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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (83,670)
  • Organic Chemistry  (68,963)
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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-02-10
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-04-01
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-04-14
    Description: The allotropes formed by carbon reflect differences in its bonding: single bonds in diamond, double bonds in graphite and graphene, and triple bonds in polyynes. Fashioning graphene sheets into bowls, monkey saddles, balls, and tubes has led to a number of molecular allotropes of carbon or carbon-rich quasi-allotropes with novel topologies and shapes. A simple ring of carbon can be reduced to practice in various forms (1): a cyclic array of carbon atoms, a “pearl necklace” of benzene rings, or a cylindrical hoop of flank-fused benzenes, just to name a few. On page 172 of this issue, Povie et al. (2) report on the synthesis of an angular-fused hoop structure, which has been a long-standing target. Author: Jay S. Siegel
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-04-14
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-04-14
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-01-13
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: Polynitrogens have the potential for ultrahigh-performing explosives or propellants because singly or doubly bonded polynitrogens can decompose to triply bonded dinitrogen (N2) with an extraordinarily large energy release. The large energy content and relatively low activation energy toward decomposition makes the synthesis of a stable polynitrogen allotrope an extraordinary challenge. Many elements exist in different forms (allotropes)—for example, carbon can exist as graphite, diamond, buckyballs, or graphene. However, no stable neutral allotropes are known for nitrogen, and only two stable homonuclear polynitrogen ions had been isolated until now—namely, the N3− anion (1) and the N5+ cation (2). On page 374 of this issue, Zhang et al. (3) report the synthesis and characterization of the first stable salt of the cyclo-N5− anion, only the third stable homonuclear polynitrogen ion ever isolated. Author: Karl O. Christe
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-03-03
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-03-03
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-04-22
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-06-10
    Description: Transition metal–catalyzed arylation of C–H bonds has been intensively studied for forming C–C bonds in complex-molecule synthesis (1). An acidic C–H bond (for example, one near a double bond or an O atom) is cleaved to form a carbon–metal bond, which then couples to arene. Many of these organometallic species can be generated catalytically. Much less research has dealt with unreactive nonacidic sp3 C–H bond functionalization (3). On page 1304 of this issue, Shaw et al. (3) report an efficient and general method that focuses on arylation of sp3 C–H bonds at carbon atoms adjacent to amines and to cyclic ethers by combining nickel, visible-light photoredox, and hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) catalysis. Author: Corinne Fruit
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-06-24
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-07-08
    Description: Author: Phil Szuromi
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 15
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-07-22
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-06-10
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-07-08
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-07-01
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 21
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-10-21
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-11-11
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 24
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-09-09
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 25
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-09-09
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 26
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-11-18
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 27
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-11-18
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 28
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-12-09
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 30
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: Author: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 31
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-05-13
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 32
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-05-20
    Description: Antibiotics have been taking it on the chin lately. Not only has resistance to the anti-infective medications been growing, but drug companies have been dropping antibiotic research programs, because the drugs are difficult and expensive to make. Now, new help is on the way. Researchers report this week that they've found a way to churn out new members of one of the most widely used classes of antibiotics. These drugs, called macrolides, were first developed in the 1950s and now represent a major bulwark against infections. A bevy of possible new drugs in this class could lead to new weapons against antibiotic-resistant infections, and possibly save millions of lives. Author: Robert F. Service
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 33
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: The SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction, X− + RY → XR + Y−, is a paradigm reaction in organic chemistry (1). The modern understanding of the SN2 reaction mechanism is based on work of Hughes and Ingold (2), who proposed that the nucleophile (X−) approaches the carbon atom that bears the leaving group (Y−). As a result, the bond between the carbon atom and the leaving group becomes weakened. As this bond breaks and a new bond forms between the nucleophile and the carbon atom, the configuration of the carbon atom is inverted. Analyses of gas-phase reaction rates led to the suggestion of a potential energy surface (PES) with two wells connected by a central barrier transition state (3). Electronic structure calculations have confirmed this picture for some SN2 reactions (4), but recent studies have shown that the actual reaction dynamics may be considerably more complex (see the figure) (5–8). Authors: Jing Xie, William L. Hase
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry
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  • 34
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 10 (1998), S. 289-293 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chirality ; time reversal symmetry ; asymmetric synthesis ; enantiomerism ; isomerism ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: If a molecule is identified not only by its static spatial constructions, but also by the motions at the sub-molecular level, application of time reversal symmetry operation to a certain molecule could lead to another distinguishable from the original in the sense of sub-molecular motions, a phenomenon now defined as time reversal isomerism. Assessment of the consideration of certain enantiomers as distinguishable time reversal isomers is suggested in order to evoke a comprehensive interpretation of a likely correlation between the two types of isomerisms. The conceptual basis of a connection between absolute asymmetric synthesis under the influence of external fields and the intrinsic time reversal symmetry violation at the molecular level is also established to encourage new experimental investigations on this theme. Chirality 10:289-293, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: enantiospecific assay ; rat ; dog ; human ; enantiomer disposition ; HIV protease inhibitor ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: PNU-103017, 4-Cyano-N-(3-(cyclopropyl(5,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-cycloocta(b) pyran-3-yl)methyl)phenyl)-benzenesulfonamide, is a selective HIV aspartyl protease inhibitor under evaluation as a potential oral treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Diseases. PNU-103017 is a racemic mixture of two enantiomers, designated PNU-103264 (R-) and PNU-103265 (S-). Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of the two enantiomers of PNU-103017 were observed in the dog, rat, and human after single and multiple dose administration of the racemate and were apparently species-dependent. Mean enantiomeric ratios of plasma concentrations (R-/S-) at each time point were greater than 1 in the dog, ranging from 1.22 to 3.06, but less than 1 in the rat and in the human, ranging from 0.44 to 0.80 and 0.23 to 0.73, respectively. A trend towards increased or decreased (farther from 1:1, R-/S-) enantiomeric ratio of plasma concentrations with time after each administration was also observed. The enantiomeric ratio remained unchanged after multiple dose administration in the rat, dog, and human although enzyme induction and increased plasma clearance were observed for both enantiomers. Chirality 10:210-216, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chiroptical properties ; Cotton effect ; atropisomerism ; quantum-mechanical calculation ; AM1 ; CNDO/S ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Rotational strengths calculated on the basis of quantum-mechanically obtained minimum energy geometries were used to determine the absolute configurations of axially chiral 3-aryl-4(3H)-quinazolinones from the sign of the observed Cotton effects (CEs). For the spectral data, CNDO/S calculations were used; for the geometries, ab initio (RHF/6-31G) and semiempirical (AM1) theories were used. Oscillator and rotational strengths of all excited states down to 200 nm were compared to experimental absorption and circular dichroism (CD) data. It was found that the sign of the 1Lb Cotton effects obtained for the enantiomers of methaqualone and derivatives of 3-aryl-2-alkylthio-4(3H)-quinazolinones can be correlated unambiguously with the absolute configuration. Furthermore, the sign of the Cotton effect of the π-π* transition of the thiocarbonyl chromophore of 3-aryl-2-mercapto-4(3H)-quinazolinones is suitable for a successful stereochemical correlation. Chirality 10:253-261, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chiral HPLC ; cellulose carbamates ; enantiomeric resolution ; warfarin ; flurbiprofen ; lorazepam ; oxazepam ; pindolol ; tertatolol ; nicardipine ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Four cellulose mixed 10-undecenoate/carbamate derivatives, simultaneously bearing 10-undecenoyl and variously substituted phenylaminocarbonyl groups, were chemically bonded on allylsilica gel. The study of the effect of these substitutions on the performance of the resulting chiral supports, and a comparison with the recently described 10-undecenoate/3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate derivative, are presented. In this study heptane/2-propanol or heptane/chloroform mixtures were used as mobile phases. Chirality 10:283-288, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: atropisomeric polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ; Chirasil-Dex ; rotational barrier ; stopped-flow multidimensional gas chromatographic technique ; on-line enantiomerization kinetics ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The rotational barriers ΔG
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  • 39
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 10 (1998), S. 325-337 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: diastereomeric salts ; molecular recognition ; hydrogen bonding ; thermal analysis ; crystallography ; solubility ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: (+)-(1S;2S)-Pseudoephedrine and racemic mandelic acid form three distinct diastereomeric salts from solutions in 95% ethanol. The least-soluble phase, a hemihydrate, contains the (2R)-mandelate. A salt phase of intermediate solubility is the unsolvated double salt, containing both the (2R)- and the (2S)-mandelate. The most-soluble salt phase contains the (2S)-mandelate. Mandelate configuration and order of solubility (based on the heats of fusion) is inverted from that found in the same system synthesized from chiral base and acid, and then crystallized from benzene solution. The (2R)-mandelate hemihydrate (-H2O at 349.5K, mp 391K), monoclinic, P21, a = 6.788(5), b = 29.415(35), c = 9.488(10)Å, β = 108.91(8)°, Z = 4 (2 ion-pairs/asymmetric unit). Intermediate double salt (2S)- and (2R)-mandelate, mp 377.6K, anorthic, P1, a = 7.758(4), b = 9.966(5), c = 13.366(6)Å, α = 72.99(4), β = 79.98(4), γ = 70.51(4)°, Z = 1 (2 ion-pairs/asymmetric unit). The (2S)-mandelate (mp 386.2K), orthorhombic, P212121, a = 7.079(6), b = 13.443(10), c = 18.820(14)Å, Z = 4 is identical to a salt made from a combination of enantiomeric moieties from benzene solution. While differing from ephedrine mandelates in configuration at one center, solubilities of pseudoephedrine mandelates in 95% ethanol are much larger. A comparison of molecular structure (non-polar and H-bonding) regions of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine mandelates shows similarities and differences that are tentatively linked to crystal properties. This study reemphasizes the necessity for consistency in solvent use in resolution and in phase identification and comparison because the phases produced are frequently dependent upon the solvent. Chirality 10:325-337, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 40
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 10 (1998), S. 371-372 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: (±)nicotine ; (±)nornicotine ; chiral separation ; enantiomers ; normal phase HPLC ; mobile phase additive ; cellulose-based chiral stationary phase ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This paper describes the enantiorecognition of (±)nicotine and (±)nornicotine by high-performance liquid chromatography using two derivatized cellulose chiral stationary phases (CSPs) operated in the normal phase mode. It was found that different substituents linked to the cellulose backbone significantly influence the chiral selectivity of the derivatized CSP. The results showed that, in general, the tris(4-methylbenzoyl) cellulose CSP (Chiralcel OJ) surpasses tris(3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamoyl) cellulose CSP (Chiralcel OD). On the former column, the resolution (±)nicotine and (±)nornicotine enantiomers depended largely on mobile phase compositions. For the separation of the nicotine enantiomers, the addition of trifluoroacetic acid to a 95:5 hexane/alcohol mobile phase greatly improved the enantioresolution, probably due to enhanced hydrogen bonding interactions between the protonated analytes and the CSP. For (±)nornicotine separation, a reduction in the concentration of alcohol in the mobile phase was more effective than the addition of trifluoroacetic acid. Possible solute-mobile phase-stationary phase interactions are discussed to explain how different additives in the mobile phase and different substituents on the cellulose glucose units of the CSPs affect the separation of both pairs of enantiomers. Chirality 10:364-369, 1998. Published 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
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  • 42
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    Chirality 10 (1998), S. 430-433 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: Whelk-O 1 ; chromatography ; HPLC ; enantiodifferentiation ; heterocycles ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In concert with a larger study of the processes by which chiral stationary phase CSP 1 differentiates between enantiomers, we have investigated the chromatographic separation of the enantiomers of a series of aryl-substituted heterocycles of systematically varied structure. A mechanistic picture of how these and similar resolutions occur is emerging. The mechanistic hypothesis described herein is of predictive value. Chirality 10:430-433, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chiral inversion ; ibuprofen ; ketoprofen ; flurbiprofen ; indoprofen ; suprofen ; fenoprofen ; metabolism of 2-arylpropionic acids ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The fungus Cordyceps militaris has been previously shown to be capable of inverting the chirality of 2-phenylpropionic acid from its (R)-enantiomer to its (S)-antipode. The structure of this compound is similar to the 2-arylpropionic acid non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which have also been reported to undergo a similar chiral inversion process in mammals and man. We report here an investigation into the substrate specificity of the enzyme system present in C. militaris using pure enantiomers and racemates of ibuprofen and ketoprofen and racemates of indoprofen, suprofen, flurbiprofen, and fenoprofen and the structurally related compounds 2-phenylbutyric acid and 2-phenoxypropionic acid as substrates, using optimised incubation conditions developed for the inversion of 2-phenylpropionic acid. The results demonstrated that C. militaris is capable of inverting the chirality of all the compounds investigated, which suggests that the active sites of the enzymes are very flexible with regard to the molecular dimensions of the substrate molecule and the spatial occupation of the groups surrounding the chiral centre. Metabolism of all the substrates was observed but the rate of metabolism varied extensively depending on the substrate. Achiral HPLC analysis was used to detect any potential metabolites and the results suggested that the site of the metabolism appeared to be at the aliphatic side groups only, with the aromatic ring being left intact in all cases. These results suggest that C. militaris could be a valuable tool in the investigation of the prospective metabolic fates of new 2-arylpropionic acids during their development. Chirality 10:528-534, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 44
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    Chirality 10 (1998), S. 555-555 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: asymmetric hydrogenation ; aminophosphine phosphinites ; rhodium complexes ; dehydro aminophosphonic acids ; NMR ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Chiral α-aminophosphonic acid derivatives are efficiently synthesized by asymmetric hydrogenation of the prochiral N-acyl-α,β-dehydroaminophosphonates. PROPRAPHOS-Rh-catalysts from readily available (S)- and (R)-Propranolol proved to be suitable in the homogenous reaction affording an enantiomeric excess of 87-92% with high rate. The aminophosphonic acid derivatives and precursors were fully characterized by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy. Chirality 10:564-572, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chiral separation ; chiral selector ; separation of enantiomers ; liquid chromatography ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A chiral stationary phase (CSP 1) prepared starting from (R)-4-hydroxyphenylglycine and then grafting (R)-N-butanoyl-4-allyloxyphenylglycine N-propyl amide to silica gel was found to be very effective in separating the enantiomers of N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino amides. From the chromatographic behaviors of the resolution of N-propyl amides, N,N-diethyl amides and ethyl esters of N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino acids and the resolution of various N-(substituted benzoyl)leucine N-propyl amides, the hydrogen bonding and the π-π donor-acceptor sites of the analyte for the interaction with the CSP have been proposed. Similarly, the hydrogen bonding donor and acceptor sites of the CSP for the interaction with the analyte have been proposed from the comparison of the chromatographic behaviors of the resolution of various N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino N-propyl amides on modified CSPs (CSP 7 containing trifluoroacetyl group instead of the butanoyl group of CSP 1 and CSP 8 containing N,N-diethyl group instead of the N-propyl group of CSP 1) with those on CSP 1. By correlating the interaction sites of the CSP and their complementary interaction sites of the analyte, a chiral recognition mechanism which utilizes the two hydrogen bonding interactions and the π-π donor-acceptor interaction between (R)-CSP 1 and more retained analytes, (S)-N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino amides, has been proposed. Chirality 10:592-599, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: nucleophilic aromatic substitution ; optical resolution ; asymmetric synthesis ; diastereoselective reaction ; Grignard reaction ; atrolactic acid derivatives ; biaryl coupling reaction ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Novel 1-aryl-9H-fluoren-9-ols 1 were conveniently synthesized by using the ester-mediated nucleophilic aromatic substitution on 2,6-dimethoxybenzoate 2 by aryl Grignard reagents as the key step. Racemic 1-phenylfluorenol 1a was converted to the diastereomeric esters 8 of (S)-2′-methoxy-1,1′-binaphthyl-2-carboxylic acid, which were readily separable by silica-gel column chromatography. Reduction of the optically pure diastereomer (+)-8 with LiAlH4 accompanied an appreciable racemization to give (+)-1a of 89% ee, which provides the first isolation of an optically active fluorenol of defined enantiomeric purity. Intrinsic chiral induction abilities of the 9-fluorenols 1 were examined in the atrolactic acid synthesis from phenylglyoxylates 9 and methylmagnesium iodide with diastereoselectivity of up to 85% de and the binaphthyl coupling of 1-methoxy-2-naphthoates 11 with 2-methoxy-1-naphthylmagnesium bromide with up to 73% de. Chirality 10:619-626, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 48
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    Chirality 10 (1998), S. 693-698 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: Pseudomonas cepacia ; lipase PS ; transesterification ; kinetic resolution ; 2-substituted 3-hydroxy ester ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Kinetic resolution of 2-substituted 3-hydroxy esters was examined by lipase PS catalyzed transesterification using vinyl acetate as an acyl donor. Resolution of (±)-syn- and -anti-1a, -1e possessing a small methyl group at the C-3 position was accomplished enantioselectively. The outcome of the resolution seems to be related to the differences in size of the substituents at the stereocenter bearing a secondary hydroxy group. Chirality 10:693-698, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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    Chirality 10 (1998), S. 699-704 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: ormeloxifene ; chiral separation ; sulfated cyclodextrin ; enantiomers ; capillary electrophoresis ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: (-)-Ormeloxifene, a drug candidate under development, was separated from (+)-ormeloxifene using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with sulfated β-cyclodextrin as chiral buffer additive. With conventional long-end injection the method showed high efficiency, since the theoretical plate number for (-)-ormeloxifene was over 1 million per m and the enantiomeric resolution was more than 100. However, the relatively long separation time of ∼22 min was a limiting factor. In order to reduce separation time, short-end injection experiments were carried out. By using the instrumental limits for capillary dimensions and field strength, the separation time was reduced to 〈40 sec. A further and significant reduction was achieved by applying extended short-end injection, which is a novel injection technique presented in this paper. With the extended short-end injection procedure, a plug of run buffer is injected after the sample has been injected, thus moving the sample closer to the detector and resulting in very short effective capillary lengths. Using the extended short-end injection technique, the separation was performed on 1.8 cm capillary (effective length) and the enantiomers were separated within 10 sec, which is a reduction of the original separation time by a factor of ∼155. Chirality 10:699-704, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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    Chirality 10 (1998), S. iii 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract.
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  • 51
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    Chirality 10 (1998), S. 742-746 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: methamphetamine ; enantiomer ; serum albumin ; CD spectra ; association equilibrium ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The association equilibria for complex formation between serum albumin (bovine, rat) and the optical isomers of methamphetamine (MAMP) was determined using an ultrafiltration method. It was found that serum albumin/d-MAMP and serum albumin/l-MAMP complexes had distinctly different Scatchard plots with bovine and rat albumin. The binding parameters of each association equilibrium were estimated from the Scatchard plots by Rosenthal's graphic method. This distinguished two kinds of specific binding sites in terms of the association equilibrium between bovine serum albumin and d-MAMP, and one binding site for rat serum albumin and d-MAMP. One specific binding site was found between serum albumin and l-MAMP in both bovine and rat. Molar ellipticities, [θ], of peaks were decreased in the CD spectra of the complexes formed between bovine serum albumin and d-MAMP or l-MAMP when compared with the CD spectrum of bovine serum albumin alone. However, no difference in [θ] was found between the CD spectra of the enantiomers of MAMP in the measured wavelength range. The non-specific binding site was distinct from the specific binding site and resulting from altered tertiary structure of the albumin molecule. Chirality 10:742-746, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 52
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    Chirality 10 (1998), S. 173-179 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chirality at low and high resolution ; functional groups ; fuzzy density fragments ; continuum models ; fuzzy sets ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Mislow's Label Paradox and the chirality preserving or abandoning properties of deformation paths of polyhedral models are extended to simple representations of electron density continua of molecules. Chirality 10:173-179, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: cellulose ; regioselective derivatization ; chiral stationary phases ; liquid chromatography ; enantioseparation ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Various cellulose-2,3-bis-arylcarbamate-6-O-arylesters and cellulose-2,3-bis-arylester-6-O-arylcarbamates, designed to test the possible combined effects of the known tris-arylcarbamate and tris-arylester classes, were synthesized with high regioselectivity at O-C(6), and their use as CSPs in liquid chromatography for enantiomeric separations was investigated. The separations obtained with the synthesized CSPs were compared to the separations achieved on a self-packed reference column, consisting of cellulose-tris-(3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamate) as CSP standard. Among the synthesized, regioselectively substituted cellulose derivatives, 2,3-bis-O-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-6-O-benzoate-cellulose and 2,3-bis-O-(benzoate)-6-O-(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate)-cellulose gave the best CSPs for the separation of the test racemates. CSPs from regioselectively substituted cellulose derivatives seem to exhibit higher selectivities than cellulose-tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) for certain classes of racemic compounds. Chirality 10:294-306, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: additive ; selectivity ; efficiency ; modifier ; subcritical fluid chromatography ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Subcritical fluid chromatography (SubFC) using a carbon dioxide-methanol mobile phase is used for the chiral resolution of IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist enantiomers. The chiral resolution of three analogs, each containing two chiral centers, is optimized using various mobile phase additives. The effects that acidic, basic, and neutral additives have on retention, efficiency, and resolution are examined. The additive that gives the best resolution was found to be dependent upon the functionality and charge of the chiral analyte. For charged analytes, additives that act as competing ions of the same charge as the chiral analyte dramatically improve efficiency and resolution. Resolution of neutral chiral analyte enantiomers is also greatly affected by the choice of mobile phase additive. Chirality 10:338-342, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: cyclic imides ; barbiturates ; piperidine-2,6-diones ; mephenytoin ; chiral recognition ; enantioselectivity ; vancomycin chiral stationary phase ; normal-phase mode ; reversed-phase mode ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Several cyclic imidic compounds (barbiturates, piperidine-2,6-diones, and mephenytoin) are enantiomerically resolved via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a macrocyclic antibiotic covalently bonded to a silica gel support. The Chirobiotic V chiral stationary phase (CSP) column contains the antibiotic vancomycin as the chiral selector. The results of the analysis show that the substituents at the chiral carbon position of the racemic drugs affect chiral resolution. In addition, ring size may also play a role when considering the formation of analyte-CSP inclusion complexes. Contrary to the piperidine-2,6-diones, the chromatographic parameters for the barbiturates are much the same under normal- or reversed-phase conditions. The details of these results are discussed. Chirality 10:358-361, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: liquid crystals ; circular dichroism ; X-ray diffraction ; self-recognition ; salt ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The title compounds show a pronounced cation-directed ability to self-assemble in water and to gives columnar structures similar to four-stranded helices; for compound (5′→5′)-d(GpG), this leads to the formation of cholesteric and hexagonal liquid crystalline phases. Both phases are columnar and the cholesteric phase is left-handed. This behaviour is a further confirmation of the tendency of guanine derivatives to self-assemble to give stacked columnar structures whenever not impossible for structural reasons. The CD spectra of the aggregates in isotropic solutions are dominated by a negative exciton couplet centred around 250 nm associated to a left-handed columnar chirality. The shapes of the profiles, in the 220-300-nm region, for (5′→5′)-d(GpG) (in water or in saline solutions) and for (3′→3′)-d(GpG) (in KCl solution) are quasi-mirror images of those of poly(G) and (3′→5′)-d(GpG). The appearance of relatively intense CD signals around 280-300 nm in solution of (3′→3′)-d(GpG) in the presence of NaCl resembles that of (3′→5′)-d(GpG) in the presence of Rb+ or Na+. In the compounds investigated in this work, which present two equivalent ends, one observes the two CD features that have been associated, in the current literature, with the signature of four-stranded parallel and antiparallel structures: hence the origin of these CD bands cannot be found in the polarity of the strands. Self-assembly is favoured by the addition of extra salt and the stabilising effect of K+ is greater than that of Na+, in the case of (3′→3′)-d(GpG), an assembled species could be detected by CD only in the presence of extra salt. Chirality 10:734-741, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: 1,4-benzoxazine-2-carboxylic acids ; X-ray crystal structure determination ; 1-phenylethylamine ; 2-amino-1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones ; racemization ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Both enantiomers of 2-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-2-carboxylic acid 2 and 2,4-dimethyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-2-carboxylic acid 3 were prepared via resolution of the corresponding racemic carboxylic acids with (R)- and (S)-1-phenylethylamine, respectively. Absolute configuration of (-)-(R)-2-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazine-2-carboxylic acid was determined by X-ray crystallography. Curtius rearrangement of acyl azides prepared from enantiomers of these heterocyclic carboxylic acids carried out in benzyl alcohol afforded enantiomers of the corresponding benzyl carbamates, which upon hydrogenolysis gave racemic 2-amino-2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one 4 and 2-amino-2,4-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4h-benzoxazin-3-one 5. Chirality 10:791-799, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: α-hydroxy acids ; chiral stationary phases ; enantiomer resolution ; copper ternary complexes ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Direct separation of several α-hydroxy acid racemic mixtures was performed by the aid of ligand exchange chromatography using L-hydroxyproline chemically bound to silica stationary phase and aqueous solutions of copper (II) sulphate as a mobile phase. The elution order of the D- and L-enantiomers of α-hydroxy acids is interpreted in terms of a modified Davankov's rule. Several aspects of the Davankov's model of selectand-Cu(II)-selector ternary complexes are discussed based on the theoretical calculations within the quantum mechanical semiempirical and density functional theories. Chirality 10:821-830, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0941-1216
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Conventional organic molecules for applications in second-order non-linear optics are donor-acceptor substituted π systems that show only one intense charge-transfer (CT) transition. Thus, only a single element of the second-order polarizability tensor, β, is significant in these one-dimensional systems. The advantages and optimization strategies for two new classes of molecules with multiple CT transitions and two-dimensional second-order polarizability are reviewed. These are donor-acceptor substituted π systems that lack a dipole and have a molecular symmetry of C3 or higher, and dipolar molecules of symmetry C2v. A basic introduction to the field is also given.
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  • 60
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    ISSN: 0941-1216
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A Novel Synthetic Route to Open-Chained and Cyclic OligoetherketonesOligoetherketones of the structure 2a,b can be generated by repetitive insertion reactions of terminal biscarbenoids 4a,b, into the O—H bonds of diols like 5. The formation of the corresponding ring systems 7a and the involved carbene dimerization leading to 8b are processes which compete with the linear polyinsertion. A related one-component reaction can be performed with ω-hydroxy-1-diazo-2-alkanones (13a-c → 14a-c).
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    ISSN: 0941-1216
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Starting from 1,3-oxazoline 6 synthesis of ketene-O,N-acetals 2b, 2c is described via NBS bromination and HBr elimination.The N-sulfonyl-oxazolidines 10, 11 are synthesized by cyclization starting from aminoalcohol 7, 10d react with potassium t-butoxide to the oxazolidine 2d; 11d gives under the some conditions the ring opening product 12d, compound 10a is inert.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0941-1216
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0941-1216
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 2,3,4,5,6-Penta-O-acetyl-D-galactonic acid chloride (1a) and D-gluconic acid chloride (1b), respectively, react with alkyl acetoacetates and benzoylacetates 2, respectively, to yield derivatives 3 of diuloses with an alkoxycarbonyl group in the branch. Decarboalkoxylation of these compounds gives 1,3-didesoxy-nono-2,4-diuloses 4a,b and 2-deoxy-octo-1,3-diuloses 4c, respectively. Compound 4a and diazomethane react to furnish the corresponding methyl enol ether 5a and 5b.
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    ISSN: 0941-1216
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: N-Iodosuccinimide (NIS): an “Old” Reagent and “New” Applications
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0941-1216
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction of bis(vinamidinium salts) (5a, 6) and amidinium-vinamidinium salts (7, 21) with primary amines was studied. Whereas the condensation of 6 and 7a with p-phenylenediamine and 4,4′ diaminostilbene gave rise to polymeric vinamidines (12, 18), 5a and 7b reacted with aromatic amines and diamines to give pyrrole and imidazole derivatives. The reaction of p-aminophenylacetic acid with DMF-POCl3 produced a new amidinium-vinamidinium salt (21) which could be converted into a donor-acceptor substituted diazaterphenyl derivative (22) displaying a strong solvatochromism. - The crystal structure analysis of the 2,2′-bis(vinamidinium salt) 5b revealed a 73° twist angle between the planes of the vinamidinium moieties.
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