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  • Articles  (17)
  • Nicaragua  (8)
  • O15  (6)
  • Educación
  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)  (17)
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  • Articles  (17)
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  • 1
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Inequality in Bolivia is normally measured through income. However, the construction of a socio-economic index (ISE), using the four available censuses 1976, 1992, 2001 and 2012, permits to analyze inequality in long-term as well as under a multidimensional approach. Through the application of an inter-temporal decomposition approach, we can identify relevant variables such as ethnicity and gender (of the head of household) both in structure and in composition of the ISE change over time at the quantile level.
    Keywords: D63 ; I32 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; inequality ; gender ; ethnicity ; variance decomposition
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: The paper uses data from 5,507 municipalities in Brazil to estimate the relationships between climate and income as well as climate and health, and then uses the estimated relationships to gauge the effects of past and future climate change on income levels and life expectancy in each of these municipalities. The simulations indicate that climate change over the past 50 years has tended to cause an overall drop in incomes in Brazil of about four percent, with the initially poorer and hotter municipalities in the north and northeast Brazil suffering bigger losses than the initially richer and cooler municipalities in the south. The simulations thus suggest that climate change has contributed to an increase in inequality between Brazilian municipalities, as well as to an increase in poverty. The climate change projected for the next 50 years is estimated to have similar, but more pronounced effects, causing an overall reduction in incomes of about 12 percent, holding all other things constant. Again, the initially poorer municipalities in the already hot northern regions are likely to suffer more from additional warming than the initially richer and cooler municipalities in the south, indicating that projected future climate change would tend to contribute to increased poverty and income inequality in Brazil.
    Keywords: Q51 ; Q54 ; O15 ; O19 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Climate change ; social impacts ; Brazil ; Klimaveränderung ; Soziale Folgen ; Gemeinde ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper presents new evidence on the relationship between corruption and income inequality. Using a panel data methodology, we find that lower corruption is associated with higher income inequality in Latin America. This result is in contrast to other empirical studies but it makes sense in Latin America for a number of reasons. The finding of an inverse relationship between inequality and corruption suggests that institutional reform policies by themselves may be misguided.
    Keywords: D73 ; O15 ; O43 ; ddc:330 ; Inequality ; Corruption ; Latin America ; Einkommensverteilung ; Korruption ; Panel ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper uses municipality level data to estimate the general relationships between climate, income and child mortality in Mexico. Climate was found to play only a very minor role in explaining the large differences in income levels and child mortality rates observed in Mexico. This implies that Mexico is considerably less vulnerable to expected future climate change than other countries in Latin America.
    Keywords: Q51 ; Q54 ; O15 ; O19 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Climate change ; social impacts ; Mexico ; Klimaveränderung ; Soziale Folgen ; Gemeinde ; Mexiko
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper utilizes a unique three-wave panel of household data from Nicaragua, which allows a thorough exploration of the relationships between migration, remittances and household consumption. The paper distinguishes between the effects of emigration and the impacts of remittances received. There is a self-selection bias in the decision to send a migrant, as well as in the decision to receive remittances. To adequately correct for these selection biases, we develop a bivariate selection correction procedure. Perhaps surprisingly, the results show that households do not benefit (in terms of higher consumption growth) from receiving remittances, but rather from having migrants abroad. This suggests that not only money are remitted from abroad, but also something more subtle, which could be business ideas, belief systems, aspirations, patterns of social interaction, and other intangibles, which have been dubbed social remittances.
    Keywords: F35 ; ddc:330 ; Migration, Remittances ; Social Remittances ; Nicaragua ; Bivariate Selection Correction
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El presente estudio analiza la hipótesis según la cual, las condiciones empresariales externas adversas a las que deben hacer frente las compañías en los países pobres de América Latina, podrían constituir una importante explicación de los generalmente bajos niveles de productividad de estos países. Sin embargo, resultados empíricos basados en una encuesta realizada a más de 1300 empresas en Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua, no confirma esta hipótesis. Comparadas con todas las variables bajo el control de las empresas, como lo son la intensidad del capital, el uso de la energía, y la calificación de los empleados, las condiciones económicas externas (inestabilidad macroeconómica y regulaciones laborales) ejercen muy poco impacto sobre la productividad.
    Description: This paper uses firm level surveys from Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the determinants of labor productivity. This study started out with the hypothesis that the adverse external business conditions that firms in poor Latin American countries face, may be an important explication of the generally low levels of productivity. However, the empirical results, based on the survey of more than 1300 businesses, do not confirm this hypothesis. Compared to all the variables that are under the firms control, such as capital intensity, energy use, and worker skills, the external business environment (macroeconomic instability and labor regulations) has very little impact on productivity.
    Keywords: O12 ; ddc:330 ; Productividad laboral ; Ecuador ; Guatemala ; Honduras ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este informe analiza los cambios en población, pobreza y movilidad económica en Nicaragua entre los periodos 1998-2001 y 2001-2005, y usa los resultados para hacer proyecciones simultáneas de pobreza y población para Nicaragua hasta 2025. Además, el estudio hace proyecciones del gasto público en servicios básicos necesario para lograr las metas nacionales e internacionales.
    Keywords: J11 ; I32 ; ddc:330 ; Población ; Pobreza ; Movilidad Económica ; Migración ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper provides a review of the literature on the reasons and consequences of international migration. The principal determinants of migration are analyzed and it is seen that educated people from developing countries are more likely to migrate for several reasons (i.e. network determinants, costs of moving, pull factors and push factors). Looking into the empirical data, the global trend is that emigration of educated people (usually called brain drain ) has increased a lot. This trend implies that industrialized countries are importing highly skilled people from developing countries and this will certainly have important consequences for developing countries in the long run. Some researchers argue that developing countries will loose, since the most qualified people leave and stop contributing to their country. Others say that the global trend can be beneficial because positive spillovers will be created; in the sense that developing countries will experience higher investments in human capital ( brain gain ). Empirical findings show that these spillovers depend on the probability to migrate and the stock of human capital that a country has. Finally another group of researchers argues that this process is inevitable, and barriers to migration should be abolished in order to reap the benefits for both sending and receiving countries as well as the migrants themselves.
    Keywords: F22 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Migration ; Brain Drain ; Brain Gain
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper presents some new evidence on income inequality in Latin America over the period 1980-1999, examining in particular the relationship between corruption, privatisation and inequality. Using a panel data methodology, we find that a reduction in corruption is associated with a rise in inequality. This suggests that while privatisation removes industries from government influence and government corruption, it worsens income inequality as new owners strive for efficiency and profits. The paper highlights the fact that structural reform policies aimed primarily at achieving positive and increasing growth rates do not adequately address the income distribution problem.
    Keywords: O15 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Población ; income inequality ; corruption ; privatisation ; panel data ; Latin America ; instrumental variables.
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este documento elabora proyecciones simultaneas de población y pobreza en Nicaragua para el periodo 1995 2015 tomando en cuenta las relaciones que existen entre factores demográficos, pobreza y movilidad económica. Simulaciones hechas con el modelo de proyección muestra que los cambios esperados en los comportamientos reproductivos tienen más impacto sobre la pobreza que todos los otros variables investigados, como crecimiento económico, políticas redistributivas, migración rural-urbana, migración international, y mejoras en los niveles de educación.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Movilidad económica ; pobreza ; fecundidad ; educación ; migración ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El estudio analiza y evalúa la situación actual de la educación inicial, primaria y secundaria bajo la actual estructura del sector público y la participación ciudadana, especialmente enfatizando la gestión educativa y el financiamiento de la educación, esto con el propósito de elaborar lineamientos para la profundización de la descentralización educativa. El proceso de descentralización educativa fue lento por la falta de experiencia y capacidad técnica y organizativa de las unidades y direcciones del Ministerio de Educación, Prefecturas y Municipios. Los resultados muestran que la gestión educativa se caracterizó por la reorientación de las funciones técnicas y administrativas, que fueron lentos debido a falta de un marco legal para reorganizar el marco institucional. Además, que los beneficios fueron positivos sólo cuando existan equipos de gestión que promueven la articulación de los actores involucrados, junta escolares, escuela, distrito escolar y municipio. En cuanto al financiamiento, el gasto del gobierno central está promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal distributiva; en cambio, el gasto de los municipios está limitando el logro de dicha equidad. La distribución del gasto centralizado con criterios de localización geográfica de la unidad educativa está ocasionando desequilibrios verticales. El estudio propone lineamientos de descentralización que consideran tres niveles en la provisión de servicio educativo para garantizar un equilibrio entre los criterios de eficiencia, equidad e igualdad de oportunidades.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Descentralización ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El Programa Reforma Educativa ha contribuido a que el Sistema Educativo Boliviano consiguiera pasar de la perspectiva de la administración a la de la gestión. Bajo esta nueva visión, la gestión educativa depende de los actores involucrados, como padres de familia, maestros, autoridades municipales, entre otros, que tienen la responsabilidad de conducir, planificar y ejecutar un plan educativo. En ese sentido, con la finalidad de contar con una evaluación parcial de impacto de esta nueva modalidad de administración, el objetivo del estudio es evaluar la gestión educativa y analizar sus impactos en dos resultados educativos: acceso a la educación pública primaria y factores asociados al rendimiento escolar.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Reforma educativa ; Educación ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Remittances are a very important source of income for many Nicaraguan families. More than 40% of all households receive remittances that on average amount to 12-15% of total household income in these households. More than 30% of these households receive remittances at least monthly, implying that it is a relatively stable source of income. This paper shows that remittances do tend to reduce the vulnerability of households and increase their upward social mobility, at least as long as the households do not depend too heavily on remittances. However, remittances also cause moral hazard problems. Nicaraguans tend to reduce their labor supply in response to more remittances, and they also tend to reduce their savings rates, both of which are detrimental to long run economic growth.
    Keywords: F35 ; ddc:330 ; Remittances ; aid ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 14
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper uses firm level surveys from Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the determinants of labor productivity. This study started out with the hypothesis that the adverse external business conditions that firms in poor Latin American countries face, may be an important explication of the generally low levels of productivity. However, the empirical results, based on the survey of more than 1300 businesses, do not confirm this hypothesis. Compared to all the variables that are under the firms control, such as capital intensity, energy use, and worker skills, the external business environment (macroeconomic instability and labor regulations) has very little impact on productivity.
    Description: El presente estudio analiza la hipótesis según la cual, las condiciones empresariales externas adversas a las que deben hacer frente las compañías en los países pobres de América Latina, podrían constituir una importante explicación de los generalmente bajos niveles de productividad de estos países. Sin embargo, resultados empíricos basados en una encuesta realizada a más de 1300 empresas en Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua, no confirma esta hipótesis. Comparadas con todas las variables bajo el control de las empresas, como lo son la intensidad del capital, el uso de la energía, y la calificación de los empleados, las condiciones económicas externas (inestabilidad macroeconómica y regulaciones laborales) ejercen muy poco impacto sobre la productividad.
    Keywords: O12 ; ddc:330 ; Labor productivity ; Ecuador ; Guatemala ; Honduras ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Las últimas dos décadas han visto mejoramientos sustanciales en la asistencia escolar de niñas en América Latina, hasta el punto que, en la mayoría de los países, más niñas que niños asisten a las escuelas. Sin embargo, Bolivia es una excepción, especialmente en áreas rurales donde la brecha educativa entre hombres y mujeres jóvenes todavía es significativa. El informe muestra que en 113 de los 314 municipios en Bolivia las niñas tienen menor acceso y/o permanencia en el sistema escolar que los niños, mientras que las niñas sólo tienen ventajes de acceso y/o permanencia en 2 municipios. En el resto de los municipios, los niños y las niñas tienen el mismo acceso y el mismo nivel de permanencia (medido a 15 años). La mayoría de los municipios con inequidades genéricas en contra de las niñas se encuentran en el altiplano en las zonas con mayor pobreza y mayor proporción de población Aymara. En términos absolutos, el problema de inasistencia de las niñas (y también de los niños) se concentra en cinco municipios grandes (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, La Paz, El Alto, Cochabamba y Sucre). En cuatro de estos cinco municipios hay problemas de desigualdad genérica en la permanencia escolar, sólo en el municipio de El Alto hay inequidad tanto en acceso como en permanencia.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Permanencia ; Acceso ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper makes detailed population and poverty projections that take into account expected demographic changes (in terms of fertility, mortality, migration, and education) as well as differentials in social mobility by household type. Such projections could be useful for a variety of purposes ranging from assessment of necessary social investments (education facilities, health facilities, pension systems, etc), projections of the size of the working age population who will demand jobs, targeting of poverty alleviation policies, projections of migration flows, to negotiations with external donors and creditors.
    Description: Este documento presenta proyecciones detalladas de población y pobreza que consideren los cambios demográficos y económicos esperados (esto último en términos de fecundidad, mortalidad, migración, educación y crecimiento del PIB) y sus reflejos en la movilidad económica por tipo de hogar. Las proyecciones de este tipo podrían ser útiles por una variedad de razones: desde la previsión de inversiones sociales necesarias (facilidades en educación y salud, sistema de pensiones, etc), las proyecciones del tamaño de la población en edad laboral en busca de empleo (por condición de pobreza y educación), la focalización de políticas de reducción de la pobreza, la proyección de flujos migratorios, hasta las negociaciones con donantes y acreedores externos.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Population projections ; poverty projections ; social mobility ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este documento presenta proyecciones detalladas de población y pobreza que consideren los cambios demográficos y económicos esperados (esto último en términos de fecundidad, mortalidad, migración, educación y crecimiento del PIB) y sus reflejos en la movilidad económica por tipo de hogar. Las proyecciones de este tipo podrían ser útiles por una variedad de razones: desde la previsión de inversiones sociales necesarias (facilidades en educación y salud, sistema de pensiones, etc), las proyecciones del tamaño de la población en edad laboral en busca de empleo (por condición de pobreza y educación), la focalización de políticas de reducción de la pobreza, la proyección de flujos migratorios, hasta las negociaciones con donantes y acreedores externos.
    Description: This paper makes detailed population and poverty projections that take into account expected demographic changes (in terms of fertility, mortality, migration, and education) as well as differentials in social mobility by household type. Such projections could be useful for a variety of purposes ranging from assessment of necessary social investments (education facilities, health facilities, pension systems, etc), projections of the size of the working age population who will demand jobs, targeting of poverty alleviation policies, projections of migration flows, to negotiations with external donors and creditors.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Proyecciones de población ; proyecciones de pobreza ; Movilidad social ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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