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  • Presbytis entellus  (6)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 3 (1988), S. 239-259 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Presbytis entellus ; grandmothers ; infant and juvenile grandchildren ; investment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The behaviour of two Hanuman langur grandmothers towards their grandchildren is examined with emphasis on the spatial relationship, the contact behaviour, and vigilance. Interaction patterns with infants and juveniles are analysed separately to disclose the influence of a social partner's reproductive value and the variance of this value on grandmaternal behaviour. The shape of grandmaternal behaviour seems to differ for male and female grandchildren, and it seems to depend on the reproductive value of both, the grandmother and the grandchild. These results are in accordance with sociobiological hypotheses. Evaluation of costs and benefits suggests that grandmaternal behaviour in langurs can be called investment.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Presbytis entellus ; Male competition and coalition ; Mating pattern ; Female promiscuity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract During a 15 month study on free ranging langurs (Presbytis entellus) at Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, 5 adult male replacements were observed as a result of nontroop male invasions into the home ranges of 3 neighbouring one-male troops comprising 16–28 members each. Jodhpur langurs have no breeding season. Periods of instability during resident male changes lasted 11–119 days. Linear dominance hierarchies could be detected within the 3 main rival male bands of 2, 5, and 28–35 members. The respective alphas drove their allies away after their bands succeeded cooperatively at occupying a troop. During gradual replacements interim residencies alternated with multi-male stages. A large band's alpha may have had better chances to win the competition, since adult and nonadult allies functioned as “buffers” in agonistic encounters. The role of kin selection in structuring the composition of male bands and male coalitional behaviour cannot yet be quantified. Tactical “deceit” of powerful males to cause unrealistic expectations and in this way agonistic engagement of less strong males can be ruled out. “Sneaking copulations” is a proximate advantage for subordinate supporters, since they participated in 61.9% of all sexual interactions. Female promiscuity might reflect a strategy to induce male-male competition and thus select for a strong resident.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Presbytis entellus ; Reproductive strategies ; Abortion ; Infanticide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract During a 10-year long term study, 6 eye-witnessed and 1 pressumed cases of abortions occurred in 3 one-male bisexual troops of free ranging langurs (Presbytis entellus) near Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. The age of the unborns varied from 35 to about 200 days. The subsequent birth interval ranged between 7.1–21.1 months. 2 miscarriages occurred during stable periods of residency of a single male. 5 cases occurred prior to or after infanticide in connection with male changes. In one case a female was attacked by the new male before she aborted. In one case a female presumably aborted after attacks on her semiweaned infant. Most of the reproductive losses hence seem to be related to psychical and physical stress exerted by new males on pregnant females. As part of their reproductive strategy, males reduce their waiting time to insemination in this way. Abortions may likewise represent an adaptive reproductive strategy of females, who prefer to abort instead of investing in a foetus which is likely to be killed after birth.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Presbytis entellus ; long term field project ; conceptual development ; sociobiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The conceptual development of a longterm project on Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) is described. The joint indo-german project was performed at Jodhpur, India, starting in 1977. Its main aim was to study the interrelations between individual life histories and troop histories. A general overview of the habitat and the langur population is presented.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Presbytis entellus ; interbirth intervals ; maternal investment ; timing of male change
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Female reproductive data are presented from 9 years of longitudinal observations on two troops of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) living around Jodhpur, India. On the basis of 89 live births interbirth intervals were calculated to examine the effect of demographic factors on reproductive behaviour and troop composition. Sex of an infant seems to influence the length of intervals which are longer after the birth of female infants at an average of 1.7 months. It is suggested that this may be an outcome of differential maternal investment by allocating more time and energy towards female infants who run a higher mortality risk than male infants, at least up to an age of 27 months. Troopspecific interbirth intervals are influenced by social events. If the last infant is still alive when the next one is conceived, the intervals are significantly longer than after the premature loss of an infant (Bijolai troop: 15.6 vs. 12.1 months; Kailana-1 troop: 16.7 vs. 11.4 months). During undisturbed male tenureship intervals are shorter than after a male change (Bijolai troop: 14.3 vs. 16.0 months; Kailana-I troop: 15.6 vs. 17.5 months). Thus the frequency of male changes can influence the demography of a troop. Furthermore, the data suggest that take-overs are optimally timed by males. New males tend to take over a troop when most of the females are cycling.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Keywords: Presbytis entellus ; male residents ; inale bands ; ousted residents
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Little is known about the fate of adult male residents after they are ousted from bisexual one-male troops of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in the course of adult male replacements. In a long term study at Jodhpur, Rajasthan, it was possible to reconstruct partial life histories of several ousted residents. One resident was killed during the male change. Ousted residents did not regain residency despite their continued invasions into bisexual troops. It is assumed that the males' chances to take over and to defend a troop are restricted to an age of 9–14 years, when the males are in prime physical condition. One male became solitary for some months while trying to regain residency of his old troop, before joining some “alien” males. As a rule, males are likely to rejoin their own male bands if they are ousted after short periods of residency. If the residency exceeds 3 months then the ongoing structural change in the former band may prevent their reintegration. However, in such cases, ousted residents which belonged to the same band may reunite and mingle with another male band which lacks prime males. Weaned sons may follow their fathers after ousting. In the case of numerous weaned offspring, fathers and sons may together form at least temporary new male bands.
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