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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (112,478)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 3-Methyl-1-butene (3M1B) was found to undergo monomer-isomerization copolymerization with 2-pentene (2P) in the presence of Ziegler-Natta catalyst to give a copolymer exclusively consisting of 3M1B and 1-pentene (1P) units, the same as that obtained from copolymerization of 3M1B and 1P. The apparent copolymerization parameters were determined. The amount of 3M1B unit incorporated in the copolymers was found to increase in the copolymerization system of 3M1B-2P more than in that of 3M1B-1P. The polymers consisting of nearly complete 3M1B units were produced at a rapid rate through monomer-isomerization copolymerization of 3M1B with 2P in the presence of TiCl3 - (C2H5)3Al catalyst.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Nylons containing carbonyl groups in backbone chains were prepared and their response to heat was studied. The carbonyl groups were introduced using either HOOC(CH2)4CO(CH2)4COOH or H2N(CH2)5CO(CH2)5NH2 in the initial monomer compositions. In addition to pyrolysis of these polyamides, the progress of chemical and physical changes as a function of temperature was continuously monitored and analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy on cast films placed in an environmental chamber. Introduction of the carbonyl groups into the polymer backbone resulted in a significant reduction of the thermal stability of the corresponding polyamide. Possible mechanisms for the thermal degradation entailing these carbonyl groups and N-acylamide compounds are discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The isomerization and polymerization of propenylbenzene (PB) with various Ziegler-Natta catalyst systems have been investigated. With the TiCl3-(C2H5)3Al (Al/Ti 〉 2.0) catalyst at 80°C, PB polymerized to give a polymer exclusively consisting of allylbenzene (AB) unit. During the polymerization, AB, which polymerized readily with the catalyst, was produced through isomerization of PB, indicating that PB underwent monomer-isomerization polymerization. PB also polymerized with isomerization to AB in the presence of TiCl3-(C2H5)2AlCl-NiCl2 catalyst system, and a copolymer with PB and AB units was obtained. With TiCl3-C2H5AlCl2 catalyst, poly(PB) was formed via ordinary vinylene polymerization without isomerization. From these facts, it was concluded that the structure of the polymers produced from PB widely changed, depending on the catalyst systems used, which determine the rate of isomerization to AB and the polymerization reactivity of the PB and AB isomers formed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Addition reactions of pendant epoxide groups in poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) with various active esters such as 1-benzotriazolyl benzoate, S-(2-benzoxazolyl) thiobenzoate, S-(2-benzothiazolyl) thiobenzoate, 4-nitrophenyl benzoate (4NPB), and S-phenyl thiobenzoate (PTB) were carried out using quaternary salts as catalysts. The reactions of PGMA with those active esters proceeded in diglyme at 100°C for 24 h quantitatively without the formation of 2-hydroxyl pendant groups in the polymer when 10 mol % of tetraethylammonium bromide was used as a catalyst. Furthermore, it was found that the respective quaternary salts have higher catalytic activity than tertiary amines in the reaction of PGMA with the active esters, and the reaction of PGMA with 4NPB gave the corresponding polymer with the highest conversion by addition of tetrabutylammonium bromide as a catalyst, while tetraethylammonium chloride showed the highest activity for the reaction of PGMA with PTB. In addition, the rate of reaction of PGMA with 4NPB was proportional to third order kinetics of the epoxide concentration, the ester concentration and the catalyst concentration as follows: -d[Epoxide]/dt = -[Ester]/dt = k3[Epoxide] [Ester] [Catalyst].
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  • 5
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    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new class of poly-conjugated polymers has been obtained by condensation of anthraquinones with aromatic diamines in polyphosphoric acid. The polymers are black, intractable powders. Toward obtaining tractable materials, the effect of monomer structure on polymer tractability has been studied. Copolymerizations were also carried out to “soften” these materials. Electrical conductivities in the semiconducting range, 10-4- 10-8 (ohm cm)-1 were observed. Doping with iodine showed small increases.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
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    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A systematic study of the thermal polymerization of α-chloroacrylic acid and α-bromoacrylic acid in aqueous nitric acid was carried out. The effect of variation of monomer concentration lead tetraacetate concentration, hydrogen ion concentration, ionic strength, and temperature on the rate of monomer disappearance was carried out. Based on the experimental observations, suitable reaction schemes were proposed for the polymerization of the above monomers. The rate constants and the thermodynamic parameters were evaluated.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The nucleophilic substitution of the chlorine atoms of poly(vinyl chloride) with sodium thiophenate is assumed to obey an SN2 mechanism with inversion of configuration and a steric control according to which reactivities R of the triads follow the order Rmm 〉 Rmr ≫ Rrr. Such a reaction cannot be described by simple differential equations, but a Monte Carlo simulation, first generating a random Bernouillian chain and then simulating random attack of the chain by the reactant according to the triad reactivities, allows a good agreement with the experimental results of both the kinetics of a reaction carried out in cyclohexanone solution at 40°C and the evolution of the 13C and 1H NMR spectra of the tertiary carbon atoms, assuming the following parameters: Bernouillian probability for a meso placement in the initial chain: 0.431; relative reactivities of the mm, mr and rm, rr triads: 1, 0.5, and 0., respectively. The agreement is excellent until the reaction is about three-quarters complete; this shows a limiting level of about 60% substitution. Better agreement can be obtained up to the limit, if a secondary process of steric control by the substituant in a partially substituted mr triad is assumed. Other possibilities for that secondary process are discussed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Mn, Mw and PD = Mw/Mn of polypropylene obtained with the MgCl2/ethyl benzoate/p-cresol/AlEt3/TiCl4-AlEt3/methyl-p-toluate (CW-catalyst) have been obtained as a function of temperature, monomer, and AlEt3 concentrations. The values of Mn after a few minutes of polymerization range from 50% to 100% of the final values. I.I. (percent yield of stereoregular polymer) and P.D. of stereoregular polymer remain constant during a batch polymerization. The MW distribution is very narrow with PD ⋍ 2.0 between 0° and 50° using optimum A/T ratio. It is broader for polymerizations employing low or high A/T ratio or elevated temperature, reaching P.D. = 2.78 at 70°C. The corresponding P.D. values for the total polymer ranged from 3.1 to 4.5 due to contributions from the heptane soluble fraction. The latter gives bimodal GPC chromatogram. The Mn of stereoregular polymer is much smaller than the reciprocal of concentration of metal polymer bonds, [MPB]-1; the ratio of the two quantities is a measure of number of polymer chains not bonded to a metal ion to the number of those which are bonded to either Ti or Al. Depending upon the experimental conditions, this ratio varied from 2.3 to 23.5 for short polymerization time, and 16 to 31 for long polymerization time.Chain transfer with AlEt3 is ineffective for the CW-catalyst system. From the plots of [MPB] versus yield, the rate constants for this process obtained at 50° are: ktr1iA = 2.1 × 10-4 sec-1; ktr1aA = 2 × 10-5 sec-1; ktr2iA = 1.1 × 10-4 sec-1; and ktr2aA = 1.2 × 10-5 sec-1 where the subscripts i, a, 1 and 2 refer to stereospecific and nonstereospecific sites of first and second kind respectively. Thr transfer rates increase with both increasing and decreasing temperatures consistent with the Langmuir-Hirschelwood adsorption model.The MW of isotactic polymers are dependent upon monomer concentration. The chain transfer with monomer has rate constants at 50° of ktr1iM = 1.34 × 10-2 M-1 sec-1 and ktr2iM = 1.2 × 10-3 M-1 sec-1. In addition there is chain transfer by β-hydride elimination with ktr,iβ = 2.7 × 10-2 sec-1 at 50° which is the chain lifetime limiting process at low monomer concentration. The rate of chain transfer with monomer can exceed that of β-hydride elimination at high propylene pressure.The very narrow PD for the stereoregular polymers suggest there is only one chemically distinct isospecific active site.
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  • 10
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    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Fluorescence analysis has been employed as an analytical technique to elucidate the photolysis mechanism of several aromatic diisocyanate-based polyurethanes in solution. Based on a comparison with model arylmonocarbamates and arylbiscarbamates, the photo-Fries rearrangement and cleavage-type products found for the small-model arylcarbamates were also identified for the photolyzed polyurethanes in solution. Viscosity and absorbance change results for photolysis of both air and nitrogen-saturated polyurethane solutions are consistent with a general two-step mechanism for the photolysis of aromatic diisocyanate-based polyurethanes.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Decene-1 was polymerized with the CW catalyst and fractionated by precipitation technique. Light-scattering and viscometric measurements on these fractions established the relationship [η] = 5.19 × 10-3 Mw0.77. The unperturbed mean square end-to-end distance is (〈Ro2〉/M)1/2 = (6.17 ± 0.34) × 10-9. Light-scattering data is consistent with a relatively stiff molecule with length of L = 1.75 × 10-5 cm for poly(decene-1) with MW = 397,000. Its mean square radius of gyration 〈Rg2〉 is 2.79 × 10-11 cm.2 The ratio of L2/〈Rg2〉 = 11 is close to the theoretical ratio of 12 for this kind of macromolecule.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Poly[oxy(2-methyl-1,4-phenylene)oxyterephthaloyl-co-oxy(2-methyl-1,4-phenylene)oxy-1,4-cyclohexanediacetoyl] (I), poly[oxy(2-chloro-1,4-phenylene)oxyterephthaloyl-co-oxymethylene-1,4-cyclohexylenemethyleneoxyterephthaloyl] (II), and poly[oxy(2-methyl-1,4-phenylene)oxyterephthaloyl-co-oxymethylene-1,4-cyclohexylenemethyleneoxyterephthaloyl] (III) were synthesized and shown to form birefringent fluid states in the melt.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The kinetics of polymerization of acrylamide (AM) initiated by manganese(III) acetate-ethoxyacetic acid (EAA) redox system in aqueous sulphuric acid was investigated in the temperature range 35-45°C. The effects of variations in [monomer], [Mn3+], [EAA], [H+], and ionic strength on the rates of monomer disappearance (Rp) and Mn3+ disappearance (-Rm) were studied. The polymerization process is initiated by the free radical arising from the oxidation of ethoxyacetic acid by Mn3+ and terminated by the mutual combination of growing polymer radicals. Based on the kinetic results, a suitable reaction scheme is proposed and the rate expressions are derived. The study on degree of polymerization supports the proposed scheme for polymerization. The various rate and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis of crosslinked polydiacetylene [poly4ECMU (a polydiacetylene with ethoxy carbonyl methylene urethane substitution): where R = —(CH2)4OCONHCH2COOCH2CH3] was carried out utilizing its polar and flexible substituent groups. Polydiacetylene was crosslinked by the formation of allophanate linkages utilizing urethane groups in the substituent groups of the polydiacetylene. Two-component IPNs of polydiacetylene [poly4BCMU (a polydiacetylene with butoxy carbonyl methylene urethane substitution): where R = —(CH2)4OCONHCH2COO(CH2)3CH3] and an epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A) were synthesized. Two-component IPNs of poly4ECMU with the above epoxy resin were also synthesized. For the first time, two-component stiff-backbone IPNs of two different kinds of polydiacetylene (poly4BCMU and polyECMU) and a three-component IPN of poly4BCMU, poly4ECMU, and the epoxy resin were synthesized. IPNs with fewer allophanate linkages were also made in order to examine morphological differences between them. The glass transition behavior of these networks was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) by means of a Rheovibron.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The crosslinking chemistry of an anhydride-cured epoxy resin, in the first 200-400 nm adjacent to a carbonized polyacrylonitrile (PAN) surface (a model for the surface of a carbon fiber), is significantly affected by the humidity history of that surface. Prior humid aging of the carbonized PAN surface increases the subsequent rate of consumption of anhydride curing agent, and decreases the yield of ester crosslinked products. The crosslinking chemistry of an amine-cured epoxy resin appears unchanged by the presence of the carbonized surface. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of unidirectional composites made from carbon fibers and the above epoxy resin matrices shows that the damping characteristics of composites made with an epoxy-anhydride matrix are sensitive to the preconditioning history of the carbon fibers, while composites made with an epoxy-amine matrix are unaffected by the preconditioning history of the fibers. Partial removal of the carbon fiber surface coating by dichloromethane extraction does not change the sensitivity of the composites to fiber preconditioning history. These results are rationalized on the basis of the effect moisture adsorbed by the carbonized PAN and by the carbon fiber has on the epoxy resin crosslinking processes.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: T-butylperoxy phenylcarbonate (BPPC) was prepared. Its decomposition rate constant in cumene is given by kd = 2.39 × 1015 exp(-17,300/T), where T is the absolute temperature. When BPPC decomposes to polymerize styrene at 100°C, it produces 12% phenoxy radical to total primary radicals. The phenoxy radical hardly adds to styrene and reacts the other primary radicals and polymer radical. Thus it retards the rate of polymerization.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: DSC and IR data on benzyldimethylamine-catalyzed dicyandiamide-DGEBA prepolymer system have been utilized to investigate the influences of temperature and composition on the curing mechanism. Etherification as a competitive reaction is favored at lower temperature. On the other hand, the reaction pathway of dicyandiamide (DDA) varies with temperature, especially at the first stage of reaction. At 100°C, the reaction of DDA is shown to be essentially the substitution of the hydrogen atoms by ring-opening of epoxy groups, giving rise to N-alkyl cyanoguanidine. But at 140°C or 160°C, the initial reaction of DDA involves a transformation of nitrile groups to imine groups. A greater amount of BDMA and a higher amine-to-epoxy ratio favor the etherification. The glass transition temperature Tg is a complex function of these different mechanisms; higher Tg could be reached with a amino-to-epoxy ratio equal to 0.6 and after a curing cycle including a precure at 100°C.
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  • 18
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    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Using a model reaction we have studied the crosslinking chemistry of hydroxy-functional polymers and hexamethoxymethylmelamine. The transetherification of optically active monofunctional alcohols and hexamethoxymethylmelamine was monitored with polarimetry and 1H-NMR. The reaction rate constants for both the forward (k1) and the backward (k-1) reaction of the sulphonic-acid-catalyzed alcoholysis were determined. Primary and secondary alcohols showed the same reaction rate and activation energy (Ea = 96 kJ/mol) for the forward reaction. However, the backward reaction in the equilibrium is considerably slower for primary alcohols than for secondary alcohols, with activation energies of Ea = 96 and 79 kJ/mol, respectively. When amine salts of sulphonic acids are used as catalysts, the Ea is increased from 97 to 116 kJ/mol in the case of primary alcohols. In concentrated aprotic solutions the reaction order in acid is 2.5. The same order in acid is found for the alcoholysis of acetaldehyde diethyl acetal. All the results strongly support the statement that the crosslinking reaction proceeds by an Sn-1 mechanism. The results of this model study are compared with results obtained in network-forming reactions. The important role of the evaporation of the condensation product methanol is discussed.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The title monomer was polymerized using a bis(triphenyl phosphine) palladium (II) chloride, cuprous iodide, triphenyl phosphine catalyst system. The products are low-molecular-weight materials with thermal stabilities somewhat inferior to corresponding phenylacetylene-based polymers.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis and characterization of amorphous, aromatic, polyaryl ethers has been investigated. Detailed synthesis procedures are provided. The main thrust of these activities was to synthesize polymers which could serve as castable amorphous matrix resins for carbonfiber composites and which would be highly resistant to radiation degradation. It was important that these polymers not contain any aliphatic groups in order to contrast their behavior with the commercially available Bisphenol-A polysulfones. The approach taken was to synthesize a series of statistical or random copolymers derived from hydroquinone and biphenol together with 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone. In order to produce copolymers of high molecular weight, modified techniques were developed which utilized potassium carbonate as a weak base and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as the aprotic dipolar solvent. Detailed procedures are provided in this paper for the synthesis of high molecular weight copolymers of this type. In addition, stress-strain, dynamic mechanical properties and preliminary electron beam (e-beam) degradation studies are reported significantly. Improved mechanical property retention after e-beam exposure was observed with the all aromatic polyether sulfones.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The thermal degradation of poly(vinyl bromide) (PVB), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), poly(vinyl fluoride) (PVF), poly(vinylidene chloride) (PVC2), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVF2) has been studied by direct pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (DP-MS) and flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Vinyl and vinylidene polymers exhibit two competitive thermal degradation processes: (1) HX elimination with formation of polyene sequences which undergo further moleculaar rearrangements, and (2) main-chain cleavage with formation of halogenated or oxigenated compounds. The overall thermal degradation process depends on the prevailing decomposition reaction in each polymer; therefore, different behaviors are observed. The thermal degradation of polyacetylene (PA) has also been studied and found important for the elucidation of the thermal decomposition mechanism of the title polymers.
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  • 22
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    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polymerization of linear methyl ω-epoxyalkanoates of C-3 to C-10 carboxylic acids (0 to 7 methylene groups between oxirane ring and carbomethoxy group) was accomplished with a triethylaluminum/water/acetylacetone (1.0/0.5/1.0) initiator system to yield polymers of high molecular weight, apparently via a coordinative anionic mechanism. The rate of polymerization increased as the number of methylene groups between the oxirane ring and the carbomethoxy group increased, up to three methylene groups. When more than three methylene groups separate the polymerizable oxirane group and the carbomethoxy group, the rate of polymerization becomes essentially constant. The polymers were characterized by their infrared and 13C-NMR spectra, DSC, GPC, and inherent viscosity. The lower members of the series (ω-epoxyalkanoates of n 〈 3) gave polymers of lower molecular weight and wider-molecular-weight distribution (Mw/Mn 〉 2), while the higher members had molecular weight distributions between 1.5 and 2. The glass transition temperatures of the polymers also decreased from -26°C for n = 1 to around -50 to -55°C for n ≥ 3.
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  • 24
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    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The method of fluorescence quenching has been used to measure the transport properties of oxygen in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) filled with small weight fractions of fumed silica. The experimental results show that the diffusion coefficient of oxygen and the pre-exponential term in the Arrhenius relationship are reduced, but the activation energy is not affected. In the pressure and temperature ranges used in these experiments, the diffusion coefficient was found to be independent of both the oxygen and fluorophor concentrations. A discussion concerning the effect of fillers on the pre-exponential term is presented.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction of OH radicals with a number of amines has been studied by entrapping the resultant radicals as polymer end groups which have been detected and estimated by the sensitive dye partition technique. Expressions have been developed relating the average amounts of end groups per polymer molecule to the rate constant of the radical transfer reaction, the rate constants determined for reaction with n-butyl, n-hexyl, and n-octyl amine being 1.00 × 1010, 1.31 × 1010, and 1.46 × 1010 mol-1 L s-1, respectively, at 25°C. The order of reactivity for amines of different classes has been found to be as primary 〈 secondary 〉 tertiary, the rate constants for reaction with n-butyl, dibutyl, and tributyl amine being 1.00 × 1010, 1.81 × 1010, and 1.67 × 1010 mol-1 L s-1, respectively, at 25°C. The change in the reactivity of the amine with chain length and amine class has been explained by activation and deactivation of the CH2 group from which H abstraction by OH radicals occurs, respectively, by the alkyl group and by the protonated amino nitrogen under the acidic condition of the medium. Between pH 1.00 and 2.17, the rate of the reaction with n-butyl amine remains practically unchanged, but from pH 2.20 to 2.72 the rate constant increases with increasing pH, indicating that deprotonation of the positively charged nitrogen starts at about pH 2.20. The method is simple and accurate and can be applied to detect and estimate very reactive radicals.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new class of polyazoxyarylethers was prepared by nucleophilic displacement polymerization using an activated dichlorocompound and a bisphenol dianion in anhydrous aprotic solvent. Model reactions were studied with 3,3′- and 4,4′-dichloroazoxybenzene and various phenol and thiophenol salts to find out the reaction conditions for polycondensation. IR, 1H NMR, and elemental analyses were used to establish the structure of the model compounds and the polymers. Thermal analysis indicated that the oxy derivative is less prone to thermo-oxidative degradation than the corresponding thio derivative of polyazoxyarylether. The polymers are crystalline and soluble in halogenated hydrocarbons and polar solvents.
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  • 27
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    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two block copolymers of isotactic polypropylene and 1,4 polybutadiene were synthesized using techniques involving a transformation from anionic to Ziegler-Natta polymerization mechanisms. The yield of block copolymer was about fifteen percent (weight basis) in both polymerizations, the remainder being unreacted polybutadiene from the first block synthesis. Molecular characterization experiments and model reactions were consistent with a block-like structure for the copolymers; definitive evidence for the proposed molecular structure was obtained through transmission electron microscopy which clearly revealed microphase-separated morphologies characteristic of block copolymers.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: N-Vinyl carbazole methyl methacrylate, and the binary mixtures of these monomers were grafted onto cellulose acetate films by taking recourse to Co-60 simultaneous irradiation grafting technique. The effect of various parameters (e.g., solvents, radiation dose, compositions of the monomers, and concentration of the monomers) on the extent of grafting in unitary and binary systems were studied. The optimum conditions for grafting were evaluated. The sensitizing effect of one monomer in the presence of other in the binary system was identified. The relative molecular reactivity and reactivity ratios were computed and these were used in explaining sensitization and the effect of monomer compositions on the extent of grafting in the binary system.
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  • 29
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    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of polysuccinimides has been prepared from 1,4-bis(tetrahydrofuran-2,5-dion-3-yl)benzene and characterized by various thermal and mechanical methods. This new class of polyimides showed excellent solvent and heat resistance, balanced mechanical property profile, and toughness.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The potentiometric and viscosimetric titration curves of poly(N-acetyldehydroalanine) (PNAcDHA) were compared with those of the nucleic acid base-containing dehydroalanine backbone polymers poly{(+ -) and (-)- [2-(thymin-1-yl]{propanoamido}propenoic acid} (PTDHA and P(-)TDHA)). The behavior of PNAcDHA was similar to polyacids such as poly(acrylic acid), but PTDHA and P(-)TDHA displayed very strong nearest neighbor interactions, since the pH curves had an additional inflection at half neutralization that was sensitive to the ionic strength of the medium and the viscosity curves showed little expansion of the polymer coil with increasing ionization. NAcDHA-TDHA copolymers were prepared which showed similar behavior. These results suggested that PTDHA and P(-)TDHA were extended and conformationally restricted in aqueous solution compared to PNAcDHA, findings that agreed with the results of spectroscopic studies of these polymers.
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  • 31
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    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Poly(methyl methacrylate-g-urethane) was prepared by coupling between poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and polyurethane. The polyurethane was obtained by bulk polycondensation of tolylene diisocyanate and polypropylene glycol. The two polymeric species were synthesized and characterized separately, and the composition of the grafted products varied only by the spacing of the grafted segments. Grafted copolymers with 5, 10, 20, 25, 40, 50, 70, and 90% of incorporated polyurethane have been prepared.
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  • 32
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    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The thermal and mechanical behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate-g-urethane) has been investigated. Thermal analysis indicated compatibility between the two polymeric segments up to 15% polyurethane content. Tensile tests revealed progressive change in mechanical properties with composition, and the materials varied from glassy to leathery to rubberlike. Thermal and mechanical results suggested a morphological model where a glassy matrix of poly(methyl methacrylate) mixed with polyurethane is the continuous phase up to 25% polyurethane content, when a phase inversion occurs.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Radical acrylamide telomerization was carried out with three fluorinated telogens, C6F13C2H4I, C6F13I, and C6F13-C2H4SH with AIBN as initiator. Transfer constants were determined to be 40 × 10-4, 550 × 10-4, and 6500 × 10-4, respectively. Reactions were carried out in butyronitrile, a solvent which also transfers to the growing chain. In the telomerization, the intervention of the solvent, whose transfer constant was also determined, is evaluated quantitatively. Thus the formation of side products, which may reach proportions on the order of 50% compared with the telomer expected, can be explained.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Powdered Nylon 66 was prepared as a model of amorphous polymers. The resultant powder polyamide was composed of only amorphous regions. The extent of uptake of the acid azo dyes, a homologous series of methyl orange derivatives, by the polymer was measured in an aqueous solution. The first binding constants and the thermodynamic parameters in the course of the binding were evaluated. The thermodynamic behaviors obtained are very similar to those of crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone. The favorable free energy of the binding is accompanied by an entropy gain and an exothermic enthalpy change. The shorter the alkyl chain of the dyes, the more negative is the enthalpy change and, hence, the smaller is the entropy change. The thermodynamic data for butyl orange showed that the binding process is athermal and is wholly an entropic effect. The binding of the dyes to the matrix is entropically favorable as a result of the operation of the hydrophobic effect. In addition, an electrostatic force is operative between the sulfonate group on the dyes and the terminal amino groups on the polyamide.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Preparations of four diol monomers containing nucleic acid bases and the corresponding model polymers of polynucleotides with linear polyester backbone and nucleic acid base derivative as pending side chains are described. N-(1′,3′-Dihydroxy-2′-methyl-2′-propyl)-2-(thymin-l-yl)propionamide (Ia, HMPTPA), N-(1′,3′-dihydroxy-2-methyl-2′-propyl)-2-(uracil-l-yl)propionamide (Ib, HMPUPA), and their isomers, N-(β,β′-dihydroxyethyl)-2-(thynin-1-yl)propionamide (IIa, HETPA) and N-(β,β′-dihydroxyethyl)-2-(uracil-1-yl)propionamide (IIb, HEUPA) were synthesized through the selective N-acylation of 2-methyl-2-amino-1,3-propanediol and diethanolamine with 2-(thymin-1-yl)propionic acid (TPA) and 2-(uracil-1-yl)propionic acid (UPA), respectively, by the active amide-benzotriazole method. Diol monomers I and II were polycondenzed with active amide of benzotriazole such as 1,1′-(isophthaloyl)bisbenzotriazole (IPBBT) in the presence of triethylamine and in DMF at 60°C, giving polyesters containing thymine and uracil derivatives as the side group. Prior to polymer synthesis, an O-acylation of Ia using the active monoamide l-benzoylbenzotriazole was carried out as a model compound study.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis of N,N-diethyl-9-carbazolylacetamide (6), (R,S)- and (R)-N,N-diethyl-2-(9-carbazolyl)propanamide (7), N,N′-dimethyl-N,N′-di-(9-carbazolylacetyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (11), and (R)-N,N′-dimethyl-N,N′-di[2-(9-carbazolyl)propanoyl]-1,2-ethanediamine (13) is reported. The racemic compound, (R,S)-2-(9-carbazolyl)propanoic acid (2), was resolved by partial crystallization of the diastereomeric salts formed between 2 and (+)-α-methylbenzylamine. The 1H-NMR spectra of 6 and 7 showed magnetic nonequivalence of the chemically equivalent protons of the methyl and methylene groups in 6 and 7 due to partial double bond character of the amide bond. The upfield resonances corresponding to the two sets of methyl and methylene protons were assigned by the aromatic solvent-induced shift (ASIS) method to the protons anti to the carbonyl oxygen in the conformation of amide bond in 6 and 7. The 1H-NMR spectra of 11 and (R)-13 were used to determine the population of anti-anti, anti-syn (syn-anti) and syn-syn conformers in the structures of these dimer model compounds; the relative conformer populations were 0.45:0.47:0.08 and 0.28±0.02:0.29±0.01:0.43±0.01 in 11 and (R)-13.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is generally recognized as miscible with s.poly(methyl methacrylate) (s.PMMA), poly(∊-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) copolymer (SAN) containing 27 wt % AN. Nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) is a very sensitive technique in the investigation of the polymer miscibility. To compare by NRET the actual degree of miscibility of the PVC/s.PMMA, PVC/PCL, and PVC/SAN polymer pairs, each polymer is to be labeled with a fluorescent chromophore to an extent of 1 or 2 mol %. This paper reports efficient pathways to attach anthracene (acceptor) or naphthalene (donor) onto preformed PVC, s.PMMA, and SAN samples. All the attempts for grafting carbazole (donor) moieties have failed, as well as any labeling of PCL whatever the nature of the chromophore.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Miscibility of PVC with s.PMMA and SAN, respectively, has been investigated by nonradiative energy transfer. Blended by using a common solvent, the two polymer pairs are not homogeneous at a molecular level. They are likely to contain heterogeneities of a few nanometers depending on blend composition. At a comparable number average molecular weight, but a different polydispersity, SAN is seemingly less miscible with PVC than s.PMMA. That this behavior is of enthalpic or entropic origin, or mainly due to the method of mixing, cannot be settled so far.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Georgiev and Shirota's simplified terminal complex model was applied to the dilatometrically measured initial rate of copolymerization of sytrene (ST) with maleic anhydride (MA) in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) at 50°C. The rate was maximum at the feed MA mole fractions of 0.752, 0.769, and 0.806 at the total monomer concentrations of 2M, 1.5M, and 0.5M, respectively. Shirota's method gave the following ratios of propagation rate constants: βA=kAC/kAD = 8.25 and βD = kDC/kDA = 2.70. Georgiev's method gave βA = 14, βD = 2.7, and α = kAD/kDA = 22. The equilibrium constant of the donor-acceptor complexation between ST and MA in MEK was measured to be 0.045 dm3/mol at room temperature.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Optically active β-(1,1-dichloroethyl)-β-propiolactone (CH3CCl2-PL), β-(1,1-dichloropropyl)-β-propiolactone (C2H5CCl2-PL), and β-(1,1-dichlorobutyl)-β-propiolactone (C3H7CCl2-PL) were synthesized with enantiomeric excesses of 100, 100, and 84%, respectively. Polymerization was conducted in bulk and toluene solution, under vacuum, using mainly ZnEt2/H2O as initiator. Osmometry analyses indicate molecular weights in the range 10,000-25,000. The polymers thus prepared are semi-crystalline and show large optical rotation values.13 C-NMR was used to show that they have a high degree of isotacticity, indicating that little or no racemization occurs in the course of polymerization. Glass transition, melting and decomposition temperatures are given as a function of the size of the substituent, and their variations are discussed.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The kinetics of the N,N′,N″-pentamethyl dipropylene triamine (PMPT)-catalyzed reaction of phenyl isocyanate with n-butanol was studied in acetonitrile between 26.5 and 50°C by measuring the NCO disappearance as well as the formation of the various reaction products by means of the standard dibutylamine back-titration method and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The resulting products from the phenyl isocyanate and n-butanol reaction were found to be N-butyl phenylcarbamate, N-butyl-α,γ-diphenylallophanate, and triphenylisocyanurate. Trimer formed at the expense of carbamate formation even at a high OH/NCO ratio. Allophanate appeared to be an intermediate in the formation of trimer. PMPT was found to be a urethane and trimerization catalyst for the model reaction of phenyl isocyanate with n-butanol in acetonitrile. The PMPT-catalyzed reaction of phenyl isocyanate with n-butanol in the presence of water in acetonitrile at 50°C was also investigated. The resulting reaction products consisted of n-butyl phenylcarbamate, n-butyl-β,γ-diphenylallophanate, triphenylisocyanurate, sym-triphenylbiuret, and N,N′-diphenylurea. The presence of water retarded the disappearance of NCO groups as well as the trimer formation. Aniline (the product of phenyl isocyanate and water) was detected in the reaction of equivalent amounts of phenyl isocyanate and water in acetonitrile.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 44
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    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Meta and para derivatives of phenylene bis(succinic anhydride) and bis(glutaric anhydride) were obtained from 1,3- and 1,4-bis(β-cyano-β-carbethoxyvinyl)benzene with potassium cyanide or Meldrum acid followed by hydrolysis with concentrated hydrochloric acid and dehydration with acetic anhydride. Aliphatic polyimides were prepared from these anhydrides with six aromatic diamines through thermal ring closure of polyamic acids obtained by solution polymerization in dimethylacetamide, and thermal stability of these polyimides was examined by thermogravimetric analysis.
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  • 45
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    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers were fractionated in order to obtain their degree of hydrolysis distributions. In the method employed for fractionation, the differences in molecular weight of copolymer did not affect the fractional separation. Degree of hydrolysis distributions was found to be broad, with a pronounced maximum at a low degree of hydrolysis. Viscosity measurements were performed both for the precipitated fractions and unfractionated polymer. The Huggins constant was found to increase with a decrease in the degree of hydrolysis of polyvinyl acetate. These results were interpreted in terms of a polymer molecular association. From values of Huggins constants, comparative information about copolymer “blockiness” is also established.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The laser Raman phonon spectroscopic technique has been used to study the photopolymerization reaction of 1,4 bis[β-pyridyl(2)vinyl] benzene (P2VB). Raman and infrared spectroscopy have been used to study the intramolecular vibrations of the reactant and the product and to characterize them. Absence of any large Stokes' shift between absorption and emission bands of the monomer crystal shows that exciton-phonon coupling is weak, and the reaction is not likely to be phonon mediated. Phonon spectroscopy shows that the reaction proceeds by a heterogeneous mechanism. Sharp phonon bands of the product, however, suggests that the photopoly P2VB lattice is highly ordered.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This publication discusses the electronic, magnetic susceptibility, MS and GC-MS pyrolysis, X-ray powder diffraction, and electrical conductivity studies on metal phthalocyanine sheet polymers. The magnetic measurements over the range of magnetic field strengths 1025-6144 gauss indicated the absence of the intermolecular cooperative effect. MS and GC-MS studies indicate that all these metal phthalocyanine sheet polymers give benzene, cyanobenzene, and dicyanobenzene on thermal degradation. The electrical conductivity measurements showed that these polymers are semiconductor in nature.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction promoted by diphenyl chlorophosphate (DPCP) in pyridine was successfully applied to the preparation of soluble aromatic copolyesteramides of high molecular weights directly from aromatic dicarboxylic acids, bisphenols, and a wide range of mol % aromatic diamines. Dropwise addition of a mixture of bisphenols and diamines (more favorably of bisphenols and then diamines) to the mixture of dicarboxylic acids activated by DPCP led the reactions homogeneously even with high mol % of diamines to produce copolymers of good solubility. This improved copolymer solubility was roughly estimated by sequence distribution of polyamide and polyester units in the copolymers, which was studied in a model reaction and in the copolycondensations by simultaneous and stepwise addition of bisphenols and diamines.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The homogeneous catalyst systems Cp2MCl2/C2H5AlCl2 (Cp = cyclopentadienyl; M = Ti, Zr) were found to promote homooligomerization of internal and terminal alkynes. Studies using titana- and zirconacyclopentadienes without cocatalysts revealed that these molecules were likely formed in the reactions and were active catalytic intermediates. Isolation of expanded metallacycles indicated that the mechanism of oligomerization proceeded by successive insertion reactions to produce larger metallacycles, eventually giving linear oligomers of low molecular weight.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The solution polymerization of vinyl acetate was carried out in several solvents at 0 to 100°C, using 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. For the resulting poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), iodinecoloration, 1,2-glycol structure and tacticity were observed. The pentad tacticity of PVA was estimated from its methine carbon spectra by means of 13C-FTNMR spectrometer. Iodine-coloration ability of PVA varied markedly with the type of polymerization solvent and decreased in the following order: phenol 〉 aq. phenol 〉 methyl alcohol 〉 ethyl acetate 〉 DMSO, ethylene carbonate. The syndiotactic fraction in PVA also decreased with polymerization solvent in the same order as that of iodine coloration, while 1,2-glycol content of PVA was not almost affected by polymerization solvent except for phenol and aq. phenol. In solution polymerization performed, effect of polymerization temperature on tacticity was less than that of solvent.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 9-Anthranylmethyl hexafluorophosphate-a stable primary carbenium salt-is prepared and characterized by UV, VIS, and NMR spectroscopy and by conductometric measurements in methylene chloride. 9-Anthranylmethyl hexafluorophosphate initiates the polymerization of vinyl and heterocyclic monomers. This initiator has higher reactivity than trityl and diphenylmethyl salts. The initiation mechanism of the polymerization of some monomers is investigated.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The kinetic aspects of the bisphenol-A polycarbonate-polyethylene terephthalate exchange reaction are studied. Though the overall mechanism of transesterification is reversible, the kinetics can be treated from a more simple model of two consecutive reactions, due to the decomposition of the alkyl carbonate formed. The values of the kinetic parameters, similar to those obtained for the bisphenol-A polycarbonate-polybutylene terephthalate transesterification, suggest that the most likely mechanism is a direct ester-ester interchange reaction which can also be catalyzed by additives such as titanium derivatives.
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    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The polymerization of styrene oxide by nitronium tetrafluoroborate in nitromethane and methylene chloride at 5, 20, and 50°C is investigated. GPC analyses of the products combined with isocyanate method show that both cyclic and linear oligomers are formed. In CH3NO2 the cyclic dimer and trimer are 2-benzyl-4-phenyl-1,3-dioxolane and 1,3,5-tribenzyl-trioxane, respectively. In CH2Cl2 2,5-diphenyldioxane is isolated. In nitromethane, mainly isomerized structures with acetal linkage are produced, while in methylene chloride isomerization does not proceed. By NMR and IR spectra the presence of C=O and OH end groups in the linear oligomers is shown. There are indications that oligomers are formed both directly from the monomer and by degradation of the polymer.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Bi-ionic potential (BIP) across poly(vinyl chloride) membranes containing azobenzene-modified bis(15-crown-5) was measured in the presence of alkali-metal chlorides. The BIP measurements revealed the cation selectivity sequence of the membranes (K+ 〉 Rb+ 〉 Cs+ ≫ Na+ 〉 Li+), which agreed well with the potentiometric selectivity order of 15-crown-5-based ion-selective electrodes developed so far. UV-light irradiation induced the positive or negative shift of BIP. The magnitude and sign of the photoinduced potential shift depended considerably upon the kind and concentration of electrolytes and, as well, the direction from which the membrane was irradiated. The results were explained in terms of the surface-potential changes induced by light irradiation.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 13C-NMR chemical shifts of a cellulose with a DPw of 23 dissolved in the NH3/NH4SCN solvent system were found to be very similar to those of cellulose dissolved in DMSO (cellulose oligomers), in the LiCl/DMAC system and in the N-methylmorpholine N-oxide/DMSO system. It was concluded from this that cellulose does not react with the NH3/NH4SCN solvent. It was found, however, that glucose reacts with the solvent at C-1 to form β-D-glucopyranosy-lamine. Separation of this compound from the solvent resulted in another compound which was determined to be β,β-di-D-glucopyranosylamine. The compounds β-D-glucopyranosylamine, N-acetyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamine, β,β-di-D-glucopyranosylamine, α,β-di-D-glucopyranosylamine, 2,3,4,6,2′,3′,4′,6′-octa-O-acetyl-α,β-di-D-glucopyranosylamine were all synthesized and the 13C-NMR chemical shifts of these compounds are reported. It was also found that for the low-DP cellulose sample which was used the reducing end group existed and had reacted with the solvent to form an amine at C-1.
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  • 56
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    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Mechanistic features of the reaction promoted by thionyl chloride and amides such as N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) were studied. The reaction was effective in the amidation of carboxylic acids, but not effective in the esterification. The amidation was affected by the kind and the amount of amides used, most favorably by two equivalents of NMP with respect to the acid. These amides were assumed to be involved in the intermediate formation, and the reaction was proposed to proceed via Vilsmeier adducts derived from thionyl chloride and the amides, and through activation of a carboxylic acid different from an acyl chloride. The reaction was successfully applied to the direct polycondensation of aromatic dicarboxylic acids and diamines in NMP at 70°C to produce polyamides with high molecular weights. Initial reaction of dicarboxylic acids with the adducts, additive effect of tertiary amines, and polycondensation temperatures were studied in terms of the inherent viscosity of the polymers produced.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A comparative kinetic study of the reaction of three different hydroxylated liquid polybutadienes (Mn ⋍ 3000)  -  R - 45M, R-45HT, and H-034 - and tolylene diisocyanate (TDI), was carried out in toluene solution. An analytical method was used to follow the kinetics of the reactions at four different temperatures. The reactions presented an apparent second-order rate law. In the second-order plots, a discontinuity was observed. The R-45M polybutadiene was about twice more reactive than R-45HT and H-034; these latter two polybutadienes presented similar reactivities.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: To provide a satisfactory basic understanding of the solvent effect of plasma-initiated polymerization, we have carried out several kinds of polymerizations of various water-soluble vinyl monomers. It has been shown that aqueous solution of such vinyl monomers underwent the polymerizations induced by methyl isobutyrate (MIB) plasma-exposed glass surface. The invisible ultrathin polymer film trapping an active radical species deposited on the plasma-exposed glass surface apparently induced the polymerizations. The efficiency, however, was largely dependent on the solvent used: the solvent can be considered to act as “an initiation-activator” for the lifelike postpolymerization. The nature of the solvent effect was ascribed to the physicomechanical property such as swelling ability and/or solubility toward the ultrathin film formed on the glass surface. Thus it has been suggested that the choice of good-balanced combination between the structural feature of the plasma-induced ultrathin polymer film and the solvent as an initiation-activator is important to achieve activity of a desired solution polymerization.
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  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Thin polymer films were obtained by plasma polymerization of phenyl isothiocyanate. Polymerizations were carried out in rf (13.56 MHz) glow discharge generated in an electrodeless flow system. It was found that this monomer produces uniform films with a wide range of thicknesses, from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. The deposition rate appeared to be dependent on the substrate distance from the monomer inlet. The chemical structure of plasma polymer was characterized by using elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Elemental analysis showed that the composition of polymer depends on the substrate position in the reactor. It was observed that sulphur content decreased with increasing the substrate distance from the monomer inlet, whereas nitrogen content appeared to increase. The IR data revealed significant decrease in  - NCS groups content in the polymer as compared with the monomer spectrum and indicated for the appearance of new absorption bands corresponding to the —CN and C—H aliphatic, groups. The results account for a strong fragmentation of monomer in plasma involved in decomposition of isothiocyanate group and phenyl ring. The soluble fraction of polymeric material was examined by gas chromatography and then the separated products were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The soluble fraction was found to be composed of numerous low molecular-weight compounds. Identification of their structure revealed the presence of residual monomer, thiophenol, cyanobenzene, diphenyl, diphenyl sulphide, diphenyl disulphide, phenyl thiocyanate, dicyanobenzene, phenatroline, and some other oligomeric products. Formation of these compounds proves high susceptibility of —NCS group in the monomer towards different fragmentation reactions. The surface free energy and electrical conductivity of polymer films were evaluated. The surface free energy value was very close to those estimated for plasma polymers deposited from other benzene derivatives. The low electrical conductivity manifested by the investigated polymeric material indicated for its dielectric character. The photoelectrical measurements revealed some photoconductivity effect in this material.
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  • 60
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bognor Regis [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Modified polyimide films containing cobalt have been prepared by the addition of cobalt(II) chloride to a solution containing one of the diamines 4,4′-oxydianiline (ODA) or 4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfide (DDS) and one of the dianhydrides 3.3′, 4,4′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) or 4,4′-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)diphenylsulfide dianhydride (BDSDA) and characterized by thermal methods, UV-visible spectra, room-temperature direct-current electrical resistivity measurements, and X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. A principal goal of this work was to establish if there was coordination of the potential donor atoms of the polymide to cobalt. UV-visible spectra of the modified polyamic acid solutions and polyimide films and a titration study of a model system do not show any appreciable coordination with either the polyamic acid or the polyimide; rather, the cobalt(II) appears to be coordinated to the solvent, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), as [Co(DMAc)4]2+, until the temperature is raised above 200°C. X-ray photoelectron spectra of films cured only to 200°C also do not show significant shifts in the binding energies of the potential donor atoms from those binding energies of the undoped polymers, confirming little direct coordination of the cobalt to atoms of the polyimide. Heating the films to 300°C in a forced-air oven causes the formation of a cobalt oxide layer on the air side of the polymer. Direct-current electrical resistivity measurements on this surface show a 104-106 reduction in resistivity due to this layer.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Reduction of charged or uncharged substrates by a copolymer of N-(p-vinylbenzyl)-1,4-dihydronicotinamide and sodium styrene-p-sulfonate (PNAH) in aqueous solutions was investigated. Electrostatic interaction of PNAH with charged substrates led to a far more effective reduction of crystalviolet (CV) and a far less effective reduction of potassium ferricyanide (FeC) than the monomer model [N-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH)] system. In the PNAH-CV system, in particular, a rapid reduction occurs by a first-order process because of the remarkable concentration effect of the polymer. Furthermore, this reduction was not appreciably affected by an added salt, suggesting the presence of hydrophobic interaction between PNAH and CV.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polyvinylidene fluoride films and powders have been used to synthesize vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymers. The synthetic procedure involves a phase transfer catalyzed heterogenous dehydrofluorination, followed by electrophilic chlorination or bromination. A phase transfer catalyzed displacement of bromine or chlorine by fluoride ion completes the synthesis. Dehydrofluorinations were up to 40% complete at room temperature and up to 100% complete at 90°C. Electrophilic chlorination of the resulting carbon-carbon double bonds were complete on both powder or films. The bromination of dehydrohalogenated polymers does not go to completion even when the reaction is carried out in solution. Displacement reactions were incomplete and resulted in further dehydrohalogenation when tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TBAH) or 18-crown-6 and KF were used in organic solvents. Using TBAH, KHF2, and water, high degrees of displacement were achieved only on the brominated compounds. The chlorinated products gave both displacement and elimination.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The monomer 4-bromo-4′-ethynyl biphenyl was synthesized and subsequently polymerized utilizing a bis (triphenylphosphine) palladium (II) chloride, copper (I) iodide, triphenylphosphine catalyst system in an organic amine solvent(s). The polymers produced were predominantly insoluble materials with reasonable thermal stability.
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Interaction between poly(riboadenylic acid) (poly(A)) and Cu2+ in neutral aqueous (D2O) solution has been studied by 1H, 31P, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling constant and apparent electron-nuclear distances were determined by measurement of T1 and T2 values as a function of temperature. The apparent distance from Cu2+ to H(2), H(8), H(1′), and phosphorus nuclei were estimated to be 4.1, 3.7, 5.1, and 3.1 Å from these results. Cu2+ was found to coordinate directly to the phosphate groups of poly(A) (Type I complex). Simultaneously there are bindings of Cu2+ directly to one of the nitrogen atoms of adenine ring, mainly to N(7) (Type II complex) and either N(1) or N(3) (Type III complex).
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: One- and two-dimensional 400-MHz proton NMR experiments are reported for the epoxy resin monomer, triglycidylether of para-aminophenol (TGPAP). Assignment of the epoxy protons becomes difficult due to many overlapping signals from the glycidylamine and glycidylether regions. To solve this problem we employed the homonuclear proton shift-correlated (SUPERCOSY) and J-resolved two-dimensional techniques. The combination of these methods permits the complete elucidation of the complex spectrum.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polymerization conditions of di-t-butyl fumarate and di-trimethylsilyl fumarate were studied in detail. They cannot be polymerized by either anionic or coordination initiators, but radical and radiation polymerizations are successful. Characterization of poly(di-t-butyl fumarate), obtained thereby, with 1H-NMR spectrum suggests that the backbone of the chain is stiff. From analysis of thermal properties of poly(di-t-butyl fumarate), it is found to be completely converted to poly(fumaric acid) by pyrolysis around 200°C. Poly(di-trimethylsilyl fumarate), on the other hand, can be quantitatively hydrolyzed with acid to the same polyacid, too. The preliminary measurement of the dissociation behaviors of poly(fumaric acid) was done by potentiometric titration, which shows that the titration curves of poly(fumaric acid) are different from those of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(maleic acid).
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  • 68
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polymerizations of decene-1 were carried out from 0° to 70° at A/T = 167 and [M] = 0.75 M initiated by 0.17, 0.34, and 0.69 mM of Ti contained in the MgCl2/ethylbenzoate/p-cresol/AlEt3/TiCl4-AlEt3/methyl-p-toluate catalyst. The rate of polymerization is directly proportional to the catalyst concentration. About 12% of the Ti in the catalyst is initially active at 50°; they are 1.4%, 8.8%, and 9.4% at 0°, 25°, and 70°, respectively. The changes of Rp with temperature parallels the variations in the active site concentration. The decline of Rp with time has second-order plots with slopes which are inversely proportional to the catalyst concentration, but the rate constants for these deactivations are nearly the same for decene and propylene polymerizations. These results strongly support a mechanism of deactivation involving two adjacent sites in the catalyst particle surfaces. The rate constants of propagation and of chain transfer to AlEt3, the energetics for these processes, and MW and MW distribution data have been obtained.
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  • 69
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Plasma polymerization of octafluoronaphthalene, naphthalene, and 1 : 1 mixtures of the two yielded thin films which were then analyzed by ESCA. Optical emission was recorded during deposition and the resultant spectra are shown. Deposition of the copolymer at 150°C resulted in a film whose composition was different from that deposited at room temperature and from the single plasma polymers. Copolymerization resulted in a lowering of CF2 functionalities and an increased retention of the aromatic nature of the monomers. Optical emission of CF2 during copolymerization was greatly reduced as was a peak at about 510 nm.
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