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  • Articles  (23)
  • J31  (8)
  • Q32  (8)
  • J24  (6)
  • Educación
  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
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  • Articles  (23)
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  • 1
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper calculates and analyzes key indicators from Bolivia's Green National Accounts during the period 1990 - 2015, which covers an entire Commodity Super Cycle. The first half includes the Great Commodities Depression while the second half of the period is characterized by an unprecedented commodities boom. We show that the contribution of ecosystem goods and services to the Bolivian economy remain relatively stable over the cycle, while the contribution of non-renewable resources increases by a factor of four between the bottom of the cycle (1993) and the top of the cycle (2011). Similarly, the differences between Net Capital Formation and Environmentally-adjusted Net Capital formation is small at the bottom of the Commodity Super Cycle (2.3% of GDP) but much larger at the top of the cycle (7.7% of GDP).
    Keywords: Q56 ; Q01 ; Q32 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; Green Accounting ; Natural Resource Rents ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This article analyzes the importance of firm characteristics to explain earnings in urban Bolivia. Initially I propose a new simple theoretical model of segmented labor market where, in equilibrium, individual and firm variables jointly determine earnings at the worker level. The key for achieving this equilibrium is that workers have both specific preferences and heterogonous skills provided by years of schooling, which are in turn associated to certain firms. Given the household surveys information, I estimate two alternative earnings functions from this model, one for unsalaried workers, for which there is detailed firm data and one for salaried workers, in which sector, size and formality are used as firm proxies. I find not only that firm characteristics are fundamental determinants of earnings but that regressions that include only individual characteristics present highly overestimated coefficients.
    Keywords: C26 ; J20 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings functions ; labor market segmentation ; firm characteristics ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: ¿Ayuda la existencia de recursos extractivos a la formación de recursos humanos, concretamente a la formación técnica? La evidencia empírica es poco concluyente. Para el caso de Bolivia se muestra que la actividad extractiva sin agregación de valor, no genera demanda por personas calificadas y por tanto no emite señales claras hacia el sistema educativo para formar este tipo de profesionales, aunque existan los recursos para ello. Por otra parte, la conformación del sistema educativo en medio de pugnas de grupos de poder en educación primaria y secundaria, donde el Estado históricamente no pudo asumir el rol de Principal en la formulación y manejo de la política educativa, desembocaron en la situación de descuido de la formación para el trabajo. La desconexión histórica de la política de desarrollo de la política educativa parece ser la principal explicación para la situación actual de la educación técnica en Bolivia.
    Keywords: D71 ; I2 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Formación Técnica ; Capital Humano ; Extractivismo ; Historia Económica ; Desarrollo Económico ; Teoría Principal Agente ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El presente trabajo de investigación busca contextualizar la pobreza monetaria en Bolivia y, a partir de aquí, establecer la importancia de la situación laboral de los trabajadores del hogar. Las estimaciones muestran que la pobreza ha disminuido de manera importante entre 1999 y 2012; siendo más significativo -en términos agregados- el efecto crecimiento que el de redistribución. Estos cambios pueden asociarse al mejor desempeño de los ingresos laborales; una vez que éstos representan cerca del 90% de los ingresos totales del hogar. Por último, destaca también un mayor porcentaje de miembros de la familia trabajando en los hogares no-pobres comparativamente con los pobres, y una concentración relativa de los trabajadores pobres en la producción agropecuaria y los no-pobres en los servicios sociales (educación, salud, servicios comunales y otros).
    Keywords: I32 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Pobreza ; Ingreso laboral ; Ocupación
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Las MYPES son una parte importante de la economía nacional, los microempresarios identifican a la falta de capacitación como un factor determinante para mejorar su productividad; sin embargo, cuando se les pregunta qué tipo de capacitación necesitan, no existe consenso sobre sus necesidades. El presente estudio de caso busca mostrar la situación actual de las MYPES con respecto a sus necesidades de capacitación a través de un trabajo con la FEDEMYPE Santa Cruz. Entre las principales razones del porqué no existe consenso entre las necesidades de capacitación está la gran diversidad de las MYPES y el distanciamiento entre la oferta de capacitación brindada por instituciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales con la demanda de capacitación de las micro y pequeñas empresas. Por otro lado, también se realizó una recapitulación de los tipos de capacitación que se socializó con la FEDEMYPE con el fin de complementar estudio.
    Keywords: J24 ; J49 ; L29 ; ddc:330 ; MYPE ; microempresa ; capacitación ; pequeña empresa ; informalidad ; habilidades ; microempresarios ; emprendedores ; habilidades productivas ; habilidades administrativas ; habilidades gerenciales
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We build a theoretical model that incorporates unionization in the labor market into a Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) framework to investigate the impact of unionization on the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. To capture the American economy case, we assume that unskilled labor in the manufactured goods sector is unionized, and that sector is intensive in skilled labor, and that trade liberalization increases the relative price of manufactured goods. In the HOS model, trade liberalization induces a reallocation of production towards the sector that uses intensively the country's most abundant factor. The resulting change in relative labor demand impacts wage bargaining in the unionized sector, which, in turn, has a dampening effect on the Stolper-Samuelson effect. Moreover, wages of unionized workers are even less responsive to trade liberalization. Through traditional mandated-wages regressions, we show that skilled-wage differentials changes were less pronounced among more unionized sectors in the U.S. economy for the 1979-1990 period.
    Keywords: F16 ; J31 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; Stolper-Samuelson Theorem ; wage bargaining ; unionization
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper investigates the potential of information technologies to improve public service delivery and empower citizens in the context of two unusual randomized natural experiments occurring within one particular bureaucratic process: the renewal of a national identification card by the Bolivian Police. The first experiment arises from the random assignment of both police officers and applicants to a manual or digital renewal process, which is identical in all aspects except that the digital renewal process makes use of information technologies as part of the renewal process. The second experiment arises by the existence of technical failures within the digital renewal process, which allows police officers to change from the digital to the manual renewal process randomly across renewal day. The efficiency of public service delivery is measured in terms of both renewal success rates (which average to a strikingly low rate of 72 percent in our sample) and time-it-takes to renew an identification card. The causal effect of information technologies on public service delivery is estimated using two different identification strategies. In the first one, applicant-police officer pairs randomly assigned to each one of these two renewal processes are compared after controlling for renewal day fixed effects. In the second one, applicant-police officer pairs randomly assigned to the digital process are compared to those randomly assigned to this same process but who experienced a technical failure within the process, which allows to directly control for unobserved heterogeneity at the police officer level. We find that information technologies significantly improve the quality of public service delivery. Applicants randomly assigned to the digital renewal process are on average 12 percentage points more likely to complete the renewal process as compared to those randomly assigned to the manual one. Further, successful applicants randomly assigned to the digital process take on average 31 percent less time to complete the process as compared to those randomly assigned to the manual one. Lastly, we find that information technologies significantly lower barriers in access to national identification cards by promoting a more equitable provision across the population. We discuss several channels through which technologies might be improving efficiency and promoting equity within this particular bureaucratic process. Overall, our findings suggest that information technologies might be achieving these goals by introducing efficiencies (such as reducing administrative shortcomings and transaction costs), and limiting the exercise of discretion by police officers within the renewal process.
    Keywords: C93 ; O38 ; J24 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: A12 ; Q32 ; Z10 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the factors that explain earnings in levels and inequality in the urban areas of Bolivia, considering not only the usual individual characteristics (education, experience, gender, and ethnicity) but also firm characteristics. Given the information available at the firm level in the household surveys, two simple models were developed: one for independent workers (for which there is relatively detailed firm-level data), and the other for dependent workers (where firm variables were approximated by sector, size, and by the legal condition of the workers). The main econometric results show that: i) earnings regressions that include only individual variables present highly biased (overestimated) coefficients; ii) firm characteristics are fundamental factors for explaining earnings for independent workers, almost doubling R2 and explaining 45.5% of observed earnings inequality; and iii) firm proxies for dependent workers are also relevant; however, they explain wages at a lower percentage (11.8%), which may be due to non-detailed firm data and to the relatively higher importance of education for these workers. These new findings represent a contribution to the empirical literature on earnings determinants for urban Bolivia as well as to the vision of labor income and poverty problems.
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings (wages) ; firm characteristics ; inequality ; Bolivia ; Stadt ; Einkommen ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Städtischer Arbeitsmarkt ; Lohn ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of Green National Accounting by drawing out some interesting insights from the Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts recently elaborated by the Institute for Advanced Development Studies for the case of Bolivia. The paper uses the Green National Accounts to show the importance of environmental inputs in 7 different productive sectors and compares the corresponding natural resource rents to the level of producer taxes in each sector. The paper also analyses the evolution of total productive capital, in order to judge whether Bolivia's current development model can be considered sustainable. The paper finished with recommendations about interesting extensions that can be made to the Green National Accounts.
    Keywords: Q56 ; Q01 ; Q32 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; Green Accounting ; Natural Resource Rents ; Bolivia ; Ökosozialprodukt ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 12
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The urban labor market in Bolivia can be divided into 4 main sectors: 1) the public sector, 2) the formal private sector, 3) self-employed informals, and 4) informal workers. Although incomes are generally higher in the public sector and in the formal private sector, there is a strong preference in Bolivia for being informally self-employed. Two thirds of both men and women in urban areas respond that they would prefer to be self-employed rather than a salaried employee, and few see any advantage of becoming formal under the current institutional set-up. Currently, half of all economically active women in urban areas are informally self-employed, while this is the case for only one third of men. This implies that women are actually closer to the desired state than men, according to their own preferences. The real problem for women is not that they are informally self-employed, but rather that the profitability of their informal enterprises is low. On average, monthly profits of female micro-entrepreneurs is about 40% lower than those of male micro-entrepreneurs. This report uses quantitative information from about 600 micro and small enterprises to break down and understand this gender gap in profitability, and the results show that almost the whole gap is due to the fact that women operate their businesses on a much smaller scale (with less productive capital and fewer employees) than men. Why do female entrepreneurs operate on a smaller scale? One partial explanation is that they do not want to grow, because the business then would loose some of the features that make a micro-business particularly attractive for women (not to depend on others, to be able to care for children simultaneously, flexible working hours, and daily revenues). More important, however, is the lack of access to capital. Micro and small businesses operated by women have only a third of the operating capital of male operated businesses. There are two main reasons for this. First, women generally have fewer opportunities to accumulate capital, both because their household and reproductive work takes time away from paid work, and because they tend to earn less than men when they do work for money. Second, they do not have access to credit on reasonable terms. Access by itself is not the problem, as there is a very active micro-credit industry in Bolivia, but the terms are so unattractive that women try to avoid it if at all possible. The interest rates are high (20-40% per year); the group-lending practices increases the risk for the borrower, as they may end up paying other group members debt also; and they are typically required to assist at compulsory training courses twice a month, which is demanding for busy women running both a business and a household. Banks offer loans at more reasonable terms, but the requirements are difficult for micro-entrepreneurs to comply with (especially proof of a monthly pay check) and the risk is large as an entire house is often put up as collateral for even a small loan. Capital and credit is not a binding constraint in all sectors, however. On average, returns to additional capital investments are estimated to be relatively high (internal rates of return of over 20%) in the food sales sector, the textile clothing sector, and the camelid clothing sector. In contrast, they are estimated to be negative for grocery stores and the transport sector, which have experienced overinvestment to the extent that the returns to both capital and labor in these two sectors have been severely depressed. Even in the sectors where returns to capital are relatively high, a doubling of productive capital would not lead to a doubling of monthly profits. In fact, estimation results show strongly diminishing returns to scale, which means that micro-enterprises have little incentive to grow. Under the current institutional setup in Bolivia, it makes more economic sense to have several identical micro-enterprises in the family rather than one larger enterprise, and this is indeed often observed in practice. This is partly due to the characteristics of the sectors (for example, several small stores can capture a larger market due to the geographical dispersion), but it is mostly due to the tax-system, which becomes very demanding, both in terms of bureaucratic procedures and in terms of tax burden, as soon as an enterprise grows past a certain threshold. Under the current institutional set up, micro-entrepreneurs perceive no benefits from becoming formal, and indeed estimation results confirm that formality would lower the monthly profits of micro-enterprises (less than 3 workers and less than $1000 in operating capital) by 30-40%. Slightly bigger firms (3-5 workers), however, may benefit from getting a NIT and thus be able to offer facturas to the clients.
    Keywords: J21 ; J24 ; J31 ; J42 ; J48 ; J78 ; ddc:330 ; Informality ; Productivity ; Gender ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 13
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este documento revisa una gran variedad de instrumentos que se pueden usar para inducir cambios en los usos de recursos naturales con el fin de alinear los intereses de actores locales con otros intereses que también son afectados por estos usos. Los instrumentos se agrupan en cinco categorías principales: 1) Oportunidades para la conservación voluntaria sobre tierras privadas, 2) Proyectos Integrados de Conservación y Desarrollo, 3) Pagos para Servicios Ambientales, 4) Conservación por Mandamientos Legislativos, y 5) Herramientas Indirectas. El menú completo incluye decenas de diferentes herramientas, pero la manera más barata de promover la conservación sobre tierra que todavía está inaccesible y en un estado prístino simplemente es no hacer proyectos de ningún tipo no construir caminos, no proveer servicios básicos, ni siquiera pagar para la conservación. Este obviamente va muy en contra de otras políticas prioritarias como la reducción de la pobreza y el desarrollo humano y no es suficiente para tierras que ya están en un proceso de degradación. Sin embargo, es posible hacerlo en áreas específicas que son muy importantes para los servicios ambientales, asegurándose que la población local tiene la opción de trasladarse a lugares alternativos que mejor atienden a sus necesidades. Esto significa que el ordenamiento territorial y el manejo de la migración se vuelvan una de las tareas más importantes para las políticas de conservación con desarrollo. Aplicando una combinación de instrumentos repulsivos en algunas áreas y atractivos en otras, se puede asegurar que la gente se establezca donde ocasionan menor daño al medio ambiente y donde tengan más posibilidades para hacer actividades productivas que contribuyan al bienestar de su familia y al desarrollo del país. Otro tema sumamente importante para la conservación con desarrollo humano es el de títulos de tierra, ya que la falta de títulos causa muchos efectos adversos, no solamente para la conservación sino también para el desarrollo. La titulación también es un instrumento que se puede aplicar para dirigir la migración.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Conservación ; Desarrollo Humano ; Amboro-Madidi ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper estimates structural parameters of both a simple and an extended job separation model with the purpose of understanding constraints in the labor market in Bolivia. The results confirm the hypothesis that skilled labor is a scarce commodity in Bolivia, while unskilled labor is abundantly available. This implies that skilled employees shop around for alternative employment opportunities and quit their jobs when a better opportunity arises. The quit rate among skilled employees in the private sector is much higher than the quit rate among skilled employees in the public sector. The reverse is true for the lay-off rate, and together this suggests that the private sector has difficulties maintaining its skilled labor. The estimates of the wage sensitivity of job search effort parameters presented in this paper suggest that it would be difficult for the private sector to improve its capacity to retain skilled employees by increasing wages skilled employees in the private sector do not seem to reduce their on-the-job search in response to higher wages. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the public sector in Bolivia, inflated by high levels of foreign aid (about 10% of GDP), may be detracting scarce human resources from local productive sectors, potentially jeopardizing the opportunity for sustainable development.
    Keywords: J62 ; J63 ; J64 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Mobility ; on-the-job search ; labor markets ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El corredor de conservación Amboró-Madidi es de prioridad global debido a su alta biodiversidad y endemismo. Al mismo tiempo, las tierras fiscales de la región son apreciadas por migrantes sin tierra del altiplano. En este documento contrastamos la necesidad de tierra para actividades agrícolas con las prioridades de conservación, elaborando un mapa que identifica los siguientes tres tipos de áreas: 1) Áreas para uso agrícola y desarrollo humano, 2) Áreas de tension entre desarrollo humano y conservación, y 3) Áreas de conservación y protección que no requieren acciones de conservación.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Conservación ; Desarrollo Humano ; Amboro-Madidi ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The reform program and growth pattern exhibited by the Bolivian economy in the last decade did not favour employment creation and consequently not an effective reduction of poverty. During the last decade, those sectors where the bulk of employment is concentrated, presented the lowest growth rates of GDP, labour productivity and real incomes. The present paper analyzes in detail the two sectors where the bulk of employment and poverty is concentrated (agriculture and the urban informal sector) in order to determine the critical constraints to improvements in productivity, employment generation, and reductions in poverty.
    Keywords: J24 ; O54 ; o17 ; ddc:330 ; Employment ; Poverty ; Growth ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El estudio analiza y evalúa la situación actual de la educación inicial, primaria y secundaria bajo la actual estructura del sector público y la participación ciudadana, especialmente enfatizando la gestión educativa y el financiamiento de la educación, esto con el propósito de elaborar lineamientos para la profundización de la descentralización educativa. El proceso de descentralización educativa fue lento por la falta de experiencia y capacidad técnica y organizativa de las unidades y direcciones del Ministerio de Educación, Prefecturas y Municipios. Los resultados muestran que la gestión educativa se caracterizó por la reorientación de las funciones técnicas y administrativas, que fueron lentos debido a falta de un marco legal para reorganizar el marco institucional. Además, que los beneficios fueron positivos sólo cuando existan equipos de gestión que promueven la articulación de los actores involucrados, junta escolares, escuela, distrito escolar y municipio. En cuanto al financiamiento, el gasto del gobierno central está promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal distributiva; en cambio, el gasto de los municipios está limitando el logro de dicha equidad. La distribución del gasto centralizado con criterios de localización geográfica de la unidad educativa está ocasionando desequilibrios verticales. El estudio propone lineamientos de descentralización que consideran tres niveles en la provisión de servicio educativo para garantizar un equilibrio entre los criterios de eficiencia, equidad e igualdad de oportunidades.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Descentralización ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este documento proporciona un análisis cuantitativo de la situación socio-económico y ambiental en el corredor Amboró-Madidi, incluyendo tendencias en el pasado y proyecciones para el futuro. La región esta relativamente bien conservada hasta ahora, pero hay amenazas que podrían llevar a la extinción de especies únicas en el futuro. Hasta 2001, se había convertido aproximadamente 7.6% del área de su forma natural a usos agropecuarios. En promedio, cada persona rural convierte 786 metros cuadrados de áreas naturales cada año. Si siguen así en el futuro, y tomando en cuenta el crecimiento esperado de la población rural, se llegaría a un nivel de conversión acumulado alrededor de 16% el año 2026. Varios municipios, sobre todo en Santa Cruz, han seguido una estrategia de desarrollo mucho más agresiva en términos de su impacto ambiental. Estas áreas han sido muy atractivas para migrantes, y si este tipo de estrategia se aplicaría en todos los municipios del corredor, se esperaría un influjo mucho más grande de gente rural y se podría llegar a convertir hasta 23% del área total el año 2026. Este sería un límite superior del impacto ambiental ya que gran parte del área tiene una topografía tan accidentada que una estrategia de desarrollo agresiva realmente no sería factible. El análisis muestra que no existe una contradicción inherente entre el desarrollo humano y la conservación del medio ambiente. Aunque sí existe una relación levemente negativa entre los dos objetivos, hay muchos ejemplos de municipios que han logrado relativamente altos niveles de desarrollo humano con impactos ambientales mínimos.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Conservación ; Desarrollo Humano ; Amboro-Madidi ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Los enfoques de corredores de conservación han sido desarrollados, conceptualizados y analizados para su implementación tomando en cuenta criterios fundamentalmente relacionados a reconciliar e integrar actuales procesos de desarrollo sostenible, dentro de nuevas estrategias que permitan la integración y compatibilidad de estos criterios, y que coadyuven en lograr la conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad y recursos renovables, Asimismo, la importancia creciente y reconocimiento hacia los beneficios de los servicios del ecosistema incorpora criterios y enfoques que garanticen la provisión de importantes servicios ambientales, generen un crecimiento económico con patrones sostenibles de uso, y promuevan beneficios socioeconómicos a comunidades indígenas y locales con impactos positivos adicionales regionales, nacionales y globales. Estos planteamientos buscan responder a las crecientes amenazas a los ecosistemas que se van produciendo, en los cuales diversos grados de degradación, fragmentación e impacto ambiental afectan las posibilidades de desarrollo sostenible. Tales criterios involucran una atención en los últimos años hacia los servicios ambientales de los ecosistemas, los mismos que son de gran importancia para el bienestar y el desarrollo humano, aunque lastimosamente son ignorados o no reconocidos en su totalidad. El presente documento de trabajo explora la evolución conceptual y práctica de los enfoques implementados y su aplicación en Bolivia, con énfasis en el área de estudio correspondiente al Corredor Amboró Madidi, y un análisis descriptivo y demostrativo de los beneficios que los servicios del ecosistema y la biodiversidad generan para el desarrollo humano sostenible.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Conservación ; Desarrollo Humano ; Amboro-Madidi ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Varios estudios realizados en Bolivia sugieren que los trabajadores calificados son escasos y que los puestos de trabajo en el sector público son tan atractivos que el sector privado no puede captar ni mantener los trabajadores calificados que necesita. Tal tendencia limita fuertemente el crecimiento económico y la reducción de la pobreza, puesto que el sector productivo tiene restricciones en la contratación eficaz de uno de sus factores de producción más importantes. El presente documento testea esta hipótesis a través de la estimación de modelos estructurales que permitan estudiar los patrones de comportamiento de búsqueda de trabajo de los empleados en Bolivia. Los resultados están consistentes con la hipótesis.
    Keywords: J62 ; J63 ; J64 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Movilidad ; mercado laboral ; búsqueda de trabajo ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 21
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El Programa Reforma Educativa ha contribuido a que el Sistema Educativo Boliviano consiguiera pasar de la perspectiva de la administración a la de la gestión. Bajo esta nueva visión, la gestión educativa depende de los actores involucrados, como padres de familia, maestros, autoridades municipales, entre otros, que tienen la responsabilidad de conducir, planificar y ejecutar un plan educativo. En ese sentido, con la finalidad de contar con una evaluación parcial de impacto de esta nueva modalidad de administración, el objetivo del estudio es evaluar la gestión educativa y analizar sus impactos en dos resultados educativos: acceso a la educación pública primaria y factores asociados al rendimiento escolar.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Reforma educativa ; Educación ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Las últimas dos décadas han visto mejoramientos sustanciales en la asistencia escolar de niñas en América Latina, hasta el punto que, en la mayoría de los países, más niñas que niños asisten a las escuelas. Sin embargo, Bolivia es una excepción, especialmente en áreas rurales donde la brecha educativa entre hombres y mujeres jóvenes todavía es significativa. El informe muestra que en 113 de los 314 municipios en Bolivia las niñas tienen menor acceso y/o permanencia en el sistema escolar que los niños, mientras que las niñas sólo tienen ventajes de acceso y/o permanencia en 2 municipios. En el resto de los municipios, los niños y las niñas tienen el mismo acceso y el mismo nivel de permanencia (medido a 15 años). La mayoría de los municipios con inequidades genéricas en contra de las niñas se encuentran en el altiplano en las zonas con mayor pobreza y mayor proporción de población Aymara. En términos absolutos, el problema de inasistencia de las niñas (y también de los niños) se concentra en cinco municipios grandes (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, La Paz, El Alto, Cochabamba y Sucre). En cuatro de estos cinco municipios hay problemas de desigualdad genérica en la permanencia escolar, sólo en el municipio de El Alto hay inequidad tanto en acceso como en permanencia.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Permanencia ; Acceso ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 23
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This study focuses on analysing the linkages between output growth, employment and poverty, at both the macro and micro levels. At the macro level, the linkage between poverty and output growth is conceptualised in terms of the average productivity of the employed work force, which in turn gets reflected in low levels of real wages and low levels of earnings in self-employment. At the micro level of a household, the same linkage between poverty and employment operates through the type and productivity of economic activities in which the earning members of a household are engaged, the low level of human capital of the members of the workforce, the dependency burden that limits participation in the workforce, and the availability of remunerative employment.
    Keywords: J24 ; O54 ; o17 ; ddc:330 ; Employment ; Poverty ; Growth ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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