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  • Physics  (538)
  • 1980-1984  (538)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1983  (538)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Ion implantation of impurities into thin films of poly(p-phenylene sulfide) (PPS) is found to increase the conductivity of the material by up to 12 orders of magnitude. The increase is stable under exposure to ambient conditions, in contrast to the instability of the conductivity increases in PPS produced by chemical doping with AsF5. PPS films 0.1-0.2 μm thick are spin cast from solution onto interdigitated electrodes patterned on an oxidized silicon substrate. The room-temperature interelectrode resistance is measured as a function of implantation fluence. An estimate of film conductivity is obtained from this resistance with a simple model for the electrode and film geometry. A first experiment yielded similar conductivity increases for implantation of either arsenic or krypton. At a fluence of 1 × 1016cm-;2, which corresponds to an average impurity concentration of 2.5 × 1021cm-3, the conductivity reaches an apparently saturated value of 1.5 × 10-5 (Ω cm)-1. Infrared spectra of the films before and after implantation suggest that crosslinking may be present in the implanted films, and Auger studies show stoichiometric changes throughout the implanted layer. These results suggest that the observed conductivity changes are the result of molecular rearrangements produced by the implantation rather than the result of specific chemical doping. Specific chemical doping may, however, explain the results of a second experiment in which implantation of bromine resulted in substantially larger conductivities found to increase at an approximate linear rate from a value of 1.0 × 10-4 (Ω cm)-1 at a fluence of 1 × 1016 cm-2 to a value of 4.0 × 10-4 (Ω cm)-1 at a fluence of 3.16 × 1016 cm-2.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: 13C NMR spectra of propylene-1-butene copolymers have been studied at 90.55 MHz. At this high field, many lines previously not resolvable were found to be sensitive to comonomer sequence distribution; these microstructures have been fully assigned. Each NMR spectrum was analyzed by a reaction probability model. Information available includes polymer composition, comonomer sequence distribution, and Markovian reaction probabilities. The use of this model reduces errors in the determination of sequence distribution and furthermore enables the product r1r2 of the reactivity ratios to be determined for the copolymer/catalyst system.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Dynamic mechanical and optical transparency methods were used to investigate the compatibility of a series of blends of sulfonated cis-1,4-polyisoprene and styrene/4-vinylpyridine copolymers. It was found that compatibilization occurs at a degree of substitution less than 5%. It is suggested that proton transfer from the sulfonic acid group to vinyl pyridine, which results in the generation of specific anion-cation interactions, is responsible for the compatibilization, since the removal of ionic interactions through esterification destroys the compatibility.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The optical absorption spectrum of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has been obtained in the wavelength range 570-780 nm via laser calorimetry (employing a dye laser source). Because of the low thermal conductivity of PMMA, the complete solution to the heat conduction equation (carried out numerically) was required in the analysis of the data. At the wavelength of minimum absorption (near 647 nm), the absorption coefficient had the value 153 dB/km.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The impact fracture mechanisms of rubber-toughened nylon are analyzed by measuring the energy dissipated in several different processes during notched fracture. An energy balance is thus established for the impact fracture. The stress-whitened zone is shown to be the energy dissipation zone, having an energy dissipation density of 5.30 cal/g. About 25% (i.e., 1.44 cal/g) of the impact energy is dissipated by matrix crazing. About 75% (i.e., 3.86 cal/g) is dissipated as heat by matrix yielding, causing a temperature rise of 9.1 °C in the energy dissipation zone. Surface energy storage on the fracture surfaces is negligible (i.e., 1.45 × 10-5 cal/g). During matrix yielding, about 12% of α-triclinic nylon crystals is transformed into pseudohexagonal crystals.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Permeability data are reported for carbon dioxide in Lexan polycarbonate at 35°C. Measurements were made for both pure carbon dioxide and for a mixed feed consisting of carbon dioxide with a 117.8-torr (0.155-atm) Partial pressure of isopentane. The effects of varying upstream CO2 driving pressure from 1 up to 20 atm were studied. The permeability to CO2 is reduced significantly in the presence of isopentane; however, the fractional depression of the CO2 permeability due to the isopentane at low driving pressures is much more significant than at high CO2 driving pressures. The well-known pressure dependence of carbon dioxide permeabilities in glassy polymers, therefore, is largely diminished by introducing isopentane to the pure carbon dioxide feed. These observations are consistent with a model for transport in glassy polymers which explains the observed trends in terms of competition between the two penetrants for microvoid sorption sites existing in the non-equilibrium glassy polymer. Exclusion of carbon dioxide from microvoid sorption sites by the more condensable isopentane preempts transport through the microvoid regions, resulting in the observed depression of the CO2 permeability.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: In the course of melt-flow crystallization studies with ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), we observed that the melt of UHMWPE is highly anisotropic above its equilibrium melting point and has a tendency to fibrillate. An examination of the melt anisotropy of UHMWPE by optical, Thermal, and x-ray analysis indicates that the melt anisotropy persists at 345°C, i.e., the temperature at which the polymer degrades under nitrogen, and appears similar to a smectic liquid-crystalline phase.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Atactic polystyrene has been densified under hydrostatic pressure, up to 2 kbar, at about 180°C. Dielectric measurements were made on densified and nondensified polystyrene samples by using the thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) and the absorption and resorption current methods. The dielectric loss is modified by the densification. This effect can be explained in terms of the free-volume reduction and the internal stress induced in the material during densification.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Relations between the physical structure and the deformation and failure processes of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) fibers are reported. The effects of the physical processes involved in fiber fabrication, including the crystallization of PPTA-H2SO4 dopes under stress, are considered in relation to their effect on the structure of the fiber. The deformation and failure processes together with the structure of the fiber are discussed in the light of fracture-topography studies of fiber-epoxy composite strands, single filaments, HCl-etched and unetched yarns, and transmission optical microscopy studies of stressed and unstressed yarns. In view of these observations, the physical structure of PPTA fibers is discussed in terms of pleated H-bond sheets, the macromolecular chain-end concentration and distribution, and the presence of impurities. The structural parameters that affect the failure processes of these fibers and how such parameters can be modified by service environment conditions are also addressed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: In an effort to elucidate the structure of the low-temperature phase of PTFE, a spectroscopic study of the effect of progressive irradiation on the low-frequency infrared spectrum was undertaken. Previous infrared and Raman measurements indicated that irradiation of PTFE decreases its crystalline content, resulting in a lowering of the 19°C phase transition temperature due to the introduction of disorder and defect structures into the lattice by chain scission. Far-infrared studies of virgin and irradiated PTFE at liquid nitrogen temperatures show that the medium to strong bands at 45, 54, 58, and 71 cm-1, attributed to lattice vibrations, decrease in intensity as the crystalline content decreases. These findings support the assignment of these bands to intermolecular vibrations of the crystalline lattice and are an indication of the presence of more than one molecule in the crystallographic unit cell.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: An analysis of the Raman internal modes of dilute-solution-crystallized homopolymers and co-polymers of ethylene has been made, similar to the work previously reported for the bulk-crystallized polymers. The crystallite structure can be described in terms of the relative amounts of the crystalline orthorhombic phase, the liquidlike amorphous phase, and the interfacial region. These quantities change with the molecular constitution of the chains and the crystallization conditions. The level of crystallinity decreases significantly with increasing counit content as would be expected. In addition, an appreciable interfacial structure develops in copolymers as compared with the homopolymers. A possible relationship between the interfacial content and the relaxation transitions in polyethylene is discussed.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Blends of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and a copolyester of bisphenol-A with 50% terephthalate-50% isophthalate (PAr), before and after transesterification, have been studied by thermal and dynamic mechanical tests to determine crystallinity and phase behavior. Blends without transesterification, as prepared by solution precipitation, show a single Tg, indicating amorphous miscibility of PBT and PAr. A melting-point depression for PBT crystals is not observed; this means that PBT crystallizes excluding PAr and the entropy of melting is small. The highest fractional crystallinity for PBT is obtained at 20-35% of PAr. Transesterified blends were obtained by holding the physical blends at 250°C for up to 16 h. The transesterified systems show higher Tg's than the corresponding physical blends and also show a marked melting-point depression and lesser PBT crystallinity at the corresponding increased PAr content.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Two crystal modifications are found in α-helical poly(δ-N-carbobenzoxy L-ornithine). In films as cast, the two-dimensional unit cell is pseudohexagonal and contains two chains. This form transforms irreversibly into a pseudotetragonal form at about 140°C. A second-order transition associated with the onset of the side-chain motion is observed at about 30°C for the bulk sample (by dilatometry) and for the crystalline phase (by x-ray diffraction). The dielectric behavior of the side-chain dispersion suggests that the side chains interact with one another. The temperature dependence of the infrared absorbance due to the NH stretching vibration reveals that about half the side chains are associated via hydrogen bonds at room temperature and become dissociated at higher temperature. The enthalpy and the entropy of the hydrogen bond formation is estimated to be ΔH = -5.0 ± 0.5 kcal mol-1 and ΔS = -15 ± 1 e.u. mol-1.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Small-angle electron scattering (SAES) has been used to examine the structure of crazes in polystyrene. It has been shown theoretically that the analysis of SAES is similar to the equivalent x-ray patterns (SAXS) except perhaps for the higher-angle scattering. A direct comparison of the SAES patterns from crazes in films of ca. 400 nm thickness with SAXS patterns from crazes in films of ca. 1 mm thickness has shown that the craze structures are similar in form for the thin and thick films but the fibrils are about three times larger in the thin films.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Methylol cellulose solutions in dimethylsulfoxide exhibit a viscosity maximum at 18% w/v followed by a minimum at 20%, as is characteristic of lyotropic liquid crystals. The biphasic solutions exhibit areas of clear and cloudy appearance. The latter are birefringent. The highly anisotropic solutions are uniformly briefringent and in the 25-33% w/v concentration region they are brightly colored. The optical rotations of the mesomorphic phases are high, indicating a cholesteric structure. The sign of the optical rotation depends on the solution concentration and at high concentrations (25+% w/v) varies with the area of the solution viewed.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: When natural rubber crystallizes at low temperatures, there is an increase in elastic modulus of up to two orders of magnitude. This phenomenon has been studied at various temperatures in the range 0 to -55°C for samples held at tensile strains of up to 500%. There is an induction period associated with the nucleation of crystallites, before any increase in modulus is observed. The induction period increases with decreasing strain and passes through a minimum with increasing temperature at -25°C. The growth rate subsequent to nucleation is successfully described in terms of Avrami-type rate relationships. The Avrami rate coefficient is independent of temperature and follows a simple exponential function of strain. The equilibrium extent of the modulus increase has also been studied by means of experiments of up to three months' duration. The equilibrium modulus increases with decreasing temperature - as predicted by Flory's thermodynamic theory.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Photon correlation spectroscopy is employed to study the slowly relaxing density and anisotropy fluctuations in bulk atactic polystyrene as a function of temperature from 100 to 160°C and pressure from 1 to 1330 bar. The light-scattering relaxation function is well described by the empirical function φ(t) = exp[-(t/τ)β], where for polystyrene β = 0.34. The average relaxation time is determined at each temperature and pressure according to 〈τ〉 = (τ/β)Γ(1/β) where Γ(x) is the gamma function. The data can be described by the empirical relation 〈τ〉 = 〈τ〉0 exp[(A + BP)/R(T - T0)] where R is the gas constant and T0 is the ideal glass transition temperature. The empirical constant A/R is in good agreement with that determined from the viscosity or the dielectric relaxation data (1934 K). The empirical constant B can be interpreted as the activation volume for the fundamental unit involved in the relaxation and is found to be comparable to one styrene subunit (100 mL/mol). The quantity B appears to be a weak function of temperature. The use of pressure as a tool in the study of light scattering near the glass transition now has been established.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The viscosity η0(M) of polymeric liquids of molecular weight M is calculated on the basis of the tube model formulated by Doi and Edwards (ref. 3). The contour length fluctuation of polymers along the tube, which was neglected in ref. 3, is now explicitly taken into account. The result is where Mc = 2Me, and Me is the molecular weight between the entanglement points. This result is numerically close to the empirical 3.4-power law, η0(M) = η0(Mc)(M/Mc)3.4, for 10Mc ≲ M ≲ 100Mc but approaches the result in ref. 3 for very high molecular weight. We thus conclude that the 3.4-power law is actually an approximate expression for the real curve which slowly approaches the asymptotic form calculated in ref. 3.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The five independent elastic constants C11, C12, C13, C33, and C44 for uniaxially drawn polypropylene with draw ratios 1 〈 λ ≤ 20 have been measured from -40 to 130°C by an ultrasonic method (2.5 MHz). The crystalline and amorphous orientation functions fc and fa were also determined from wide-angle x-ray diffraction and birefringence; fc increases sharply at low λ and becomes saturated above λ = 8, but fa increases monotonically up to λ = 20. Below the glass transition temperature (ca. 60°C at 2.5 MHz) only the axial longitudinal and tensile moduli, C33 and E0, show large increase. At 110°C, however, all the moduli increase with λ; E0, E90 (tranverse tensile modulus), C44 (axial shear modulus), and C66 (tranverse shear modulus) increase 30, 3, 5, and 2.5 times, respectively, as λ increases from 1 to 20. The improvement in the mechanical properties can be attributed to the increase in the fraction of taut tie molecules which was monitored by fa. The results were analyzed in terms of the two-phase models of Takayanagi and Seferis et al. The effects of annealing were also studied.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The assumption of Clark and Zimm that coupled dashpots and springs can be used to model the dynamics of polymer molecules is here applied to a model different from that of Clark and Zimm. The precise differences are given in the preceding paper. The dielectric relaxation spectrum of the model is computed in time and frequency domains. The relaxation spectrum can be fitted reasonably well by the empirical Williams-Watts and Havriliak-Negami functions. The best-fit Williams-Watts and Havriliak-Negami parameters are given as functions of the parameters of the model. The model is compared with several related models found in the literature and possible interpretations are given.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Quenched and annealed samples of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) were irradiated with 60Co γ rays in vacuo at room temperature. The data follow rather accurately Charlesby's equation s = k/r, where s is the soluble fraction, r the dose, and k a constant from which G(X), the G-value for crosslinks, was calculated. Crosslinking in the LLDPE is about twice as extensive at equal doses as in LHDPE. Production of vinylene unsaturation was approximately the same in the two types of polyethylene.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Blends of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were investigated at concentrations of PCL greater than 50 wt % using purified materials. For these concentrations, PCL partially crystallizes with degrees of crystallinity ranging from 50% for pure PCL to 〈 10% for the 50% mixture. Small-angle x-ray scattering was used to characterize the resultant morphologies. Model calculations for the interference functions and for the integrated scattering indicate that PVC is incorporated between the PCL lamellae and that the two polymers form a homogeneous mixture in the amorphous phase. These results were compared to previous results on the same system using the identical technique. Purification of the two homopolymers proved to play a critical role in the overall mixing characteristics of PVC and PCL
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The presence of small amounts of CO2 in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) results in increased main-chain molecular motions of the polymer as measured by the carbon rotating-frame relaxation rate. This effect increases with increasing gas concentration. Since molecular motions of the polymer and the diffusion coefficient of the gas are related, the latter must be concentration dependent. Main-chain motions of PVC also increase upon exposure to CO2 followed by degassing. This result is interpreted in terms of the effect of the penetrant gas on the interchain packing in amorphous PVC. These results cannot be reconciled with the dual-sorption-mobility model, which claims that gas molecules preferentially occupy preexisting sorption sites in a conditioned polymer with no perturbation of the polymer matrix.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The effects of pressure on the compressibility and crystallization of three fiber-forming polymers, poly(tetramethylene terephthalate), nylon 66, and Qiana® nylon, have been studied. The Instron capillary rheometer was adapted as a high-pressure dilatometer for all the high-pressure experiments. The compressibility results reaffirmed that polymers are highly compressible, and their compressibilities are nonlinear at temperatures above the glass transition temperatures. Polymer melts show higher compressibility than do polymers in the solid state. The kinetics of crystallization of these polymer melts under high pressures were studied. Analysis of the data revealed low Avrami exponents at high pressures. It seems that the kinetics of crystallization of these polymers from the melt under high pressure are different from those at normal pressure. Crystallization temperatures of these polymers were also measured. The crystallization temperatures are considerably higher at higher pressures.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Films of uniaxially oriented poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), Mv = 81,000, have been drawn by solid-state coextrusion in the range 40-100°C surrounded by polyethylene. This is well below the PET melting temperature and in some cases below its glass transition temperature. Properties of the extrudates, such as degree of crystallinity, mechanical and thermal properties, were investigated as a function of coextrusion temperature and draw ratio (EDR ≤ 4.4). The results show that the percent crystallinity depends strongly on draw ratio, whereas its sensitivity to extrusion temperature is limited only to the highest draw ratio (4.4). On the other hand, Young's modulus was sensitive to both extrusion temperature and draw ratio, exhibiting a maximum at EDR = 4.4 and Text = 65°C. Above this temperature, moduli decrease apparently because of increased chain mobility, resulting in dissipation of chain orientation. Furthermore, changes in yield and tensile strength followed the changes in mechanical properties, suggesting that they are dominated by the same factors. The cold-crystallization temperature TCC also revealed information about the morphological changes occurring during the extrusion drawing. For samples of EDR = 4.4, TCC increased with extrusion temperature, suggesting again dissipation of orientation by thermal motions. On the other hand, TCC decreases with EDR, and a ΔTCC as high as 73°C was found. Conventional drawing of amorphous PET has been widely reported. To our knowledge this is the first time oriented PET has been prepared using the advantages of solid-state coextrusion.
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  • 28
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    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A theoretical study is made of three-phase separation in a ternary solution consisting of a pure solvent and two homologous monodisperse polymers with relative chain lengths P1 and P2. The Flory - Huggins interaction parameter X is assumed to depend linearly on the volume fraction φ of the polymer mixture: χ = χ0(T) + k(T)φ. For a given P1 the ratio of P2 to P1 for the onset of three-phase separation increases with an increase in k, first gradually and then sharply. Loci of critical points for this condition on the χ0 vs. φ diagram are determined for a series of fixed values of P1 and their significance is discussed.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Measurements of the viscosity coefficient η of solutions of polystyrene (Mw = 6.0 × 105 and 1.77 × 106) in trans-decalin (TD, θ solvent) and toluene (TL, good solvent) as function of shear rate (11-104 s-1), concentration (4.24-11.21 wt %), and temperature (10-50°C) are reported. As a new theoretically grounded method for the determination of the zero-shear viscosity η0 it is proposed to plot η as a function of $\left({\eta \dot \gamma} \right)^3$. The intercepts of the straight lines obtained by this procedure give η0 in good agreement with directly measured values.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The viscosity data of moderately concentrated polystyrene solutions in trans-decalin (TD) (θ solvent, θ temperature 21°C) and toluene (TL) (good solvent) reported in Part I are discussed in terms of Graessley's entanglement theory. Under good solvent conditions, Graessley's master curve provides an excellent fit up to high shear rates, whereas in the vicinity of the θ conditions the data have to be modified by a parameter ηfric introduced by Ito and Shishido. The characteristic time of mechanical response to flow of chains approximately given by the shift factor τ0 is found in good solvents to be on the order of the Rouse relaxation time. In poor solvents, close to demixing, τ0 tends to much higher values, indicating a reduced chain mobility. The influence of temperature on the viscosity decreases with increasing shear. The resulting apparent energy of activation of flow shows very small or even negative values at high shear rates. This behavior can be explained by the modified Graessley theory, however, in a quite natural way.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A group of rodlike polymers soluble only in strong protic acids was studied using light scattering and viscosity techniques. These include poly(1,4-phenylene benzobisoxazole), poly(1,4-phenylene benzobisthiazole) and poly(1,4-phenylene terephthalamide). The solution properties were dependent on the ionic strength of the acid used as solvent. In a low ionic strength acid such as chlorosulfonic acid, the polymer solutions exhibited decreased unpolarized scattering, an extremely small translational diffusion coefficient, and high viscosity. All of these effects could be eliminated by the addition of a salt such as lithium chlorosulfonate, which increased the ionic strength of the solvent. The effects were attributed to a pseudo ordering of the polymer solvent system caused by electrostatic repulsions between protonated polymer chains effective over large distances (ca. 100 Å) in the low ionic strength solvent. This type of ordering is distinct from actual anisotropic phase formation, which occurs at higher concentrations in these systems. Analysis of data at infinite dilution gave a persistence length of at least 45 nm for poly(1,4-phenylene terephthalamide), larger than previous experimental results, but in accord with recent rotational isomeric state calculations and similar to experimental data for poly(p-benzamide).
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: As in the two-dimensional case, the density change due to crystallization leads to a buildup of internal strain in some regions of a polymer melt occluded by growing spherulites. The occluded parts of the sample are called “weak spots.” Computer simulation of spherulite growth in bulk samples shows that the largest weak spots have the size of an average spherulite. The total volumes of weak spots are 0.47, 0.094, and 0.119% of the sample for athermal, thermal, and mixed primary nucleation, respectively. The weak spots in the bulk material exhibit distance correlation. Within weak spots, internal strain is released (Raman spectroscopy), and holes develop. Polypropylene bulk spherulite samples contain holes distinctly visible under a microscope with infrared optics and illumination. The number of visible holes is in agreement with the computer prediction. The increase of impact strength with decreasing spherulite size is explained in terms of changes in the number and size of weak spots.
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  • 33
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    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The autohesion (tack) and cohesion of a random styrene-butadiene elastomer have been examined as a function of test temperature and speed using a T-peel geometry. Both properties have been reduced to a single master curve by horizontally shifting the data with the same set of shift factors. The cohesive strength increases with increasing reduced test rate RaT and appears to approach a plateau at the highest rates. Tack also increases with RaT but decreases abruptly at a critical rate and peeling the occurs in a stick-slip fashion. Tack again increases at sufficiently high test rates. In the range of rates where tack is maximized, its value is essentially the same as its cohesive strength. Above or below this range, tack is substantially less than the elastomer's cohesive strength. Mechanisms are proposed to explain why relative tack (i.e., tack divided by cohesive strength) is not a simple measure of the extent of completion of a tack bond and may indeed be equal to one in spite of incomplete tack bond formation.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) technique has been used to characterize the detailed microphase structure of two crosslinked segmented polyurethane elastomers. Both copolymers contain trifunctional polypropylene ether triols in the rubbery elastomeric block, but are synthesized with different hard segments: a symmetric 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) chain extended with butanediol (BD); and an 80/20 mixture of asymmetric 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and symmetric 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) chain extended with ethylene glycol (EG). Calculations of SAXS invariants and determinations of deviations from Porod's law are used to examine the degree of phase segregation of the hard- and soft-segment domains. Results show that the overall degree of phase separation is poorer in the asymmetric TDI/EG-based copolymer than in the symmetric MDI/BD-based copolymer. Determination of diffuse phase boundary thicknesses, however, reveals that the domain boundaries are sharper in the asymmetric TDI/EG system. The contrasting morphologies found in the two systems are interpreted in terms of differences in hard-soft segment compatibility, diisocyanate symmetry, and diisocyanate length. Coupled with conformational considerations, this information is used to construct a new model for polyurethane hard-segment microdomain structure. Important features of the model are that it takes into account the effects of hard-segment sequence length distribution and allows for folding of the longer hard-segment sequences back into the hard-segment domain.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Experimental values of the dipole moment ratio 〈μ2〉/nm2 and its temperature coefficient d ln 〈μ2〉2/dT, where 〈μ2〉 is the mean-square dipole moment of a chain with n skeletal bonds and m2 is the mean square of the skeletal bond dipole moments, are reported for well-characterized random copolymers of 3,3-dimethyloxetane and tetrahydrofuran. The results are interpreted in terms of the rotational isomeric state theory in a manner consistent with that developed for the parent homopolymers. The theory gives a good account of the experimental results corresponding to copolymers in which the mole fraction of tetrahydrofuran lies in the range 0.11-0.89. It is found that whenever the copolymerization obeys Bernouillan statistics, the dipole moments are quite insensitive to the comonomer distribution. The theoretical analysis suggests, however, that the value of the dipole moment ratio of alternating copolymers of 3,3-dimethyloxetane and tetrehydrofuran should be near that of the parent homopolymer of lower polarity.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Using recently developed quantitative FTIR methods, the gauche and trans conformer compositions have been measured for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples exposed to benzene and acetone. The kinetics of the primary and secondary isomerization stages of the solvent-induced crystallization process have been studied and compared with the thermally crystallized system. The Arrhenius activation energies of isomerization in the primary stage in which Fickian diffusion behavior is followed for the benzene- and acetone-induced PET systems are 8.2 ± 0.4 and 7.7 ± 0.4 kcal/mol, respectively.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Sorption of iodine by bulk polyacetylene was studied under various I2 gas pressures at 25°C. The sorption dynamics show that the penetration of iodine into PA is not Fickian and the diffusion coefficient increases with time of sorption. A discontinuous increase in the sorption isotherm is observed at P/P0 = 0.25 (P is the pressure of the I2 gas and P0 is the saturation value at 25°C). It is due to iodine penetration into PA crystals, as evidenced by x-ray analysis. The distribution of iodine within crystals is apparently inhomogeneous: some unit cells are changed into “iodine-PA” cells, while others remain unchanged. The electrical conductivity depends not only on the amount of iodine but also on the I2 gas pressure under which sorption is carried out. At given iodine content, the conductivity of a sample doped under higher I2 pressure is greater than that of a sample doped under lower pressure.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Permeability coefficients have been measured for CO2, CH4, C2H4, and C3H8 in polyethylene membranes at temperatures of 5, 20, and 35°C and at applied gas pressures of up to 30 atm. The temperature and pressure dependence of the permeability coefficients was represented satisfactorily by an extension of Fujita's free-volume model of diffusion of small molecules in polymers. The results of the present steady-state permeability measurements provide further support for the conclusion reached from previous unsteady-state diffusivity measurements that Fujita's model is applicable to the transport of small molecules, such as CO2, CH4, C2H4, and C3H8, in polyethylene. It was previously thought that this model is applicable only to the transport of larger molecules, such as of organic vapors, in polymers.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Piezoelectric constant, Young's elastic modulus, and dielectric constant of undyed and dyed films of poly(L-glutamate) were measured at 10 Hz over the temperature range -120 to 120°C. The temperature of the maximum in -d″14 shifts toward higher temperature up to 0.6 mg/g polymer of dye uptake and then shifts toward lower temperature by further dye sorption. The variation of the piezoelectric modulus was interpreted by the change of mobility of impurity ions in the sample.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: In order to gain better understanding of the molecular deformation processes occurring in poly-(methyl methacrylate), a series of studies was carried out in uniaxial tension on the simultaneous stress and birefringence response in both constant-strain-rate and stress relaxation experiments. The former covered the temperature range -120 to 75°C and the latter 0 to 90°C. Three deformation mechanisms, i.e., (i) change in intermolecular distance, (ii) distortion of the conformation of the COOCH3 group from its thermal equilibrium state, and (iii) orientation of main-chain segments, are invoked to interpret the experimental results. It is concluded that, in the temperature range from -120 to 75°C and possibly at higher temperatures as well, the polymer chains deform in the small-strain region by an orientation of those chain segments having lower potential-energy barriers to conformational changes and straining those chain segments having higher potential-energy barriers. Subsequent chain orientation of the already strained segments occur in the higher strain regions. Changes in intermolecular distances occur over the entire temperature range from -120 to 90°C, but their magnitude decreases gradually as the temperature increases from -40 to 40°C and then decreases sharply for temperatures above 40°C. Strain-induced distortion of the conformation of the COOCH3 group may involve only rotation of the OCH3 group around the C—O bond rather than rotation of the entire ester group itself.
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  • 41
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    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: As a nondestructive method of evaluation, we have used integrated optics to investigate thin films (〈8 μm) of polyamic acid and polyimide as a function of molecular weight, initial imidization temperature, method of imidization, and annealing treatment. Polyamic acid films were found to exhibit a large optical anisotropy, indicating preferential alignment of the long axis of the molecule in the plane of the film. Imidization increased the birefringence of the film by a factor of 2.5 and reduced the film thickness. The only parameter that was found to effect the anisotropy of the films was the method of imidization. Chemical imidization was found to increase the birefringence by a factor of 3, indicative of a higher degree of molecular orientation parallel to the film surface. This effect was not observed in thicker (〉25-μm) films using x-ray diffraction where the orientation function was found to be independent of the method of imidization.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The dynamic tensile deformation mechanism of spherulitic high-density polyethylene was investigated by dynamic x-ray diffraction at various temperatures and frequencies in order to assign the α and β mechanical dispersions explicity. The uniaxial orientation distribution function q(ζj,0) of the jth crystal plane and its dynamic response Δq′j(ζj,0) in phase with dynamic strain were observed for the (110), (200), (210) and (020) crystal planes. Then the orientation distribution function w(ζ,0,η) of crystallites (crystal grains) and its dynamic response Δw′(ζ,0,η), also in phase with the dynamic strain, were determined by a mathematical transformation procedure proposed by Roe and Krigbaum on the basis of the Legendre addition theorem. The temperature and frequency dependences of w′(ζ,0,η) were analyzed in terms of the model parameters for dynamic spherulite deformation combining affine orientation of crystal lamellae with several types of preferential reorientation of the crystal grains within the orienting lamellae. The following assignments are made: (i) The α mechanical dispersion must be assigned to the dynamic orientation dispersion of crystal grains within the crystal lamellae, involving two types of preferential rotations of the grains about their own crystal b and a axes. The rotation about the b axis is associated with lamellar detwisting, mostly in the equatorial zone of uniaxially deformed spherulites; the rotation about the a axis is associated with intralamellar shearing, mostly in the polar zone of the spherulites. Thus both rotations are intralamellar grain-boundary phenomena. (ii) The β mechanical dispersion must be assigned to the dynamic orientation dispersion of the crystal lamellae behaving as rigid bodies. It is not accompanied by reorientation of the crystal grains, but is associated with orientation dispersion of noncrystalline material between the lamellae. Thus it is an interlamellar grain-boundary phenomena.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The differential orientation of polymer chains has been measured in polystyrene (PS)/poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) compatible blends. Density measurements are reported as a function of binary blend composition at 23°C. Drawing was performed by solid-state coextrusion. PS/PPO blend compositions of 90/10 and 75/25 were drawn within sandwiches of polyethylene at 145°C and isotactic polypropylene at 155°C, i.e. at ca. 25°C above the glass transition temperatures of the two blends. The change in Fourier-transform infrared dichroisms on drawing these blends was measured at 906 and 1190 cm-1, corresponding to predominantly PS and PPO, respectively. The orientation of PS and PPO was observed as a function of draw ratio λ in the range 1-5; orientations increased with λ for both PS and PPO in both blends but to different degrees. Both polymers decreased in orientation with increasing PPO content. Annealing with fixed ends showed that the PPO chains disorient more slowly than those of PS. All binary systems were found to be amorphous and compatible.
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  • 44
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    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Laser light scattered from a block of polystyrene is observed to have a pattern of bright and dark regions called speckle. We observe that the speckle pattern has a lifetime consistent with that of the average relaxation lifetime 〈τ〉 of the intensity fluctuations of the medium as determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. In order to study the pattern of the scattered light, a series of photographs was taken at a variety of exposure times. For each series, the value of the average relaxation lifetime is defined by the temperature and pressure of the polystyrene sample. When the value of 〈τ〉 is short relative to the exposure time, the photograph displays only a random pattern of exposed grains. This is due to the large number of fluctuations that have occurred during the exposure time with random phases relative to one another. As the average relaxation time is increased at a constant exposure time, the speckle pattern appears when the value of 〈τ〉 becomes comparable to the exposure time. The phenomenon of laser speckle allows the time scale of the slowly relaxing fluctuations near the glass transition to be visualized. A digitized series of such pictures could be analyzed to obtain the average relaxation time for the fluctuations, just as in normal photon correlation spectroscopy where the intensity of one coherence area is measured as a function of time.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The dependence of the elution volume Ve on the concentration of injected polymer c in gel chromatography is presented for several systems including poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) in a number of pure solvents with SiO2-based gels. The linear dependence of Ve on c and Kav on c (where Kav is the distribution coefficient) is confirmed in the region of very low concentration. The slopes k of the straight lines increase with increasing relative molecular masses M of the polymer injected and with increasing thermodynamic nonideality of the system (as expressed by the second virial coefficient A2). The significance of the slope of the GPC calibration curve for meaningful comparison of the concentration effects in various chromatographic systems is pointed out. A recently found correlation between k and (A2M)γ is confirmed with a γ value of about 0.8. A possible theoretical explanation for the deviation of γ from unity is discussed. Finally, the influence of both the polymer concentration and the thermodynamic quality of the eluent on the resolution index of the chromatographic system is evaluated with the conclusion that thermodynamically poor solvents should be preferred for preparative GPC separations with very high loads.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Fibers of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) have a fibrillar morphology, the individual fibrils having a high proportion of extended chains passing through periodic defect layers. A pleat structure is superimposed. The fibers are fully crystalline (within the limits of determination) with a small fraction of randomly oriented crystalline material. The major distinction between PPTA and conventional fibers lies in the high level of extended chains passing through the defect layers of the former structure. These extended chains result in crystallographic register being maintained between adjacent ordered zones. Quantitatively, a measure of this order is obtained from a comparison of the correlation length, obtained from meridional x-ray peak widths, and the defect spacing. In conventional fibers the defect spacing, i.e., long period, is longer than the correlation length (i.e., crystal size). In PPTA, the analog of the long period, the defect spacing (about 35 nm) is smaller than the correlation length, which is over 80 nm.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Equations used for the determination of polymer-polymer interaction parameters for narrow molecular weight distribution polymers which have undergone phase separation in solutions are discussed. Binodals with tie lines and plait points are presented for ternary systems polystyrene-polybutadiene-toluene and polystyrene-polybutadiene-tetrahydrofuran. Typical interaction parameters determined from the experimental data for the polystyrene-polybutadiene systems are presented.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Hwang and Cheng have studied the recombination reaction of allyl radicals in irradiated polyethylene by including the effects of (i) diffusion of macroradicals by jumps of finite size in the crystalline phase and (ii) a caging reaction with a finite rate in the disordered region. In this work their results are used to analyze cumulative reaction rate data on the decay of allyl radicals in extended-chain and Marlex film polyethylene. The kinetic parameters obtained show the effects of reaction temperature, irradiation dose, and morphological differences.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The crystal structure of oriented poly[di-(3,4-dimethylphenoxy) phosphazene] (PDMP) was determined by x-ray diffraction. Unit-cell parameters were found to be a = 15.85, b = 19.43, and c = 9.85 Å. The unit cell is metrically orthorhombic with monoclinic space group P21. There were 48 refinable diffraction spots in the observed reciprocal lattice region, of which 28 were observed and 20 were unobserved. A refined model yielded the following residuals: R(obs) = 0.162 and 0.138. It was shown that a two-chain unit cell with a [T3C]2 (trans, trans, trans, cis, trans, trans, trans, cis) backbone conformation was the correct structure. The dimethylphenoxy side groups were arranged in nearly parallel planes, slightly off-normal to the fiber c axis. The polymer chains are extremely tightly packed and contain close but reasonable steric contacts.
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    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 52
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    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Difficulty in controlling and determining the structural parameters of polymer networks has hindered experimental studies on the glass transition in crosslinked polymers. A series of wellcharacterized networks of poly(propylene glycol) having narrow network chain-length distributions and average molecular weight between crosslinks Mc in the range of 425-3000 has been prepared. The glass transition temperatures Tg of these networks were found to vary linearly with Mc-1, consistent with several theoretical treatments. Both the physical crosslinking and the incorporation of crosslinking agent into the system (a “copolymer” effect) are shown to be responsible for increase in Tg upon crosslinking in this system.Varying the network chain-length distribution without changing Mc did not affect the Tg of the system. The chemical nature of the crosslinking agent, however, does affect the Tg of the network, particularly at high crosslink densities.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Resonance Raman spectroscopy has been used to measure the frequencies of the vibrational modes of the polymer backbone of fully and partially polymerized crystals of an ethyl urethane diacetylene. The data have assisted in the assignment of crystallographic structures to the different modifications of the crystals. Effective interatomic force constants have been derived and used to estimate the Young's modulus. For fully polymerized crystals a value of approximately 76 GPa was found. The dependence of the frequencies on elastic tensile strain parallel to the polymer chain direction was determined. By comparing the strain dependence of frequencies of partially polymerized singlecrystal fibers with those expected for model composites, it was concluded that the polymer chains in thermally polymerized crystals are considerably longer than in those polymerized using γ rays.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Highly oriented poly(vinylidene fluoride) rods have been produced by drawing isotropic polymer through a conical die. A range of oriented products was obtained, depending on the drawing temperature and the deformation ratio achieved. At low draw temperatures the draw ratio and final modulus are comparatively low, but a high Form I crystal content is obtained. At high draw temperatures the Form I content varies greatly with draw ratio, reaching high values at large draw ratios, where the highest-modulus samples were obtained.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rheological properties of narrow-molecular-weight-distribution linear and star-branched polyisoprenes have been determined using both shearing and stretching deformations. At all strain rates studied the tensile stress measured under transient and steady-state conditions did not increase above the linear viscoelastic value. The absence of an enhanced tensile stress for the branched polymer is in contrast to what is observed for branched low-density polyethylene. An explanation for the difference is proposed. Additional remarks are made about the broad distribution of relaxation times observed for star-branched polyisoprenes and about the approach to steady state in constant-strain-rate and constant-stress tests.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A model is presented for the adsorption of water by ions in a deformable matrix. Only two opposing “effects” are included. The first is the mechanical resistance of the matrix to deformation which is treated within the framework of linear elasticity extended to the case of large deformations. The other effect is of electrical origin which is shown to be much more important than the purely entropic osmotic pressure. In the model only one immobile ion located at the center of a spherical droplet of water is considered. It is shown that the result does not significantly depend upon the dielectric constant of water, provided it is much larger than that of the matrix. The thermodynamic relations reveal that in fact most of the properties of the system depend mostly on the dielectric and elastic coefficients of the matrix. This simplified model should be considered as a guide for the understanding of the behavior of such systems rather than as a precise description of real materials. Some quantitative comparisons are made with a few experimental results.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A series of kinetic measurements using FT-IR have been carried out in order to clarify the mechanism of the gauche-trans isomerization process and the time-temperature-transformation relationships in poly(ethylene terephthalate). Two-stage isomerization isotherms are distinguished on the logarithmic scale of annealing time: a primary transformation stage with an activation energy of 40 kcal/mol characterized by a sigmoidal curve, followed by a linear secondary process. The activation energies of the secondary transformation obey an equation of the Arrhenius type InaT = B(1/T - 1/Tm) where 160 〈 T 〈 260°C ≈ Tm and can be used to describe the effects of annealing time and temperature on the isomerization process of PET in the secondary transformation region. On the basis of these analyses, the morphology and microstructure of PET in these temperature regimes of the isomerization process are proposed.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Methyl acrylate polymer colloids can be hydrolyzed self-catalytically by bound strong acid surface groups derived from the polymerization initiator. The kinetics of hydrolysis were earlier shown to be apparently pseudo-zeroth-order for any given latex, and first order with respect to surface strong acid concentration. A surface reaction zone model was proposed to explain the kinetics. This model leads to the prediction that the polymer particles will possess a core-shell morphology after some hydrolysis has occurred. This study employs 13C NMR spectroscopy to investigate the particle morphology in the wet latex, a new application for this method. The temperature dependence of the 13C NMR integrated intensities at various levels of hydrolysis provides strong evidence that the particles do possess core-shell morphology, and that the shell is composed of PAA/PMA copolymer. This shell is swollen and plasticized by water, resulting in greatly enhanced segmental mobility of the polymer chains as evidenced by marked narrowing of the NMR lines. Thermal measurements alone cannot distinguish particle morphology because PMA appears to be somewhat compatible with its partially hydrolyzed analog at the temperatures of measurement.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A theory for the relaxation of large strains in polymer melts is outlined. It is based on the Doi-Edwards slip-link model and the new concept of tube relaxation. Self-consistency makes this concept necessary when polymer melts are concerned. The discrepancy with previous non-self-consistent theories is not negligible and should be easy to observe experimentally. Special attention is given to the overall size and to the mean orientation of a labeled N-chain in a step-strained melt of P-chains. Using semiquantitative arguments, we predict different regimes depending on the respective values of N and P, and propose approximate evolution equations for each case. These equations may be used to design and interpret a variety of fluorescence, infrared, or NMR polarization measurements, as well as small-angle neutron scattering experiments.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Changes in the light-scattering components (λ = 0.53 μm) induced by a strong picosecond optical field (λ = 1.06 μm) applied to macromolecular transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) solutions were studied. Two beams were polarized vertically, and the intensity of the vertical and horizontal components of the light (λ = 0.53 μm) scattered at an angle of 90° were measured. The electric field of the strong 30-ps laser pulse was 5.0 × 103 esu cgs. The experimentally determined changes allowed for calculation of the mean third-order optical polarizability c, and its anisotropy δc. The measurements were performed in three different solutions: salt free, with magnesium ions, and without magnesium ions. Changes in tRNA structure reflected in changes of nonlinear light scattering, third-order optical polarizability, and its anisotropy were observed.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A moment analysis of dipolar-decoupled 19F NMR spectra of deformed polytetrafluoroethylene leads to an expansion which approximates the crystallite orientation distribution function. The resulting distributions are then interpreted in terms of this polymer's known mechanical properties, and an attempt is made to model these functions.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The extended Hückel method was employed to calculate electronic band structures in trans-poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (trans-PBT) in an attempt to elucidate the packing and electronic properties of these chains in the crystalline state. The unit-cell energies thus calculated indicate that the most stable arrangement for trans-PBT corresponds to the chains in planar configurations, at an interplanar spacing of 3.5 Å, and shifted axially by 3.0 Å relative to one another. These calculated results are in good agreement with experimental results obtained on the polymer and on relevant model compounds. No discernible dispersion of the energy bands perpendicular to the planes is observed, indicating that the neighboring chains are electronically noninteractive, as was found earlier for trans-polyacetylene and polyethylene. Similarly, the band gap of 1.69 eV in the axial direction for one of a pair of chains was nearly the same as that, 1.73 eV, calculated previously for an isolated trans-PBT chain. These values are in the range 1.4-1.9 eV reported for trans-polyacetylene, which has been extensively studied because of its promise as a semiconductor.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The theory of stress-induced crystallization is broadened to include a reshuffling of crosslink positions as a result of changing sizes of crystalline domains and multiple crystallites of varying lateral dimensions (i.e., lateral growth). A continuous state of equilibrium throughout the amorphous component of the stretched network is postulated and, consequently, effected by requiring crosslinks to anchor about their most probable locations, which vary continuously as crystallization changes. Such features incorporated into Flory's model of stress-induced crystallization broaden its theoretical base, placing it on a stronger, more realistic foundation.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The thermal expansivities along (α∥) and perpendicular (α⊥) to the draw direction of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with extrusion draw ratios 1 ≤ λ ≤ 4 have been measured between 150 and 298 K. As λ was increased from 1 to 4, α∥ decreased 2-3 times, whereas α⊥ increased only 20-35%. The orientation function f calculated from thermal expansivity using the aggregate model is found to change linearly with birefringence, indicating that each property provides a sensitive measure of molecular orientation. For PMMA, however, only thermal expansivity can give an absolute f, with results at 150 K in reasonable agreement with previous studies using other techniques. At higher temperature, i.e., above ambient, PMMA side-group motions are excited, expanding volume, and calculations based on the aggregate model may not be valid.
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The proposion of Clark and Zimm that a dashpot and a spring can be used in place of a set of rotational barriers in polymer dynamics is studied. The simplest possible case is examined here, that of a single rotor. Reasons for altering the Clark-Zimm diffusion equation are presented and an alternative diffusion equation is proposed. The results of both diffusion equations for the correlation function 〈exp[-iθ(0)] exp[iθ(t)]〉 (θ is the angular position of the rotor) are compared with the correlation function for a rotor in an n-fold cosine potential. Although the two diffusion equations differ, both agree well with the n-fold cosine model for barriers above a few kBT. This agreement is obtained in the absence of adjustable parameters, and motivates the application of these two diffusion equations to polymeric systems.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Low-frequency Raman spectra are reported for monodisperse oligo-oxyethylenes with hydroxy and alkoxy end groups. Assignments are made to the longitudinal acoustic modes. The results are modeled by a rod with a longitudinal modulus E ≥ 2.2 × 1010 N m-2 and perturbing forces as large as (alkoxy-ended oligomers) or larger than (hydroxy-ended oligomers) those suggested for the n-alkanes.
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