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  • SPACE RADIATION  (1,972)
  • 1970 - 1974  (1,972)
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Years
Year
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from a scan of the galactic plane by the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray experiment in the region 250 deg l2 290 deg show a statistically-significant excess over the general radiation from the galactic plane for gamma radiation of energy 100 MeV in the region 260 deg l2 270 deg and -7.5 deg b2 0 deg. If the enhanced gamma radiation results from interactions of cosmic rays with galactic matter, as the energy spectrum suggests, it seems reasonable to associate the enhancement with large scale galactic features, such as spiral arm segments in that direction, or with the region surrounding the Vela supernova remnant, with which PSR 0833-45 is associated. If the excess is attributed to cosmic rays released from this supernova interacting with the interstellar matter in that region, then on the order of 3.10 to the 50th power ergs would be released by that supernova in the form of cosmic rays.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-72582
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Supermassive black holes which exist in the nuclei of many quasars and galaxies are examined along with the collapse which forms these holes and subsequent collisions between them which produce strong, broad-band bursts of gravitational waves. Such bursts might arrive at earth as often as 50 times per year--or as rarely as once each 300 years. The detection of such bursts with dual-frequency Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft is considered.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-145432
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results are presented of an investigation of ESSA 7 satellite radiation data for use in long-term earth energy experiments. Satellite systems for performing long-term earth radiation balance measurements over geographical areas, hemispheres, and the entire earth for periods of 10 to 30 years are examined. The ESSA 7 satellite employed plate and cone radiometers to measure earth albedo and emitted radiation. Each instrument had a black and white radiometer which discriminated the components of albedo and emitted radiation. Earth measurements were made continuously from ESSA 7 for ten months. The ESSA 7 raw data is processed to a point where it can be further analyzed for: (1) development of long-term earth energy experiments; and (2) document climate trends.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-132623
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A satellite system proposed for observing the earth's radiation balance employing spherical balloon radiometers is investigated. In the steady-state condition of radiative equilibrium, the magnitudes of absorbed external irradiances are sensed by internal radiometers mounted on the skin of each balloon. The temperatures of the radiometers are monitored as a measure of the balloons' internal irradiances (equal to absorbed external irradiances) and telemetered to earth. The effect of the magnitude of irradiant sources, balloon thickness, and thermal conductivity on the conduction of heat is assessed mathematically in order to determine its impact on measurement accuracy. Results indicate that observations are acceptable during daytime and nighttime modes of operation.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-132624
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three suprathermal ion detectors stationed on the moon were used to detect a region of plasma flowing antisunward along the ordered field lines of the geomagnetic tail, exterior to the plasma sheet. The particle flow displays an integral flux, a bulk velocity, temperatures, and number densities uniquely different from the other particle regimes traversed by the moon. No consistent deviation in the field was found to correspond with the occurrence of the events, which have an angular distribution extending between 50 and 100 deg and a spatial distribution over a wide region in both the Y sub sm and Z sub sm directions. The duration of observable particles varies widely between tail passages, with an apparent correlation between the number of hours of observation and the Kp index averages over these times. It is proposed that these particles may have entered through the cusp region.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-141732
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model is developed which incorporates to first order the direct effects of the time dependent diffusive propagation of interstellar cosmic rays in a slowly changing interplanetary medium. The model provides a physical explanation for observed rigidity-dependent phase lags in modulated spectra (cosmic ray hysteresis). The average distance to the modulating boundary during the last solar cycle is estimated.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: TR-74-114 , NASA-CR-141146
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Direction finding measurements with plasma wave experiments onboard the Hawkeye-1 and IMP-8 satellites were used to locate the source region of auroral kilometric radiation. The radiation exhibits peak intensities between about 100 kHz and 300 kHz, and emits intense sporadic bursts lasting for between one half hour to several hours. The total power emitted in this frequency range exceeds 10 to the 9th power watts at peak intensity. The occurrence of the radiation is known to be closely associated with bright auroral arcs which occur in the local evening auroral regions.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: U-OF-IOWA-74-35 , NASA-CR-140766
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Permitted lines in the optically thin coronal X-ray spectrum were analyzed to find the distribution of coronal material, as a function of temperature, without special assumptions concerning coronal conditions. The resonance lines of N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, and Ar which dominate the quiet coronal spectrum below 25A were observed. Coronal models were constructed and the relative abundances of these elements were determined. The intensity in the lines of the 2p-3d transitions near 15A was used in conjunction with these coronal models, with the assumption of coronal excitation, to determine the Fe XVII abundance. The relative intensities of the 2p-3d Fe XVII lines observed in the corona agreed with theoretical prediction. Using a more complete theoretical model, and higher resolution observations, a revised calculation of iron abundance relative to hydrogen of 0.000026 was made.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-140513 , SU-IPR-589
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  • 9
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The isotopic composition of hydrogen and helium in solar cosmic rays provides a means of studying solar flare particle acceleration mechanisms since the enhanced relative abundance of rare isotopes, such as H-2, H-3, and He-3, is due to their production by inelastic nuclear collisions in the solar atmosphere during the flare. Electron isotope spectrometer on an IMP spacecraft was used to measure this isotopic composition. The response of the dE/dx-E particle telescope is discussed, and alpha particle channeling in thin detectors is identified as an important background source affecting measurement of low values of (He-3/He-4). The flare-averaged results obtained for the period October, 1972 November, 1973 are given.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: SRL-74-3 , NASA-CR-140568
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Electric and magnetic field disturbance characteristics from OGO-6 were studied. Examination of simultaneous patterns of disturbance below 600 km over the summer polar cap showed that pattern changes in electric field and in the disturbance in magnetic field magnitude are highly correlated. This correlation extends to pattern shapes boundary locations, and to the amplitudes of the correlated quantities. In the winter hemisphere, at altitudes above 800 km, correlations between boundaries exist, pattern correlations are present, and amplitude correlations are essentially absent. Below 600 km the region of positive delta B, from 2200 to 1000 MLT, has a significant contribution from ionospheric and nonionospheric sources. Above 800 km the nonionospheric sources dominate.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-922-74-253 , NASA-TM-X-70752
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Thin films of cryolite magnesium fluoride on fused silica substrates were exposed to 1126 equivalent sun-hours of radiation. The optical transmissions of the samples were measured before and after irradiation. The results indicate that, after the degradation of the silica substrate is accounted for, the cryolite is severely affected by the simulated solar radiation, but the magnesium fluoride is only slightly affected.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7745 , G-7461
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Studies of the structure and composition of the solar corona were undertaken, using a number of satellite observations of the coronal X-ray spectrum. A systematic technique was developed to carry out the required analysis, and the analytical techniques available to calculate the coronal spectrum have been developed and improved. A review of other analyses of solar coronal structure is also included.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: SASR-1 , NASA-CR-138944
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  • 13
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The interaction of the earth's magnetic field with the solar wind is discussed with emphasis on the influence of solar flares. The geomagnetic storms are considerered to be the result of the arrival of shock wave generated by solar flares in interplanetary space. Basic processes in the solar atmosphere and interplanetary space, and hydromagnetic disturbances associated with the solar flares are discussed along with observational and theoretical problems of interplanetary shock waves. The origin of interplanetary shock waves is also discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70683 , X-693-74-168
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  • 14
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A simple model of the lower corona which allows for a possible difference in the electron and proton temperatures is analyzed. With the introduction of a phenomenological heating term, temperature and density profiles are calculated for several different cases. It is found that, under certain circumstances, the electron and proton temperatures may differ significantly.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138613 , SUIPR-566
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  • 15
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A detailed study of the charge composition of primary cosmic radiation for about 5000 charged nuclei from neon to iron with energies greater than 1.16 GeV/nucleon is presented. Values are obtained after corrections were made for detector dependences, atmospheric attenuation, and solar modulation. New values of 38.5, 32.4, 23.7, and 16.8 g/sq cm for the attenuation mean free paths in air for the same charge groups are presented.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70622 , X-661-74-71
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Plasma and magnetometer observations are described for two flare-associated shock flows and the comparison of them with models. One represents a class of flows where the shock is followed by a stream and separated from it by a region in which density temperature and speed decrease monotonically. The other is characterized by a complex region between the shock and the following stream, which has many discontinuities and fluctuations, but in which there is no increase in helium concentration. These two types of flow can be distinguished using ground magnetograms, since the former shows no sudden impulses following the shock, whereas the latter shows many.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-692-74-49 , NASA-TM-X-70611
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from a scan of the galactic plane by the SAS-B high energy gamma ray experiment in the region 250 deg smaller than 12 smaller than 290 deg show a statistically significant excess over the general radiation from the galactic plane for gamma radiation of energy larger than 100 MeV. If the enhanced gamma radiation results from interactions of cosmic rays with galactic matter, as the energy spectrum suggests, it seems reasonable to associate the enhancement with large scale galactic features, such as spiral arm segments in that direction, or with the region surrounding the Vela supernova remnant with which PSR 0833-45 is associated. If the excess is attributed to cosmic rays released from the supernova interacting with the interstellar matter in that region, than on the order of 3 x 10 to the 50th power ergs would have been released by that supernova in the form of cosmic rays.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-662-74-58 , NASA-TM-X-70602
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The secondary electron background produced by heavy nuclei in a multiwire proportional counter hodoscope is calculated using both a simplified and a more complete Monte Carlo model. These results are compared with experimental data from a small multiwire proportional counter hodoscope operated in a 530 MeV/nucleon accelerator beam of nitrogen nuclei. Estimates of the secondary electron background produced by heavy relativistic nuclei are presented along with the detailed results from calculations of energy deposition in the hodoscope counter cells.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7591 , M-462
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Data on the electron environment trapped at Jupiter, tests performed to simulate the effects of electrons on Mariner, Jupiter-Saturn 1977 sensitive parts, and test results from those simulations, are summarized.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Dynatrend, Inc. Proc. of Outer Planet Probe Technol. Workshop, Sect. 1 through 11; 15 p
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  • 20
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation of the intensity fluctuations of 28 pulsars near 0.4 GHz indicates that scintillation spectra have a Gaussian shape, scintillation indices are near unity, and the scintillation bandwidth depends linearly on dispersion measure. Observations near 2.5 GHz suggest a strong dependence of the frequency at which scintillation indices fall below unity on dispersion measure. Multistation measurements of scintillation provide values or limits for the scale size of the scattering diffraction pattern. The dependences of scattering parameters on dispersion measure is discussed in terms of the current models. It is suggested that any line of sight through the galaxy encounters increasingly rare, increasingly large deviations of thermal electron density on the scale of 10 to the 11th power cm.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-693-74-316 , NASA-TM-X-70789
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  • 21
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The strongest line, both predicted theoretically and detected observationally at 2.2 MeV, is due to neutron capture by protons in the photosphere. The neutrons are produced in nuclear reactions of flare accelerated particles which also positrons and prompt nuclear gamma rays. From the comparison of the observed and calculated intensities of the lines at 4.4 or 6.1 MeV to that of the 2.2 MeV line, it is possible to deduce the spectrum of accelerated nuclei in the flare region; and from the absolute intensities of these lines, it is possible to obtain the total number of accelerated nuclei at the sun. The study of the 2.2 MeV line also gives information on the amount of He-3 in the photosphere. The study of the line at 0.51 MeV resulting from positron annihilation complements the data obtained from the other lines; in addition it gives information on the temperature and density in the annihilation region.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70729 , X-660-74-228 , IAU/COSPAR Symp. No. 68 on Solar X, Gamma and EUV Radiations; 11-13 Jun. 1974; Buenos Aires
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The solar event of 28 May 1968 is reported using the Goddard Cosmic Ray Telescope on OGO-5. The flare associated with the event occurred at 12:48 on 28 May and had importance 1B. About 600 He-3 were detected in the event and the He-3/He-4 equals 1.52 plus or minus 0.1 in the energy range 4-80 MeV/necleon. This is the highest ratio reported so far for any solar event.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-661-74-233 , NASA-TM-X-70732
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Experiments using simulated solar radiation in a chamber, with a controlled atmospheric pressure near 1 atmosphere, were conducted to evaluate O3 production. The effects of CO and H2O were analyzed to determine if the CO and H2O addition could reduce NO destruction of O3. The results show that NO is destroyed while destroying O3.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71573 , E-8013 , Intern, Conf. on the Environ. Impact of Aerospace Operations in the High Atmosphere; 8-10 Jul. 1974; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ratios of solar to trapped proton fluences were computed for circular-orbit, geocentric space missions to be flown during the active phase of the next solar cycle (1977-1983). The ratios are presented as functions of orbit altitude and inclination, mission duration, proton energy threshold, and the chance the mission planner is willing to take that the actually encountered solar proton fluence will exceed the design fluence provided by the statistical solar proton model. It is shown that the ratio is most sensitively dependent on orbit altitude and inclination, with trapped protons dominant for low inclination, low and mid altitude orbits and for high inclination, mid altitude orbits. Conversely, solar protons are dominant for high inclination, low altitude orbits, and for low and high inclination, high altitude orbits.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70716 , X-601-74-221
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  • 25
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two high resolution solar X-ray payloads and their launches on Aerobee rockets with pointing system are described. The payloads included 5 to 25A X-ray spectrometers, multiaperture X-ray cameras, and command box attitude control inflight by means of a television image radioed to ground. Spatial resolution ranged from five arc minutes to ten arc seconds and spectral resolution ranged from 500 to 3000. Several laboratory tasks were completed in order to achieve the desired resolution. These included (1) development of techniques to align grid collimators, (2) studies of the spectrometric properties of crystals, (3) measurements of the absorption coefficients of various materials used in X-ray spectrometers, (4) evaluation of the performance of multiaperture cameras, and (5) development of facilities.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138904
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A critical survey was made of the experimental evidence for a variation of the relative abundance by number h, (n alpha/np), of helium in the solar wind. The abundance is found to vary by delta h = 0.01 + or - 0.01 from 0.035 to 0.045 over solar cycle 20. Changes in the average bulk speed during the solar activity cycle was insufficient to account for this increase in h with the solar cycle. The slope of the linear relation between h and the plasma bulk speed is also found to vary, being greatest around solar maximum. An attempt is made to explain the 30% variation in h as the result of the variation in the number of major solar flares over a solar cycle. These obvious transients are apparently not numerous enough to explain the observed variation, but the reasonable expectation remains that the transients observed recently by Skylab which may occur more frequently than major flares could augment those associated with major flares. Since the solar wind flux is not observed to increase at solar maximum, the abundance of Helium cannot be proportional to the proton flux leaving the sun unless the solar wind comes from a smaller area of the sun at maximum than at minimum.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70685 , X-690-74-187
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The proceedings of a conference to investigate the effects of extraterrestrial radiation and particle contamination of X-ray astronomical data are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) electrons at low altitudes which affect soft X-ray astronomy, (2) the geographical distribution of 100 keV electrons above the earth's atmosphere, (3) midlatitude electron precipitation, (4) particle background observed by X-ray detectors on board Copernicus satellite, and (5) a survey of trapped low energy electrons near the inner boundary of the inner radiation zone as determined by OSO-7.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70673 , X-661-74-130 , 26 Apr. 1974; Washington, DC; United States
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A description is given of the relationship observed between enhancements in the far ultraviolet solar irradiance and the position of the solar magnetic sector boundaries. The ultraviolet observations were made with the monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) experiments which were launched aboard Nimbus 3 in April 1969 and Nimbus 4 April 1970. A comparison between the positions of solar magnetic sector boundaries and ultraviolet enchancements of the sun seems to show, at least during the year of 1969, that the ultraviolet maxima tend to occur near the times when a solar sector boundary is near the central meridian. An estimate of the magnitude of the variable ultraviolet solar energy input into the atmosphere resulting from the rotation of active solar longitudes is that for wavelengths less that 175 nm and down to H Lyman alpha it exceeds the annual variation whereas at longer wavelengths it is less. The total observed peak to peak variation in the ultraviolet irradiance from 120 to 300 nm over a solar rotation is typically at least 230 ergs/sq cm sec.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70674 , X-912-74-135
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model is presented of the trapped electron environment of solar minimum conditions. Solar maximum models have been presented for the inner radiation zone (AE-5 1967), and for the outer radiation zone (AE-4 1967). The present solar minimum model consists of an inner zone model (AE-5 1975 Projected) with an epoch of 1975, and an outer zone model with an epoch of 1964. With only minor modifications this latter model is identical to the AE-4 1964 model presented previous. The model, however, has not previously been issued in computer form. AE-4 1964 is based upon satellite data, while the inner zone solar minimum model AE-5 1975 Projected consists entirely of extrapolations from AE-5 1967. While the two components of the solar minimum model have epochs 11 years part, it is assumed that any differences between the successive solar minima are smaller than the model error, and the complete model is associated with an epoch of 1975.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NSSDC-74-03 , NASA-TM-X-69909
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  • 30
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The overabundance of heavy nuclei in solar cosmic rays of energy approximately 5 Mev/nucleon is explained by taking into account the pre-flare ionization states of these nuclei in the region where they are accelerated. A model is proposed which considers two-step accelerations associated with the initial development of solar flares. The first step is closely related to the triggering process of flares, while the second one starts with the development of the explosive phase. Further ionization of medium and heavy nuclei occurs through their interaction with Kev electrons accelerated by the first-step acceleration. It is suggested that the role of these electrons is important in producing fully ionized atoms in the acceleration regions.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-693-74-142 , NASA-TM-X-70661
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  • 31
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Recent observations have now provided evidence for diffuse background gamma radiation extending to energies beyond 100 MeV. There is some evidence of isotropy and implied cosmological origin. Significant features in the spectrum of this background radiation have been observed which provide evidence for its origin in nuclear processes in the early stages of the big-band cosmology and tie in these processes with galaxy fromation theory. A crucial test of the theory may lie in future observations of the background radiation in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV energy range which may be made with large orbiting spark-chamber satellite detectors. A discussion of the theoretical interpretations of present data, their connection with baryon symmetric cosmology and galaxy formation theory, and the need for future observations are given.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70665 , X-602-74-157 , ESLAB Symp. on the Context and Status of Gamma-Ray Astronomy; 10-12 Jun. 1974; Frascati; Italy
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  • 32
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: High-energy particles, the so-called solar cosmic rays, are often generated in association with solar flares, and then emitted into interplanetary space. These particles, consisting of electrons, protons, and other heavier nuclei, including the iron-group, are accelerated in the vicinity of the flare. By studying the temporal and spatial varation of these particles near the earth's orbit, their storage and release mechanisms in the solar corona and their propagation mechanism can be understood. The details of the nuclear composition and the rigidity spectrum for each nuclear component of the solar cosmic rays are important for investigating the acceleration mechanism in solar flares. The timing and efficiency of the acceleration process can also be investigated by using this information. These problems are described in some detail by using observational results on solar cosmic rays and associated phenomena.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70655 , X-693-74-116
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  • 33
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A statistical model is given for soil development relating meteoroid impacts on the moon to cosmic-ray-produced isotopes in the soil. By means of this model, the average lunar mass loss rate during the past 1.4 aeons is determined to be 170g/sq cm aeon and the soil mixing rate to be approximately 200 cm/aeon from the gadolinium isotope data for the Apollo 15 and 16 drill stems. The isotope data also restrict the time variation of the meteoroid flux during the past 1.4 aeons.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-134261 , SAO-404-069
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Fokker-Planck coefficient for pitch angle scattering, appropriate for cosmic rays in homogeneous, stationary, magnetic turbulence, is computed from first principles. No assumptions are made concerning any special statistical symmetries the random field may have. This result can be used to compute the parallel diffusion coefficient for high energy cosmic rays moving in strong turbulence, or low energy cosmic rays moving in weak turbulence. Becuase of the generality of the magnetic turbulence which is allowed in this calculation, special interplanetary magnetic field features such as discontinuities, or particular wave modes, can be included rigorously. The reduction of this results to previously available expressions for the pitch angle scattering coefficient in random field models with special symmetries is discussed. The general existance of a Dirac delta function in the pitch angle scattering coefficient is demonstrated. It is proved that this delta function is the Fokker-Planck prediction for pitch angle scattering due to mirroring in the magnetic field.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-692-74-117 , NASA-TM-X-70645
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: New observations of the quiet-time energy spectrum of 0.16 to 2 MeV electrons were made with the Caltech Electron/Isotope Spectrometer which was launched on IMP-7 in September 1972. Earlier measurements of quiet-time electrons in this energy range by other groups have resulted in spectra differing by more than an order of magnitude in intensity. A minimum quiet-time flux somewhat lower than the lowest previously reported spectra and consistent with an extrapolation of the spectrum measured at higher energies was found. A galactic secondary source of knock-on electrons is consistent with the results and with independent studies of the interstellar spectra of cosmic ray nuclei provided that solar modulation does not suppress the 0.162 MeV electron flux by more than a factor of approximately 3. Although not required, other recently suggested sources may also contribute to the observed fluxes.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138182 , SRL-74-1
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The description of a multifluid code with anomalous transport coefficients due to plasma instabilities self consistently followed in space and time is given. As an example, simulations of colliding solar wind streamers are presented. The results compare favorably with the observations.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138174
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  • 37
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The charged particle fluxes to be encountered by spacecraft in circular orbits with inclinations of 125 and 65 degrees, and altitudes of 13890 and 11111 kilometers, respectively were investigated. For these conditions, two nominal trajectories were generated corresponding to missions SOLRAD and TIMATION. The orbits and geomagnetic geometry, spectral profiles, peaks per orbit, trajectory data, and energetic solar proton fluxes are discussed. The tabulated results are analyzed.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70624 , X-601-74-82
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  • 38
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The production of deuterium, tritium, and helium-3 from nuclear reactions of accelerated charged particles is evaluated with the ambient solar atmosphere. Updated cross sections and kinematics are used, calculations are extended to very low energies (approximates 0.1 MeV/nucleon), and the angular distribution of the secondary particles is calculated. The calculations are compared with data on accelerated isotopes from solar flares. In particular, the August 1972 events are considered for which both He-3 and nuclear gamma rays were observed. An explanation for He-3-rich events is provided in terms of the angular distributions of secondary isotopes, and the flux of 2.2 MeV gamma rays from such flares are also predicted.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-660-74-94 , NASA-TM-X-70627
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  • 39
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Sweet's mechanism occurs in the solar wind, at D-sheets near 1 AU. Conductivities on the order of 10,000 esu are obtained, which is on the order of the local plasma frequency. This implies that the effective collision frequency is on the order of the plasma frequency. The lateral extent of D-sheets is approximately 0.01 AU to 0.001 AU. Hundreds of such D-sheets are probably present between the orbits of Venus and Earth at any instant.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-692-74-110 , NASA-TM-X-70630
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This experiment was carried out during three balloon flights which provided a total exposure of 3500 + or - 60 sq m sec sterad at an average depth of 4.8 g/sq cm The detector, in which the development of cascade showers in a 33.7 rl absorber was sampled by 10 scintillation counters and 216 Geiger-Muller tubes, was calibrated at the Cornell Electron Synchrotron, the separation of cosmic electrons from the nuclear background was confirmed by extensive analysis of data from the flights, from the calibration and from ground level exposure. The spectral intensity of primary cosmic ray electrons were found in particles/sq m sec sterad GeV. Similarly, the ground level spectrum of secondary cosmic ray electrons was also found. The steepness of the spectrum of cosmic electrons relative to that of nuclei implies one of the following conclusions: either the injection spectrum of electrons is steeper than that of nuclei, or the electron spectrum has been steepened by Compton/synchrotron losses in the energy range covered by the experiment.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-141287 , TR-75-019
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  • 41
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The theory of gamma ray production in solar flares is treated in detail. Both lines and continuum are produced. Results show that the strongest line predicted at 2.225 MeV with a width of less than 100 eV and detected at 2.24 + or - 2.02 MeV, is due to neutron capture by protons in the photosphere. Its intensity is dependent on the photospheric He-3 abundance. The neutrons are produced in nuclear reactions of flare accelerated particles which also produce positrons and prompt nuclear deexcitation lines. The strongest prompt lines are at 4.43 MeV from c-12 and at approximately 6.2 from 0-16 and N-15. The gamma ray continuum, produced by electron bremsstrahlung, allows the determination of the spectrum and number of accelerated electrons in the MeV region. From the comparison of the line and continuum intensities a proton-to-electron ratio of about 10 to 100 at the same energy for the 1972, August 4 flare. For the same flare the protons above 2.5 MeV which are responsible for the gamma ray emission produce a few percent of the heat generated by the electrons which make the hard X rays above 20 keV.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70808 , X-660-74-368
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Element abundances of cosmic rays Li through Si with energy above 0.8 GeV/amu were measured on a balloon borne instrument containing a total absorption ionization spectrometer. Statistical techniques were used to analyze the five measurements of each particle to determine its charge and energy. The technique allows a determination of systematic errors to be made. Corrections for Landau fluctuations, spark chamber inefficiency, and background particles were included. Comparison with other published results is made. Differences in the shape of the spectrum determined from measurements of different workers indicate that the absolute intensity is still known to only plus or minus 15% between 2 and 10 GV/c rigidity.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-661-74-335 , NASA-TM-X-70802
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model for the emission of high energy ( 100 MeV) gamma rays from the galactic disk was developed and compared to recent SAS-2 observations. In the calculation, it is assumed that (1) the high energy galactic gamma rays result primarily from the interaction of cosmic rays with galactic matter; (2) on the basis of theoretical and experimental arguments the cosmic ray density is proportional to the matter density on the scale of galactic arms; and (3) the matter in the galaxy, atomic and molecular, is distributed in a spiral pattern consistent with density wave theory and the experimental data on the matter distribution.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70818 , X-662-75-2 , High energy galactic gamma radiation from commic rays concentrated in spiral arms; Dec 1974; Greenbelt, MD; United States
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  • 44
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The characteristics of a model for analyzing the propagation of cosmic rays are discussed. The requirements for analyzing the relevant observational data on cosmic rays are defines as: (1) the chemical and isotopic composition of cosmic rays as a function of energy, (2) the flux and energy spectrum of the individual nucleonic components, (3) the flux and energy spectrum of the electronic component, (4) the cosmic ray prehistory, and (5) the degree of isotropy in their arrival directions as a function of energy. It is stated that the model which has been able to bring to pass the greatest measure of success is the galactic confinement model.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: TR-75-028 , NASA-CR-141190
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spectral observation of nine recent cosmic gamma-ray bursts are reported. The average photon number spectra of all nine events are shown to be consistent with a 150-keV exponential from 100 keV to about 400 keV, and a power law of index -2.5 from 400 keV to 1100 keV. The observations also indicate an event rate of 16 in 1972 and 1973, or 8 + or - 2 per year, higher than the 5 + or - 1 per year initially reported. This corresponds to an approximately 40-percent lower effective intensity threshold, attained by using more sensitive detectors in multiple-satellite coincidence.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-661-74-296 , NASA-TM-X-70778
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A statistical study of the initial phases of 185 solar particle events was carried out using the data from cosmic ray experiments on IMP 4 and IMP 5. Special emphasis was placed on the identification of the associated solar flare, as the parent flare can be determined for 68% of the events. It appears probable that most of the unidentified increases occur on the non-visible disc of the sun. The existence of a 'preferred-connection' longitude between 20 W and 80 W was established by examining the heliolongitude of all the flare associated events. It is demonstrated that the energy spectra determined at the time of maximum particle in the 20 to 80 MeV or 4 to 20 Mev interval range give results identical to that obtained by the 'distance-travelled' method.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70770 , X-660-74-298
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  • 47
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Gamma ray production processes are reviewed, including Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, bremsstrahlung interactions, meson decay, nucleon-antinucleon annihilations, and pion production. Gamma ray absorption mechanisms through interactions with radiation and with matter are discussed, along with redshifts and gamma ray fluxes.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70759 , X-602-74-272 , NATO Advanced Study Inst. on the Origin of Cosmic Rays; 26 Aug. - 6 Sep. 1974
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A high energy (35 MeV) gamma ray telescope employing a thirty-two level magnetic core spark chamber system was flown on SAS 2. The high energy galactic gamma radiation is observed to dominate over the general diffuse radiation along the entire galactic plane, and when examined in detail, the longitudinal and latitudinal distribution seem generally correlated with galactic structural features, particularly with arm segments. The general high energy gamma radiation from the galactic plane, explained on the basis of its angular distribution and magnitude, probably results primarily from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar matter.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-662-74-304 , NASA-TM-X-70761
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  • 49
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of umbral cores, both by multicolor photometry and by narrow band photometry in the vicinity of the sodium D lines, are described, and evidence is given which supports the validity of many umbral models, each of which describes different aspects of the observed umbral cores. Theoretical studies carried on at the observatory include the following: (1) Zeeman profiles of the sodium D sub 2 line and other lines; (2) turbulent heat conduction, sound waves, and the missing flux in sunspots; (3) chromospheric heating above spots by Alfven waves; (4) magnetic convection in the sun and solar neutrinos; (5) models of starspots on flare stars; (5) starspots on the primaries of contact binary systems; and (6) implications of starspots on red dwarfs.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-140395
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  • 50
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The existence of 'holes' in the corona is reported characterized by abnormally low densities and temperatures. It was found that such coronal holes appear to be the source of high-velocity, enhanced-density streams in the solar wind as observed at the earth's orbit. It was further noted that coronal holes appear to be associated with regions of diverging magnetic fields in the corona. Models were developed to accomplish the objective for the principal energy flows in the transition region and corona.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: SAR-5 , NASA-CR-140003
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The cross section requirements are presented for studying UV and X-ray emission spectra associated with active and flare-produced plasmas in the sun's corona. The general approach to the calculation of the distorted wave approximation problem is also given.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-602-74-260 , NASA-TM-X-70755
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The relationship between neutron monitor variations and the intensity variations of the interplanetary magnetic field is studied, using Deep River data and IMP-series satellite data. In over 80% of the cases studied, identifiable depressions of the cosmic ray intensity are associated with magnetic field enhancements of several hours duration and intensity above 10 gamma. Conversely, each magnetic field enhancement has an identifiable effect (though not necessarily a marked depression) on the cosmic ray intensity. Long lasting Forbush decreases are found to be the consequence of the successive action of several such features. An explanation is presented and discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-690-74-224 , NASA-TM-X-70726
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  • 53
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Methods are described to measure velocities and angles of incidence of charged cosmic dust particles with precisions of about 1 percent and 1 degree, respectively. Both methods employ four one-dimensional position-sensitive detectors in series. The first method utilizes a charge-dividing technique while the second utilizes a time-of-flight technique for determining the position of a particle inside the instrument. The velocity vectors are measured although mechanical interaction between the particle and the instrument is completely avoided. Applications to cosmic dust composition and collection experiments are discussed. The range of radii of measurable particles is from about 0.01 to 100 microns at velocities from 1 to 80 km/s.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-672-74-226 , NASA-TM-X-70727
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  • 54
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A detailed study of the charge composition of heavy solar cosmic rays measured in the January 25, 1971 solar flare including differential fluxes for the even charged nuclei from carbon through argon is presented. The measurements are obtained for varying energy intervals for each nuclear species in the energy range from 10 to 35 MeV/nucleon. In addition, abundances relative to oxygen are computed for all the above nuclei in the single energy interval from 15 to 25 MeV/nucleon. This interval contains measurements for all of the species and as a result requires no spectral extrapolations. An upper limit for the abundance of calcium nuclei is also presented. These measurements, when combined with other experimental results, enable the energy dependence of abundance measurements as a function of nuclear charge to be discussed. It is seen that at energies above about 10 MeV/nucleon, the variations of abundance ratios are limited to about a factor of 3 from flare to flare, in spite of large variations in other characteristics of these solar events.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70731 , X-662-74-231
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Electromagnetic radiation from the Crab nebula were observed, showing that the Crab is unique among strong X-ray sources in that major component in the low energy range (1 to 10 KeV) shows little or no temporal variation. Observations of the Crab above 35 MeV were made with the high energy gamma ray telescope flown on SAS-2. The detector and technique are described in detail.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-662-74-236 , NASA-TM-X-70734
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A Black Brant VC rocket was used to scan the Coma and Virgo clusters in order to measure structure in the X-ray sources. The rocket also made measurements of soft X-ray spectra, soft X-ray background flux during a 50 deg scan of the sky, soft X-rays from De Voucoulers 50, set limits to the energy dependence of soft X-ray background spectra, and the flux of solar 584 A radiation resonantly scattered by interstellar He flowing through the solar system.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-139686 , SSL-SER-15-ISSUE-43
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  • 57
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Information on solar He-3 from nuclear reactions in flares was considered. Consideration was also given to the development of models for these reactions as well as the abundance of He-3 in the photosphere. Data show that abundances may be explained by nuclear reactions of flare acceleration protons and alpha particles with the ambient atmosphere, provided that various assumptions are made on the directionality of the interacting beams and acceleration of the particles after production.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70750 , X-660-74-255 , Seminar on Particle Acceleration and Nucl. Reactions in Space; 19-21 Aug. 1974; Leningrad
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: X-ray and ultraviolet line emission from hot, optically thin material forming coronal active regions on the sun may be described in terms of an emission measure distribution function, Phi (T). A relationship is developed between line flux and Phi (T), a theory which assumes that the electron density is a single-valued function of temperature. The sources of error involved in deriving Phi (T) from a set of line fluxes are examined in some detail. These include errors in atomic data (collisional excitation rates, assessment of other mechanisms for populating excited states of transitions, element abundances, ion concentrations, oscillator strengths) and errors in observed line fluxes arising from poorly - known instrumental responses. Two previous analyses are discussed in which Phi (T) for a non-flaring active region is derived. A least squares method of Batstone uses X-ray data of low statistical significance, a fact which appears to influence the results considerably. Two methods for finding Phi (T) ab initio are developed. The coefficients are evaluated by least squares. These two methods should have application not only to active-region plasmas, but also to hot, flare-produced plasmas.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70725 , X-682-74-220
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  • 59
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The responses of the solar atmosphere due to an outward propagation shock are examined by employing the Lax-Wendroff method to solve the set of nonlinear partial differential equations in the model of the solar atmosphere. It is found that this theoretical model can be used to explain the solar phenomena of surge and spray. A criterion to discriminate the surge and spray is established and detailed information concerning the density, velocity, and temperature distribution with respect to the height and time is presented. The complete computer program is also included.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: UAH-RR-151 , NASA-CR-120368
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  • 60
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Plasma and magnetic field observations of interplanetary streams near 1 AU are summarized. Two types of streams have been identified corotating streams and flare-associated, and other flow patterns are present due to interactions among streams. The theory of corotating streams, which attributes them to a high temperature region near the sun, satisfactorily explains many of the effects observed at 1 AU. A correspondingly complete theory of flare-associated streams does not exist. Streams are a key link in the chain that connects solar and geomagnetic activity. The factors that most influence geomagnetic activity are probably related to streams and determined by the dynamics of streams. The evolution of streams on scales of 27 days and 11 years probably determines the corresponding variations of geomagnetic activity.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70714 , X-692-74-216
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  • 61
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Investigations, by particle-detectors flown on spacecraft, of the astrophysical aspects of cosmic radiation and the radiation environment of the earth are reported along with the research of the interplanetary medium, and planetary magnetic fields. The cosmic ray interactions with the interplanetary and interstellar medium, and radio scintillation theory were also studied.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138843
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Recently discovered anomalies in the abundances and energy spectra of quiet time, extraterrestrial hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen require serious revisions of origin theories to account for this new component of cosmic radiation. Abnormally large O/C and N/C ratios, long term intensity variations with time, and radial gradient measurements indicate a non-solar origin for these 2 to 30 MeV/nucleon particles. Ideas suggested to explain these measurements range from acceleration of galactic source material having an unusual composition to local acceleration of particles within the solar cavity. Observations are at present insufficient to choose between these alternate origin models.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138511 , TR-74-097 , 1974 Spring Meeting of the Am. Phys. Soc.; 22-25 Apr. 1974; Washington
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Pioneer 10 Plasma Analyzer experiment flight data during the Jupiter flyby are presented. The observations show that the interaction of Jupiter's magnetic field with the solar wind is similar in many ways to that at earth, but the scale size is over 100 times larger. Jupiter is found to have a detached standing bow shock wave of high Alfven Mach number. Jupiter has a prominent magnetopause which deflects the magnetosheath plasma and excludes its direct entry into the Jovian magnetosphere. The sunward hemisphere of Jupiter's outer magnetosphere is found to be highly inflated with thermal plasma and a high beta region which is highly responsive to changes in solar wind dynamic pressure. Observational arguments are presented which tend to discount a thin disklike magnetosphere but, rather, favor a Jovian magnetosphere, albeit probabily considerably flattened as compared to the earth's magnetosphere, yet still with reasonable thickness. Results concerning the shock jump conditions, the magnetosheath flow field and inferred internal magnetospheric plasma are presented.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-62357
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  • 64
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Diffusion and scatter free cosmic ray propagation theories are discussed in terms of the quality of their alternate viewpoints. A hypothetical model of conditions in interplantary space is described which aids in the comparison. A plot of the intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field over a long period is presented, and the association of these regions with high velocity streams is shown to support the scatter free viewpoint.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70664 , X-693-74-155
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This catalogue of solar cosmic ray events has been prepared for the use of solar physicists and other interested scientists. It contains some 185 solar particle events detected by the Goddard Space Flight Center Cosmic Ray Experiments on IMP's IV and V (Explorer 34 and 41) for the period May 1967 - December 1972. The data is presented in the form of hourly averages for three proton energy intervals - 0.9 - 1.6 MeV; 6 - 20 MeV and 20 - 80 MeV. In addition the time histories of .5 - 1.1 MeV electrons are shown on a separate scale. To assist in the identification of related solar events, the onset time of the electron event is indicated. The details of the instrumentation and detector techniques are described. Further descriptions of data reduction procedure and on the time-history plots are given.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70629 , X-661-74-27
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  • 66
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138189 , Ann. Symp. of BRF (expanded version); 10-11 May 1974; Swarthmore, PA; United States
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A bibliography covering interplanetary cosmic ray flux measurements and the nature of both galactic and solar cosmic rays is presented. The data were taken by Pioneers 6 and 9.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138172
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The solution to the steady state magnetohydrodynamic equations governing the supersonic expansion of the solar corona into interplanetary space is obtained for various assumptions regarding the form in which proton thermal energy is carried away from the sun. The one-fluid, inviscid, formulation of the MHD equations is considered assuming that thermal energy is carried away by conduction from a heat source located at the base of the corona. Angular motion of the solar wind led to the existence of three critical points through which the numerical solutions must pass to extend from the sun's surface to large heliocentric distances. The results show that the amount of magnetic field energy converted into kinetic energy in the solar wind is only a small fraction of the total expansion energy flux and has little effect upon the final radial expansion velocity.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-692-74-52 , NASA-TM-X-70621
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Recent data from SAS-2 on the galactic gamma ray line flux as a function of longitude reveal a broad maximum in the gamma ray intensity in the region absolute value of l approximately smaller than 30 deg. These data imply that the low energy galactic cosmic ray flux varies with galactocentric distance and is about an order of magnitude higher than the local value in a toroidal region between 4 and 5 kpc from the galactic center. This enhancement can be plausibly accounted for by first order Fermi acceleration, compression and trapping of cosmic rays consistent with present ideas of galactic dynamics and galactic structure theory. Calculations indicate that cosmic rays in the 4 to 5 kpc region are trapped and accelerated over a mean time of the order of a few million years or about 2 to 4 times the assumed trapping time in the solar region of the galaxy.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-640-74-17 , NASA-TM-X-70597
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  • 70
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Solar wind velocities have been measured on a daily basis from data obtained by the Ames Research Center plasma analyzers on both Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11. A comparison between the time profiles of the solar wind velocities observed at the two spacecraft shows that the solar wind has the same major features, such as high velocity streams, out to at least 5 astronomical units (AU) from the sun. Major features in the velocity time profile observed first at Pioneer 11 are seen later at Pioneer 10 with a delay consistent with the respective heliocentric longitudes of the two spacecraft, their radial distances from the sun, and the solar wind velocity. A more detailed comparison between the velocity measurements made at Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 shows that the range of solar wind velocities decreases with increasing radial distance from the sun. Although the average value of the solar wind velocity as measured over a sufficiently long period is approximately the same at both spacecraft, the deviations to higher and lower velocities are less at a greater radial distance from the sun.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-62372
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A green line intensity variation is associated with the interplanetary and photospheric magnetic sector structure. This effect depends on the solar cycle and occurs with the same amplitude in the latitude range 60 deg N - 60 deg S. Extended longitudinal coronal structures are suggested, which indicate the existence of closed magnetic field lines over the neutral line, separating adjacent regions of opposite polarities on the photospheric surface.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-139500 , SU-IPR-569
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  • 72
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A magnetic dipole rotating around an axis perpendicular to the rotation axis of the sun can account for the characteristics of the surface large-scale solar magnetic fields through the solar cycle. The polarity patterns of the interplanetary magnetic field, predictable from this model, agree with the observed interplanetary magnetic sector structure.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: SU-IPR-570 , NASA-CR-139501
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spacecraft observations near the earth of the yearly average direction of the interplanetary magnetic field during the sunspot maximum year 1968 showed a deviation from the spiral field. The angle between the average field direction when the field polarity was away from the sun and the average direction for toward polarity was 168 deg, rather than 180 deg. This effect appears to have a sunspot cycle variation.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: SU-IPR-573 , NASA-CR-139499
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The charged particle fluxes incident on spacecrafts in very eccentric orbits were investigated in support of the International Sun-Earth Explorer (International Magnetospheric Explorer) For this purpose, two flightpaths were considered having identical inclinations but different perigee altitudes (240 and 1364 kilometers, respectively). Apogee altitude was approximately the same for both cases (about 22 earth radii). For each of the two perigee altitudes investigated, two nominal trajectories were generated, having identical orbital configurations but with their major axes rotated by 180 deg in the plane of orbit, which resulted in placing the initial apogee into into opposite hemispheres. This was done in order to determine the corresponding variation in the vehicle-encountered particle intensities. Estimates of average energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission duration at selected integranlenergies ranging from E 10 to E 100 MeV. Results are summarized and discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70696 , X-601-74-204
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A graphical procedure is provided for performing coordinate transformations between the geocentric-solar-equatorial, geocentric-solar-ecliptic and geocentric-solar-magnetospheric coordinate systems. The procedure is designed to facilitate intercomparison of previous studies of interactions between interplanetary and geomagnetic fields that made use of these coordinate systems. The interaction in the geocentric-solar-magnetosphere system has been shown to give the most consistent results.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-621-74-179 , NASA-TM-X-70684
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Balloon observations of proton and helium spectra in 1970, 1971 and 1972, reveal a factor of approximately 1.85 deviation from a single valued regression at low rigidities. This deviation decreases with increasing rigidity for both species. The period 1969-1970 is unique because time variations at low and high energies were anti-correlated. When satellite observations are used to extend the balloon observations to energies below 100 MeV/Nucleon, the proton spectrum showed a steeper slope in 1970 and 1972 than the characteristic J = AT spectrum observed during 1965-1969. The slope of the helium spectrum became continuously flatter during the same period (1970-1972). Computer generated spectra based on simple two parameter modulation models describe the basic features of the observations if one of the variable parameters is used to characterize the rigidity dependence of the diffusion coefficient. Models which do not allow such a variation are not consistent with the observations.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: TR-74-039 , NASA-CR-138513
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A simple procedure is described for calculating the eclipse function (EF), alpha, and hence the spectral irradiance curve (SIC), (1-alpha), for any type of solar eclipse: namely, the occultation (partial/total) eclipse and the transit (partial/annular) eclipse. The SIC (or the EF) gives the variation of the amount (or the loss) of solar radiation of a given wavelength reaching a distant observer for various positions of the moon across the sun. The scheme is based on the theory of light curves of eclipsing binaries, the results of which are tabulated in Merrill's Tables, and is valid for all wavelengths for which the solar limb-darkening obeys the cosine law: J = sub c (1 - X + X cost gamma). As an example of computing the SIC for an occultation eclipse which may be total, the calculations for the March 7, 1970, eclipse are described in detail.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-64842
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Investigations of cosmic ray anisotropies and their relationship to concurrent magnetic field data are reported. These investigations range in scope from the examination of data very late in the decay phase of a solar particle event where long term (approximately 6 hour) averages are used and definite interplanetary effects sought after to an examination of the change in low energy particle anisotropy as the satellite approaches the bow shock and the magnetopause.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138127
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  • 79
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Within this galaxy, cosmic rays reveal their presence in interstellar space and probably in source regions by their interactions with interstellar matter which lead to gamma rays with a very characteristic energy spectrum. From the study of the intensity of the high energy gamma radiation as a function of galactic longitude, it is already clear that cosmic rays are almost certainly not uniformly distributed in the galaxy and are not concentrated in the center of the galaxy. The galactic cosmic rays appear to be tied to galactic structural features, presumably by the galactic magnetic fields which are in turn held by the matter in the arm segments and the clouds. On the extragalactic scale, it is now possible to say that cosmic rays are not universal at the density seen near the earth. The diffuse celestial gamma ray spectrum that is observed presents the interesting possibility of cosmological studies and possible evidence for a residual universal cosmic ray density, which is much lower than the present galactic cosmic ray density.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-662-74-57 , NASA-TM-X-70612
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  • 80
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The galactic cosmic ray and solar flare experiment on Apollo 16 is reported. The published papers presented describe the experiment, equipment, data processing techniques, and operational history. The principle findings include: (1) The composition of heavy ions in interplanetary space at energies between approximately 30 and 130 MeV/nucleon is the same, within experimental errors. (2) The ability of a Lexan stack to determine simultaneously the energy spectra of major elements from He up to Fe in the energy interval 0.2 to 30 MeV/nucleon revealed systematic changes in the composition of solar flare particles as a function of energy. (3) Heavy ions emitted in a solar flare appear to be completely stripped of electrons, and are not in charge equilibrium at the time of acceleration and releases from the sun.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: SSL-SER-15-ISSUE-9 , NASA-CR-134196
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of the proton, helium (C,N,O) and Fe-group nuclei fluxes made during the large 4 August 1972 solar particle event are presented. The results show a small, but significant variation of the composition of multicharged nuclei as a function of energy in the energy region above 10 MeV/nucleon. In particular, the He/(C,N,O) abundance ratio varies by a factor approximately 2 between 10 and 50 MeV/nucleon, and the Fe-group/(C,N,O) ratio suggests a similar variation. Abundance ratios from the 4 August 1972 event are compared as a function of energy with ratios measured in other solar events. At energies approximately greater than 50 MeV/nucleon, the He/(C,N,O) abundance ratio for August 1972 is consistent with all earlier measurements made above that energy.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70590 , X-662-74-32
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A balloon-borne magnetic spectrometer was used to measure the spectra of cosmic ray positrons and negatrons at energies between 50 and 800 MeV. Comparisons of the separate positron and negatron spectra observed near the earth with their expected intensities in interstellar space can be used to investigate the complex (and variable) interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the expanding solar wind. The present measurements, which have established finite values or upper limits for the positron and negatron spectral between 50 and 800 MeV, have confirmed earlier evidence for the existence of a dominant component of negatrons from primary sources in the galaxy. The present results are shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that the positron component is in fact mainly attributable to collisions between cosmic ray nuclei and the interstellar gas. The estimate of the absolute intensities confirm the indications from neutron monitors that in 1972 the interplanetary cosmic ray intensities were already recovering toward their high levels observed in 1965.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-660-74-16 , NASA-TM-X-70580
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  • 83