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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (112,478)
  • Chemical Engineering  (17,979)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Exploiting binding affinities between molecules is an established practice in many fields, including biochemical separations, diagnostics, and drug development; however, using these affinities to control biomolecule release is a more recent strategy. Affinity-controlled release takes advantage of the reversible nature of noncovalent interactions between a therapeutic protein and a binding partner to slow the diffusive release of the protein from a vehicle. This process, in contrast to degradation-controlled sustained-release formulations such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, is controlled through the strength of the binding interaction, the binding kinetics, and the concentration of binding partners. In the context of affinity-controlled release--and specifically the discovery or design of binding partners--we review advances in in vitro selection and directed evolution of proteins, peptides, and oligonucleotides (aptamers), aided by computational design.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pakulska, Malgosia M -- Miersch, Shane -- Shoichet, Molly S -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):aac4750. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4750.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, and Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, and Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989257" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chemical Engineering ; Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques ; Delayed-Action Preparations/*chemistry ; Directed Molecular Evolution ; *Drug Design ; Humans ; Lactic Acid/*chemistry ; Microspheres ; Polyglycolic Acid/*chemistry ; Proteins/*administration & dosage
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Langer, Robert S -- Gura, Trisha -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 28;346(6213):1146. doi: 10.1126/science.346.6213.1146.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Trisha Gura is a freelance writer who lives in Boston. For more on life and careers visit www.sciencecareers.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430772" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biotechnology ; *Career Choice ; Chemical Engineering ; *Entrepreneurship ; *Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: Ethanol toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical membrane gradients is a mechanism that enhances general resistance to multiple alcohols. The elevation of extracellular potassium and pH physically bolsters these gradients, increasing tolerance to higher alcohols and ethanol fermentation in commercial and laboratory strains (including a xylose-fermenting strain) under industrial-like conditions. Production per cell remains largely unchanged, with improvements deriving from heightened population viability. Likewise, up-regulation of the potassium and proton pumps in the laboratory strain enhances performance to levels exceeding those of industrial strains. Although genetically complex, alcohol tolerance can thus be dominated by a single cellular process, one controlled by a major physicochemical component but amenable to biological augmentation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401034/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401034/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lam, Felix H -- Ghaderi, Adel -- Fink, Gerald R -- Stephanopoulos, Gregory -- R01 GM035010/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM035010/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 3;346(6205):71-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1257859. Epub 2014 Oct 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, USA. gfink@wi.mit.edu gregstep@mit.edu. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. gfink@wi.mit.edu gregstep@mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25278607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biofuels ; Cation Transport Proteins/genetics ; Cell Culture Techniques ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Chemical Engineering ; *Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics ; Ethanol/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Fermentation ; Genetic Engineering ; Glucose/metabolism ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Phosphates/*metabolism ; Potassium Compounds/*metabolism ; Proton Pumps/genetics ; Proton-Translocating ATPases/genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects/genetics/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics ; Up-Regulation ; Xylose/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2012-11-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Savage, Phillip E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Nov 23;338(6110):1039-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1224310.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. psavage@umich.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23180853" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biofuels ; Cell Culture Techniques ; Chemical Engineering ; Chlorophyta/*chemistry/growth & development ; *Hot Temperature ; *Hydrostatic Pressure ; *Water
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2007-11-17
    Description: Artificial biochemical circuits are likely to play as large a role in biological engineering as electrical circuits have played in the engineering of electromechanical devices. Toward that end, nucleic acids provide a designable substrate for the regulation of biochemical reactions. However, it has been difficult to incorporate signal amplification components. We introduce a design strategy that allows a specified input oligonucleotide to catalyze the release of a specified output oligonucleotide, which in turn can serve as a catalyst for other reactions. This reaction, which is driven forward by the configurational entropy of the released molecule, provides an amplifying circuit element that is simple, fast, modular, composable, and robust. We have constructed and characterized several circuits that amplify nucleic acid signals, including a feedforward cascade with quadratic kinetics and a positive feedback circuit with exponential growth kinetics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, David Yu -- Turberfield, Andrew J -- Yurke, Bernard -- Winfree, Erik -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Nov 16;318(5853):1121-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, MC 136-93, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA91125, USA. dzhang@dna.caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18006742" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Catalysis ; Chemical Engineering ; *Computers, Molecular ; DNA/*chemistry ; Entropy ; Equipment Design ; Feedback, Physiological ; Mice ; Nanotechnology ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Rabbits
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: radical polymerization ; ortho-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)phenyl ethyl fumarate ; hydrogen abstraction ; cyclic acetal ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The polymerization of o-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)phenyl ethyl fumarate (DOPEF) initiated with dimethyl 2,2′-azobisiso-butyrate (MAIB) was studied kinetically in benzene. The polymerization rate (Rp) at 60°C was given by Rp = k [MAIB]0.76 [DOPEF]0.71. The overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 98.3 kJ/mol. The number-average molecular weight of resulting poly(DOPEF) was in the range of 1000-3100. 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra of resulting polymers revealed that the radical polymerization of DOPEF proceeds in a complicated manner involving vinyl addition, intramolecular hydrogen abstraction, and further ring opening of the cyclic acetal at higher temperatures. From the copolymerization of DOPEF (M1) and styrene (St) (M2) at 60°C, the monomer reactivity ratios were obtained to be r1 = 0.02 and r2 = 0.20, the values of which are similar to those of the copolymerization of ethyl o-formylphenyl fumarate and St. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 563-572, 1998
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: alternating copolymerization ; free radical ; isopropenylisocyanate ; trimethylsilyl methacrylate ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The copolymerization of 2-propenyl isocyanate (1) with trimethylsilyl methacrylate (2) has been investigated. 1 is an electron donor monomer with little tendency to undergo homopolymerization, while 2 is an electron acceptor monomer, capable of free radical homopolymerization. Polymerization to low conversion in benzene gave copolymers with preferential incorporation of 2 and a tendency towards alternating copolymers with increasing amounts of 1 in the feed (1 : 1.13 with a 9 : 1 feed ratio of monomers 1 : 2). The glass transition temperatures of the amorphous polymers are in the range from 100-70°C, with a Tg of poly(trimethylsilyl methacrylate) being 135°C. Desilylation occurs in the presence of water, causing an exothermal reaction above the glass transition temperature probably with formation of amides, a reaction that can be used for crosslinking. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 611-616, 1998
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: AMGLU ; A6BMG ; A6TMG ; ring-opening polymerization ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three new 1,4-anhydro-glucopyranose derivatives having different hydroxyl protective groups such as 1,4-anhydro-2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-α-D-glucopyranose (AMGLU), 1,4-anhydro-6-O-benzyl-2,3-di-O-methyl-α-D-glucopyranose (A6BMG), and 1,4-anhydro-2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-trityl-α-D-glucopyranose (A6TMG) were synthesized from methyl α-D-glucopyranoside in good yields. Their polymerizability was compared with that of 1,4-anhydro-2,3,6-tri-O-benzyl-α-D-glucopyranose (ABGLU) reported previously. The trimethylated monomer, AMGLU, was polymerized by a PF5 catalyst to give 1,5-α-furanosidic polymer having number-average molecular weights (M̄n) in the range of 2.8 × 103 to 6.8 × 103. The 13C-NMR spectrum was compared with that of methylated amylose and cellulose. Other anhydro monomers, A6BMG and A6TMG, gave the corresponding 1,5-α furanosidic polymers having M̄n = 17.1 × 103 and 1.8 × 103, respectively. Thus, the substituents at the C2 and C6 positions were found to play an important role for the ring-opening polymerizability of the 1,4-anhydro-glucose monomers. In addition, debenzylation of the tribenzylated polymer gave free (1 → 5)-α-D-glucofuranan. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 841-850, 1998
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
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    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane ; 4,7-dimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane ; cyclic ketene acetal ; cationic polymerization ; ring-opening polymerization ; ring-retained polymerization ; copolymerization ; boron trifluoride etherate ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: BF3·OEt2-initiated polymerizations of 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane gave polymers composed of both ring-retained and ring-opened structures. The ring-opening content increased with an increase in polymerization temperature. Poly(4,7-dimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane) propagated slower during BF3·OEt2-initiated polymerization and had a lower ring-opened content than poly(2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane). The type of acid initiator used also affected the amount of ring opening observed. Stronger acids gave less ring opening. Attempted BF3·OEt2-initiated copolymerizations of these seven-membered ring cyclic ketene acetals with isobutyl vinyl ether at room temperature resulted in formation of the two homopolymers. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 873-881, 1998
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: 2-methylene-1,3-dioxane ; 4-methyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxane ; 4,4,6-trimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxane ; 2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane ; 4-methyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane ; 4,5-dimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane ; cationic copolymerization ; reactivity ratio ; relative reactivity ; ring-retained polymerization ; cyclic ketene acetals ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Cationic copolymerizations of 4-methyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxane, 2 (M1), with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxane, 1 (M2); of 4,4,6-trimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxane, 3 (M1), with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxane, 1 (M2); of 4-methyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane, 5 (M1), with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane, 4 (M2); and of 4,5-dimethyl-2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane, 6 (M1), with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxolane, 4 (M2) were conducted. The reactivity ratios for these four types of copolymerizations were r1 = 1.73 and r2 = 0.846; r1 = 2.26 and r2 = 0.310; r1 = 1.28 and r2 = 0.825; r1 = 2.23 and r2 = 0.515, respectively. The relative reactivities of these monomers towards cationic polymerization are: 3 〉 2 〉 1; and 6 〉 5 〉 4. With both five- and six-membered ring cyclic ketene acetals, the reactivity increased with increasing methyl substitution on the ring. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 861-871, 1998
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: fluorine ; perfluoropolyether ; polyester ; segmented ; thermoplastic ; interfacial synthesis ; thermal transitions ; dynamic-mechanical properties ; chemical resistance ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Linear segmented polyesters containing soft perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and hard aromatic segments are obtained by an interfacial polycondensation reaction of an acyl chloride-ended fluorinated prepolymer with various aromatic diphenols in the presence of phase transfer catalysts (PTC) as accelerators. Experimental conditions for reaching high molecular weights are discussed. The calorimetric analysis (DSC) of all the polyesters synthesized shows a typical biphasic morphology, where a very low Tg (〈 -110°C) corresponding to the segregated PFPE moiety, is always accompanied by another Tg or a higher melting temperature, depending on the nature of the hard phase. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) has been carried out confirming the DSC results and suggesting diversified mechanical behaviors at the various temperatures in line with the amorphous or semicrystalline nature of the polymer. Chemical resistance was finally tested by dipping in several solvents and chemicals. The new polyesters show high contact angles, a moderate swelling in many organic solvents and excellent stability in aggressive hydrolytic environments. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 939-947, 1998
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: processable polyimide ; bulky pendent ether groups ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of aromatic diamines containing pendent methoxy, phenoxy, and biphenoxy moieties were synthesized. By the reaction of diamines with 3,3′,4,4′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA), several kinds of polyimides having bulky pendent ether groups were synthesized. Thermal properties and processability such as melt processability and solubility in organic solvents of obtained polyimides were investigated by focusing on the chemical structures of their repeating structure units. It was found that the thermal stability and melt processability of the polyimides did not strongly depend on the existence of bulky pendent phenoxy and biphenoxy moieties. Their solubility in organic solvents, however, was improved by introducing the bulky pendent ether groups such as methoxy, phenoxy, and biphenoxy moieties into their repeating structure units. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 971-978, 1998
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: plasma polymers ; methyl methacrylate ; oxidation ; long-term stability ; XPS ; FTIR ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Plasma polymer films were deposited from methyl methacrylate (MMA) vapor under various plasma conditions and XPS and FTIR used to study the changes to the compositions of the films as they were stored in air for longer than 1 year. The plasma power input per monomer mass unit (W/FM) markedly affected the composition of the freshly deposited MMA plasma polymers. A low value of W/FM led to a high degree of retention of the original monomer structure, whereas a high value of W/FM resulted in substantial monomer fragmentation and the formation of a partially unsaturated material considerably different to conventional PMMA. As the MMA plasma coatings were stored in ambient air after fabrication, all showed spontaneous oxidative changes to their composition, but the extents and reaction products differed substantially. Deposition at low W/FM led to moderate oxidative changes, whereas high power led to a pronounced increase in the oxygen content over time and resulted in a wide range of carbon-oxygen functionalities in the aged material. As the initial compositions/plasma deposition conditions thus influenced the oxidative postdeposition reactions, MMA plasma polymers deposited under different conditions not only varied in their initial composition but then became even more diverse as they aged. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 985-1000, 1998
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: free volume ; autoacceleration ; inhibition ; tertiary amines ; friction coefficient ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The epoxy-diamine cure process was studied. We found that the mechanism can be described in three steps: (i) initiation up to 20-25% of conversion. (ii) autoacceleration and (iii) inhibition. It has been observed that after the initiation there is a clear autoacceleration effect which has been explained in terms of free volume, considerations: the volume occupied by the products of reaction diminishes the available volume increasing the “local concentration” of the reactants and therefore the rate of reaction. The reaction was followed by FTIR (near infrared) as the main technique. We used a purified epoxy resin as well as phenyl glycidyl ether cured with m-xylenediamine. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1001-1016, 1998
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: acid-catalyzed deprotection mechanism ; chemically amplified resist ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A mechanism of acid-catalyzed deprotection of poly(4-tert-butyloxycarbonyloxy-styrene), PBOCST, in chemically amplified resists has been elucidated in terms of elementary processes by means of semiempirical molecular orbital calculations. It is concluded that the overall deprotection of tert-butyloxycarbonyl (t-BOC) group proceeds stepwise; i.e., (a) the first products are an acid carbonate and a tert-butyl cation; (b) a phenolic compound is the secondary and final product from the acid carbonate, which is realized by assistance with a counter anion accompanied by acid; (c) the counter anion also assists acid regeneration from the tert-butyl cation to produce isobutylene. The yield rate of the phenol is proportional to the product of concentrations of the polymer, the catalytic acid, and the counter anion. The activation energy (21 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step (a) is in good agreement with an experiment. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1035-1042, 1998
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  • 16
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    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: anionic polymerization ; absolute rate constants ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Claims have recently been made that absolute rate constants for chain propagation of the unassociated active centers can be made in systems where a high degree of association is present. Anionic polymerization of styrene in nonpolar solvents with lithium as counterion is a typical case. The conditions required to obtain these constants (and the associated aggregate dissociation constants) are described using data from styrene polymerization with lithium and potassium as counterions and data from o-methoxystyrene polymerization. The conclusion reached must be that the kp and Kds values obtained for styrene with counterion lithium cannot be obtained from existing literature data and are simply artifacts of the computer analysis. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1065-1068, 1998
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  • 17
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    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: ion-conducting polymers ; silicon ; synthesis ; stability ; conductivity ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Trifunctional carbosilanes containing hydroxy and cyano groups have been synthesized in good yields and incorporated into polyether-based electrolytes. The new linear and cross-linked modified PEOs have been characterized by DSC and conductivity measurements. The effect of silane content, the length of the PEO block, glycerol concentration, and temperature on glass transition temperature and conductivity of lithium salts complexes of these materials has been evaluated. The new materials showed improved conductivity (∼ 10-5 S cm-1) at ambient temperatures compared with unmodified polyethers. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1093-1106, 1998
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  • 18
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 19
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 20
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Einfluß der Substratstruktur auf das Erscheinungsbild von Lacken und die relevanten CharakterisierungsmethodenIn diesem Artikel werden die relevanten mechanischen und optischen Methoden (mech. Profilometrie, wave-scan, Autospect) zur Untersuchung der Oberflächenstruktur lackierter und unlackierter Proben vorgestellt. Im ersten Teil des Artikels werden die verschiedenen Methoden diskutiert und verglichen, während in einem zweiten Teil ein Beispiel bezüglich des Einflusses von Substratrauhigkeit und Einbrennposition auf die endgültige Decklackstruktur gezeigt wird. Ein dritter Teil präsentiert eine Studie an verformten und nicht-verformten Substraten verschiedenen Blech-Typs und den Effekt auf das Decklack-Erscheinungsbild. Zusätzlich wird ein Vergleich zwischen zwei Lacksystemen gegeben.
    Notes: In this paper the relevant mechanical and optical measuring methods (mech. Profilometry, wave-scan, Autospect) for studying the surface structure of painted and unpainted samples will be presented. The various methods were discussed and compared in the first part of the paper, while in a second part an example concerning the influence of substrate roughness and baking position on the final topcoat structure will be given. A third part presents a study on deformed and undeformed substrates of different sheet type and the effect on topcoat appearance. In addition, a comparison of two paint systems will be shown.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Entwicklung einer neuen Kriechprobe für Tests bei mittleren und hohen TemperaturenEine neue Kriechprobengeometrie wird vorgestellt, die keine Gewindeköpfe sondern Rundköpfe zur Einspannung verwendet. Dies bietet den Vorteil, daß Hochtemperaturhaftungsprobleme deutlich verringert werden. Darüber hinaus erleichtert diese Geometrie die Herstellung von Proben aus Werkstoffen, die sich nur schwer mechanisch bearbeiten lassen oder teuere Bearbeitungsverfahren erforderlich machen. An Hand von zwei Beispielen wird der erfolgreiche Einsatz dieser Probe demonstriert.
    Notes: A new creep sample geometry is presented which has round heads instead of threads to connect to the grips. This reduces high temperature adhesion problems considerably. In addition, the production of samples from materials which are difficult to machine or which requires expensive machining techniques is made easier using this geometry. The successful use of the sample is demonstrated by means of two examples.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Valve Materials for Combustion EnginesAn overview is being given on production numbers, requirements and properties of valve materials. Their development from the beginning till today's state of the art is reviewed with a focus on Chromium-Manganese-Nitrogen-alloys. Valve materials are grouped by the criteria of density - heavy, lightweight - and alloying elements. The multiple stresses of the material in the valve are being met with a few standardised grades and specific ways of manufacture. The path of the material from bar stock to the finished valve is being followed. Engine development in the past decades increased the load on the valves which could be met by continuously developing their structural strength. Also the strength of all valve materials could be raised to nominal strength above 1100 Mpa by applying specific methods. Higher strength at the surface is being effectuated by work hardening effects. The technology to increase reliability of hollow valves and new aspects of valve seat facing including residual stress is explicitly discussed. General aspects of alloy utilisation is followed by a discussion of lightweight valve materials as Titanium alloys, intermetallic Titaniumaluminide alloys and ceramic materials, spec. Silicon Nitride, which all have a potential as forthcoming valve materials capable of reducing fuel consumption of the engines.
    Notes: Nach einem Überblick über Produktionszahlen, allgemeine Anforderungen und Eigenschaften von Ventilen für Verbrennungsmotoren, wird in einem Rückblick die Werkstoffentwicklung für die Ventilstähle von den ersten Anfängen bis zum heutigen Stand aufgezeigt. Schwerpunktmäßig wird die Gruppe der Chrom-Mangan-Stickstoff-Stähle behandelt. Daneben werden die Ventilwerkstoffe geordnet nach schweren und leichten und innerhalb dieser Gruppen nach Legierungsmerkmalen beschrieben. Es wird über die vielfältigen Werkstoffanstrengungen am Ventil informiert, die mit wenigen genormten Werkstoffgüten und speziellen Fertigungsverfahren problemlos mit niedrigsten Fehlerraten beherrscht werden. Der Weg des Werkstoffes vom Halbzeug bis zum fertigen Ventil wird in allen Schritten verfolgt. Die in den letzten Dekaden forcierte Motorenentwicklung führte zu verschärften Betriebsbedingungen auch für die Ventile, die mit einer kontinuierlichen Weiterentwicklung bestehender Werkstoffgüten und Verbesserungen der Gestaltsfestigkeit der Ventile aufgefangen wurden. In diesem Zusammenhang werden spezielle Lösungen zur Festigkeitssteigerung aller Ventilwerkstoffe bis in den Bereich von über 1100 MPa erläutert, die nach bekannten metallkundlichen Gesetzen ermöglicht wurden. Als wesentliches Prinzip werden ortsabhängig, besonders an der Oberfläche, erhöhte Festigkeits- und Verschleißeigenschaften zur Optimierung der Gestalts- und Betriebsfestigkeit eingesetzt. Über Entwicklungen zur Technologie der Hohlventile und von erweiterten Lösungen beim Auftragschweißen von Ventilsitzen im Zusammenhang mit Eigenspannungen wird ausführlich berichtet. Einer kurzen allgemeinen Betrachtung zum Legierungsaufwand der wichtigsten Ventilwerkstoffe folgt ein Kapitel über Titan, Intermetallische Verbindungen und Keramik, die möglicherweise als zukünftige leichte Ventilwerkstoffe Verwendung finden können.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Hartstoffschichten auf Leichtmetall-Komponenten unter mechanischer OberflächenbeanspruchungIn der vorliegenden Studie wurde das Verhalten von hartstoffbeschichteten Leichtmetallkomponenten unter mechanischer Oberflächenbeanspruchung untersucht. Hierzu wurden drei Leichtmetallegierungen (Ti-6Al-4V, A1Si7Mg und AlMgSi0.5) sowie 100Cr6 - Stahl (als Vergleichsmaterial) mit zwei unterschiedlichen PVD-Verfahren beschichtet: radio frequency magnetron sputtering und electron beam evaporation. Als Schichtmaterialien wurden CrN und TiN verwendet. Um die verschiedenen Substrat/Schicht-Kombinationen hinsichtlich ihres Belastungsvermögens zu beurteilen, wurden Standard-Testmethoden angewendet, die jeweils eine andere Lastsituation simulieren: der Härtetest (der eine statische Normalkraft aufbringt), der Ritztest (der eine statische Normalkraft mit einer statischen Tangentialkraft überlagert) und der Impacttest (der eine dynamische Normalkraft aufbringt).Es wurde beobachtet, daß das Belastungsvermögen beschichteter Materialien von der vorherrschenden Lastsituation abhängt. Die beschichteten Aluminiumlegierungen wiesen unter allen getesteten Lastsituationen ein geringes Belastungsvermögen auf. Allerdings zeigten sie eine höhere Oberflächenhärte als unbeschichteter Stahl. Beschichtetes Ti-6Al-4V wies ein hohes Belastungsvermögen auf, vergleichbar mit beschichtetem Stahl. Bei sämtlichen beschichteten Leichtmetallsubstraten war eine signifikante Verbesserung des Belastungsvermögens mit zunehmender Schichtdicke zu erkennen.An den Ergebnissen des Ritztests, welcher weitverbreitet zur Untersuchung der Haftung dünner Schichten eingesetzt wird, war auf den Aluminiumsubstraten ein sofortiger Durchbruch des Prüfdiamanten durch die Schichten zu beobachten. Es traten keinerlei Abplatzungen auf. Aufgrund dieses Verhaltens erscheint der Ritztest nicht geeignet, um die Schichthaftung auf Leichtmetallsubstraten zu untersuchen. Im Gegensatz dazu wies das Schadensbild des Impacttests auch auf den Aluminiumsubstraten Schichtabplatzungen auf, was auf dessen Eignung zur Beurteilung des Haftungsvermögens dünner Schichten auf sehr weichen Substraten schließen läßt.Die Studie zeigt, daß in bestimmten Anwendungsgebieten eine Substitution des Stahls durch hartstoffbeschichtete Leichtmetallegierungen möglich ist.
    Notes: In this work the behaviour of hard coated light-metal components was investigated when they are mechanically loaded. Three lightmetal alloys, Ti-6Al-4V, AlSi7Mg and AlMgSi0.5 and 100Cr6 steel (as a reference material) were coated by two different physical vapour deposition processes: radio frequency magnetron sputtering and electron beam evaporation. The coating materials utilised were CrN and TiN. Standard test methods with different loading conditions were used to evaluate the substrate/coating-combinations: the hardness test (applying a static normal load), the scratch test (applying a combination of a static normal and a static tangential force) and the impact test (applying a dynamic normal load).It was observed that the load support of coated materials depends on the loading conditions. The coated aluminium alloys showed poor load support under all loading test conditions but produced a higher surface hardness than uncoated steel. Coated Ti-6Al-4V showed very good load support properties, similar to coated steel. All coated light-metal substrates demonstrated significant improvement in load support behaviour with an increase in coating thickness.The results of the scratch test, which is commonly used to asses adhesion properties of thin coatings, showed an immediate indenter-breakthrough on the aluminium alloy substrates, but causing no coating delamination. Due to this behaviour, the scratch test is not suitable to evaluate adhesion properties on coated soft light-metals. Yet the impact test allowed assessment of coating delamination on the aluminium alloys, proving its usefulness for adhesion measurement even on soft substrates.The study indicates that substitution of steel with coated lightmetal alloys is a viable proposition for certain applications.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: An Proben unterschiedlicher Durchmesser aus vergütetem Stahl 42 CrMo 4 wurden bei Raumtemperatur einstufige Versuche bei Axial- und Umlaufbiegebeanspruchung durchgeführt. Die experimentell ermittelten dauerfest ertragbaren Nennspannungsamplituden wurden berechneten Werten gegenübergestellt.Hiermit konnte gezeigt werden, daß das Fehlstellenmodell nach Weibull in der von Heckel angewandten Form bei gleicher Datenbasis anderen Ansätzen hinsichtlich der Genauigkeit der Schwingfestigkeitsberechnung überlegen ist.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Near surface properties of Mg-alloy AZ 31 after mechanical surface treatmentsNear surface materials properties are investigated for Mg-alloy AZ 31 after different shot peening or deep rolling treatments resp. Surface topography as well as depth distributions of hardness, residual stresses and X-ray interference line half-width values are analysed for individual process parameters. In addition, stability of residual stress distributions during fatigue loading is investigated.
    Notes: Am Beispiel der Magnesiumbasislegierung AZ 31 wird gezeigt, welche randnahen Werkstoffzustände sich nach Kugelstrahl- bzw. Festwalzbehandlungen einstellen. Dazu werden die Oberflächentopographie sowie die Tiefenverteilungen der Härte, der Eigenspannungen und der Halbwertsbreiten von Röntgeninterferenzlinien nach Behandlungen mit unterschiedlichen Verfahrensparametern betrachtet. Außerdem wird die Stabilität der Eigenspannungszustände bei Schwingbeanspruchung an Luft untersucht.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Differences in the cyclic deformation behaviour of quenched and tempered steel 42 CrMo 4 (AISI 4140) due to stress- and strain-controlCyclic stress-strain-curves and Manson-Coffin-plots of quenched and tempered steel 42 CrMo 4 (AISI 4140) strongly depend on whether they are determined under stress- or total-strain-control. At total-strain-controlled experiments, this is caused on the one hand by comparatively high initial stress-amplitudes which lead to distinctive cyclic worksoftening. On the other hand, the occurring differences in the evolution of inhomogeneous deformation patterns at both types of loading, which can be recorded by means of photoelasticity and microscopy, lead to differently distributed plastic deformations and to different integral values of plastic strain.
    Notes: Die bei nennspannungs- und totaldehnungskontrollierter Zug-Druck-Wechselverformung von vergütetem 42 CrMo 4 erhaltenen Zyklischen Spannungs-Dehnungs-kurven und Manson-Coffin-Auftragungen hängen stark von der Versuchsführung ab. Ursachen dafür sind einerseits die bei Totaldehnungskontrolle vergleichsweise großen Anfangsspannungsamplituden, die zu ausgeprägten Wechselentfestigungen führen. Andererseits bilden sich bei beiden Beanspruchungsarten, wie sich spannungsoptisch und lichtmikroskopisch nachweisen läßt, unterschiedliche inhomogene Deformationserscheinungen aus, die voneinander abweichende plastische Dehnungsverteilungen und integrale Dehnungswerte ergeben.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Measurement of three-dimensional residual stresses at rolled bars with high hardnessBars out of 56 Ni Cr Mo V 7, a diameter of 63 mm and a length of 100 mm were rolled with a force of 12 kN and 27 kN. The hardness of the bars was 2150 N/mm2. In 8 different direction along the surface the residual stresses were determined with the help of x-ray diffraction. This was done several times after electrolytic reduction of the material at the measuring zone to get a stress profile in dependence of the depth. Afterwards in two dimensions along the surface and perpendicular to the surface the residual stresses inclusive the shear stresses were determined. High compressive residual stresses were along the surface, but therefore tensile residual stresses were perpendicular to the surface at a zone of around 1.5 mm depth. A comparison of the residual stresses with stresses induced by shot peening is done.
    Notes: Bei der Bestimmung der 3dimensionalen Eigenspannungszustände zeigt sich, daß die einzelnen Eigenspannungsverläufe miteinander korrespondieren. Die Druckeigenspannungsbereich reicht beim Festwalzen bis in eine Tiefe von 2 mm, wobei sich ein Druckeigenspannungsplateau im Bereich ab 0,5 mm Tiefe für mehre Zehntel Millimeter ausbildet. Bei F=27 kN sind die Effekte entsprechend ausgeprägter. Im Vergleich zum Festwalzen ist beim Kugelstrahlen die Druckeigenspannung im Bereich bis 0.5 mm Tiefe zu finden.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The corrosion behaviour of zinc in glycollic, mercaptoacetic and cyanoacetic acids and glycine was studied by weight loss, pH-monitoring and polarization measurements. The rate of corrosion was found to be a first order with respect to hydrogen ion activity and strongly dependent of the acid type. The abnormal behaviour in cyanoacetic acid at 〈 0.5 M was attributed to the hydrolysis of the acid during the corrosion and formation of malonic acid as confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Morphological investigation of the corroded surfaces showed localized corrosion in cyanoacetic and glycollic acids which increased as the acid concentration or corrosion time increased. The FT-IR analysis indicated also the formation of zinc glycollate and zinc thioglycollate as the corrosion products of zinc in glycollic and mercaptoacetic acids, respectively (Scheme 1a+b).
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Assessment of the influence of residual and mean stresses on the fatigue limit of a quenched and tempered low alloyed steelThe effect of mean and residual stresses on the fatigue limit of steels is known qualitatively since a long time. The quantitative description of the effect of residual stresses seems yet not sufficiently solved since the special characteristics of residual stresses like instability during loading, multiaxiality, strong gradients and occasionally great differences between surface and volume are not totally considered by the known methods. An application of different concepts for the assessment of residual and mean stresses on the fatigue limit of a quenched and tempered low alloyed steel is presented. If the applied concept takes account of the characteristics of residual stresses it is not necessary to distinguish between residual and mean stress sensitivity.
    Notes: Seit langem ist die qualitative Wirkung von Mittel- und Eigenspannungen auf die Dauerfestigkeit von Stählen bekannt. Die quantitative Beschreibung der Wirkung der Eigenspannungen erscheint jedoch unzureichend, da die Besonderheiten des Eigenspannungszustandes wie Nichtstabilität während der Belastung, Mehrachsigkeit, starke Gradienten sowie gelegentliche große Unterschiede zwischen Oberfläche und Volumen in den gängigen Konzepten nicht berücksichtigt werden. Es werden Untersuchungen zur Dauerfestigkeit eines vergüteten Stahls vorgestellt, auf die verschiedene Konzepte zur Bewertung von Eigen- und Mittelspannungen angewandt werden. Hierbei zeigt sich, daß auf die Unterscheidung zwischen Eigenspannungs- und Mittelspannungsempfindlichkeit verzichtet werden kann, wenn das Bewertungskonzept die oben genannten Charakteristika der Eigenspannungen berücksichtigt.
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    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The corrosion inhibition of mild steel by some naturally occuring substance was evaluated in absence and presence of 600 and 1200 mg H2S/l in 3% NaCl aqueous solution and pH of 3 and temperature of 25 °C. These naturally occurring substance included the water extracts, coumarines and fatty matters extracts of some Egyptian plants. These plants included:(1) Nigella Sativa (Family Ranunculacease) (Extract (1), 2) Coriandrum Sativum (Family Umbelliferea) (Extract II), 3) Ricinus communis (Family Euphorbiaceae) (Extract III). The galvanostatic anodic and cathodic polarization measurements were used for studying the corrosion behavior of mild steel and evaluation of the percentage inhibition of the undertesting extracts of these three plants and also preparation of fatty matters and coumarin fractions were mentioned.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Development of Ceramics via Pyrolysis of Metal Organic PolymersIn the polymer pyrolysis process a highly pure monomeric precursor is transferred via polyaddition or polycondensation reactions to a polymer of low volatility. In a protective atmosphere the issued polymer will be pyrolized yielding an amorphous ceramic, which can be crystallized at higher temperatures. The pyrolysis of polysilanes and polycarbosilanes reveals Si-C-ceramics, polysiloxanes decompose to Si-C-O-ceramics while polysilazanes and polysilyl-carbodiimides will be transferred to Si-C-N- and/or Si3N4-ceramics. The combination of different precursor systems used in the polymer pyrolysis process offers possibilities for the preparation of highly homogeneous multi component ceramics with tailored properties. Over the polymer pyrolysis route ceramic yields up to 90% can be achieved. The ceramic systems described in this article are used as monolithic moulding, as fibres or fibre-reinforced ceramic composites or as dip coated layers.
    Notes: Ausgangspunkt des Polymer-Pyrolyse-Verfahrens stellen hochreine monomere Precursor dar, die über Additions- oder Kondensationsreaktionen polymerisiert und durch Pyrolyse unter Schutzgasatmosphäre in amorphe Keramiken überführt werden. Durch Tempern bei erhöhter Temperatur können die Keramiken zur Kristallisation gebracht werden. Die Pyrolyse von Polysilanen und Polycarbosilanen ergibt Si-C-Keramiken, Polysiloxane werden in Si-C-O-Keramiken und Polysilazane bzw. Polysilylcarbodiimide in Si-C-N- oder Si3N4-Keramiken umgewandelt. Durch Kombination verschiedener Precursormaterialien lassen sich über die Polymer-Pyrolyse-Route Multikomponentenkeramiken außerordentlicher Homogenität und mit vielfältigen Eigenschaften herstellen. Die erreichbaren keramischen Ausbeuten liegen je nach Precursorsystem bei bis zu 90%. Die beschriebenen Keramiken finden Anwendungen in Form monolithischer Formkörper, als Fasern oder faserverstärkte Verbundwerkstoffe oder als über Dip-Coating hergestellte Schichten.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Plasma Pretreatement and Coating of Polymer Films. Part 2: Experimental Results of the Plasma Pretreatment of Polymer FilmsThe food packaging industry demands cheap polymer films possessing a high barrier against permeation of gases, moisture and flavor. Candidates for the most successful materials fulfilling these requirements are vacuum web coated biaxial oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films containing a thin inorganic barrier layer. For a good adhesion of the barrier layer on the BOPP films, the polymer film must be pretreated. The industry uses the Corona atmosphere plasma. This work is separated in three parts. The first part describes the experimental setup and the properties of vacuum web coated layers on polymer films [1]. The next part contains the results of the systematic modification of po } ymer surface by atmosphere and low pressure plasmas. The influence of the surface properties on the final functionality of the coated films is given. In the last part, the discussion of the results of the first and second part reveals systematic relations between the production parameters of the high barrier films and their final functionality. These results firstly reveal the adhesion mechanism of the inorganic barrier layers of the polymer films and the necessary surface properties of the polymer films, in order to get cheap high barrier films by vacuum web coating.
    Notes: Die lebensmittelverpackende Industrie verlangt nach immer billigeren Kunststoffolien mit immer höheren Barrieren gegenüber Gasen, Wasserdampf und Aromastoffen. Ein sehr erfolgreicher Schritt, um diese Anforderungen zu erfüllen, besteht in der vakuumtechnischen Beschichtung mit dünnen anorganischen Schichten von biaxial orientierten Polypropylenfolien (BOPP). Um gute Haftungen der aufgedampften Aluminiumschichten zu erzielen, müssen die BOPP-Folie vorbehandelt werden. Industriell steht dafür das Corona-Atmosphärendruckplasma zur Verfügung. In dieser Arbeit aufgeteilt in drei Abschnitte wird zuerst der Versuchsaufbau und die Eigenschaften beschichteter Kunststoffolien allgemein dargestellt [1]. Im nächsten Schritt erfolgt die systematische Modifikation der Folienoberfläche mittels verschiedener Atmosphärendruck- und Niederdruckplasmen. Die Plasmen werden mittels Langmuir-Sonde und Quadrupolmassenspektrometer charakterisiert. Nach Beschichtung der mittels verschiedener Plasmen modifizierten Kunststoffolien zeigen Haftung und Permeabilitätsmessungen den Einfluß der Vorbehandlung auf die Funktionalität der Folie/Schicht-Systeme. Im letzte Abschnitt werden aus den Ergebnissen der Analysen der unbeschichteten und beschichten Folien systematische Zusammenhänge zwischen Herstellungsparametern und funktionellen Eigenschaften der beschichteten Folien hergestellt. Daraus lassen sich erstmals die zu einer guten Schichthaftung führenden Mechanismen aufzeigen und die notwendigen Oberflächeneigenschaften der unbeschichteten Folie identifizieren, so daß durch die vakuumtechnischen Beschichtung preisgünstige Hochbarrierefolien produziert werden können.
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Microstructure and Corrosion Behaviour of a Nitrogen Alloyed Stainless SteelThe corrosion behaviour of a nitrogen alloyed stainless steel is investigated using potentiodynamic anodic polarization in physiological NaCl solution. The microstructure of forged samples is determined by microscopy and hardness measurements. The steel shows a globular austenitic structure. In the zone of large forging deformation the grains are elongated. Precipitates are observed in which chromium and molybdenium are enriched. The breakdown potentials range from 200 to 1170 mV vs. SCE, most of the values exceed 500 mV. The breakdown potentials decrease with increasing aspect ratio of the grains and increasing hardness. The precipitates are initial sites for pitting and crater shaped metal dissolution.
    Notes: Das Korrosionsverhalten eines stickstofflegierten rostfreien Stahles wird durch potentiodynamische anodische Polarisation in physiologischer NaCl-Lösung untersucht. Der Gefügezustand geschmiedeter Proben wird mikroskopisch und durch Härtemessungen ermittelt. Der Stahl weist ein globulares austenitisches Gefüge auf, in der Zone starker Schmiedeverformung sind die Körner gestreckt. Es liegen Ausscheidungen vor, in denen Chrom und Molybdän angereichert sind. Der Stahl zeigt Durchbruchspotentiale zwischen 200 und 1170 mV vs. SCE, die meisten Werte liegen über 500 mV. Die Durchbruchspotentiale fallen mit zunehmendem Streckungsgrad der Körner und zunehmender Härte ab. Die Ausscheidungen sind Initialpunkte für loch- und kraterförmigen Materialabtrag.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Influence of oxygen additions during gas nitriding on the structure of the nitrided layersThe influence of controlled oxygen additions during gas nitriding of steels on the structure and built-up of the nitrided layers as well as on the nitriding reactions was investigated with metallurgical methods and Mössbauer spectroscopy.The results show that oxygen additions below the oxidising threshold slightly improve the nitriding behaviour of unalloyed steels. Furthermore, it is shown that for alloyed steel, which are tending to passivation starting form chromium concentrations of 3%, the nitriding can be considerably improved by oxygen additions. The passivation layers present for these steels are destroyed by external oxidation during the oxinitriding process. This external oxidation and the internal nitriding occurred parallel in the early stages of the oxinitriding.
    Notes: Die Wirkung kontrollierter sauerstoffhaltiger Zusätze beim Gasnitrieren von Stählen auf den strukturellen Aufbau der Nitrierschichten und den Ablauf der Nitrierreaktion unter technischen Bedingungen wurde mit metallkundlichen Untersuchungsmethoden unter Einbeziehung der Mössbauer Spektroskopie verfolgt.Die Ergebnisse der durchgeführten Untersuchungen zeigen, daß Sauerstoffzusätze unterhalb der Oxidationsgrenze des reinen Eisens das Nitrierverhalten unlegierter Stähle etwas verbessern können. Weiter konnte gezeigt werden, daß bei legierten Stählen, die schon bei Chromgehalten ab 3% bei der konventionellen Gasnitrierung zur Passivierung neigen, die Nitrierung durch einen Sauerstoffzusatz erheblich verbessert werden kann. Die auf diesen Stählen vorhandenen Passivschichten werden beim Oxinitrieren durch eine äußere Oxidation zerstört. Diese äußere Oxidation und die innere Nitrierung laufen in der Anfangsphase des Oxinitrierens parallel ab.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Das Grenzflächenverhalten eines mit Stahlkörnern verfestigten Kupfer-Basis-VerbundwerkstoffesEs wird ein neuer, mit Körnern verstärkter, Guß-Verbundwerkstoff vorgestellt. Zur Verstärkung [VZE]dienen grobe Stahlkörner mit einem Durchmesser von 0.6 bis 1 mm in einer Matrix aus Zinnbronze. Der Verschleißwiderstand dieses Verbundwerkstoffes ist zehnmal besser als der der Matrix, die Zugfestigkeit erreicht einen dreifach höheren Wert. In der vorliegenden Veröffentlichung wird schwerpunktmäßig das Grenzflächenverhalten zwischen den Körnern und der Matrix beschrieben. Als Ergebnis wird die Bildung der Grenzfläche durch Diffusion von Eisen und Kupfer, die zu einer Verfestigung führt, beschrieben.
    Notes: A new type of grain reinforcing cast composite is introduced. The reinforcing component is the coarse steel grain (0.6∼1.0mmφ) with the matrix of tin bronze. The wearing resistance of this material is 10 times as much as the matrix and regarding the tensile strength, 3 times. In this paper, the interface behaviour between grains and the matrix is emphasised. The results show the formation of an interface layer, caused by the diffusion of Fe and Cu, which strengthens the bonding.
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  • 49
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Survival Rate and Reliability of Ceramic Femoral Heads for Total Hip ArthroplastyFemoral heads and sockets made of alumina ceramics are successfully used in total hip replacement. The in vivo fracture rate of Biolox heads is lower than 0.02%. An extremely high load (e. g. accident) can initiate subcritical crack growth causing fracturing.107 retrieved Biolox heads were investigated. When measuring their fracture load no fatigue was detected. This result can be explained by the relation between crack velocity and stress intensity (v-K-diagram). The stress intensity of ceramic heads when loaded with standard conditions (e. g. walking, max. load 3 kN) is in the order of 0.6 MPa m1/2. Stress intensities like that are below alumina's fatigue limit KIo which is in the order on 1 MPa m1/2.Biolox alumina heads are examples for engineering ceramics that are reliable despite tensile stress over very long periods of time.
    Notes: Der totale Ersatz eines Hüftgelenkes mit Kugelköpfen und Pfannen aus Aluminiumoxidkeramik ist klinisch bewährt. Die in vivo Bruchrate eines Biolox Kugelkopfes liegt unter 0,02 %. Ausgelöst durch eine extrem hohe Belastung (z. B. Unfall) kann der Bruch nach unterkritischem Rißwachstum erfolgen.An 107 Biolox Explantaten wurde die Restfestigkeit bestimmt. Es konnte keine Materialermüdung nachgewiesen werden. Dies kann mit Hilfe des Zusammenhanges zwischen der Geschwindigkeit des Rißfortschritts und der Spannungsintensität (v-K-Diagramm)b erklärt werden. Normal belastete keramische Kugelköpfe (z. B. beim Gehen max. 3 kN) haben in vivo Spannungsintensitäten K1 von ca. 0,6 MPa m1/2. Hiermit befindet man sich mit der Spannungsintensität im Bereich unter der Ermüdungsgrenze KIo, für die ca. 1 MPa m1/2 abgeschätzt werden kann.Biolox Kugelköpfe sind ein Beispiel für den Einsatz von Keramik, die trotz Zugspannungen als Dauerbelastung und mit hohen Anforderungen an die Sicherheit über large Zeiten sicher im Einsatz sind.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Microstructural, mechanical and corrosive properties of friction stir welded aluminium jointsFriction stir welding (FSW) is a novel solid state welding process. It allows joining of high strength aluminum alloys, generally considered as difficult-to-weld with conventional technologies, without loss in joint strength. Results of investigations on selfmade FSW butt joints of the aluminum alloys 2024-T3 and 6013-T4 are presented. First, the microstructure of the weld seam and heat affected zone is characterised metallographically and by hardness measurements. By tensile, fatigue endurance (SN) and fatigue crack propagation tests it is demonstrated, that especially the FSW-joints of 2024-T3 sustain high mechanical loadings. Investigations on the corrosion properties reveal a certain sensitivity of the 2024-T3 joints to intergranular and exfoliation corrosion.
    Notes: Das Reibrührschweißen (friction stir welding FSW) ist ein neues Fügeverfahren, mit dem auch die schwer schmelzschweißbaren, höherfesten Aluminiumlegierungen ohne große Festigkeitsverluste verschweißt werden können. Erste Ergebnisse von Untersuchungen an selbst hergestellten FSW-Stumpfnähten der Aluminiumlegierungen 2024-T3 und 6013-T4 werden vorgestellt. Zunächst wird das Gefüge der Naht und der Wärmeeinflußzone mikrostrukturell und durch Härteverläufe charakterisiert. Weiterhin wird mit Zug-, Schwingfestigkeits- und Rißfortschrittsversuchen nachgewiesen, daß insbesondere die FSW-Nähte der Legierung 2024-T3 außerordentlich hohe mechanische Belastungen ertragen. Abschließende Korrosionsuntersuchungen der FSW-Nähte zeigen eine gewisse Anfälligkeit der abschreckempfindlichen Legierung 2024-T3 für interkristalline Korrosion und Schichtkorrosion.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Determination of functional surface roughness parameters - Application to multipass strip drawing on mild steel and aluminium sheets in a cylinder/sheet/cylinder contact geometryMultipass strip drawing in cylinder/cylinder die geometry is especially suitable to simulate frictional contact between a smooth die and a rough sheet as occurring in stamping operations.Special attention is focused on the evolution of the plateaux topography, where essentially all normal contact and frictional shear stresses are accomodated.By using a 3-D profilometric scanning stylus relocation technique, we develop statistical parameters which represent the mean length and mean width of the load carrying plateaux. Plateaux flattening and contribution of wear debris to frictional contact is clearly more important for aluminium than for steel.
    Notes: Mehrfach-Streifenziehen von Karrosserieblechen in einer Zylinder/Blech/Zylinder Kontakt-Geometrie eignet sich bei Blechumformung besonders zu der Simulation des Reibkontaktes zwischen glatten Werkzeugen und Blech mit kontrollierter Rauheit.Während solcher Versuche gilt das Hauptaugenmerk den Änderungen der Oberflächenrauheit auf den Plateaux, wo der Hauptanteil der Reib-Scher-Vorgänge während des Abgleitens stattfindet.Durch eine 3D-Relokalisierung der im Tastschnitt-Verfahren vermessenen Zone leiten wir statistische Parameter ab, die der mittleren Breite und Länge der tatsächlich tragenden Plateaux entsprechen. Die beobachtete Abtragung der Plateaux und der Anteil der Abriebspartikel als Drittkörper im Reibkontakt sind wesentlich stärker für Aluminium als für Stahl.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Low energy IBAD: correlation between process parameters ans film properties for ion beam assisted evaporation and sputter depositionBinary nitride films with Al, Cr and Ti as metal components have been deposited with ion beam assisted evaporation and sputtering (IBAD) and the film properties are investigated in terms of the individual deposition parameters.In the case of ion beam assisted evaporation the flux ratio between the film forming metal atoms and the nitrogen ions from the ion source was shown to enable a quantitative control of the composition and the chemical phases of the films. Detailed studies for TiN reveal the possibilities to manipulate texture and stress, the average grain size and the morphology of the films. Such results are discussed with an extended structure zone model, introducing the energy input per film forming particle as the relevant parameter. Also, the structural film properties and the deposition parameters are quantitatively correlated with the hardness and the beginning of TiN deposition on stainless steel resulted in distinctly improved adhesion properties.For the deposition of TiN with a dual ion beam arrangement in which one beam bundle was directed onto a Ti-target and an other onto the substrate with the growing film, a strong influence of the particle energies and the incidence angles on the film texture and its directional orientation was found. Such effects are quantitatively related to the minimization of the free energy of the films and the influence of preferential re-sputtering effects. For ion beam sputter deposition without simultaneous ion bombardment of the growing film, the texture and the film stress are found to be controlled by energetic particles resulting from elastic backscattering at the target surface.
    Notes: Mittels ionenstrahlunterstütztem Aufdampfen und Aufsputtern (IBAD)wurden binäre Nitridschichten mit Al, Cr und Ti als Metallkomponente deponiert und hinsichtlich ihrer Eigenschaften in Abhängigkeit von den Depositionsparametern Charakterisiert.Beim ionenstrahlunterstützten Aufdampfen konnten durch Variation des Flußratenverhältnisses zwischen den schichtbildenden Metallatomen und den aus der Ionenquelle extrahierten Stickstoffionen die Schichtzusammensetzung und die chemischen Phasenverhältnisse kontrolliert eingestellt werden. Ausführliche Untersuchungen an den TiN-Schichten zeigen, daß auch Textur, Eigenspannungen, mittlere Korngröße und Morphologie der Schichten in weiten Grenzen manipuliert werden können. Ausgehend vom Energieeintrag pro schichtbildendem Teilchen werden die Ergebnisse anhand eines erweiterten Strukturzonenmodells diskutiert. Weiter lassen sich die strukturellen Schichteigenschaften und die Depositionsparameter mit der Härte und der Haftfestigkeit der Schichten quantitativ korrelieren. Durch dynamische Prozeßführung in der Anfangsphase des Schichtwachstums konnte eine deutliche Verbesserung der Haftung von TiN auf Werkzeugstahl erzielt werden.Für die Deposition von TiN mit einer Zweistrahlanordung, bei der ein Ionenstrahlbündel auf ein Ti-Target und ein weiteres auf das Substrat mit der aufwachsenden Schicht trifft, ergibt sich ein deutlicher Einfluß der Teilchenenergien und -auftreffwinkel auf die Schichttextur und deren Ausrichtung. Betrachtungen zur Minimierung der freien Energie in den Schichten und zum Einfluß von präferentiellen Rücksputtereffekten liefern ein quantitatives Verständnis der Effekte bei der Texturbildung. Bei der Ionenstrahl-Sputterdeposition ohne simultanem Substratbeschuß werden Textur und Schichtspannungen durch die vom Sputtertarget kommenden energiereichen Rückstreuteilchen bestimmt.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Plasma sensor measurement in pulsed PACVD-PlasmasIn order to measure local plasma parameters as electron and ion density, electron and ion temperature or plasma potential of inert plasmas Langmuir sensors are used. In practical applications Langmuir sensors showed significant sensor signs when the sensor surface was modified by coatings or pollution [5 - 16]. This effect will be utilized to measure important coating plasma parameters. Putting the Langmuir electrode to the same coating conditions as the charge will offer information of the progress of the PACVD process.The use of the sensor should especially show events or conditions which conduct to local or generally bad technological coating properties. So in the early stages of coating development the quality can be recognized and possibly corrected or avoided by variation of the process parameters. Sensor controled processing of PACVD-technic will lead to better coating quality and will increase the reproduceability.
    Notes: Langmuirsonden werden seit langem als grundlegendes Plasmadiagnosesystem zur Bestimmung lokaler Plasmaparameter wie Elektronen- und Ionendichte, Elektronentemperatur oder Plasmapotential benutzt. Die Erfahrungen mit Langmuirsonden haben gezeigt, daß Modifikationen der Sondenoberfläche durch Verunreinigungen oder durch Beschichtung zu signifikanten Veränderungen im Sondensignal führen können [5 - 16].Durch den Einsatz dieses Sensors sollen insbesondere jene Vorgänge, die zu einer lokalen oder generellen Verschlechterung der technologischen Schichteigenschaften führen, bereits in der Phase der Schichtentstehung erkannt und durch Variation der Prozeßparameter während der Schichtabscheidung vermieden werden. Eine solche sensorkontrollierte Prozeßsteuerung könnte den industriellen Einsatz der PACVD-Technik auf eine breitere Basis stellen, da die gewünschten technologischen Schichteigenschaften bereits während des Prozesses über eine geeignete Prozeßführung beeinflußt werden können.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Korrosionsverhalten von Hartstoffschichten auf Titanbasis auf StahlsubstratenTitannitrid- TiN, Titanboronitrid- Ti(B,N) und Titankarbonitridschichten Ti(C,N) wurden mittels PA-CVD auf Vergütungsstahl- und rostfreien Stahlsubstraten abgeschieden. Der Abscheidungsprozeß kann mit OES überwacht werden. Die Schichten wurden mit XRD, REM und WDX sowie Härte, Haftfestigkeit und Bruchtests charakterisiert. Elektrochemische Impedanzspektroskopie und zyklische Voltammetrie wurde in technischen Elektrolyten durchgeführt. Mechanische und Korrosionseigenschaften der Schichten können durch die PA-CVD-Prozeßparameter gesteuert werden.Der Einbau von Chlor in die Schicht kann mit TiCl4 durch die Prozeßparameter gesteuert oder mit metallorganischen Precursoren komplett verhindert werden. Es wurde kein Einfluß des Chlorgehaltes aus das Korrosionsverhalten beobachtet. Sogar Schichten mit extrem hohem Chlorgehalt zeigten exzellente Korrosionsbeständigkeit. Folglich ist die Mikrostruktur der Schicht das entscheidende Kriterium für das Korrosionsverhalten von Hartstoffschichten auf Stahl.Eine neue, mikroelektrochemische Tropfenmethode mit einer lateralen Auflösung von 150 μm ermöglicht rasternde untersuchungen auf TiN-beschichteten Substraten komplexer Geometrie. Das PA-CVD-Verfahren ermöglicht die Abscheidung von dichten, porenfreien Schichten. Auf Strukturen mit simuliertem Aspektverhältnis kleiner 3 wurde eine dichte, schützende Schicht nachgewiesen. Bei der Wahl nicht optimaler Prozeßparameter können Poren entstehen, durch die ein aggressiver Elektrolyt das Substrat angreifen kann. Auf niedrig legierten Stählen führt die Substratkorrosion zu einer Enthaftung der Schicht. Auf rostfreien Stählen wurde keine Substratkorrosion beobachtet. Ein Modell für die Korrosionsmechanismen wird in Abb. 17 vorgeschlagen.
    Notes: Titanium nitride TiN, titanium boronitride Ti(B,N) and titanium carbonitride Ti(C,N) coatings were deposited by PA-CVD on tempering and stainless steel substrates. The deposition process can be supervised by OES. The coatings were characterized XRD, SEM and WDS as well as hardness, adhesion and friction tests. Electrochemical impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry in praxis relevant media were carried out. Mechanical and corrosion properties of the coatings can be controlled by the PA-CVD process parameters.The incorporation of chlorine in the coating can be varied by the process parameters with TiCl4 or completely avoided using metallo-organic precursors. No influence of the chlorine content on the corrosion behavior was observed. Even coatings with extremely high chlorine content still exhibit an excellent corrosion resistance. Thus, the microstructure of the coating is the key to the corrosion properties of hard coatings on steel.A new micro electrochemical scanning droplet technique with a lateral resolution of 150 μm allows the investigation of TiN-coated substrates of complex geometry. The PA-CVD technique permits the deposition of dense and pinhole free coatings. On structures with simulated aspect ratios less than 3, a dense protective coating is proved. However, if the formation of micro pores is not suppressed by the optimal choice of deposition parameters, low-alloyed steel substrates corrode through pores, causing a detachment of the coating. On layers deposited on stainless steel, no sign of substrate corrosion could be detected. A model for the corrosion mechanism is given in Fig. 17.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Custom-Tailored Coating-Interface Systems by Means of lon Beam Assisted DepositionA coated sample represents in its most simple form a threefold junction consisting of substrate interface and top layer. In many cases the top layer consists again of several sublayers or the interface contains a modified substrate surface and an interconnection between top layer and interface. An ideal coating technique is evaporation under simultaneous ion bombardment with an ion source it is possible because of several free parameters to come close to an ideal system.For the coating Al/Al2O3 on steel it is shown that the width of a composition gradient between the sublayers Al and Al2O3 can be optimized with respect to excellent corrosion resistance.The example CrxN coating on steel or corrosion and wear resistence demonstrate the ability to optimize the corrosion and wear resistence by modifying the microstructure via variation of the parameters ion energy, ion impact angle, ion to atom ratio and process temperature.Finally, TiN layers on steel were chosen to show that the ion beam parameters influence the porosity and the crystal structure of the coatings. This fact can be used to optimize the corrosion protection or wear reduction obtained by the coating. Especially the multilayer Ti/TiO2/TiN exhibits very interesting properties.
    Notes: Ein beschichtetes Bauteil stellt in seiner einfachsten Form einen Dreierverbund aus Substrat, Interface und Schicht dar, in vielen Fällen kann die Schicht aus mehreren Untersystemen bzw. das Interface aus der modifizierten Substatrandschicht und einem Zwischenbereich zur Schicht bestehen. Eine ideale Beschichtungsmethode sollte es daher erlauben, alle diese Schichten bzw. Schichtbereiche in kontrollierter und aufeinander abgestimmter Form zu erzeugen.Mittels des IBAd-Verfahrens, bei dem Aufdampfschichten während ihrer Abscheidung mit Ionen aus einer Ionenquelle beschossen werden, ist es möglich, infolge der zahlreichen frei wählbaren Parameter sich an das ideale System heranzutasten.Anhand des Verbunds Stahl/Al/Al2O3 wird erlätert, wie durch einen in der Ausdehnung optimierten Zusammensetzungsgradienten das Interface zwischen den Subschichten Al und Al2O3 bezüglich des Korrosionsschutzvermögens der Schicht verbessert werden kann.An CrxN-Schichten wird demonstriert, daß durch die Wahl der Parameter Ionenenergie, Ioneneinfallswinkel, Ionen/Atom-Verhältnis und Prozeßtemperatur über die Mikrostruktur von Schicht und Oberfläche das Verschleiß-und Korrosionsverhalten sowie die Härte angepaßt werden können.Am Beispiel TIN auf Stahl zeigt sich, daß je nach Ionenstrahlparameter die Porosität und damit das Korrosionsverhalten bzw. die Kristallinität und damit Härte und Verschleißverhalten optimiert werden können. Besonders Mehrlagenschichten Ti/TiO2/TiN zeigen interessante Eigenschaften.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 66
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Microtribology of PVD-coatingsTransparency of the tribological process by sensory and audio-visual process recording. By multi-media recording of the friction event the elementary contact processes get transparent so that damage causes can be recongnized. For this additional to the usual tribological readings audio-visual information were time synchronously gathered. By use of thin integrated sensors temperature or pressure is measured contiuously with high local resolution during the friction process inside the contact region. The damage mechanisms are analysed systematically and make influence measures possible to coating optimization to exclude an early failure of a tribological system.
    Notes: Transparenz des Tribovorgangs durch sensorische und audio-visuelle Prozeßerfassung. Durch multimediale Erfassung des Reibungsvorgangs werden die elementaren Kontaktprozesse transparent, so daß Schädigungsursachen erkannt werden können. Dabei werden neben den üblichen tribologischen Meßdaten audiovisuelle Informationen zeitsynchron erfaßt. Durch Einsatz integrierter Dünnschichtsensoren unmittelbar im tribologischen Kontaktsystem werden Temperatur oder Druck während des Reibungsprozesses mit hoher Ortsauflösung kontinuierlich ermittelt. Die Schädigungsmechanismen werden systematisch analysiert und ermöglichen Einflußmaßnahmen zur Schichtoptimierung, um ein vorzeitiges Versagen eines tribologischen Systems auszuschließen.
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
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  • 67
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell