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  • General Chemistry  (7,564)
  • SPACE SCIENCES  (6,789)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • 1970-1974  (12,489)
  • 1910-1914  (2,932)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Geomorphological studies on rock samples from the Apollo 17 lunar landing site are presented.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-134215 , SAO-403-003
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  • 2
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: The development of computer programs applicable to space vehicle guidance was conducted. The subjects discussed are as follows: (1) determination of optimum reentry trajectories, (2) development of equations for performance of trajectory computation, (3) vehicle control for fuel optimization, (4) development of equations for performance trajectory computations, (5) applications and solution of Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and (6) stresses in dome shaped shells with discontinuities at the apex.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-139443
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A planning and feasibility study to identify and document a methodology needed to incorporate educational programs into future missions and operations of the space transportation system was conducted. Six tasks were identified and accomplished during the study. The task statements are as follows: (1) potential user identification, (2) a review of space education programs, (3) development of methodology for user involvement, (4) methods to encourage user awareness, (5) compilation of follow-on ideas, and (6) response to NASA questions. Specific recommendations for improving the educational coverage of space activities are provided.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-120514
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation was conducted of new techniques used to determine the complete transonic drag characteristics of a series of free-flight drop-test models using principally radar tracking data. The full capabilities of the radar tracking and meteorological measurement systems were utilized. In addition, preflight trajectory design, exact kinematic equations, and visual-analytical filtering procedures were employed. The results of this study were compared with the results obtained from analysis of the onboard, accelerometer and pressure sensor data of the only drop-test model that was instrumented. The accelerometer-pressure drag curve was approximated by the radar-data drag curve. However, a small amplitude oscillation on the latter curve precluded a precise definition of its drag rise.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: L-8398 , NASA-TN-D-7710
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The role that NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center played in the space program during the past 13 years is highlighted with pictures and text, plus background information concerning events that were important in the center's formation.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70382 , MHR-10
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Skylab 4 experiment's selection for observing of the Comet Kohoutek, 1973f is documented. The report also reflects premission planning versus the actual experiment performance based upon the changing cometary parameters. The experiment concepts, hardware, operational performance and anaomalies are discussed. Experiments which viewed the comet were mainly through the SAL and ATM, but some were handheld and EVA. A complete astronaut commentary appears as appendixes.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-64880
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Solar radiation pressure is discussed as a cause of rotational bursting, and of eventual elimination of asymmetric dust particles from the solar system, by a windmill effect. The predicted life span with this process for metallic particles with radii of 0.00001 to 0.01 cm ranges from 10 to 10,000 years. The effects of magnetic spin damping were considered. This depletion mechanism works faster than the traditional Poynting-Robertson effect by approximately one order of magnitude for metallic particles and about two orders of magnitude for nonmetallic particles.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: X-405-74-300 , NASA-TM-X-70760
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A broad range of research projects contained in a cooperative space technology program at the University of Kansas are reported as they relate to the following three areas of interdisciplinary interest: (1) remote sensing of earth resources; (2) stability and control of light and general aviation aircraft; and (3) the vibrational response characteristics of aeronautical and space vehicles. Details of specific research efforts are given under their appropriate departments, among which are aerospace engineering, chemical and petroleum engineering, environmental health, water resources, the remote sensing laboratory, and geoscience applications studies.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140623
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  • 9
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of particular faint asteroids of interest, in particular the Trojans, were carried out during an observation run at Kitt Peak National Observatory (1.3 meter telescope) in September 1973, and an attempt was made to study the compositional variation within Hirayama families. A particularly important study was initiated to observe spectrophotometrically certain asteroids which are considered as potential source bodies for meteorites. A program was also undertaken to coordinate the spectrophotometry program with polarimetric and thermal-infrared observation programs being conducted elsewhere.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140511
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  • 10
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A minimal set of well defined coordinate systems necessary for the interchange of data within the space shuttle program is presented. The document format consists of four parts: (1) a list of the subscripts identifying the coordinate systems, (2) a glossary explaning the terms used within the coordinate system definitions, (3) figures defining, both graphically and verbally, each coordinate system, and (4) an appendix (published separately) showing the relationships (transformations) between similar systems.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-58153 , NASA-IN-74-FM-51 , JSC-09084
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  • 11
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This monograph describes the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's program to explore the planet that most nearly resembles the earth and the search for life on the surface of Mars that the Vikings are scheduled to begin in 1976.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-SP-334
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This investigation was undertaken to determine the usefulness of interval analysis to numerical integration and matrix inversion techniques and to combine these results to determine the value of interval analysis in bounding computational errors in the two-body problem. Conclusions were that interval analysis may be worthwhile in certain small scale isolated problems, but its usefulness in any large scale problem is doubtful.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140426
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Thirty well-exposed photographic plates showing the spectrum of the carbon dioxide band at 8689A in the atmosphere of Venus were obtained during 1968 and 1969. All spectra were obtained at a dispersion of 2 A/mm for Venus phase angles varying from 10 deg. to 126 deg. Rotational temperatures ranging from 236 K to 274 K were found. The average value of the rotational temperature is 246 + or - 1 K (one standard deviation); for 1967 observations, the rotational temperatures ranged from 222 to 248 K, with an average value of 238 + or - 4 K. The variation of the equivalent width of the 8689A band, with Venus phase angle, was very similar for the two sets of observations (53 plates). The temporal variations, of approximately 30 percent, were comparable with the phase variations over this limited range of phase angle.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140399 , REPT-10
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Viking '75 Mission to Mars is reported which permits a truly unique opportunity to explore the natural satellite, Phobos, from distances measured in tens of kilometers. A preliminary feasibility study has been made which shows that a science mission involving a Phobos close encounter is technically feasible and within the capabilities of the current Viking design. For less than 20 m/s, the Viking Orbiter can provide approximately two 40-day periods of close observation of Phobos, with the first encounter period in January and the second in March, 1977. Multi-pass images of the entire satellite from nearly all aspect angles and with resolution on the order of 10 meters are possible. Close encounters will permit mass determinations to an accuracy of tens of percent. These experiments can be performed in series with the nominal mission; thus, providing complementary scientific information without compromising the original mission and science objectives.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-72004
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Each data set contained in this catalog lists spacecraft characteristics, experiment personnel, and a brief description of astronomy and solar physics experiments.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-72529 , NSSDC-74-15C-SUPPL-2C
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of the Apollo 15 subsatellite magnetometer experiment are reported. The magnetometer is described including the operation, and specifications. Orbit plots presented are altitude versus time, selenographic longitude versus latitude, and the ecliptic projection of the earth-moon system. The lunar magnetic field, solar wind interaction with the moon, the transfer function of the moon, and the plasma sheet interaction with the moon are discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140213 , IGPP-1372-55
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Program SEPSIM is a FORTRAN program which performs deployment, servicing, and retrieval missions to synchronous equatorial orbit using a space tug with a continuous low thrust upper stage known as a solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS). The SEPS ferries payloads back and forth between an intermediate orbit and synchronous orbit, and performs the necessary servicing maneuvers in synchronous orbit. The tug carries payloads between the orbiter and the intermediate orbit, deploys fully fueled SEPS vehicles, and retrieves exhausted SEPS vehicles when, and if, required. The program is presently contained in subroutine form in the Logistical On-orbit VEhicle Servicing (LOVES) Program, but can also be run independently with the addition of a simple driver program.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140027 , ATR-74(7341)-2
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The duty cycle for the LM-11 APS consisted of two firings, an ascent stage liftoff from the lunar surface, and the terminal phase initiation (TPI) burn. APS performance for the first firing was evaluated and found to be satisfactory. No propulsion data were received from the second APS burn; however, all indications were that the burn was nominal. Engine ignition for the APS lunar liftoff burn occured at the Apollo elapsed time (AET) of 175:31:47.9 (hours:minutes:seconds). Burn duration was 427.7 seconds.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: MSC-07230-SUPPL-3 , TRW-20029-H162-RO-00 , NASA-CR-134366
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  • 19
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Studies have covered a wide range of problems in the space environment, such as the problems of the dynamical behavior of the thermosphere, hydromagnetic wave propagation in the ionosphere, and interplanetary space environment. The theories used to analyze these problems range from a continuum theory of magnetohydrodynamics to the kinetic theory of free molecular flow. This is because the problems encountered covered the entire range of the Knudsen number (i.e., the ratio of mean free path to the characteristic length). Significant results are summarized.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: UAHRR-152 , NASA-CR-120375
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Photographic spectra of Cen X-3 show that the primary star has a spectral type near 06.5 with weak, variable emission at wavelength 4640 and 4686. No orbital motion of the emission or absorption lines is detected; for the latter the upper limit is approximately + or - 50 km/s. Analysis of the available data indicates that the primary is a factor of 2-3 less massive than expected from normal evolutionary models while the X-ray source has a solar mass near 1.5.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-139569
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A FORTRAN computer program was developed which automatically targets two and three burn rendezvous missions and performs feedback guidance using the GUIDE algorithm. The program was designed to accept a large class of orbit specifications and to automatically choose a two or three burn mission depending upon the time alignment of the vehicle and target. The orbits may be specified as any combination of circular and elliptical orbits and may be coplanar or inclined, but must be aligned coaxially with their perigees in the same direction. The program accomplishes the required targeting by repeatedly converging successively more complex missions. It solves the coplanar impulsive version of the mission, then the finite burn coplanar mission, and finally, the full plane change mission. The GUIDE algorithm is exercised in a feedback guidance mode by taking the targeted solution and moving the vehicle state step by step ahead in time, adding acceleration and navigational errors, and reconverging from the perturbed states at fixed guidance update intervals. A program overview is presented, along with a user's guide which details input, output, and the various subroutines.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-120393
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Prominent intensity spikes in the flux of protons and alphas with less than 0.5 MeV per charge were observed in the region several hours behind an interplanetary shock front. The small spatial scale of these events and the high anisotropy of the particle flux suggest local acceleration. The spectra of the particles, which are cut off at equal energy per charge, suggest acceleration through an electric field. The possibility is examined that these events have their origin in active magnetic neutral sheets in the shocked solar wind.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-139387 , TR-74-116
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A quantitative theory of ionization in diffuse clouds is developed which includes H(+) charge exchange with O. Dissociative charge exchange of He(+) with H2 plays an important role in the densities of H(+) and He(+). The abundance of HD is also discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138964
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: By using the Mariner 5 temperature profile and a homogeneous cloud model, and assuming that CO2 and cloud particles are the only opacity sources, the wavelength dependence of the Venus cloud opacity is inferred from the infrared spectrum of the planet between 450 and 1250/cm. Justification for applying the homogeneous cloud model is found in the fact that numerous polarization and infrared data are mutually consistent within the framework of such a model; on the other hand, dense cloud models are not satisfactory. Volume extinction coefficients varying from 0.000005 to 0.000015/cm depending on the wavelength, are determined at the tropopause level of 6110 km. By using all available data, a cloud mass mixing ratio of approximately 0.000005 and a particle concentration of about 900 particles per cu cm at this level are also inferred. The derived cloud opacity compares favorably with that expected for a haze of droplets of a 75% aqueous solution of sulfuric acid.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70713 , X-622-74-191
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This manual is a guide for using a computer program which calculates time optimal trajectories for high-and low-thrust geocentric transfers. Either SEP or NEP may be assumed and a one or two impulse, fixed total delta V, initial high thrust phase may be included. Also a single impulse of specified delta V may be included after the low thrust state. The low thrust phase utilizes equinoctial orbital elements to avoid the classical singularities and Kryloff-Boguliuboff averaging to help insure more rapid computation time. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 in double precision for use on an IBM 360 computer. The manual includes a description of the problem treated, input/output information, examples of runs, and source code listings.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-139038 , R-827
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A numerical simulation of radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer of the Martian dust-laden atmosphere-soil system is presented with particular emphasis given to heating/cooling in regions of sharp variation in temperature or absorption and its resultant impact on outgoing planetary spectral radiance, as measured by the Mariner 9 IRIS. Thermal coupling between the ground and atmospheric subsystems is modeled by the total heat flux balance at the interface. In the simulation procedure, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is assumed, and a combined strong-weak line transmission function permits short- and long-range exchanges of energy from the surface toward space. Direct absorption of insolation in the near-IR bands by both silicate dust and CO2 is incorporated.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138834
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method is presented for factoring a two-impulse orbital transfer into a three- or four-impulse transfer which solves the rendezvous problem and satisfies an intermediate timing constraint. Both the time of rendezvous and the intermediate time of a alinement are formulated as any element of a finite sequence of times. These times are integer multiples of a constant plus an additive constant. The rendezvous condition is an equality constraint, whereas the intermediate alinement is an inequality constraint. The two timing constraints are satisfied by factoring the impulses into collinear parts that vectorially sum to the original impulse and by varying the resultant period differences and the number of revolutions in each orbit. Five different types of solutions arise by considering factoring either or both of the two impulses into two or three parts with a limit for four total impulses. The impulse-factoring technique may be applied to any two-impulse transfer which has distinct orbital periods.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TR-R-422 , L-9281
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  • 28
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The transit of Mercury of November 10, 1973 was observed from Silver Spring, Maryland (76 deg 58' W, 39 deg 01' N) for the period 6:48:00 EST, near sunrise, to 8:17:18 (contact 4). A total of 24 frames of 35mm Pan X film were taken through a Questar telescope equipped with a sun filter of 40mm aperture. The diameter of the solar image is 13mm on the film. Transit photographs from the observation are included.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70690 , X-673-74-132
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Work carried out to identify human performance requirements for remotely manned system is reported. Specifically, an evaluation was made of the human visual system. Data cover distance estimation 4, solid target alignment 2, motion detection 1, and motion detection 2.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: H-4-2 , NASA-CR-120219
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  • 30
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Absolute spectral energy distributions for the large redshift quasars OQ 172 and OH 471 are discussed along with similar data for two other quasars 4C05.34 and PHL 957. Assuming cosmological redshifts, OQ 172 and OH 471 are not as luminous as PHL 957. If these quasars are basically similar and if radiative processes dominate, the strength of Ly alpha and the behavior of the continuum at the Lyman limit strongly suggest that these objects consist of a central ionizing source surrounded by discrete clouds, filaments or a gaseous structure such as a disk. This gaseous matter does not cover the whole solid angle surrounding the source.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138610
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  • 31
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    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cross sections are discussed for rotational excitation associated with theories of absorption and emission lines from molecules in space with emphasis on H2CO, CO, and OH by collisions with neutral particles such H, H2, and He. The sensitivity of the Thaddeus equation for the H2CO calculation is examined.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138600
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: If a set of N points or nodes with a nonnegative cost associated with each ordered pair is known, it is desired to find a path from one given node to another given node which minimizes the cost sum. An algorithm is presented which yields a global minimum solution after at most N - 1 iterations or on a typical large third-generation computer, after 1 hour of computation time for a 10,000-node problem. The rapid-access data storage capacity demanded by the algorithm is approximately 3N words for costs read in from slow-access storage or 2N words for calculable costs. The time-storage requirements of the algorithm known to the authors. When the problem is viewed as a discretized optimal control problem, after N-1 iterations, an optimal control or node transition is established for each of the N nodes or states; thus, the algorithm can be applied to situations were there may be errors in the control that necessitate a closed loop control that necessitate a closed loop control philosophy.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7580 , L-9342
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The production cross sections of Ar39 for Ti spallation at 45-, 319-, 433-, and 584-MeV proton energies were measured to be 0.37 + or - 0.09, 12.4 + or - 3.7, 9.1 + or - 2.7, and 17.8 + or - 6.2 mb, respectively. Normalized Ar39 production rates and activities are also derived for protons above 40 MeV and for three differential proton spectra of the type approximately E(- alpha). It is concluded that, even for samples of high-Ti content, Ti spallation by solar protons below 200-MeV energy does not contribute significantly to their Ar39 radioactivity.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: SAO-404-068 , NASA-CR-134251
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The physical and mechanical properties of the unconsolidated lunar surface material samples that were obtained during the Apollo missions were studied. Sources of data useful for deduction of soil information, and methods used to obtained the data are indicated. A model for lunar soil behavior is described which considers soil characteristics, density and porosity, strength, compressibility, and trafficability parameters. Lunar history and processes are considered, and a comparison is made of lunar and terrestrial soil behavior. The impact of the findings on future exploration and development of the moon are discussed, and publications resulting from lunar research by the soil mechanics team members are listed.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-134306
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Formulas are derived for the root-mean-square (rms) displacement, slope, and curvature errors in an azimuth-elevation image trace of an elongated object in space, as functions of the number and spacing of the input data points and the rms elevation error in the individual input data points from a single observation station. Also, formulas are derived for the total rms displacement, slope, and curvature error vectors in the triangulation solution of an elongated object in space due to the rms displacement, slope, and curvature errors, respectively, in the azimuth-elevation image traces from different observation stations. The total rms displacement, slope, and curvature error vectors provide useful measure numbers for determining the relative merits of two or more different triangulation procedures applicable to elongated objects in space.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: L-9193 , NASA-TN-D-7477
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The rate of evolution of CO from Comet Kohoutex is presented. The observations were made approximately two months after perihelion. The rate of evolution of CO at that time was apparently less than that of CH3CN observed before perihelion.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138501
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method has previously been developed to satisfy terminal rendezvous and intermediate timing constraints for planetary missions involving orbital operations. The method uses impulse factoring in which a two-impulse transfer is divided into three or four impulses which add one or two intermediate orbits. The periods of the intermediate orbits and the number of revolutions in each orbit are varied to satisfy timing constraints. Techniques are developed to retarget the orbital transfer in the presence of orbit-determination and maneuver-execution errors. Sample results indicate that the nominal transfer can be retargeted with little change in either the magnitude (Delta V) or location of the individual impulses. Additonally, the total Delta V required for the retargeted transfer is little different from that required for the nominal transfer. A digital computer program developed to implement the techniques is described.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: L-9280 , NASA-TM-X-2971
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  • 38
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An overview is presented of magnetism in meteorites. A glossary of magnetism terminology followed by discussion of the various techniques used for magnetism studies in meteorites are included. The generalized results from use of these techniques by workers in the field are described. A brief critical analysis is offered.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138491
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Twelve science demonstrations were accomplished on the Skylab 3 and 4 missions. These were defined in response to crew requests for time-gap fillers and were designed to be accomplished using onboard equipment. The following 12 are described and the preliminary results are given: liquid floating zone; diffusion in liquids; ice melting; immiscible liquids; liquid films; gyroscope; Rochelle salt growth; deposition of silver crystals; fluid mechanics series; neutron environment; orbital mechanics; and charged particle mobility.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-64835
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two papers are presented which relate to the Skylab barium shaped charge experiments. The first describes the L=6.6 OOSIK barium plasma injection experiment and magnetic storm of March 7, 1972. Rocket payload, instrumentation, data reduction methods, geophysical environment at the time of the experiment, and results are given. The second paper presents the observation of an auroral Birkeland current which developed from the distortion of a barium plasma jet during the above experiment.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138164
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients in the geomagnetic tail field, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile for the moon: the conductivity increases rapidly with depth from 10 to the minus 9 power mhos/meter at the lunar surface to .0001 mhos/meter at 200 km depth, then less rapidly to .02 mhos/meter at 1000 km depth. A temperature profile is calculated from conductivity: temperature rises rapidly with depth to 1100 K at 200 km depth, then less rapidly to 1800 K at 1000 km depth. Velocities and thicknesses of the earth's magnetopause and bow shock are estimated from simultaneous magnetometer measurements. Average speeds are determined to be about 50 km/sec for the magnetopause and 70 km/sec for the bow shock, although there are large variations in the measurements for any particular boundary crossing.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-62350
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  • 42
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of lunar transient phenomena for the Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers (ALPO) are reported. The procedures for making visual observations for estimating albedo are described, and the reported albedo analyzed for lunar topographic features. It is shown that a catalog or scale of albedos can be established for each feature.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70625 , X-601-74-86
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Interplanetary trajectory characteristics are presented, for Venus swingbys to Mercury, where multiple revolutions about the Sun are permitted. Additional consideration is given to the use of multiple Venus swingbys and/or to midcourse, near perilhelion, propulsive maneuvers to improve the performance of the mission as measured in terms of payload in Mercury orbit. Missions in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were analyzed with navigation results also developed. An exploratory investigation established the availability of low energy mission opportunities in 1991, 1994, 1996 and 1999.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-2385
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  • 44
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Hubble's equation relating the maximum apparent angular extent of a reflection nebula to the apparent magnitude of the illuminating star has been reconsidered under a set of less restrictive assumptions. A computational technique is developed which permits the use of fits to observed m, log a values to determine the albedo of the particles composing reflection nebulae, providing only that one assumes a particular phase function. Despite the fact that all orders of scattering, anisotropic phase functions, and illumination by the general stellar field are considered, the albedo which is determined for reflection nebulae by this method appears larger than that for interstellar particles in general. The possibility that the higher surface brightness might be due to a continuous fluorescence mechanism is considered both theoretically and observationally.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138072
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Deep Space Network (DSN) activities in support of Project Apollo during the period of 1971 and 1972 are reported. Beginning with the Apollo 14 mission and concluding with the Apollo 17 mission, the narrative includes, (1) a mission description, (2) the NASA support requirements placed on the DSN, and, (3) a comprehensive account of the support activities provided by each committed DSN deep space communication station. Associated equipment and activities of the three elements of the DSN (the Deep Space Instrumentation Facility (DSIF), the Space Flight Operations Facility (SFOF), and the Ground Communications Facility (GCF)) used in meeting the radio-metric and telemetry demands of the missions are documented.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-137347 , JPL-TM-33-452-VOL-3
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A partial accounting of Apollo Orbital Science Photographic Team (APST) work is presented as reported by one of its members who provided scientific recommendations for, guidance in, and reviews of photography in astronomy. Background on the formation of the team and its functions and management are discussed. It is concluded that the APST clearly performed the overall objective for which it was established - to improve the scientific value of the Apollo lunar missions. Specific reasons for this success are given.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-137376
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  • 47
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The lunar samples from the Apollo 16 and 17 flights which were analyzed include soil, igneous rock, anorthositic gabbro, orange soil, subfloor basalt, and norite breccia. Up to 57 elements including majors, minors, rare earths and other trace elements were determined in the lunar samples. The analytical techniques used were spark source mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The latter was done either instrumentally or with group radiochemical separations. The differences in abundances of the elements in lunar soils at the various sites are discussed. With regard to the major elements only Si is about the same at all the sites. A detailed analysis which was performed on a sample of the Allende meteorite is summarized.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-137386
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The experiment is described for airborne observations of Comet Kohoutek using an infrared tilting-filter photometer. Preliminary analysis of the data established an upper limit to the Comet's fluorescence radiation in methane lines at 3.3 microns.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: LMSC-D358455 , NASA-CR-114738
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Research development in the Charged Particle Lunar Environment Experiment (CPLEE) is reported. The CPLEE is ion-electron spectrometer placed on the lunar surface for the purpose of measuring charged particle fluxes impacting the moon from a variety of regions and to study the interactions between space plasmas and the lunar surface. The principal accomplishments reported include: (1) furnishing design specifications for construction of the CPLEE instruments; (2) development of an advanced computer-controlled facility for automated instrument calibration; (3) active participation in the deployment and past-deployment operational phases with regard to data verification and operational mode selection; and (4) publication of research papers, including a study of lunar photoelectrons, a study of plasmas resulting from man-made lunar impart events, a study of magnetotail and magnetosheath particle populations, and a study of solar-flare interplanetary particles.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-134205
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  • 50
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Traffic model data for the space shuttle for calendar years 1980 through 1991 are presented along with some supporting and summary data. This model was developed from the 1973 NASA Payload Model, dated October 1973, and the NASA estimate of the 1973 Non-NASA/Non-DoD Payload Model. The estimates for the DoD flights included are based on the 1971 DoD Mission Model.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-64751
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-129021
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  • 52
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Several possible H2 vertical distributions in Titan's atmosphere are considered with the constraint of 5 km-A a total quantity. Approximative calculations show that hydrogen distribution is quite sensitive to two other parameters of Titan's atmosphere: the temperature and the presence of other constituents. The escape fluxes of H and H2 are also estimated as well as the consequent distributions trapped in the Saturnian system.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 123-133
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  • 53
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The vertical temperature contrast for the thermosphere of Titan is estimated considering heating by absorption of solar energy, energy loss through infrared radiation by polyatomic molecules, and energy transfer by thermal conduction between the regions of energy deposition and loss. Current observational data suggest a CH4/H2 mixing ratio of approximately greater than 1, and a vertical temperature contrast smaller than 10 K. However, it is highly probable that H2 and CH4 are not in equilibrium in the thermosphere if there are large H2 escape rates.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 144
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  • 54
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: It is shown that a pure hydrogen atmosphere cannot be retained by Titan, but will blow off in a few hours. Addition of a heavier gas, such as CH4 or N2, in comparable abundance gives a great improvement, although the escape rate can still be large. Moreover, the actual flux can be predicted with confidence from the mixing ratio of H2 to heavy gas.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 110-117
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A very detailed greenhouse model derives a methane to hydrogen ratio of unity and a minimum surface pressure of 0.4 atm. Based on a surface gravity g = 140 cm sec/2, the minimum CH4 abundance is 30-40 km-A and the minimum H2 abundance varies from 15 to 85 km-A. A model of the atmosphere of Titan is proposed which seems to be consistent with observations and requires a much smaller CH4 abundance (of the order or 2 km-atm). Although no H2 is required, the presence of some H2 is readily accommodated. In this model, a temperature inversion exists in the atmosphere due to absorption of blue and ultraviolet solar radiation by small particles. The absorbed radiation is re-radiated by the dust and by molecules having long wavelength bands such as CH4 7.7 micrometer and ethane at 12.2 micrometer. The brightness temperature at 20 micrometer is primarily due to re-radiation by the dust.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 92-109
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  • 56
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The wide variation in infrared brightness temperature of Titan is explained in terms of a greenhouse effect. Radiometric observations in the infrared and microwave frequencies indicate an alternate hot atmospheric model. Methane, ammonia, hydrogen atoms, and nitrogen atoms are suggested as main constituents for the Titan atmosphere.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 12-16
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  • 57
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Titan is the largest satellite of Saturn. Its probable structure includes a possible ice crust and a massive atmosphere that far outweighs those of other satellites of the outer planets. Possible atmospheric compositions compatible with spectroscopic data contain methane abundances, hydrogen atoms, and nitrogen.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: The Atmos. of Titan; p 1-3
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  • 58
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The trapping of Titan's escaping atmosphere in the Saturnian system by a toroidal ring is discussed. The radius of the toroid is comparable to Titan's orbit, or about ten times larger than the visible rings. Theoretical atmospheric models are formulated that consider Saturn's gravitational attraction and magnetospheric properties in forming this toroid and in protecting toroid particles from direct ionization by solar wind particles.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 118-122
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  • 59
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: High altitude deposition of energy in Titan's atmosphere can have a significant effect on the spectral distribution of emitted thermal radiation from the satellite. This reasoning led to the prediction of emission peaks at wavelengths corresponding to allowed bands of CH4 and trace photolysis products such as C2H6. Intermediate resolution infrared spectrophotometry has encouraged this interpretation of the infrared properties of Titan, and provided the basis for initial, detailed model.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 88-91
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Titan has a warm upper atmosphere. Whether it has a warm lower atmosphere and hot surface is an open question. This question is important not only from a purely scientific point of view, but also for assessing the viability of a Titan entry probe.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: The Atmos. of Titan; p 72-87
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A review of available information on the photometry, polarimetry, and narrow band spectrophotometry of Titan discusses five major categories: (1) brightness and color as a function of orbital position; (2) brightness and color as a function of solar phase angle; (3) geometric and bond albedo; (4) reflectance as a function of wavelength; and (5) polarization as a function of solar phase angle. It is concluded that a Saturn-like cloud model may be required to explain the sum of polarimetric and photometric observations.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 43-57
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  • 62
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Methane absorptions are prominent in the Titan atmospheric spectrum; also present are atomic hydrogen and nitrogen bands. Evaluation of the low ultraviolet albedo points to solid methane clouds and photochemical haze. Thermal infrared data indicate solar energy absorption and photodissociation reactions of the gas mixture resulting in the production of organic compounds and free hydrogen atoms.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 4-8
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  • 63
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Measurements of the irradiance of Titan from 0.05 to 1.08 micrometer were carried out by 60-inch reflector, spectrometer, and pulse counting electronics. An approximate contour of the geometric albedo assumes methane is the principal absorber. The albedo of Titan reaches a maximum value of 0.37 at 0.68, 0.753, and 0.83 micrometers, while in the center of the strongest absorption features, at 0.89 and 1.0. micrometer, it falls to 0.10. Comparison with the methane bands of Jupiter and Saturn indicates that the maxima clearly do not represent the continuum and that the lower values may well be depressed by wings of methane bands adjacent to them.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 154-160
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Narrow band observations of Titan at selected wavelengths in the 8-13 micron range show evidence for a strong temperature inversion and the existence of at least one more spectroscopically active component in the atmosphere in addition to H2 and CH4.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 145-148
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  • 65
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: The Atmos. of Titan; p 134-142
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  • 66
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Spectroscopic evidence shows that hydrogen atoms are major constituents of Titan's atmosphere. Anomalous enhancement of the methane absorption band is attributed to isotopic shifts arising from methane photolysis. Anomalous ultraviolet absorption features suggest high altitude dust and an elevated cloud layer overlaying most of the methane in the atmosphere.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 17-41
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  • 67
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The bulk composition and interior structure of Titan required to explain the presence of a substantial methane atmosphere are shown to imply the presence of solid CH4 - 7H2O in Titan's primitive material. Consideration of the possible composition and structure of the present atmosphere shows plausible grounds for considering models with total atmospheric pressures ranging from approximately 20 mb up to approximately 1 kb. Expectations regarding the physical state of the surface and its chemical composition are strongly conditioned by the mass of atmosphere believed to be present. A surface of solid CH4, liquid CH4 solid, CH4 hydrate, H2O ice, aqueous NH3 solution, or even a non-surface of supercritical H2O-NH3-CH4 fluid could be rationalized.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 58-71
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  • 68
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A Titan radius of 2500 km and its corresponding mass are used to determine Titan density at 2.1 plus or minus 0.6 g cm to the minus 3 power acceleration and gravity at the surface as 145 plus or minus 30 cm s/2.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 9-11
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  • 69
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: It is important that future occultations by Titan be predicted well in advance, and imperative that they be observed adequately. Stellar occultations can yield reliable temperature/number density profiles of Titan's upper atmosphere near the density level. The temperature profiles can be used to discriminate between atmospheric compositions having high mean molecular weights, and those having low mean molecular weights. Detection of spikes at several wavelengths with high time resolution gives useful limits on the helium content of the atmosphere.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 149-153
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  • 70
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    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Saturn and Titan have been observed at three frequencies (1420, 2695, and 8085 MHz) with the NRAO interferometer. A clear positive Titan detection has been obtained at 8085 MHz. Assuming Titan's radius is 2500 km, the radio brightness temperature (i.e. for unit emissivity) is 115 + or - 35 K.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 143
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  • 71
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 72
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 73
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 74
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 75
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 76
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 77
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 78
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Thermoplastic polymers ; Polymers ; Industrial chemistry ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: One of the most important features influencing the mechanical behavior of a fabricated thermoplastic item is the spatial arrangement of the polymer molecules. Inter alia processes developed for controlling the pattern of orientation of the polymer molecules are discussed.
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  • 79
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 80
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 81
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 82
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 84
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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