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  • 1
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Pan-African ; SW-Egypt ; Dike rocks ; Calcalkaline dikes ; Tholeiitic dikes ; S-Nd isotopes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The geological setting, ages, petrography and geochemistry of late Pan-African (≈ 580 Ma) calc-alkaline and tholeiitic dike rocks in the Bir Safsaf igneous complex of south-west Egypt are discussed. These basaltic to rhyolitic dikes intruded contemporaneously and shortly after the intrusion of granitoids. The major and trace element data, Sr and Nd isotope relations, in combination with textural observations, confirm complex interactions between most of the intermediate calcalkaline dike melts and plutonic melts, with different degrees of mixing, assimilation, replenishment and tapping of magma chambers. Trachytic and rhyolitic dikes are strongly differentiated melts from the granitic pluton. The tholeiitic dikes evolved dominantly by fractional crystallization processes. It is inferred that open system and closed system processes operated in calc-alkaline magma chambers, and that the calc-alkaline melts came from a garnet-and amphibole-bearing mantle, modified by a subduction component. Tholeiitic rocks were formed later by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes. Magma ascent of both dike types took place in an extensional environment and the presumed subduction zone has to be seen in connection with the Atmur-Delgo suture zone.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: East Antarctica ; Greenville ; Pan-African ; Rodinia ; Heimefrontfjella
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The Heimefrontfjella mountains, Western Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica), are dominantly composed of Grenville-aged (≈ 1.1 Ga) rocks, which were reworked during the Pan -African orogeny at ≈500 Ma. Three discontinuity-bounded Grenville-aged terranes have been recognized namely (from north to south) the Kottas, Sivorg and Vardeklettane terranes. The terranes contain their own characteristic lithological assemblages, although each is made up of an early supracrustal sequence of metavolcanic and/or metasedimentary gneisses, intruded by various (predominantly granitoid) suites. No older basement upon which the protoliths of these older gneisses were deposited has been recognized. In each terrane the older layered gneisses were intruded by various plutonic suites ranging in age from ≈ 1150 to ≈1000 Ma. The Vardeklettane terrane is characterized by abundant charnockites and two-pyroxene granulite facies parageneses in metabasites, whereas the Sivorg and Kottas terranes were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies grade. P-T estimates show that peak metamorphic conditions changed from ≈600°C at 8 kbar in the south, to ≈700 °C at 4 kbar in the northern Sivorg terrane. Regional greenschist retrogression of high-grade assemblages may be of Pan-African age. The Heimefrontfjella terranes were juxtaposed and pervasively deformed during a complex and protracted period of E-W collision orogenesis in a transpressive regime at ≈ 1.1 Ga. This is manifest as early, gently dipping thrust-related shear fabrics (D1), succeeded by the initiation of an important (D2) steep dextral shear zone (Heimefront shear zone, HSZ), during which the early fabrics and structures were steepened and rotated in an anticlockwise sense. The HSZ is a curvilinear structure which changes from a dextral oblique strike-slip lateral ramp in the north to a steep dip-slip frontal ramp in the south, where it forms the boundary between the Sivorg and Vardeklettane terranes. The Pan-African event is manifested as discrete, low- to medium-temperature ductile to brittle shears (D3) and numerous K/Ar cooling ages.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Pan-African ; tectonics ; geochemistry crustal extension ; island arc tholeIIte ; calc-alkali gabbro
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The Neoproterozoic Ougda magmatic complex occurs within platformal carbonate rocks in the western part of the Pan-African fold belt of the Tuareg shield (NW Africa). It is composed of - 800 Ma old, relatively high P-T (i.e., Grt + Cpx-bearing: P 〉 5 kbar; T≈900'Q, tholeiitic mafic/ultramafic cumulates and related rocks intruded by intermediate to mafic calcalkali plutons (e.g., Cpx+Hbl-bearing gabbro) and dikes. Apparent contrasts in structural level of crystallization indicate that the calc-alkali rocks are significantly younger than the tholeiites, which temporally correlate with a period of regional extension in this part of Africa. Intrusion of the calc-alkali rocks may have occurred during the formation of an arc after the tholeiitic rocks had been (diapirically?) emplaced within the shelf carbonates, and prior to (〉 630 Ma) the Pan-African orogeny. Data reported herein indicate that the Ougda complex records the inception and demise of a Neoproterozoic ocean basin. Similar crustal sections have been described from collisional (e.g., Aleutian islands) and extensional (e.g., Ivreä-Verbano zone) settings, indicating that processes operating in both environments can generate nearly indistinguishable igneous suites; the prevalence of shallow-level calc-alkali rocks in both settings may mask the presence of more mafic, tholeiitic rocks at depth.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Pan-African ; Granitoids ; Geochronology ; Isotope geochemistry ; Mozambique Belt ; Somalia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Granitoids within the Precambrian basement of north-eastern and southern Somalia are subdivided on the basis of geology, geochronology and petrology into three different assemblages. The post-kinematic assemblage in north-eastern Somalia (≈ 630 Ma) comprises granodiorites and granites which belong to a medium-K calc-alkaline suite. Average initial Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios [Sri = 0.7048, ɛNd = −1.8,206Pb/204Pb(i) = 17.704 and207Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.611] indicate that these melts were derived from a mantle or juvenile crustal source with only slight involvement of pre-existing crust as a contaminant. Two different assemblages are found in southern Somalia. The older assemblage is composed of crustal anatectic, synkinematic, parautochthonous granites (≈ 600 Ma) related to amphibolite facies retrogression of an intensively reworked pre-Pan-African crust [Sri = 0.7100, ɛNd = −8.4,206Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.403 and207Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.259]. These monzo- and syenogranites are moderately potassic and peraluminous. The younger assemblage (≈ 470 Ma) consists of post-kinematic monzonites to syenogranites with A-type affinities. Initial Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data for this metaluminous assemblage [Sri = 0.7114, ɛNd = −13.1,207Pb/204Pb(i) = 16.913 and207Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.512] indicate a significant lower crustal component but, however, also a mantle signature. The late Proterozoic to early Palaeozoic granitoids in Somalia thus express contrasting regimes, characterized by strong juvenile input in the north, close to the Arabian-Nubian Shield, whereas intense crustal reworking with little addition of juvenile material prevailed in the south. Somalia was definitively not a cratonic area during the Pan-African, but a zone of high crustal mobility.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Pan-African ; SW-Egypt ; Dike rocks ; Calcalkaline dikes ; Tholeiitic dikes ; S-Nd isotopes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The geological setting, ages, petrography and geochemistry of late Pan-African (≈ 580 Ma) calc-alkaline and tholeiitic dike rocks in the Bir Safsaf igneous complex of south-west Egypt are discussed. These basaltic to rhyolitic dikes intruded contemporaneously and shortly after the intrusion of granitoids. The major and trace element data, Sr and Nd isotope relations, in combination with textural observations, confirm complex interactions between most of the intermediate calcalkaline dike melts and plutonic melts, with different degrees of mixing, assimilation, replenishment and tapping of magma chambers. Trachytic and rhyolitic dikes are strongly differentiated melts from the granitic pluton. The tholeiitic dikes evolved dominantly by fractional crystallization processes. It is inferred that open system and closed system processes operated in calc-alkaline magma chambers, and that the calc-alkaline melts came from a garnet-and amphibole-bearing mantle, modified by a subduction component. Tholeiitic rocks were formed later by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes. Magma ascent of both dike types took place in an extensional environment and the presumed subduction zone has to be seen in connection with the Atmur-Delgo suture zone.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Pan-African ; Granitoids ; Geochronology ; Isotope geochemistry ; Mozambique Belt ; Somalia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Granitoids within the Precambrian basement of north-eastern and southern Somalia are subdivided on the basis of geology, geochronology and petrology into three different assemblages. The post-kinematic assemblage in north-eastern Somalia (≈ 630 Ma) comprises granodiorites and granites which belong to a medium-K calc-alkaline suite. Average initial Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios [Sri = 0.7048, ɛNd = −1.8, 206Pb/204Pb(i) = 17.704 and 207Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.611] indicate that these melts were derived from a mantle or juvenile crustal source with only slight involvement of pre-existing crust as a contaminant. Two different assemblages are found in southern Somalia. The older assemblage is composed of crustal anatectic, synkinematic, parautochthonous granites (≈ 600 Ma) related to amphibolite facies retrogression of an intensively reworked pre-Pan-African crust [Sri = 0.7100, ɛNd = −8.4, 206Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.403 and 207Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.259]. These monzo- and syenogranites are moderately potassic and peraluminous. The younger assemblage (≈ 470 Ma) consists of post-kinematic monzonites to syenogranites with A-type affinities. Initial Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data for this metaluminous assemblage [Sri = 0.7114, ɛNd = −13.1, 207Pb/204Pb(i) = 16.913 and 207Pb/204Pb(i) = 15.512] indicate a significant lower crustal component but, however, also a mantle signature. The late Proterozoic to early Palaeozoic granitoids in Somalia thus express contrasting regimes, characterized by strong juvenile input in the north, close to the Arabian-Nubian Shield, whereas intense crustal reworking with little addition of juvenile material prevailed in the south. Somalia was definitively not a cratonic area during the Pan-African, but a zone of high crustal mobility.
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