Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Little is known about the fate of adult male residents after they are ousted from bisexual one-male troops of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in the course of adult male replacements. In a long term study at Jodhpur, Rajasthan, it was possible to reconstruct partial life histories of several ousted residents. One resident was killed during the male change. Ousted residents did not regain residency despite their continued invasions into bisexual troops. It is assumed that the males' chances to take over and to defend a troop are restricted to an age of 9–14 years, when the males are in prime physical condition. One male became solitary for some months while trying to regain residency of his old troop, before joining some “alien” males. As a rule, males are likely to rejoin their own male bands if they are ousted after short periods of residency. If the residency exceeds 3 months then the ongoing structural change in the former band may prevent their reintegration. However, in such cases, ousted residents which belonged to the same band may reunite and mingle with another male band which lacks prime males. Weaned sons may follow their fathers after ousting. In the case of numerous weaned offspring, fathers and sons may together form at least temporary new male bands.
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