmittal of NASTRAN maintenance information via a data base stored on a nationwide accessible computer. ECIS consists of two data bases. The first data base is used for comments, reporting NASTRAN Software Problem Reports (SPR's) and bookkeeping information which can be updated by the user or the NASTRAN Office. The second data base is used by the NSMO to store all SPR information and updates. The hardware needed by an accessing user is any desktop computer terminal and a telephone to communicate with the central computer. The instruction format is an engineering oriented language and requires less than an hour to obtain a working knowledge of its functions.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-72651
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  • 13
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The extent of plastic flow in a spherical solid (assumed to be homogeneous and elastically and plastically isotropic), surrounding a concentric rigid sphere was calculated as a function of applied external pressure. The applied pressure necessary to cause plastic deformation throughout the solid was obtained.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: REPT-2278 , NASA-CR-142596
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Sodium chloride is used as an internal pressure standard in high pressure research. Possible corrections are discussed which are needed in the calibration of this standard due to the independent effects of stress anisotropy and stress concentration in pressure vessels. The first is due to the lack of a truly hydrostatic state of stress in solid state pressure vessels. The second is due to the difference in the compressibilities between the pressure transmitting substances (sodium chloride) and a stiffer test specimen. These two corrections are then combined and a total correction, as a function of measured pressure, is discussed for two systems presently in use. The predicted value of the combined effect is about 5-10% of the pressure at 30 GPa.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-142600 , REPT-2345
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  • 15
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The contact and the crack problems for an elastic wedge of arbitrary angle are considered. The problem is reduced to a singular integral equation which, in the general case, may have a generalized Cauchy kernel. The singularities under the stamp as well as at the wedge apex were studied, and the relevant stress intensity factors are defined. The problem was solved for various wedge geometries and loading conditions. The results may be applicable to certain foundation problems and to crack problems in symmetrically loaded wedges in which cracks initiate from the apex.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-132640
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  • 16
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The in-plane edge impact of composite plates, with or without a protection strip, is investigated. A computational analysis based on the Fast Fourier Transform technique is presented. The particular application of the present method is in the understanding of the foreign object damage problem of composite fan blades. The method is completely general and may be applied to the study of other stress wave propagation problems in a half space. Results indicate that for the protective strip to be effective in reducing impact stresses in the composite the thickness must be equal or greater than the impact contact dimension. Large interface shear stresses at the strip - composite boundary can be induced under impact.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-134720 , AMS-1141
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Theory is stated in terms of increments of displacement and stress, and of instantaneous or accumulated values of stress. The equilibrium equations, in the absence of body forces, are written, along with constitutive relations for plane strain.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140895 , SM-74-10
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An infinite stringer partially bonded to a plate through a layer of adhesive is considered. The stringer had bending as well as longitudinal stiffness. The effect of the stringer's bending rigidity on the stress intensity factor at the tip of the crack is illustrated. Shear stress distribution between the plate and the stringer and the stress intensity factors are obtained from the solution of a system of Fredholm integral equations. The continuity of displacements along the line of bond is represented by the equations.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-132565 , TR-74-2 , IFSM-74-55
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  • 19
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A laminate composite containing an orthotropic layer with a crack situated normal to the interfaces, and bonded to two orthotropic half-planes of dissimilar materials was considered. The solutions for two different classes of orthotropic materials are presented. In each case, the problem was first reduced to a system of dual integral equations, then to a singular integral equation which was subsequently solved numerically for the stress intensity factors at the tip of the crack. The effect of the material properties on the stress intensity factor was investigated. The generalized plane stress and the plane strain were treated simultaneously.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: TR-74-1 , IFSM-74-57 , NASA-CR-132567
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The equations of motion are developed by two complementary methods, Hamilton's principle and the Newtonian method. The resulting equations are valid to second order for long, straight, slender, homogeneous, isotropic beams undergoing moderate displacements. The ordering scheme is based on the restriction that squares of the bending slopes, the torsion deformation, and the chord/radius and thickness/radius ratios are negligible with respect to unity. All remaining nonlinear terms are retained. The equations are valid for beams with mass centroid axis and area centroid (tension) axis offsets from the elastic axis, nonuniform mass and stiffness section properties, variable pretwist, and a small precone angle. The strain-displacement relations are developed from an exact transformation between the deformed and undeformed coordinate systems. These nonlinear relations form an important contribution to the final equations. Several nonlinear structural and inertial terms in the final equations are identified that can substantially influence the aeroelastic stability and response of hingeless helicopter rotor blades.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: A-5711 , NASA-TN-D-7818
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An efficient iterative procedure is described for the vibration and modal stress analysis of reusable surface insulation (RSI) of multi-tiled space shuttle panels. The method, which is quite general, is rapidly convergent and highly useful for this application. A user-oriented computer program based upon this procedure and titled RESIST (REusable Surface Insulation Stresses) has been prepared for the analysis of compact, widely spaced, stringer-stiffened panels. RESIST, which uses finite element methods, obtains three dimensional tile stresses in the isolator, arrestor (if any) and RSI materials. Two dimensional stresses are obtained in the tile coating and the stringer-stiffened primary structure plate. A special feature of the program is that all the usual detailed finite element grid data is generated internally from a minimum of input data. The program can accommodate tile idealizations with up to 850 nodes (2550 degrees-of-freedom) and primary structure idealizations with a maximum of 10,000 degrees-of-freedom. The primary structure vibration capability is achieved through the development of a new rapid eigenvalue program named ALARM (Automatic LArge Reduction of Matrices to tridiagonal form).
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-132553
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A survey was conducted of six aerospace companies and two NASA agencies to determine how prototype structural test articles are used in flight operations. The prototype structures are airframes and similar devices which are used for testing and generally are not flown. The survey indicated the following: (1) prototype test articles are not being discarded after development testing is complete, but are used for other purposes, (2) only two cases of prototypes being refurbished and flown were identified, (3) protective devices and inspection techniques are available to prevent or minimize test article damage, (4) substitute programs from design verification are availabel in lieu of using prototype structural articles, and (5) there is a trend away from dedicated test articles. Four options based on these study results were identified to reduce test and hardware costs without compromising reliability of the flight program.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: D180-18424-1 , NASA-CR-120543
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Nonlinear structural solution methods in the current research literature are classified according to order of the solution scheme, and it is shown that the analytical tools for these methods are uniformly derivable by perturbation techniques. A new perturbation formulation is developed for treating an arbitrary nonlinear material, in terms of a finite-difference generated stress-strain expansion. Nonlinear geometric effects are included in an explicit manner by appropriate definition of an applicable strain tensor. A new finite-element pilot computer program PANES (Program for Analysis of Nonlinear Equilibrium and Stability) is presented for treatment of problems involving material and geometric nonlinearities, as well as certain forms on nonconservative loading.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: D180-18325-1 , NASA-CR-120525
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  • 24
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: SPAR is a system of related programs which may be operated either in batch or demand (teletype) mode. Information exchange between programs is automatically accomplished through one or more direct access libraries, known collectively as the data complex. Card input is command-oriented, in free-field form. Capabilities available in the first production release of the system are fully documented, and include linear stress analysis, linear bifurcation buckling analysis, and linear vibrational analysis.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-120504 , LMSC-D403168
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A semianalytical method was developed for determining elastoplastic cyclic stresses and strains at notch roots in metallurgically bonded metal laminates. The method is based on the Neuber equation, which was used with an effective stress-strain curve for the laminate. It was applied to laminates containing a circular hole which were subjected to one cycle of reversed loading. The laminates consisted of two elasto-perfectly-plastic materials with different yield strengths and with either equal or different Young's moduli. A laminate of high-strength titanium alloy with alternate layers of commercially pure titanium was also analyzed. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparing the stresses and strains with those calculated from a finite-element analysis. The results estimated by the simple method based on the Neuber equation agreed closely with the results computed from the more elaborate finite-element analysis.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7766 , L-9753
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The three-dimensional equations of elasticity are solved for a flat elliptical crack which has nonuniform shear stresses applied to its surfaces. An alternating method is used to determine the mode two and mode three stress intensity factors for a semielliptical surface crack in the surface of a finite thickness solid. These stress intensity factors are presented as a function of position along the crack border for a number of crack shapes and crack depths. This same technique is followed to determine the mode one stress intensity factors for the semielliptical surface crack which has normal loading applied to its surface. Mode one stress intensity factors are presented and compared with the results obtained from previous work.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-134684
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Dynamic properties of a commerical polybutadiene compound were determined at a constant temperature of 32 C by a forced-vibration resonant mass type of apparatus. The constant thermal state of the elastomer was ensured by keeping the ambient temperature constant and by limiting the power dissipation in the specimen. Experiments were performed with both compression and shear specimens at several preloads (nominal strain varying from 0 to 5 percent), and the results are reported in terms of a complex stiffness as a function of frequency. Very weak frequency dependence is observed and a simple power law type of correlation is shown to represent the data well. Variations in the complex stiffness as a function of preload are also found to be small for both compression and shear specimens.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: MTI-74TR20-PT-2 , NASA-CR-134704
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This experimental program was undertaken to determine the effects of (1) combined tensile and bending loadings, (2) combined tensile and shear loadings, and (3) proof overloads on fracture and flaw growth characteristics of aerospace alloys. Tests were performed on four alloys: 2219-T87 aluminum, 5Al-2.5Sn (ELl) titanium, 6Al-4V beta STA titanium and high strength 4340 steel. Tests were conducted in room air, gaseous nitrogen at -200F (144K), liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen. Flat center cracked and surface flawed specimens, cracked tube specimens, circumferentially notched round bar and surface flawed cylindrical specimens were tested. The three-dimensional photoelastic technique of stress freezing and slicing was used to determine stress intensity factors for surface flawed cylindrical specimens subjected to tension or torsion. Results showed that proof load/temperature histories used in the tests have a small beneficial effect or no effect on subsequent fracture strength and flaw growth rates.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: D180-17997-1 , NASA-CR-134611
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  • 29
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An optimization study of composite stiffened cylinders is discussed. The mathematical model for the buckling has been coupled successfully with the optimization program AESOP. The buckling analysis is based on the use of the smeared theory for the buckling of stiffened orthotropic cylindrical shells. The loading, radius, and length of the cylinder are assumed to be known parameters. An optimum solution gives the value of cross-sectional dimensions and laminate orientations. The different types of buckling modes are identified. Mathematical models are developed to show the relationships of the parameters.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-139215
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A technique consisting of freezing photo-elasticity and a numerical method was used to obtain stress intensity factors for natural cracks emanating from the corner at which a hole intersects a plate surface. Geometries studied were: (1) crack depth to thickness ratios of approximately 0.2, (2) 0.5 and 0.75; (3) crack depth to crack length ratios of approximately 1.0 to 2.0; and (4) crack length to hole radius ratios of about 0.5 to 2.0. All final crack geometries were grown under monotonic loading and growth was not self similar, with most of the growth occuring through the thickness under remote extension. Stress intensity factors were determined at the intersection of the flaw border.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-132484 , VPI-E-74-1-REV
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Time dependent notch sensitivity was observed in Udimet 700 sheet, bar, and investment castings between 1000 and 1400 F (538 -760 C), but not at 1600 F (871 C). As was the case for modified Waspaloy, Waspaloy and Inconel 718, it occurred in notched specimens loaded below the yield strength when the creep deformation was localized. For each alloy and notched specimen geometry, a stress-average particle size zone can be defined that characterizes the notch sensitive behavior.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: REPT-043680-20-F , NASA-CR-134613
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The free vibrations of elastic structures of arbitrary complexity were analyzed in terms of their component modes. The method was based upon the use of the normal unconstrained modes of the components in a Rayleigh-Ritz analysis. The continuity conditions were enforced by means of Lagrange Multipliers. Examples of the structures considered are: (1) beams with nonuniform properties; (2) airplane structures with high or low aspect ratio lifting surface components; (3) the oblique wing airplane; and (4) plate structures. The method was also applied to the analysis of modal damping of linear elastic structures. Convergence of the method versus the number of modes per component and/or the number of components is discussed and compared to more conventional approaches, ad-hoc methods, and experimental results.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138942 , AMS-1159
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  • 33
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer programs for the synthesis of shells of various configurations were developed. The conditions considered are: (1) uniform shells (mainly cones) using a membrane buckling analysis, (2) completely uniform shells (cones, spheres, toroidal segments) using linear bending prebuckling analysis, and (3) revision of second design process to reduce the number of design variables to about 30 by considering piecewise uniform designs. A perturbation formula was derived and this allows exact derivatives of the general buckling load to be computed with little additional computer time.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138839
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The interactions of control system and distributed flexible structural dynamics is explored for mechanical arms. A modeling process using 4 x 4 transfer matrices is described which permits the closed loop response of many current arm configurations to be evaluated. Root locus, frequency response, modal shapes, and time impulse response have all been obtained from the digital computer implementation of this model, which is oriented to arm design and allows for easy variation of the arm configuration through data cards. The model corresponds with experimentally observed natural frequencies with an average error of less than 5% in the first three flexible modes in the seven cases considered. The model was used to explore the limits imposed by structural flexibility on a nondimensionalized two link arm with one and two joints for planar motion.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-120269
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The equations of motion and a computer program for the dynamics of a six degree of freedom body joined to a five degree of freedom body by a quasilinear elastic tether are presented. The forebody is assumed to be a completely general rigid body with six degrees of freedom; the decelerator is also assumed to be rigid, but with only five degrees of freedom (symmetric about its longitudinal axis). The tether is represented by a spring and dashpot in parallel, where the spring constant is a function of tether elongation. Lagrange's equation is used to derive the equations of motion with the Lagrange multiplier technique used to express the constraint provided by the tether. A computer program is included which provides a time history of the dynamics of both bodies and the tension in the tether.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-120261 , GER-16047
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  • 36
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The rational use of optimality criteria was investigated for a class of structural synthesis problems where materials, configuration and applied load conditions are specified, and the minimum weight design is to be determined. The potential of hybrid methods of structural optimization for dealing with relatively large design problems involving practical complexity was explored. The reduced basis concept in design space was used to decrease the number of generalized design variables dealt with by the mathematical programming algorithm. Optimality criteria methods for obtaining design vectors associated with displacement, system buckling and natural frequency constraints are presented. A stress ratio method was used to generate a basis design vector representing the stress constraints. The finite element displacement method was used as the basic structural analysis tool. Results for several examples of truss systems subject to stress, displacement and minimum size constraints are presented. An assessment of these results indicates the effectiveness of the hybrid method developed.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: UCLA-ENG-7446 , NASA-CR-138612
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analytical and experimental studies were performed to evaluate the structural efficiency of a boron reinforced shell, where the medium of reinforcement consists of hollow aluminum extrusions infiltrated with boron epoxy. Studies were completed for the design of a one-half scale minimum weight shell using boron reinforced stringers and boron reinforced rings. Parametric and iterative studies were completed for the design of minimum weight stringers, rings, shells without rings and shells with rings. Computer studies were completed for the final evaluation of a minimum weight shell using highly buckled minimum gage skin. The detail design is described of a practical minimum weight test shell which demonstrates a weight savings of 30% as compared to an all aluminum longitudinal stiffened shell. Sub-element tests were conducted on representative segments of the compression surface at maximum stress and also on segments of the load transfer joint. A 10 foot long, 77 inch diameter shell was fabricated from the design and delivered for further testing.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-132448
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  • 38
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Methods for solving three dimensional crack problems are discussed. The stress intensity factor for the case of uniform pressure on the surface crack is analysis. An analysis of concentrated forces acting on the crack faces parallel to the crack front of a half-plane crack was made. Two dimensional calculations were made using the exact solution for the stress field around an elliptical hole in a uniformly stretched plate. The strain energy density was computed in the neighborhood of the ends of narrow, but sharp, ellipses.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138652
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An Eulerian finite element formulation is presented for problems of large elastic-plastic flow. The method is based on Hill's variational principle for incremental deformations, and is suited to isotropically hardening Prandtl-Reuss materials. The formulation is given in a manner which allows any conventional finite element program, for "small strain" elasticplastic analysis, to be simply and rigorously adapted to problems involving arbitrary amounts of deformation and arbitrary levels of stress in comparison to plastic deformation moduli. The method is applied to a necking bifurcation analysis of a bar in plane-strain tension. A unified general formulation of finite element equations, both Lagrangian and Eulerian, for large deformations, with arbitrary choice of the conjugate stress and strain measures, and a discussion is given of other proposed formulations for elastic-plastic finite element analysis at large strain.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138820
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Several computer subroutines are designed to provide the solution to minimum-dimension sets of discrete-coordinate equations of motion for systems consisting of an arbitrary number of hinge-connected rigid bodies assembled in a tree topology. In particular, these routines may be applied to: (1) the case of completely unrestricted hinge rotations, (2) the totally linearized case (all system rotations are small), and (3) the mixed, or partially linearized, case. The use of the programs in each case is demonstrated using a five-body spacecraft and attitude control system configuration. The ability of the subroutines to accommodate prescribed motions of system bodies is also demonstrated. Complete listings and user instructions are included for these routines (written in FORTRAN V) which are intended as multi- and general-purpose tools in the simulation of spacecraft and other complex electromechanical systems.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138819 , JPL-TR-32-1592
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  • 41
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138821
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Attached-inflatable-decelerator (AID) canopies fabricated from lightweight Nomex cloth and tapes were deployed in a supersonic stream from the base of a 140 deg conical aeroshell. Characteristics of the deceleration system were obtained over a wide range of Mach number, dynamic pressure, and pitch angle. All models deployed rapidly by ram air and experienced only mild deployment shock loads. Steady-state drag coefficients as high as 1.3 were obtained in the supersonic stream and were relatively insensitive to Mach number, dynamic pressure, and pitch angle. All models were free of fluttering motion. Results also showed that the AID is aerodynamically more efficient without a burble fence in a supersonic stream. Though measured meridian-tape loads were higher than those predicted by theory, the ram-air deployment rates and steady-state drag coefficients were in good agreement with theory. These results indicate that the AID is a stable, efficient decelerator in a supersonic stream and its performance is readily predictable.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: L-9402 , NASA-TN-D-7550
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects of rotation in the areas of vibrations, dynamic stability, optimization, and aeroelasticity were studied. The governing equations of motion for the study of vibration and dynamic stability of a rapidly rotating deformable body were developed starting from the nonlinear theory of elasticity. Some common features such as the limitations of the classical theory of elasticity, the choice of axis system, the property of self-adjointness, the phenomenon of frequency splitting, shortcomings of stability methods as applied to gyroscopic systems, and the effect of internal and external damping on stability in gyroscopic systems are identified and discussed, and are then applied to three specific problems.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138805
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer programs are presented which provide incremental finite-element analysis capability for problems of quasi-static, finite, elastoplastic deformation in two spatial dimensions (plane strain, plane stress, axisymmetric). Monotonic or cyclic loading of isotropic hardening materials is considered. The only restriction on the form of the stress-strain curve is that the rate of work hardening exceed some small positive value. The user's guide assumes familiarity with both finite-element analysis and FORTRAN IV programming for the CDC 6600. Sufficient information is provided to support problem solving ultization of the programs.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: E-7610 , NASA-TM-X-2998
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Transonic flutter characteristics of three geometrically similar delta-wing models were experimentally determined in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel at Mach numbers from about 0.6 to 1.2. The models were designed to be simplified versions of an early supersonic transport wing design. The model was an aspect-ratio-1.28 cropped-delta wing with a leadingedge sweep of 50.5 deg. The flutter characteristics obtained for this wing configuration indicated a minimum flutter-speed index near a Mach number of 0.92 and a transonic compressibility dip amounting to about a 27-percent decrease in the flutter-speed index relative to the value at a Mach number of 0.6. Analytical studies were performed for one wing model at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 by using both doublet-lattice and lifting-surface (kernel-function) unsteady aerodynamic theory. A comparison of the analytical and experimental flutter results showed good agreement at all Mach numbers investigated.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7544 , L-9348
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: When a hologram storing more than one wave is illuminated with coherent light, the reconstructed wave fronts interfere with each other or with any other phase-related wave front derived from the illuminating source. This multiple wave front comparison is called holographic interferometry, and its application is called holographic nondestructive testing (HNDT). The theoretical aspects of HNDT techniques and the sensitivity of the holographic system to the geometrical placement of the optical components are briefly discussed. A unique HNDT system which is mobile and possesses variable sensitivity to stress amplitude is discribed, the experimental evidence of the application of this system to the testing of the hidden debonds in a ceramic-epoxy-fiberglass structure used for sample testing of the radome of the Pershing missile system is presented.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TR-R-430 , M-461
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Theoretical equations are derived and analytical procedures are presented for the interpretation of experimental measurements of large plastic strains in the surface of a plate. Orthogonal gage lengths established on the metal surface are measured before and after deformation. The change in orthogonality after deformation is also measured. Equations yield the principal strains, deviatoric stresses in the absence of surface friction forces, true stresses if the stress normal to the surface is known, and the orientation angle between the deformed gage line and the principal stress-strain axes. Errors in the measurement of nominal strains greater than 3 percent are within engineering accuracy. Applications suggested for this strain measurement system include the large-strain-stress analysis of impact test models, burst tests of spherical or cylindrical pressure vessels, and to augment small-strain instrumentation tests where large strains are anticipated.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: E-7661 , NASA-TM-X-3027
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An approximate method for calculating the longitudinal and torsional natural frequencies and associated modal data of a beamlike, variable cross section multibranch structure is presented. The procedure described is the numerical integration of the first order differential equations that characterize the beam element in longitudinal motion and that satisfy the appropriate boundary conditions.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71973
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution-treated and aged heat-treatment condition were exposed outdoors at ambient and 560 K (550 F) temperatures to determine the effect of outdoor exposure on fatigue life. Effects of exposure were determined by comparing fatigue lives of exposed specimens to those of unexpected specimens. Two procedures for fatigue testing the exposed specimens were evaluated: (1) fatigue tests conducted outdoors by applying 1200 load cycles per week until failure occurred and (2) conventional fatigue tests (continuous cycling until failure occurred) conducted indoors after outdoor exposure under static load. The exposure period ranged from 9 to 28 months for the outdoor fatigue-test group and was 24 months for the static-load group. All fatigue tests were constant-amplitude bending of specimens containing a drilled hole (stress concentration factor of 1.6). The results of the tests indicate that the fatigue lives of solution-treated and aged specimens were significantly reduced by the outdoor exposure at 560 K but not by the exposure at ambient temperature. Fatigue lives of the annealed specimens were essentially unaffected by the outdoor exposure at either temperature. The two test procedures - outdoor fatigue test and indoor fatigue test after outdoor exposure - led to the same conclusions about exposure effects.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: L-9374 , NASA-TN-D-7540
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  • 50
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has been intended to do variance analysis and plot the thermal boundary elements. The objective of the variance analysis addition is to assess the sensitivity of temperature variances resulting from uncertainties inherent in input parameters for heat conduction analysis. The plotting capability provides the ability to check the geometry (location, size and orientation) of the boundary elements of a model in relation to the conduction elements. Variance analysis is the study of uncertainties of the computed results as a function of uncertainties of the input data. To study this problem using NASTRAN, a solution is made for both the expected values of all inputs, plus another solution for each uncertain variable. A variance analysis module subtracts the results to form derivatives, and then can determine the expected deviations of output quantities.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-139007 , EC-245
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ultrasonic signature analysis shows promise of being a singularly well-suited method for detecting fatigue in structures as complex as aircraft. The method employs instrumentation centered about a Fourier analyzer system, which features analog-to-digital conversion, digital data processing, and digital display of cross-correlation functions and cross-spectra. These features are essential to the analysis of ultrasonic signatures according to the procedure described here. In order to establish the feasibility of the method, the initial experiments were confined to simple plates with simulated and fatigue-induced defects respectively. In the first test the signature proved sensitive to the size of a small hole drilled into the plate. In the second test, performed on a series of fatigue-loaded plates, the signature proved capable of indicating both the initial appearance and subsequent growth of a fatigue crack. In view of these encouraging results it is concluded that the method has reached a sufficiently advanced stage of development to warrant application to small-scale structures or even actual aircraft.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138113
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  • 52
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The structural characteristics of isogrid composite structures are discussed. To demonstrate the feasibility of applying isogrid to conical structures, a full scale flanged isogrid conical adapter similar to the configuration of the D-1 Centaur equipment module was constructed. The adapter was tested to evaluate the response of the conical isogrid structure to various combinations of bending and axial compression loading. The analysis techniques for predicting conical isogrid structural capability are examined.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: PD-73-0123 , NASA-CR-120205
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This report develops: (1) a refined approximate theory for the static and dynamic analyses of finite, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells with general boundary conditions; (2) an exact three-dimensional analysis of simply supported, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells, and (3) a thin-shell theory for laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells. In the refined approximate theory the displacements are assumed piecewise linear across the thickness and the effects of transverse shear deformations and transverse normal stress are included. A variational approach is followed to obtain the governing differential equations and boundary conditions. A general solution of the governing differential equations is also presented. The results obtained by using the refined approximate theory and the thin-shell theory are compared with the exact results for the case of free vibrations of simply supported, laminated, composite, circular cylindrical shells. The refined approximate theory is very accurate, even for thick shells with short nodal distances, whereas thin-shell theory is reasonably accurate only for thin shells at moderate nodal distances and wave number less than 2.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TR-R-412 , L-8828
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  • 54
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Fracture mechanics is a rapidly emerging discipline for assessing the residual strength of structures containing flaws due to fatigue, corrosion or accidental damage and for anticipating the rate of which such flaws will propagate if not repaired. The discipline is also applicable in the design of structures with improved resistance to such flaws. The present state of the design art is reviewed using this technology to choose materials, to configure safe and efficient structures, to specify inspection procedures, to predict lives of flawed structures and to develop reliability of current and future airframes.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71925 , AIAA 12th Aerospace Sci. Meeting; 31 Jul. 1974; Washington, DC; United States
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development of nonlinear analysis techniques within the framework of the finite-element method is reported. Although the emphasis is concerned with those nonlinearities associated with material behavior, a general treatment of geometric nonlinearity, alone or in combination with plasticity is included, and applications presented for a class of problems categorized as axisymmetric shells of revolution. The scope of the nonlinear analysis capabilities includes: (1) a membrane stress analysis, (2) bending and membrane stress analysis, (3) analysis of thick and thin axisymmetric bodies of revolution, (4) a general three dimensional analysis, and (5) analysis of laminated composites. Applications of the methods are made to a number of sample structures. Correlation with available analytic or experimental data range from good to excellent.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: RE-454 , NASA-CR-2351
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  • 56
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An automated interactive flange design program utilizing an electronic desk top calculator is presented. The program calculates the operating and seating stresses for circular flanges of the integral or optional type subjected to internal pressure. The required input information is documented. The program provides an automated procedure for computing stresses in selected flange geometries for comparison to the allowable code values.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71933
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  • 57
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Advances in the analysis of adhesive-bonded joints are presented with particular emphasis on advanced composite structures. The joints analyzed are of double-lap, single-lap, scarf, stepped-lap and tapered-lap configurations. Tensile, compressive, and in-plane shear loads are covered. In addition to the usual geometric variables, the theory accounts for the strength increases attributable to adhesive plasticity (in terms of the elastic-plastic adhesive model) and the joint strength reductions imposed by imbalances between the adherends. The solutions are largely closed-form analytical results, employing iterative solutions on a digital computer for the more complicated joint configurations. In assessing the joint efficiency, three potential failure modes are considered. These are adherend failure outside the joint, adhesive failure in shear, and adherend interlaminar tension failure (or adhesive failure in peel). Each mode is governed by a distinct mathematical analysis and each prevails throughout different ranges of geometric sizes and proportions.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-2218
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  • 58
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A nonconforming plate-bending finite element of triangular shape and associated quadrilateral elements are developed. The transverse displacement is approximated within the element by a quintic polynomial. The formulation takes into account the effects of transverse shear deformation. Results of the static and dynamic analysis of a square plate, with edges simply supported or clamped, are compared with exact solutions. Good accuracy is obtained in all calculations.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: L-9180 , NASA-TN-D-7407
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  • 59
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Filament wound pressure vessels of various configurations were evaluated for burst strength and fatigue performance. The dimensions and characteristics of the vessels are described. The types of tests conducted are explained. It was determined that all vessels leaked in a relatively few cycles (20 to 60 cycles) with failure occurring in all cases in the metallic liner. The thin liner would de-bond from the composite and buckling took place during depressurization. No composite failures or indications of impeding composite failures were obtained in the metal-lined vessels.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-134555 , ASG-2-5540
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  • 60
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The supersonic flutter of wide panels on discrete flexible supports is investigated for three different panel-support configurations. The first study examines the effect of support stiffness on the flutter behavior of a specific five-support configuration with leading-and trailing-edge overhangs; this configuration was recently under consideration for a heat shield on an entry body. The second study investigates the effect of support stiffness on flutter of panels with various numbers of equally spaced supports. The third study examines the effect of center-support location on the flutter of panels with three supports. Results are presented in nondimensional form. The analysis is based on wide-plate structural theory and Ackeret aerodynamics. Finite differences are employed to obtain solutions for flutter pressure. A computer program based on this analysis and including a direct solution technique is presented. The program can be used to find the flutter pressure of wide panels of variable thickness supported by any number of flexible supports.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: L-9205 , NASA-TN-D-7443
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A technique consisting of a marriage between stress freezing photoelasticity and a numerical method was used to obtain stress intensity factors for natural cracks emanating from the corner at which a hole intersects a plate surface. Geometrics studied were: crack depth to thickness ratios of approximately 0.2, 0.5, and 0.75; crack depth to crack length ratios of approximately 1.0 to 2.0. All final crack geometries were grown under monotonic loading and growth was not self similar with most of the growth occurring through the thickness under remote extension. Stress intensity plate surface K sub s factors were determined at the intersection of the flaw border with the plate surface K sub s and with the edge of the hole K sub h. Results showed that for the relatively shallow flaws K sub h approximately equal to 1.5 K sub s, for the moderately deep flaws K sub h approximately equal to K sub s, and for the deep flaws K sub h approximately equal to 0.5 K sub s, revealing a severe sensitivity of K to flaw geometry.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-136930 , VPI-E-74-1
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Fragmentation data was assembled and analyzed for exploding liquid propellant vessels. These data were to be retrieved from reports of tests and accidents, including measurements or estimates of blast yield, etc. A significant amount of data was retrieved from a series of tests conducted for measurement of blast and fireball effects of liquid propellant explosions (Project PYRO), a few well-documented accident reports, and a series of tests to determine auto-ignition properties of mixing liquid propellants. The data were reduced and fitted to various statistical functions. Comparisons were made with methods of prediction for blast yield, initial fragment velocities, and fragment range. Reasonably good correlation was achieved. Methods presented in the report allow prediction of fragment patterns, given type and quantity of propellant, type of accident, and time of propellant mixing.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-134538
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  • 63
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: This invention relates to learning decoders for decoding compatible convolutional codes. The decoder decodes signals which have been encoded by a convolutional coder and allows performance near the theoretical limit of performance for coded data systems. The decoder includes a sub-bit shift register wherein the received sub-bits are entered after regeneration and shifted in synchronization with a clock signal recovered from the received sub-bit stream. The received sub-bits are processed by a sub-bit decision circuit, entered into a sub-bit shift register, decoded by a decision circuit, entered into a data shift register, and updated to reduce data errors. The bit decision circuit utilizes stored sub-bits and stored data bits to determine subsequent data-bits. Data errors are reduced by using at least one up-date circuit.
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  • 64
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: A digital communication system is reported for parallel operation of 16 or more transceiver units with the use of only four interconnecting wires. A remote synchronization circuit produces unit address control words sequentially in data frames of 16 words. Means are provided in each transceiver unit to decode calling signals and to transmit calling and data signals. The transceivers communicate with each other over one data line. The synchronization unit communicates the address control information to the transceiver units over an address line and further provides the timing information over a clock line. A reference voltage level or ground line completes the interconnecting four wire hookup.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: A communication system using differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK) transmits and receives binary data without requiring timing or phase reference signals. The system encodes and modulates the data at the transmitter, and decodes and demodulates the data at the receiver, without ambiguity as to the data content.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
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  • 66
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: A turnstile slot antenna is disclosed, the antenna being for and integral with a spacecraft having a substantially cylindrical body portion. The antenna comprises a circumferential slot about the periphery of the spacecraft body portion with an annular wave guide cavity defining a radial transmission line disposed within the spacecraft body portion behind and in communication with the circumferential slot. Feed stubs and associated transmission apparatus are provided to excite the annular cavity in quadrature phase such that an omnidirectional, circularly polarized, rotating radiation pattern is generated. The antenna of the instant invention has utility both as a transmitting and receiving device, and ensures continuous telemetry and command coverage with the spacecraft.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
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  • 67
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: A multiple phase modulated carrier tracking loop for use in a frequency shift keying system is described in which carrier tracking efficiency is improved by making use of the decision signals made on the data phase transmitted in each T-second interval. The decision signal is used to produce a pair of decision-feedback quadrature signals for enhancing the loop's performance in developing a loop phase error signal.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
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  • 68
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: An automatic frequency control circuit for an FM television transmitter is described. The frequency of the transmitter is sampled during what is termed the back porch portion of the horizontal synchronizing pulse which occurs during the retrace interval, the frequency sample compared with the frequency of a reference oscillator, and a correction applied to the frequency of the transmitter during this portion of the retrace interval.
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  • 69
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Recommendations are given for the design, preparation, and static fracture testing of surface crack specimens. The recommendations are preceded by background information including discussions of stress intensity factors, crack opening displacements, and fracture toughness values associated with surface crack specimens. Cyclic load and sustained load tests are discussed briefly.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71772 , E-8274 , Natl. Symp. on Fracture Mech.; 25-27 Aug. 1975; Pittsburgh, PA; united States
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A study was conducted to exploit the efficiency of curved elements in the design of lightweight structural panels under combined loads of axial compression, inplane shear, and bending. Data cover analytical procedures for optimum panel design, static strength analyses, results of panel design studies, and correlation of theory with test results.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-132460
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Certain aspects of the dynamic system being discussed are reviewed and important structural and aerodynamic quantities of the system are discussed. A theoretical model is presented which relates these quantities to each other. These quantities are then each, in turn, considered in terms of the state of the art of determining the quantities and in terms of areas where further research is needed. The similarity laws and scaling relationships applicable to determining buffet structural response are then discussed, and areas where simplification is required or may be permissible are mentioned. Finally, the various types of model tests pertinent to predicting response of the aircraft structure to buffet flow are discussed.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-72627 , L-9820 , 39th AGARD Structural and Mater. Meeting,; 7-12 Oct. 1974; Munich
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  • 72
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Small geometric imperfections in thin-walled shell structures can cause large reductions in buckling strength. Most imperfections found in structures are neither axisymmetric nor have the shape of buckling modes but rather occur locally. This report presents the results of a study of the effect of local imperfections on the critical buckling load of a specific axially compressed thin-walled conical shell. The buckling calculations were performed by using a two-dimensional shell analysis program referred to as the STAGS (Structural Analysis of General Shells) computer code, which has no axisymmetry restrictions. Results show that the buckling load found from a bifurcation buckling analysis is highly dependent on the circumferential arc length of the imperfection type studied. As the circumferential arc length of the imperfection is increased, a reduction of up to 50 percent of the critical load of the perfect shell can occur. The buckling load of the cone with an axisymmetric imperfections is nearly equal to the buckling load of imperfections which extended 60 deg or more around the circumference, but would give a highly conservative estimate of the buckling load of a shell with an imperfection of a more local nature.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: L-9331 , NASA-TM-X-2991
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design criteria and test options for aerospace structural reliability were investigated. A decision methodology was developed for selecting a combination of structural tests and structural design factors. The decision method involves the use of Bayesian statistics and statistical decision theory. Procedures are discussed for obtaining and updating data-based probabilistic strength distributions for aerospace structures when test information is available and for obtaining subjective distributions when data are not available. The techniques used in developing the distributions are explained.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7646
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  • 74
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method for analytically determining the amount of twist and lean of a tall tower of equilateral triangular cross section is described. This method is also applicable to tall structures of other shapes and cross-sectional areas. A BASIC computer program that determines the angle of twist and amount of lean is provided.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: KSC-TR-297-REV-1 , NASA-TM-X-70113
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A combined experimental and theoretical investigation was performed in order to (1) demonstrate that high quality angleplied laminates can be made from HT-S/PMR-RI (PMR in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants), (2) characterize the PMR-PI material and to determine the HT-S unidirectional composite properties required for composite micro and macromechanics and laminate analyses, and (3) select HT-S/PMR-PI laminate configurations to meet the general design requirements for high-tip-speed compressor blades. The results of the investigation showed that HT-S/PMR laminate configurations can be fabricated which satisfy the high-tip-speed compressor blade design requirements when operating within the temperature capability of the polymide matrix.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7698 , E-7700
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  • 76
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A cylindrical shell skirt structure was subjected to a design and analysis study using a wide variety of structural materials and concepts. The design loading, axial compression, and torsion is representative of that expected on a typical space tug skirt section. Structural concepts evaluated included honeycomb sandwich, truss, isogrid, and skin/stringer/frame. The materials considered included a wide variety of structural metals as well as glass, graphite, and boron-reinforced composites. Honeycomb sandwich with aluminum faceskins, honeycomb sandwich with graphite/epoxy faceskins, and aluminum truss with fiberglass meteoroid protection layers were the designs selected for further evaluation. Procurement of materials required for fabrication is reported and the structural test plan and fabrication drawings are included. Construction of the graphite/epoxy faceskins, chem mill of the aluminum faceskins, chem mill of aluminum truss components, and fabrication of the graphite/epoxy honeycomb sandwich development panel is also reported.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-120232 , QPR-1
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Experimental and analytical natural frequencies, nodal patterns, and typical modal displacements for a corrugated, flexibly supported, heat-shield panel are discussed. Good correlation was found between the experimental data and NASTRAN analytical results for the corrugated panel over a relatively wide frequency spectrum covered in the investigation. Of the two experimental techniques used for mode shape and displacement measurements (a noncontacting displacement sensor system and a holographic technique using a helium-neon, continuous-wave laser), the holographic technique was found, in the present investigation, to be faster and better suited for determining a large number of complex nodal patterns of the corrugated panel.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: L-9364 , NASA-TN-D-7562
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of an analytical effort to obtain and evaluate transient response data for a cylindrical and a conical shell by use of two different approaches: direct integration and modal superposition are described. The inclusion of nonlinear terms is more important than the inclusion of secondary linear effects (transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia) although there are thin-shell structures where these secondary effects are important. The advantages of the direct integration approach are that geometric nonlinear and secondary effects are easy to include and high-frequency response may be calculated. In comparison to the modal superposition technique the computer storage requirements are smaller. The advantages of the modal superposition approach are that the solution is independent of the previous time history and that once the modal data are obtained, the response for repeated cases may be efficiently computed. Also, any admissible set of initial conditions can be applied.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: L-9216 , NASA-TM-X-2916
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The non-linear behavior of fiber composite laminates which results from lamina non-linear characteristics was examined. The analysis uses a Ramberg-Osgood representation of the lamina transverse and shear stress strain curves in conjunction with deformation theory to describe the resultant laminate non-linear behavior. A laminate having an arbitrary number of oriented layers and subjected to a general state of membrane stress was treated. Parametric results and comparison with experimental data and prior theoretical results are presented.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-2313 , TFR/7309
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A theoretical panel flutter analysis and computer program was developed which is capable of analyzing an orthotropic panel with in-plane loads, at various angles of cross flow and various edge-support conditions. The resulting modal analysis uses linear piston-theory aerodynamics and includes both aerodynamic and structural damping. Calculations made for typical panels with no in-plane forces show that large reductions in dynamic presure for flutter are possible with only small changes in flow angle. The reduction in dynamic pressure with flow angle is greater for elastically supported panels than for simply supported panels. Aerodynamic damping has a significant stabilizing effect at all flow angles except zero, whereas structural damping has negligible effect.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7491 , L-9312
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The torsional braid experiment has been interfaced with a centralized hierarchical computing system for data acquisition and data processing. Such a system, when matched by the appropriate upgrading of the monitoring techniques, provides high resolution thermomechanical spectra of rigidity and damping, and their derivatives with respect to temperature.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138123
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Strain energy release rates were used to correlate cyclic debonding between metal sheets and composite reinforcement. An expression for the strain energy release rate was derived and applied to fatigue test results for three material systems: graphite bonded to aluminum with both a room temperature and an elevated temperature curing adhesive, and S-glass bonded to aluminum with an elevated temperature curing adhesive. For each material system, several thicknesses were tested with a range of fatigue loads. Cyclic debonding was monitored using a photoelastic technique. A close correlation was found between the observed debond rates and the calculated strain energy release rates for each material system.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71948 , ASTM Symp. on Fatigue of Composite Mater.; 2-7 Dec. 1973; Bal Harbour, FL; United States
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  • 83
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Thin-gaged or high toughness materials containing cracks usually fail in a ductile manner with nominal failure stresses approaching the ultimate strength of the material. For such materials, a two-parameter fracture criterion was developed. An equation which related the linear elastic stress-intensity factor, elastic nominal stress, and two material parameters was previously derived and has been used as a fracture criterion for surface- and through-cracked specimens under tensile loading. This two-parameter fracture criterion was rederived in a more general form and was extended to compact and notch-bend fracture specimens. A close correlation was found between experimental and predicted failure stresses.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71926 , Anniv. Meeting of the Soc. of Eng. Sci.; 5-7 Nov. 1973; Raleigh, NC; United States
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  • 84
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An extension is presented of Rice's classic solution for the exceedances of a constant level by a single random process to its counterpart for an n-dimensional vector process. An interaction boundary, analogous to the constant level considered by Rice for the one-dimensional case, is assumed in the form of a hypersurface. The theory for the numbers of boundary exceedances is developed by using a joint statistical approach which fully accounts for all cross-correlation effects. An exact expression is derived for the n-dimensional exceedance density function, which is valid for an arbitrary interaction boundary. For application to biaxial states of combined random stress, the general theory is reduced to the two-dimensional case. An elliptical stress interaction boundary is assumed and the exact expression for the density function is presented. The equations are expressed in a format which facilitates calculating the exceedances by numerically evaluating a line integral. The behavior of the density function for the two-dimensional case is briefly discussed.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: L-9120 , NASA-TR-R-418
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