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  • SPACE SCIENCES  (6,791)
  • 1970 - 1974  (6,791)
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  • 1
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Measurements of the irradiance of Titan from 0.05 to 1.08 micrometer were carried out by 60-inch reflector, spectrometer, and pulse counting electronics. An approximate contour of the geometric albedo assumes methane is the principal absorber. The albedo of Titan reaches a maximum value of 0.37 at 0.68, 0.753, and 0.83 micrometers, while in the center of the strongest absorption features, at 0.89 and 1.0. micrometer, it falls to 0.10. Comparison with the methane bands of Jupiter and Saturn indicates that the maxima clearly do not represent the continuum and that the lower values may well be depressed by wings of methane bands adjacent to them.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 154-160
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  • 2
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The trapping of Titan's escaping atmosphere in the Saturnian system by a toroidal ring is discussed. The radius of the toroid is comparable to Titan's orbit, or about ten times larger than the visible rings. Theoretical atmospheric models are formulated that consider Saturn's gravitational attraction and magnetospheric properties in forming this toroid and in protecting toroid particles from direct ionization by solar wind particles.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 118-122
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  • 3
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: High altitude deposition of energy in Titan's atmosphere can have a significant effect on the spectral distribution of emitted thermal radiation from the satellite. This reasoning led to the prediction of emission peaks at wavelengths corresponding to allowed bands of CH4 and trace photolysis products such as C2H6. Intermediate resolution infrared spectrophotometry has encouraged this interpretation of the infrared properties of Titan, and provided the basis for initial, detailed model.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 88-91
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The wide variation in infrared brightness temperature of Titan is explained in terms of a greenhouse effect. Radiometric observations in the infrared and microwave frequencies indicate an alternate hot atmospheric model. Methane, ammonia, hydrogen atoms, and nitrogen atoms are suggested as main constituents for the Titan atmosphere.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 12-16
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  • 5
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-05-05
    Description: Spectroscopic and radiometric observations are used to form models for the Titan atmospheric composition and circulation.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-SP-340 , 25-27 Jul. 1973; Moffett Field, CA; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-07-16
    Description: A tabulation of galaxies which have radial velocities is presented. The parameters of each galaxy are: (1) an abbreviation for the catalog designation, (2) RA(1950), (3) Dec. (1950), (4) new galactic longitude, (5) new galactic latitude, (6) morphological type, (7) magnitude, (8) observed radial velocity in kilometers per second (9) radial velocity corrected for solar motion, and (10) estimated error in radial velocity in kilometers per second.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138499
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: The maximum count rates of energetic particles are observed earlier on the inbound pass and later on the outbound pass than one would expect if the Jovian magnetodisk moved rigidly with the planet. This lead and lag cannot be explained by the observed azimuthal distortion of the Jovian magnetic field alone. A possible explanation is that the foot of a magnetic field line in the ionosphere slips with respect to Jupiter's surface. The rate of slippage and the electric field necessary for this is estimated. The electric field may be as large as 2 V/m in the Jovian polar ionosphere.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: AD-A000275 , Journal of Geophysical Research; 79; Sept. 1
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  • 8
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: The Atmos. of Titan; p 134-142
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  • 9
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: It is shown that a pure hydrogen atmosphere cannot be retained by Titan, but will blow off in a few hours. Addition of a heavier gas, such as CH4 or N2, in comparable abundance gives a great improvement, although the escape rate can still be large. Moreover, the actual flux can be predicted with confidence from the mixing ratio of H2 to heavy gas.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 110-117
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  • 10
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The bulk composition and interior structure of Titan required to explain the presence of a substantial methane atmosphere are shown to imply the presence of solid CH4 - 7H2O in Titan's primitive material. Consideration of the possible composition and structure of the present atmosphere shows plausible grounds for considering models with total atmospheric pressures ranging from approximately 20 mb up to approximately 1 kb. Expectations regarding the physical state of the surface and its chemical composition are strongly conditioned by the mass of atmosphere believed to be present. A surface of solid CH4, liquid CH4 solid, CH4 hydrate, H2O ice, aqueous NH3 solution, or even a non-surface of supercritical H2O-NH3-CH4 fluid could be rationalized.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 58-71
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  • 11
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A Titan radius of 2500 km and its corresponding mass are used to determine Titan density at 2.1 plus or minus 0.6 g cm to the minus 3 power acceleration and gravity at the surface as 145 plus or minus 30 cm s/2.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 9-11
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  • 12
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Methane absorptions are prominent in the Titan atmospheric spectrum; also present are atomic hydrogen and nitrogen bands. Evaluation of the low ultraviolet albedo points to solid methane clouds and photochemical haze. Thermal infrared data indicate solar energy absorption and photodissociation reactions of the gas mixture resulting in the production of organic compounds and free hydrogen atoms.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 4-8
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  • 13
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: It is important that future occultations by Titan be predicted well in advance, and imperative that they be observed adequately. Stellar occultations can yield reliable temperature/number density profiles of Titan's upper atmosphere near the density level. The temperature profiles can be used to discriminate between atmospheric compositions having high mean molecular weights, and those having low mean molecular weights. Detection of spikes at several wavelengths with high time resolution gives useful limits on the helium content of the atmosphere.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 149-153
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A planning and feasibility study to identify and document a methodology needed to incorporate educational programs into future missions and operations of the space transportation system was conducted. Six tasks were identified and accomplished during the study. The task statements are as follows: (1) potential user identification, (2) a review of space education programs, (3) development of methodology for user involvement, (4) methods to encourage user awareness, (5) compilation of follow-on ideas, and (6) response to NASA questions. Specific recommendations for improving the educational coverage of space activities are provided.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-120514
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  • 15
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Solar radiation pressure is discussed as a cause of rotational bursting, and of eventual elimination of asymmetric dust particles from the solar system, by a windmill effect. The predicted life span with this process for metallic particles with radii of 0.00001 to 0.01 cm ranges from 10 to 10,000 years. The effects of magnetic spin damping were considered. This depletion mechanism works faster than the traditional Poynting-Robertson effect by approximately one order of magnitude for metallic particles and about two orders of magnitude for nonmetallic particles.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: X-405-74-300 , NASA-TM-X-70760
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The apparent diurnal Martian surface pressure variations, as deduced from radio occultation experiments, is discussed and explained as possibly arising from the effect of a low-altitude electron layer. Possible source and loss mechanisms for the low altitude electron layer are presented and discussed. Time dependent differential equations describing the electron layer are derived, and then integrated to investigate the electron distribution resulting from several processes that might occur in the atmosphere. It is concluded that the source mechanism is the sublimation of alkali atoms from a permanent dust layer, and that the dominant loss process must involve CO2 clustering about the alkali atoms. An electron layer is developed which explains the apparent diurnal surface pressure variation.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7729 , L-9600
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  • 17
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Selected mission concepts for interplanetary exploration through 1985 were examined, including: (1) Jupiter orbiter performance characteristics; (2) solar electric propulsion missions to Mercury, Venus, Neptune, and Uranus; (3) space shuttle planetary missions; (4) Pioneer entry probes to Saturn and Uranus; (5) rendezvous with Comet Kohoutek and Comet Encke; (6) space tug capabilities; and (7) a Pioneer mission to Mars in 1979. Mission options, limitations, and performance predictions are assessed, along with probable configurational, boost, and propulsion requirements.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: SAI-120-M2 , NASA-CR-140407
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The purposes of the data catalog are to announce the availability of experimental space science data, to describe these data, and to inform potential users of the policies and procedures associated with data dissemination services.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NSSDC-74-15A , NASA-TM-X-72531
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A broad range of research projects contained in a cooperative space technology program at the University of Kansas are reported as they relate to the following three areas of interdisciplinary interest: (1) remote sensing of earth resources; (2) stability and control of light and general aviation aircraft; and (3) the vibrational response characteristics of aeronautical and space vehicles. Details of specific research efforts are given under their appropriate departments, among which are aerospace engineering, chemical and petroleum engineering, environmental health, water resources, the remote sensing laboratory, and geoscience applications studies.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140623
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  • 20
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Lunar thermal history modelling is used to demonstrate that a realistic computer simulation can be used to predict major and minor element concentrations, thickness of the lunar crust, and intensity of volcanic activity as a function of time. The models which are most consistent with the observations include: (1) a high surface temperature and low interior temperature during the very early lunar history; (2) high near-surface radioactivity and relatively low radioactivity in the interior; and (3) a molten zone formed at or near the surface which gradually migrates downward with time. Lunar magnetic anomaly calculations show that large anomalies measured at some of the landing sites and above some points on the surface cannot be caused by mere basalts but are consistent with valley fillings of Cayley-like material with a remanent magnetization of about 0.0002 emu/gm.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140257
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  • 21
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Efforts were directed toward surveying several supernova remnants for the emission of soft X-rays. Rather than attempt to detect such faint X-ray emission, the program was redirected to observe the spectrum and angular structure of the extended X-ray source in the Perseus cluster of galaxies and the super-nova remnant Puppis A. An attempt was made to detect X-ray line emission from Puppis A with a Bragg crystal spectrometer. Observations provide evidence for the presence of X-ray line emission in the spectrum of Puppis A near .65 keV.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140516
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  • 22
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The principal objective is presented of the UV observations, with emphasis placed on hydrogen and helium. Calculations are given for airglow and occultation. Mission requirements and trajectories are also reported for future observations.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140436
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  • 23
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A minimal set of well defined coordinate systems necessary for the interchange of data within the space shuttle program is presented. The document format consists of four parts: (1) a list of the subscripts identifying the coordinate systems, (2) a glossary explaning the terms used within the coordinate system definitions, (3) figures defining, both graphically and verbally, each coordinate system, and (4) an appendix (published separately) showing the relationships (transformations) between similar systems.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-58153 , NASA-IN-74-FM-51 , JSC-09084
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A computer program was developed to describe the three-dimensional motion of the Dynamic Docking Test System active table. The input consists of inertia and geometry data, actuator structural data, forcing function data, hydraulics data, servo electronics data, and integration control data. The output consists of table responses, actuator bending responses, and actuator responses.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140287 , D2-118544-2
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  • 25
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The coma region Comet Kohoutek (1973f) was observed with a 40-mm proximity focused image intensifier tube and filters to isolate principal emissions. The low brightness of the comet limited the results, but it was possible to compare the intensity profiles of C2 and continuum in the coma. It appears that Comet Kohoutek was a typical comet in that it did not exhibit unusual coma structure similar to that of Comet Bennet. Photographs taken with the 42 cm Schmidt showed typical type 1, type, 2 and antitail morphology, with increased type 2 activity after perihelion passage. A technique for eliminating the type 2 (dust) component of the tail is given by means of photographic subtraction of blue and red sensitive layers of a color photograph.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140396
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  • 26
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The long-range objectives were to develop methods of experimentation and analysis for the determination of the physical properties and engineering behavior of lunar surface materials under in situ environmental conditions. Data for this purpose were obtained from on-site manned investigations, orbiting and softlanded spacecraft, and terrestrial simulation studies. Knowledge of lunar surface material properties are reported for the development of models for several types of lunar studies and for the investigation of lunar processes. The results have direct engineering application for manned missions to the moon.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-140117 , SSL-SER-15-ISSUE-36
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  • 27
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Test systems are developed for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft and stations that are suitable for use as a standard international system. This includes the rendezvous and docking of Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft, and crew transfer. The conduct of the mission will include: (1) testing of compatible rendezvous systems in orbit; (2) testing of universal docking assemblies; (3) verifying the techniques for transfer of cosmonauts and astronauts; (4) performing certain activities by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. crews in joint flight; and (5) gaining of experience in conducting joint flights by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. spacecraft, including, in case of necessity, rendering aid in emergency situations.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: JSC-08819 , NASA-CR-140242
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The extensive photometric observations of Titan, Iapetus, Rhea, Dione and Tethys have made it possible to separate the solar phase and orbital phase contributions to the observed light variations of these satellites. For Titan, the wavelength dependence of its solar phase coefficient has been obtained. This dependence should prove useful in constructing future model atmospheres. The other four satellites show a surprising array of different photometric behaviors. Despite these differences, all four satellites have similar spectral reflectivities. Clearly Iapetus, Rhea, Dione and Tethys are complex objects, varying substantially from one another in surface structure and/or composition.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: CRSR-579 , NASA-CR-139631
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The radar measurements phase of the lunar studies involving reflectivity and topographic mapping of the visible lunar surface was ended in December 1972, but studies of the data and production of maps have continued. This work was supported by Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston. Topographic mapping of the equatorial regions of Mars has been carried out during the period of each opposition since that of 1967. The method comprised extended precise traveling time measurements to a small area centered on the subradar point. As measurements continued, planetary motions caused this point to sweep out extensive areas in both latitude and longitude permitting the development of a fairly extensive topographical map in the equatorial region. Radar observations of Mercury and Venus have also been made over the past few years. Refinements of planetary motions, reflectivity maps and determinations of rotation rates have resulted.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-139580
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  • 30
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The duty cycle for the LM-11 APS consisted of two firings, an ascent stage liftoff from the lunar surface, and the terminal phase initiation (TPI) burn. APS performance for the first firing was evaluated and found to be satisfactory. No propulsion data were received from the second APS burn; however, all indications were that the burn was nominal. Engine ignition for the APS lunar liftoff burn occured at the Apollo elapsed time (AET) of 175:31:47.9 (hours:minutes:seconds). Burn duration was 427.7 seconds.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: MSC-07230-SUPPL-3 , TRW-20029-H162-RO-00 , NASA-CR-134366
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  • 31
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Studies have covered a wide range of problems in the space environment, such as the problems of the dynamical behavior of the thermosphere, hydromagnetic wave propagation in the ionosphere, and interplanetary space environment. The theories used to analyze these problems range from a continuum theory of magnetohydrodynamics to the kinetic theory of free molecular flow. This is because the problems encountered covered the entire range of the Knudsen number (i.e., the ratio of mean free path to the characteristic length). Significant results are summarized.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: UAHRR-152 , NASA-CR-120375
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  • 32
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The major scientific accomplishments through 1971 are reported for the particle track studies of lunar samples. Results are discussed of nuclear track measurements by optical and electron microscopy, thermoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-134321
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: By using the Mariner 5 temperature profile and a homogeneous cloud model, and assuming that CO2 and cloud particles are the only opacity sources, the wavelength dependence of the Venus cloud opacity is inferred from the infrared spectrum of the planet between 450 and 1250/cm. Justification for applying the homogeneous cloud model is found in the fact that numerous polarization and infrared data are mutually consistent within the framework of such a model; on the other hand, dense cloud models are not satisfactory. Volume extinction coefficients varying from 0.000005 to 0.000015/cm depending on the wavelength, are determined at the tropopause level of 6110 km. By using all available data, a cloud mass mixing ratio of approximately 0.000005 and a particle concentration of about 900 particles per cu cm at this level are also inferred. The derived cloud opacity compares favorably with that expected for a haze of droplets of a 75% aqueous solution of sulfuric acid.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70713 , X-622-74-191
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The launch of Nimbus 4 in April 1974 has made possible simultaneous measurements of the ultraviolet solar irradiance and the global distribution of atmospheric ozone by the monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) and backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) experiments respectively. Two long lived ultraviolet active solar regions which are about 180 deg apart in solar longitude were observed to be associated with central meridian passages of solar magnetic sector boundaries. The boundaries may be significant in the evaluation of correlations between solar magnetic sector structure and atmospheric circulation.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: X-912-74-190 , NASA-TM-X-70712
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  • 35
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Galactic and solar system infrared observations are reported using a broad variety of radiometric and spectroscopic instrumentation. Infrared programs and papers published during this period are listed.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138965
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  • 36
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A simulation study is described of the translation, station keeping and final approach segments of the teleoperator implemented at MSFC. An effort is made to identify the teleoperator visual system design parameters which influence operator performance and to determine human factors design requirements for free flying teleoperators.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: H-4-4 , NASA-CR-120220
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A reinterpretation of the convective heat transport concept is presented for the IRIS measurements as an essential energy transfer mechanism. Thermal convection in a radiatively heated ground atmosphere system is discussed along with CO2 sublimation and diffusion from the Martian polar ice cap. A systematic reappraisal of the existing model is also included.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138835
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The analysis of data from the cosmic dust experiment on three NASA missions is discussed. These missions were Mariner IV, OGO III, and Lunar Explorer 35. The analysis effort has included some work in the laboratory of the physics of microparticle hypervelocity impact. This laboratory effort was initially aimed at the calibration and measurements of the different sensors being used in the experiment. The latter effort was conducted in order to better understand the velocity and mass distributions of the picogram sized ejecta particles.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138866
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  • 39
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The use of Experiment S019 to obtain moderate dispersion stellar spectra extending down to 1300A with sufficient spectral resolution to permit the study of ultraviolet (UV) line spectra and of spectral energy distributions of early-type stars is studied. Data obtained from this experiment should be of sufficient accuracy to permit detailed physical analysis of individual stars and nebulae, but an even more basic consideration is the expectation of obtaining spectra of a sufficient number of stars so that a statistically meaningful survey may be made of the UV spectra of a wide variety of star types. These should include all luminosity classes of spectral types O, B and A, as well as peculiar stars such as Wolf-Rayet stars and Ap or Am stars. An attempt was also made to obtain, in the no-prism mode, low dispersion UV spectra in a number of Milky Way star fields and in nearby galaxies.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-134318
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A detailed account of the Pioneer 10 encounter with Jupiter is presented. Flux time histories of electrons and protons are given over a wide energy band. Proton and electron energy spectra are given at various Jovicentric distances. Proton spectra are shown to transform from a power law with indices in the 3-4.2 range to more nearly exponential forms in the inner regions. Extensive data are presented on the angular distributions of protons and electrons at various locations in the Jovicentric magnetosphere. In addition, a harmonic analysis of 1-2 MeV proton angular distributions was performed. Alpha/proton ratios are given as a function of Jovian radius and are compared to the earth and solar wind values.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: X-660-74-198 , NASA-TM-X-70688
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Photoelectric spectral scans at 30-A resolution of 9 dwarfs, 10 giants and 6 supergiants with spectral types GO to M5 were presented. All stars were observed every 4 A from wavelength 3300 to wavelength 7000. Absorption features at this resolution coincide with: strong atomic lines of Fe 1,11, Ca 1,11, Mg 1, and Na 1; vibrational bands of the electronic transitions of TiO, MgH, CaH, SiH, AlH, Cn, Ch, C2, OH, and NH. The dependence of the wavelength 3740 Fe 1 blend and the wavelength 3440 depression on temperature is discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138777
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The value of synoptic imaging of the planets is reported. The advantage of the Large Space Telescope, as compared with ground-based telescopes and planetary orbiters and flybys, is discussed. Desirable LST camera parameters and observing strategies are considered from the standpoint of synoptic imaging.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: SASR-21 , NASA-CR-138608
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  • 43
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Research involving a test of multiplicative transmittance for mixed absorbing gases when their lines are broadened by H2 and He, which are constituents of the atmospheres of the major planets was conducted. The results indicate that the multiplicative law as originally formulated can be applied with confidence. The broadening of individual lines in the CO fundamental by various gases has been investigated. The results indicate that the ratio of the self-broadening ability of CO to the line-broadening ability of foreign gases is greater for lines in the band wings than for lines near the band center when the molecular mass of the broadener is less than that of CO. The results have been interpreted in terms of a phenomenological theory. Studies of the relative line broadening abilities of foreign gases have provided information that can be used to provide optical collision cross sections for individual lines in the CO fundamental.
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    Type: NASA-CR-138590
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The physical and mechanical properties of the unconsolidated lunar surface material samples that were obtained during the Apollo missions were studied. Sources of data useful for deduction of soil information, and methods used to obtained the data are indicated. A model for lunar soil behavior is described which considers soil characteristics, density and porosity, strength, compressibility, and trafficability parameters. Lunar history and processes are considered, and a comparison is made of lunar and terrestrial soil behavior. The impact of the findings on future exploration and development of the moon are discussed, and publications resulting from lunar research by the soil mechanics team members are listed.
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    Type: NASA-CR-134306
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  • 45
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two research projects to classify lunar photographic images are reported. The feasibility of using polarimetry to study large scale features on the moon was investigated. A system was built that measured polarization by subtracting two film images taken through perpendicular Polaroid filters, however, no new boundaries were discovered in the pictures which are not already discernable in ordinary photographs. The present status and equipment of a microfiche library system which would allow easy access to selected lunar photographs from all space missions is also reported.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138774
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Satellite laser range measurements were applied to the study of latitude variation arising from polar motion, and the solid-earth and ocean tidal distortion of the earth's gravity field. Experiments involving two laser tracking stations were conducted. The relative location of one station with respect to the other was determined by performing simultaneous range measurements to a satellite from two stations several hundred kilometers apart. The application of this technique to the San Andreas Fault Experiment in California is discussed. Future capabilities of spacecraft equipped with laser retroreflectors include: (1) determination of the product of the earth's mass and gravitational constant; (2) measurement of crustal and tectonic motions; (3) determination of the elastic response of the solid-earth tidal forces; (4) measurement of the amplitudes and phase of certain components of the ocean tides; and (5) self-monitoring of the latitude and height variations of the tracking station.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70677 , X-921-74-161 , IAG Symp. - The Earth's Gravitational Field and Secular Variations in Position; Nov. 1973; Sydney
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  • 47
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Absolute spectral energy distributions for the large redshift quasars OQ 172 and OH 471 are discussed along with similar data for two other quasars 4C05.34 and PHL 957. Assuming cosmological redshifts, OQ 172 and OH 471 are not as luminous as PHL 957. If these quasars are basically similar and if radiative processes dominate, the strength of Ly alpha and the behavior of the continuum at the Lyman limit strongly suggest that these objects consist of a central ionizing source surrounded by discrete clouds, filaments or a gaseous structure such as a disk. This gaseous matter does not cover the whole solid angle surrounding the source.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138610
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  • 48
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cross sections are discussed for rotational excitation associated with theories of absorption and emission lines from molecules in space with emphasis on H2CO, CO, and OH by collisions with neutral particles such H, H2, and He. The sensitivity of the Thaddeus equation for the H2CO calculation is examined.
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    Type: NASA-CR-138600
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: If a set of N points or nodes with a nonnegative cost associated with each ordered pair is known, it is desired to find a path from one given node to another given node which minimizes the cost sum. An algorithm is presented which yields a global minimum solution after at most N - 1 iterations or on a typical large third-generation computer, after 1 hour of computation time for a 10,000-node problem. The rapid-access data storage capacity demanded by the algorithm is approximately 3N words for costs read in from slow-access storage or 2N words for calculable costs. The time-storage requirements of the algorithm known to the authors. When the problem is viewed as a discretized optimal control problem, after N-1 iterations, an optimal control or node transition is established for each of the N nodes or states; thus, the algorithm can be applied to situations were there may be errors in the control that necessitate a closed loop control that necessitate a closed loop control philosophy.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7580 , L-9342
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  • 50
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Doppler factors occurring in range rate satellite-to-satellite tracking measurements are derived with special relativistic effects included. The error resulting from the use of simplified expressions for these factors is discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70638 , X-932-74-93
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  • 51
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Preflight photographs of selected Apollo 17 equipment taken for use in determining the effects on various surfaces of long-term exposure to the lunar environment are presented. Photographs of the articles deployed on the lunar surface also are included. The photographic procedure and the coding system used for the photodocumentation are explained. Other documentation measures planned to obtain items for use as controls in projected analyses are discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-58125 , JSC-08676
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  • 52
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This user's manual describes the input and output variables as well as the job control language necessary to utilize the IMP-H apogee motor firing program, IMPMOT. The IMPMOT program can be executed as either a stand-alone program or as a member of the flight dynamics system. This program is used to determine the time and attitude at which to fire the IMP-H apogee boost motor. The IMPMOT program is written in FORTRAN 4 for use on the IBM 360 series computer.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70626 , X-580-74-87
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Interplanetary trajectory characteristics are presented, for Venus swingbys to Mercury, where multiple revolutions about the Sun are permitted. Additional consideration is given to the use of multiple Venus swingbys and/or to midcourse, near perilhelion, propulsive maneuvers to improve the performance of the mission as measured in terms of payload in Mercury orbit. Missions in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were analyzed with navigation results also developed. An exploratory investigation established the availability of low energy mission opportunities in 1991, 1994, 1996 and 1999.
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    Type: NASA-CR-2385
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  • 54
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The infrared research was divided into two related subjects, observations at wavelengths less than 34 microns and millimeter wavelength observations. A new complex of infrared sources in the Orion Nebula observed along with a broad range of galactic and extragalactic objects. The Comet Kohoutek was measured in the 1-20 micron wavelength region and its thermal properties agreed closely with those of Comet Ikeya-Seki. Combined infrared and photoelectric studies of the Makarian galaxies showed them to have a composite spectrum with a large emission feature in the far infrared. The development of one millimeter photometry and composited bolometers is described. A technique of reconstructing two dimensional surface brightness distributions with appropriate errors from individual strip scans was developed. Model parameters were determined by fitting data in non-linear systems. Results show spectral parameter uncertainties are underestimated or incorrectly evaluated in most studies.
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    Type: NASA-CR-137428
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  • 55
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Hubble's equation relating the maximum apparent angular extent of a reflection nebula to the apparent magnitude of the illuminating star has been reconsidered under a set of less restrictive assumptions. A computational technique is developed which permits the use of fits to observed m, log a values to determine the albedo of the particles composing reflection nebulae, providing only that one assumes a particular phase function. Despite the fact that all orders of scattering, anisotropic phase functions, and illumination by the general stellar field are considered, the albedo which is determined for reflection nebulae by this method appears larger than that for interstellar particles in general. The possibility that the higher surface brightness might be due to a continuous fluorescence mechanism is considered both theoretically and observationally.
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    Type: NASA-CR-138072
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  • 56
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A thermodynamic chart in which area represents energy per unit of mass is constructed for the Mars atmosphere. A surface pressure of 8 millibars and an atmospheric composition of approximately 100 percent carbon dioxide are assumed. Mixing-ratio and equivalent potential temperature lines are drawn to facilitate the study of water-vapor condensation. The region of sublimation of carbon dioxide is presented for the study of the formation of carbon dioxide clouds and surface frost.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-58114 , JSC-08683
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A partial accounting of Apollo Orbital Science Photographic Team (APST) work is presented as reported by one of its members who provided scientific recommendations for, guidance in, and reviews of photography in astronomy. Background on the formation of the team and its functions and management are discussed. It is concluded that the APST clearly performed the overall objective for which it was established - to improve the scientific value of the Apollo lunar missions. Specific reasons for this success are given.
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    Type: NASA-CR-137376
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A procedure for applying covariance analysis to determine the most efficient estimation strategy for satisfying the stringent mission requirements of long arc orbit determination of applications satellites is presented. The procedure is applied to the problem of satisfying mission requirements with respect to altitude determination of GEOS-C. It is shown that requirements are met when twelve dominant geopotential coefficients are estimated along with satellite state. This application of covariance analysis is general and can be applied to future applications satellites. Recommendations for future studies are also given.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: X-932-74-43 , NASA-TM-X-70610
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Measurements are described of atmospheric conditions affecting astronomical observations at White Mountain, California. Measurements were made at more than 1400 times spaced over more than 170 days at the Summit Laboratory and a small number of days at the Barcroft Laboratory. The recorded quantities were ten micron sky noise and precipitable water vapor, plus wet and dry bulb temperatures, wind speed and direction, brightness of the sky near the sun, fisheye lens photographs of the sky, description of cloud cover and other observable parameters, color photographs of air pollution astronomical seeing, and occasional determinations of the visible light brightness of the night sky. Measurements of some of these parameters have been made for over twenty years at the Barcroft and Crooked Creek Laboratories, and statistical analyses were made of them. These results and interpretations are given. The bulk of the collected data are statistically analyzed, and disposition of the detailed data is described. Most of the data are available in machine readable form. A detailed discussion of the techniques proposed for operation at White Mountain is given, showing how to cope with the mountain and climatic problems.
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    Type: NASA-CR-137082
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  • 60
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The experiment is described for airborne observations of Comet Kohoutek using an infrared tilting-filter photometer. Preliminary analysis of the data established an upper limit to the Comet's fluorescence radiation in methane lines at 3.3 microns.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: LMSC-D358455 , NASA-CR-114738
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  • 61
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: At l AU there is a distinct boundary (the stream interface) at the leading edge of a stream in the solar wind, characterized by an abrupt drop in density, a similar increase in temperature and a small increase in speed. It is suggested that stream interfaces form in the interplanetary medium as a consequence of the non-linear evolution of streams generated by an increase in temperature in the solar envelope. This evolution eventually leads to the formation of a reverse shock behind the interface and a forward shock ahead of it. Two instances in which both a stream interface and a reverse shock had developed at l AU are presented. Examples of flare generated shocks which passed through a stream and were observed near a stream interface are also presented. It is shown that stream interfaces are definitely not the same structures as piston boundaries. It is noted that slow shocks, like stream interfaces, always occur ahead of streams and may develop in the interplanetary medium.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: X-692-74-46 , NASA-TM-X-70601
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.
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    Type: NASA-CR-129021
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  • 63
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The classical problem of determination of the rocket trajectory which minimizes mass expenditure during motion between two points in the field of a single gravitating body is analyzed. The known integrals of the system are incorporated into the adjoint equations resulting in a reduction from a seventh-order adjoint system to a third-order adjoint system. The first case which is treated in that of planar motion under specific end conditions. In this case a regularization of the recently derived equations is achieved. The general three-dimensional case is also reduced from a seventh-order adjoint system to a third-order adjoint system. In this case a regularization has not been found.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7592 , M-125
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  • 64
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The composition and structure of the atmosphere of Titan, based on theory and on spectroscopic and infrared data, is reviewed for the development of numerical engineering models. Light, nominal, and heavy atmospheres are described and tabulated, and their profiles of radius, temperature, pressure, and density are illustrated. Corresponding descriptions of atmospheric dynamics, condensates and surfaces are outlined.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: JPL-TM-33-672 , NASA-CR-136694
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  • 65
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The vertical temperature contrast for the thermosphere of Titan is estimated considering heating by absorption of solar energy, energy loss through infrared radiation by polyatomic molecules, and energy transfer by thermal conduction between the regions of energy deposition and loss. Current observational data suggest a CH4/H2 mixing ratio of approximately greater than 1, and a vertical temperature contrast smaller than 10 K. However, it is highly probable that H2 and CH4 are not in equilibrium in the thermosphere if there are large H2 escape rates.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 144
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  • 66
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Titan has a warm upper atmosphere. Whether it has a warm lower atmosphere and hot surface is an open question. This question is important not only from a purely scientific point of view, but also for assessing the viability of a Titan entry probe.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: The Atmos. of Titan; p 72-87
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  • 67
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A review of available information on the photometry, polarimetry, and narrow band spectrophotometry of Titan discusses five major categories: (1) brightness and color as a function of orbital position; (2) brightness and color as a function of solar phase angle; (3) geometric and bond albedo; (4) reflectance as a function of wavelength; and (5) polarization as a function of solar phase angle. It is concluded that a Saturn-like cloud model may be required to explain the sum of polarimetric and photometric observations.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 43-57
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  • 68
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Titan is the largest satellite of Saturn. Its probable structure includes a possible ice crust and a massive atmosphere that far outweighs those of other satellites of the outer planets. Possible atmospheric compositions compatible with spectroscopic data contain methane abundances, hydrogen atoms, and nitrogen.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: The Atmos. of Titan; p 1-3
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  • 69
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Saturn and Titan have been observed at three frequencies (1420, 2695, and 8085 MHz) with the NRAO interferometer. A clear positive Titan detection has been obtained at 8085 MHz. Assuming Titan's radius is 2500 km, the radio brightness temperature (i.e. for unit emissivity) is 115 + or - 35 K.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 143
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A very detailed greenhouse model derives a methane to hydrogen ratio of unity and a minimum surface pressure of 0.4 atm. Based on a surface gravity g = 140 cm sec/2, the minimum CH4 abundance is 30-40 km-A and the minimum H2 abundance varies from 15 to 85 km-A. A model of the atmosphere of Titan is proposed which seems to be consistent with observations and requires a much smaller CH4 abundance (of the order or 2 km-atm). Although no H2 is required, the presence of some H2 is readily accommodated. In this model, a temperature inversion exists in the atmosphere due to absorption of blue and ultraviolet solar radiation by small particles. The absorbed radiation is re-radiated by the dust and by molecules having long wavelength bands such as CH4 7.7 micrometer and ethane at 12.2 micrometer. The brightness temperature at 20 micrometer is primarily due to re-radiation by the dust.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 92-109
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  • 71
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Spectroscopic evidence shows that hydrogen atoms are major constituents of Titan's atmosphere. Anomalous enhancement of the methane absorption band is attributed to isotopic shifts arising from methane photolysis. Anomalous ultraviolet absorption features suggest high altitude dust and an elevated cloud layer overlaying most of the methane in the atmosphere.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center The Atmos. of Titan; p 17-41
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Astronomical surveys are discussed by large X-ray, gamma ray, and cosmic ray instruments carried onboard high-energy astronomy observatories. Quasars, pulsars, black holes, and the ultimate benefits of the new astronomy are briefly discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-EP-120
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  • 73
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In the area of resolution enhancement, the use of Fast Fourier Transform programs was investigated for possible application to millimeter wavelength maps of the sun. A difficulty arises with the La Posta maps in that they are limited to 35 arc-minutes square while the smeared out solar image is larger than that. A list of possible cometary emission lines near 13 millimeters is presented. Although preparation of the list was inspired by the appearance of Comet Kohoutek, the results are applicable to any future comet. The brightness temperature of the sun at 8.6 millimeters was measured using the moon as a calibration source. The result does not confirm a deep absorption feature as apparently observed by earlier workers.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: EE-SSL-1812 , NASA-CR-120426
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  • 74
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The current state of minor planet ephemerides was assessed, and the means for providing and updating these emphemerides for use by both the mission planner and the astronomer were developed. A system of obtaining data for all the numbered minor planets was planned, and computer programs for its initial mechanization were developed. The computer based system furnishes the osculating elements for all of the numbered minor planets at an adopted date of October 10, 1972, and at every 400 day interval over the years of interest. It also furnishes the perturbations in the rectangular coordinates relative to the osculating elements at every 4 day interval. Another computer program was designed and developed to integrate the perturbed motion of a group of 50 minor planets simultaneously. Sampled data resulting from the operation of the computer based systems are presented.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-132455 , LMSC-D420943
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of an intensive analysis of a differential orbit improvement method utilizing observational data for a 550-kilometer altitude, near-circular, near-equatorial satellite orbit are presented. Observations of the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-1) are in the form of direction cosines as measured at two ground interferometer tracking stations near the Equator during the first 22 orbital revolutions (approximately 37 hours) after launch of the spacecraft. Numerical results, in both tabular and graphical form, are displayed for numerous iterated fittings of various observational arcs by differential correction of the orbital elements. Parameters varied in these comparative cases include the time duration of the observational data block, the number of pairs of direction cosine data and the number of tracking station passes included in the solution, the distribution of such passes between the two available tracking stations, and the acceptance criterion for the observational residuals in the least squares fitting procedure. It was found that three observational pairs of direction cosine data, the minimum number possible for a uniquely determined solution in theory, are sufficient to promote covergence to an accurate solution, if properly selected.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: X-582-74-207 , NASA-TM-X-70720
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  • 76
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Radio, optical, and visual observations were made of Comet Kohoutek (1973f) using facilities of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and of the Hawaii Night Sky Observatory, State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA). Transit observations were made using the NRAO 300 ft radio telescope on six consecutive days beginning November 24, 1973. Observations were carried out in the continuum at 11 cm using the 4-feed system at different position angles. The data were recorded on magnetic tape and were computer reduced. Results were negative, with an rms error of 62 milli flux units, giving an upper limit of 180 mfu for the 11 cm continuum emission from the Comet. This relatively high detection limit resulted from a combination of interference and bad weather that affected these pre-perihelion observations. No observations could be scheduled near or after perihelion.
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    Type: NASA-CR-139579
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Updated information and descriptions on spacecraft and experiments are listed according to spacecraft name and principle experimental investigator. A cumulative index of active and planned spacecraft and experiments is provided; bar graph indexes for electromagnetic radiation experiments are included in table form.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-69913 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-74-12
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A numerical simulation of radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer of the Martian dust-laden atmosphere-soil system is presented with particular emphasis given to heating/cooling in regions of sharp variation in temperature or absorption and its resultant impact on outgoing planetary spectral radiance, as measured by the Mariner 9 IRIS. Thermal coupling between the ground and atmospheric subsystems is modeled by the total heat flux balance at the interface. In the simulation procedure, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is assumed, and a combined strong-weak line transmission function permits short- and long-range exchanges of energy from the surface toward space. Direct absorption of insolation in the near-IR bands by both silicate dust and CO2 is incorporated.
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    Type: NASA-CR-138834
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Four formulas, for the nonzero altitude transformation from geodetic coordinates (geodetic latitude and altitude) to geocentric coordinates (geocentric latitude and geocentric distance) and vice versa, are derived. The set of four formulas is expressed in each of the three useful forms: series expansion in powers of the earth's flattening; series expansion in powers of the earth's eccentricity; and Fourier series expansion in terms of the geodetic latitude or the geocentric latitude. The error incurred in these series expansions is of the order of one part in 3 x 10 to the 7th power.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7522 , L-9245
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Work carried out to identify human performance requirements for remotely manned system is reported. Specifically, an evaluation was made of the human visual system. Data cover distance estimation 4, solid target alignment 2, motion detection 1, and motion detection 2.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: H-4-2 , NASA-CR-120219
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 81
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Planned and actual major Skylab sequences are presented. Off-nominal events are highlighted. Differences between planned and actual events are discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-64816
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  • 82
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A summary of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) performance during the 8.5-month Skylab mission is presented. A brief description of each ATM system, system performance summaries, discussion of all significant ATM anomalies which occurred during the Skylab mission, and, in an appendix, a summary of the Skylab ATM Calibration Rocket Project (CALROC) are provided. The text is supplemented and amplified by photographs, drawings, curves, and tables. The report shows that the ATM not only met, but exceeded premission performance criteria, and that participation of man in space for this scientific investigation greatly enhanced the quality and quantity of the data attained.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-TM-X-64815
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radiation fields due to a horizontal electric dipole laid on the surface of a stratified medium were calculated using a geometrical optics approximation, a modal approach, and direct numerical integration. The solutions were obtained from the reflection coefficient formulation and written in integral forms. The calculated interference patterns are compared in terms of the usefulness of the methods used to obtain them. Scattering effects are also discussed and all numerical results for anisotropic and isotropic cases are presented.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-134332 , CSR-TR-74-2-PT-2
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results are presented from a preliminary analysis of data obtained near Mercury by the NASA/GSFC Magnetic Field Experiment on Mariner 10. A very well developed, detached bow shock wave, which developed as the super-Alfvenic solar wind interacted with the planet Mercury was observed. A magnetosphere-like region, with maximum field strength of 98 gamma at closest approach (704 km altitude) was also observed, and was contained within boundaries similar to the terrestrial magnetopause. The obstacle deflecting the solar wind flow was global in size, but the origin of the enhanced magnetic field was not established. The most plausible explanation, considering the complete body of data, favored the conclusion that Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: X-690-74-180 , NASA-TM-X-70680
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  • 85
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: High resolution radio observations of Jupiter were investigated with the use of the Stanford synthesis telescope. The best fit disk was computed from the emission of Jupiter and the residual brightness, due to nonthermal mechanisms was measured.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138778
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  • 86
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Excitation of neutral atoms by inelastic scattering of incident electrons in gaseous nebulae were investigated using Slater Wave functions to describe the initial and final states of the atom. Total cross sections using the Born Approximation are calculated for: Li(2s yields 2p), Na(3s yields 4p), k(4s yields 4p). The intensity of emitted radiation from gaseous nebulae is also calculated, and Maxwell distribution is employed to average the kinetic energy of electrons.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-138906
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 87
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