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  • Mice  (5,420)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (5,420)
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-16
    Description: Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, in developed nations is associated with changes to the microbial environment, such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization by an inflammatory Bacteroides species. Resistance to Bacteroides colonization was dependent on type 2 immunity, which promoted the establishment of a protective microbiota enriched in Clostridiales. Additionally, we show that individuals from helminth-endemic regions harbor a similar protective microbiota and that deworming treatment reduced levels of Clostridiales and increased Bacteroidales. These results support a model of the hygiene hypothesis in which certain individuals are genetically susceptible to the consequences of a changing microbial environment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ramanan, Deepshika -- Bowcutt, Rowann -- Lee, Soo Ching -- Tang, Mei San -- Kurtz, Zachary D -- Ding, Yi -- Honda, Kenya -- Gause, William C -- Blaser, Martin J -- Bonneau, Richard A -- Lim, Yvonne A L -- Loke, P'ng -- Cadwell, Ken -- AI007180/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI093811/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI107588/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DK090989/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK093668/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK103788/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL123340/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA016087/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000038/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR00038/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):608-12. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3229. Epub 2016 Apr 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ; Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS), Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)-Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 100-0004, Japan. ; Center for Immunity and Inflammation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA. ; Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA. Simons Center for Data Analysis, Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10011, USA. ; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my. ; Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my. ; Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080105" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteroides/*immunology ; Bacteroides Infections/*immunology ; Clostridiales/immunology ; Clostridium Infections/immunology ; Crohn Disease/*genetics/immunology ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*immunology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Hygiene Hypothesis ; Intestines/*immunology/microbiology/parasitology ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/*genetics ; Trichuriasis/*immunology ; Trichuris/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cohen, Jon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1186-7. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1186.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785474" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Caloric Restriction ; Death ; Humans ; Hydra/genetics/physiology ; Longevity/genetics/*physiology ; Mice ; Mutation ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics/physiology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodell, Margaret A -- Rando, Thomas A -- P01 AG036695/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG047820/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR062185/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 AG023806/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1199-204. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3388.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Center, Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, and Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. goodell@bcm.edu rando@stanford.edu. ; Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging and Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, and Center for Regenerative Rehabilitation, Veterans Administration Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. goodell@bcm.edu rando@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785478" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*physiology ; Aging/*physiology ; Animals ; Cell Aging ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Genetic Drift ; *Health ; Humans ; Mice ; Mutation ; Organ Specificity ; Selection, Genetic
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: In developing hearts, changes in the cardiac metabolic milieu during the perinatal period redirect mitochondrial substrate preference from carbohydrates to fatty acids. Mechanisms responsible for this mitochondrial plasticity are unknown. Here, we found that PINK1-Mfn2-Parkin-mediated mitophagy directs this metabolic transformation in mouse hearts. A mitofusin (Mfn) 2 mutant lacking PINK1 phosphorylation sites necessary for Parkin binding (Mfn2 AA) inhibited mitochondrial Parkin translocation, suppressing mitophagy without impairing mitochondrial fusion. Cardiac Parkin deletion or expression of Mfn2 AA from birth, but not after weaning, prevented postnatal mitochondrial maturation essential to survival. Five-week-old Mfn2 AA hearts retained a fetal mitochondrial transcriptional signature without normal increases in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis genes. Myocardial fatty acylcarnitine levels and cardiomyocyte respiration induced by palmitoylcarnitine were concordantly depressed. Thus, instead of transcriptional reprogramming, fetal cardiomyocyte mitochondria undergo perinatal Parkin-mediated mitophagy and replacement by mature adult mitochondria. Mitophagic mitochondrial removal underlies developmental cardiomyocyte mitochondrial plasticity and metabolic transitioning of perinatal hearts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747105/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747105/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gong, Guohua -- Song, Moshi -- Csordas, Gyorgy -- Kelly, Daniel P -- Matkovich, Scot J -- Dorn, Gerald W 2nd -- HL058493/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL108943/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL122124/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL128071/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL59888/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL058493/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL059888/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL108943/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL128071/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):aad2459. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2459. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ; Center for Metabolic Origins of Disease, Cardiovascular Metabolism Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, Orlando, FL, USA. ; Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. gdorn@dom.wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785495" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cellular Reprogramming ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/genetics/metabolism ; Heart/*embryology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Mitochondria, Heart/metabolism/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Mitochondrial Degradation/genetics/*physiology ; Mitochondrial Dynamics ; Myocardium/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics/*metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid. In humans and pigs lacking CFTR, unchecked H(+) secretion by the nongastric H(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATP12A) acidified airway surface liquid, which impaired airway host defenses. In contrast, mouse airways expressed little ATP12A and secreted minimal H(+); consequently, airway surface liquid in CF and non-CF mice had similar pH. Inhibiting ATP12A reversed host defense abnormalities in human and pig airways. Conversely, expressing ATP12A in CF mouse airways acidified airway surface liquid, impaired defenses, and increased airway bacteria. These findings help explain why CF mice are protected from infection and nominate ATP12A as a potential therapeutic target for CF.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shah, Viral S -- Meyerholz, David K -- Tang, Xiao Xiao -- Reznikov, Leah -- Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud -- Ernst, Sarah E -- Karp, Philip H -- Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L -- Heilmann, Kristopher P -- Leidinger, Mariah R -- Allen, Patrick D -- Zabner, Joseph -- McCray, Paul B Jr -- Ostedgaard, Lynda S -- Stoltz, David A -- Randak, Christoph O -- Welsh, Michael J -- 5T32GM007337/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- DK054759/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30 HL123239/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- F30HL123239/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL091842/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL117744/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL51670/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08HL097071/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):503-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5589.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Pappajohn Biomedical Institute, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Pappajohn Biomedical Institute, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Pappajohn Biomedical Institute, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823428" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; Bicarbonates/metabolism ; Cystic Fibrosis/*metabolism/*microbiology ; H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPase/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Lung/*metabolism/*microbiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred CFTR/genetics/metabolism ; Mice, Transgenic ; Swine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Several recent studies link parental environments to phenotypes in subsequent generations. In this work, we investigate the mechanism by which paternal diet affects offspring metabolism. Protein restriction in mice affects small RNA (sRNA) levels in mature sperm, with decreased let-7 levels and increased amounts of 5' fragments of glycine transfer RNAs (tRNAs). In testicular sperm, tRNA fragments are scarce but increase in abundance as sperm mature in the epididymis. Epididymosomes (vesicles that fuse with sperm during epididymal transit) carry RNA payloads matching those of mature sperm and can deliver RNAs to immature sperm in vitro. Functionally, tRNA-glycine-GCC fragments repress genes associated with the endogenous retroelement MERVL, in both embryonic stem cells and embryos. Our results shed light on sRNA biogenesis and its dietary regulation during posttesticular sperm maturation, and they also link tRNA fragments to regulation of endogenous retroelements active in the preimplantation embryo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sharma, Upasna -- Conine, Colin C -- Shea, Jeremy M -- Boskovic, Ana -- Derr, Alan G -- Bing, Xin Y -- Belleannee, Clemence -- Kucukural, Alper -- Serra, Ryan W -- Sun, Fengyun -- Song, Lina -- Carone, Benjamin R -- Ricci, Emiliano P -- Li, Xin Z -- Fauquier, Lucas -- Moore, Melissa J -- Sullivan, Robert -- Mello, Craig C -- Garber, Manuel -- Rando, Oliver J -- DP1ES025458/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- R01HD080224/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000161/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001453/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):391-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6780. Epub 2015 Dec 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction, Universite Laval, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec Research Center, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada. ; RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. oliver.rando@umassmed.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721685" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blastocyst/metabolism ; Diet, Protein-Restricted ; Epididymis/metabolism ; *Fertilization ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Male ; Mice ; MicroRNAs/metabolism ; RNA, Transfer, Gly/*metabolism/*physiology ; Retroelements/genetics ; *Sperm Maturation ; Spermatozoa/*metabolism ; Testis/metabolism
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: Differentiated macrophages can self-renew in tissues and expand long term in culture, but the gene regulatory mechanisms that accomplish self-renewal in the differentiated state have remained unknown. Here we show that in mice, the transcription factors MafB and c-Maf repress a macrophage-specific enhancer repertoire associated with a gene network that controls self-renewal. Single-cell analysis revealed that, in vivo, proliferating resident macrophages can access this network by transient down-regulation of Maf transcription factors. The network also controls embryonic stem cell self-renewal but is associated with distinct embryonic stem cell-specific enhancers. This indicates that distinct lineage-specific enhancer platforms regulate a shared network of genes that control self-renewal potential in both stem and mature cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Soucie, Erinn L -- Weng, Ziming -- Geirsdottir, Laufey -- Molawi, Kaaweh -- Maurizio, Julien -- Fenouil, Romain -- Mossadegh-Keller, Noushine -- Gimenez, Gregory -- VanHille, Laurent -- Beniazza, Meryam -- Favret, Jeremy -- Berruyer, Carole -- Perrin, Pierre -- Hacohen, Nir -- Andrau, J-C -- Ferrier, Pierre -- Dubreuil, Patrice -- Sidow, Arend -- Sieweke, Michael H -- P01AG036695/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):aad5510. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5510. Epub 2016 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Universite Aix-Marseille, UM2, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. INSERM, U1104, Marseille, France. CNRS, UMR 7280, Marseille, France. Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille, INSERM (U1068), CNRS (U7258), Universite Aix-Marseille (UM105), Marseille, France. sieweke@ciml.univ-mrs.fr erinn.soucie@inserm.fr arend@stanford.edu. ; Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5324, USA. ; Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Universite Aix-Marseille, UM2, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. INSERM, U1104, Marseille, France. CNRS, UMR 7280, Marseille, France. ; Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Universite Aix-Marseille, UM2, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. INSERM, U1104, Marseille, France. CNRS, UMR 7280, Marseille, France. Max-Delbruck-Centrum fur Molekulare Medizin in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, 10 Robert-Rossle-Strasse, 13125 Berlin, Germany. ; Broad Institute of Harvard University and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Universite Aix-Marseille, UM2, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. INSERM, U1104, Marseille, France. CNRS, UMR 7280, Marseille, France. Institut de Genetique Moleculaire de Montpellier, CNRS UMR 5535, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier, France. ; Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille, INSERM (U1068), CNRS (U7258), Universite Aix-Marseille (UM105), Marseille, France. ; Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5324, USA. Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. sieweke@ciml.univ-mrs.fr erinn.soucie@inserm.fr arend@stanford.edu. ; Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, Universite Aix-Marseille, UM2, Campus de Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France. INSERM, U1104, Marseille, France. CNRS, UMR 7280, Marseille, France. Max-Delbruck-Centrum fur Molekulare Medizin in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, 10 Robert-Rossle-Strasse, 13125 Berlin, Germany. sieweke@ciml.univ-mrs.fr erinn.soucie@inserm.fr arend@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797145" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation/*genetics ; Cell Lineage/*genetics ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Down-Regulation ; Embryonic Stem Cells/*cytology ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*physiology ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; Macrophages/*cytology ; MafB Transcription Factor/metabolism ; Mice ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf/metabolism ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Transcriptional Activation
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing holds clinical potential for treating genetic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To correct DMD by skipping mutant dystrophin exons in postnatal muscle tissue in vivo, we used adeno-associated virus-9 (AAV9) to deliver gene-editing components to postnatal mdx mice, a model of DMD. Different modes of AAV9 delivery were systematically tested, including intraperitoneal at postnatal day 1 (P1), intramuscular at P12, and retro-orbital at P18. Each of these methods restored dystrophin protein expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle to varying degrees, and expression increased from 3 to 12 weeks after injection. Postnatal gene editing also enhanced skeletal muscle function, as measured by grip strength tests 4 weeks after injection. This method provides a potential means of correcting mutations responsible for DMD and other monogenic disorders after birth.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Long, Chengzu -- Amoasii, Leonela -- Mireault, Alex A -- McAnally, John R -- Li, Hui -- Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain -- Bhattacharyya, Samadrita -- Shelton, John M -- Bassel-Duby, Rhonda -- Olson, Eric N -- DK-099653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL-077439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-093039/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-111665/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK099653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL077439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL093039/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL111665/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL100401/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01-HL-100401/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HD 087351/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):400-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5725. Epub 2015 Dec 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Sen. Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Sen. Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. eric.olson@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721683" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *CRISPR-Cas Systems ; Dependovirus ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dystrophin/*genetics ; Exons/genetics ; Female ; Forelimb/physiopathology ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Genome/genetics ; Hand Strength ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred mdx ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism ; Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics/*therapy ; Myocardium/metabolism
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Leslie, Mitch -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):21-3. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6281.21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034353" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology ; Infection/*immunology ; Inflammation/*immunology ; Lymph Nodes/cytology/*immunology ; Mice ; Pancreas/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/*immunology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tEVs) are important signals in tumor-host cell communication, yet it remains unclear how endogenously produced tEVs affect the host in different areas of the body. We combined imaging and genetic analysis to track melanoma-derived vesicles at organismal, cellular, and molecular scales to show that endogenous tEVs efficiently disseminate via lymphatics and preferentially bind subcapsular sinus (SCS) CD169(+) macrophages in tumor-draining lymph nodes (tdLNs) in mice and humans. The CD169(+) macrophage layer physically blocks tEV dissemination but is undermined during tumor progression and by therapeutic agents. A disrupted SCS macrophage barrier enables tEVs to enter the lymph node cortex, interact with B cells, and foster tumor-promoting humoral immunity. Thus, CD169(+) macrophages may act as tumor suppressors by containing tEV spread and ensuing cancer-enhancing immunity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pucci, Ferdinando -- Garris, Christopher -- Lai, Charles P -- Newton, Andita -- Pfirschke, Christina -- Engblom, Camilla -- Alvarez, David -- Sprachman, Melissa -- Evavold, Charles -- Magnuson, Angela -- von Andrian, Ulrich H -- Glatz, Katharina -- Breakefield, Xandra O -- Mempel, Thorsten R -- Weissleder, Ralph -- Pittet, Mikael J -- 1R01CA164448/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 1R33CA202064/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31-CA196035/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01-CA069246/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50-CA86355/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI097052/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01-AI084880/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01EB010011/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- R21-CA190344/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32CA79443/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U19 CA179563/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54-CA126515/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):242-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1328. Epub 2016 Mar 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Graduate Program in Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland. ; Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. ; Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. mpittet@mgh.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989197" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/*immunology/ultrastructure ; Cell Communication ; Extracellular Vesicles/*immunology ; Humans ; *Immune Tolerance ; Lymph Nodes/immunology ; Lymphatic Vessels/immunology ; Macrophages/chemistry/*immunology ; Melanoma/*immunology/pathology ; Melanoma, Experimental/immunology/pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1/analysis/immunology ; Skin Neoplasms/*immunology/pathology
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) haploinsufficiency is causative for the neurological features of Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMDS), including a high risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used unbiased, quantitative proteomics to identify changes in the phosphoproteome of Shank3-deficient neurons. Down-regulation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling resulted from enhanced phosphorylation and activation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit, B56beta, due to increased steady-state levels of its kinase, Cdc2-like kinase 2 (CLK2). Pharmacological and genetic activation of Akt or inhibition of CLK2 relieved synaptic deficits in Shank3-deficient and PMDS patient-derived neurons. CLK2 inhibition also restored normal sociability in a Shank3-deficient mouse model. Our study thereby provides a novel mechanistic and potentially therapeutic understanding of deregulated signaling downstream of Shank3 deficiency.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bidinosti, Michael -- Botta, Paolo -- Kruttner, Sebastian -- Proenca, Catia C -- Stoehr, Natacha -- Bernhard, Mario -- Fruh, Isabelle -- Mueller, Matthias -- Bonenfant, Debora -- Voshol, Hans -- Carbone, Walter -- Neal, Sarah J -- McTighe, Stephanie M -- Roma, Guglielmo -- Dolmetsch, Ricardo E -- Porter, Jeffrey A -- Caroni, Pico -- Bouwmeester, Tewis -- Luthi, Andreas -- Galimberti, Ivan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1199-203. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5487. Epub 2016 Feb 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Developmental Molecular Pathways, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. ; Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland. ; Analytical Sciences and Imaging, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. ; Neuroscience, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, USA. ; Developmental Molecular Pathways, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. ivan.galimberti@novartis.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26847545" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Autism Spectrum Disorder/*drug therapy/enzymology/genetics ; Chromosome Deletion ; Chromosome Disorders/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22/genetics ; Disease Models, Animal ; Down-Regulation ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Humans ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*genetics ; Neurons/enzymology ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Phosphatase 2/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Proteomics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics/metabolism ; Rats ; Signal Transduction ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Despite decades of study, there are still many unanswered questions about metastasis, the process by which a localized cancer becomes a systemic disease. One of these questions is the nature of the tumor cells that give rise to metastases. Although conventional models suggest that metastases are seeded by single cells from the primary tumor, there is growing evidence that seeding requires the collective action of tumor cells traveling together in clusters. Here, we review this evidence, which comes from analysis of both experimental models and patient samples. We present a model of metastatic dissemination that highlights the activities of clusters of tumor cells that retain and require their epithelial properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cheung, Kevin J -- Ewald, Andrew J -- P30 CA006973/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):167-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf6546.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Translational Research Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Departments of Cell Biology, Oncology, and Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 855 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. andrew.ewald@jhmi.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124449" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Epithelial Cells/pathology ; Humans ; Mice ; *Models, Biological ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*pathology ; Neoplasm Seeding ; Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology ; Neoplastic Cells, Circulating/*pathology
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The cortico-hippocampal circuit is critical for storage of associational memories. Most studies have focused on the role in memory storage of the excitatory projections from entorhinal cortex to hippocampus. However, entorhinal cortex also sends inhibitory projections, whose role in memory storage and cortico-hippocampal activity remains largely unexplored. We found that these long-range inhibitory projections enhance the specificity of contextual and object memory encoding. At the circuit level, these gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-releasing projections target hippocampal inhibitory neurons and thus act as a disinhibitory gate that transiently promotes the excitation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by suppressing feedforward inhibition. This enhances the ability of CA1 pyramidal neurons to fire synaptically evoked dendritic spikes and to generate a temporally precise form of heterosynaptic plasticity. Long-range inhibition from entorhinal cortex may thus increase the precision of hippocampal-based long-term memory associations by assessing the salience of mnemonormation to the immediate sensory input.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Basu, Jayeeta -- Zaremba, Jeffrey D -- Cheung, Stephanie K -- Hitti, Frederick L -- Zemelman, Boris V -- Losonczy, Attila -- Siegelbaum, Steven A -- 1R01MH100510/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- 1R01MH100631/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01NS036658/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):aaa5694. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5694.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Brain Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA. jayeeta.basu@nyumc.org sas8@columbia.edu. ; Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Brain Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744409" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CA1 Region, Hippocampal/*physiology ; CA3 Region, Hippocampal/physiology ; Dendrites/physiology ; Entorhinal Cortex/*physiology ; Evoked Potentials/physiology ; GABAergic Neurons/physiology ; Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials/*physiology ; Memory, Long-Term/*physiology ; Mice ; Neuronal Plasticity/*physiology ; Pyramidal Cells/physiology ; Synapses/physiology ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/physiology
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: The MYC oncogene codes for a transcription factor that is overexpressed in many human cancers. Here we show that MYC regulates the expression of two immune checkpoint proteins on the tumor cell surface: the innate immune regulator CD47 (cluster of differentiation 47) and the adaptive immune checkpoint PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1). Suppression of MYC in mouse tumors and human tumor cells caused a reduction in the levels of CD47 and PD-L1 messenger RNA and protein. MYC was found to bind directly to the promoters of the Cd47 and Pd-l1 genes. MYC inactivation in mouse tumors down-regulated CD47 and PD-L1 expression and enhanced the antitumor immune response. In contrast, when MYC was inactivated in tumors with enforced expression of CD47 or PD-L1, the immune response was suppressed, and tumors continued to grow. Thus, MYC appears to initiate and maintain tumorigenesis, in part, through the modulation of immune regulatory molecules.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Casey, Stephanie C -- Tong, Ling -- Li, Yulin -- Do, Rachel -- Walz, Susanne -- Fitzgerald, Kelly N -- Gouw, Arvin M -- Baylot, Virginie -- Gutgemann, Ines -- Eilers, Martin -- Felsher, Dean W -- 1F32CA177139/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5T32AI07290/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA 089305/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA 170378/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA 184384/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA 114747/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA 188383/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):227-31. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9935. Epub 2016 Mar 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, Core Unit Bioinformatics, Biocenter, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Division of Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. ; Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, Core Unit Bioinformatics, Biocenter, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany. Theodor Boveri Institute, Biocenter, University of Wurzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Division of Oncology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. dfelsher@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966191" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD274/*genetics ; Antigens, CD47/*genetics ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics/*immunology ; Down-Regulation ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Humans ; Immune Tolerance/*genetics ; Jurkat Cells ; Lymphoma/genetics/immunology ; Mice ; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics/immunology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics/*metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics
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  • 15
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cleary, Allison S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1174-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7103.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey PA 17078, USA. acleary@hmc.psu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785463" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Clone Cells/metabolism/pathology ; Female ; Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Mice ; Neoplasms, Basal Cell/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Wnt1 Protein/genetics/*metabolism ; ras Proteins/genetics/metabolism
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-02-27
    Description: Oocytes differentiate in diverse species by receiving organelles and cytoplasm from sister germ cells while joined in germline cysts or syncytia. Mouse primordial germ cells form germline cysts, but the role of cysts in oogenesis is unknown. We find that mouse germ cells receive organelles from neighboring cyst cells and build a Balbiani body to become oocytes, whereas nurselike germ cells die. Organelle movement, Balbiani body formation, and oocyte fate determination are selectively blocked by low levels of microtubule-dependent transport inhibitors. Membrane breakdown within the cyst and an apoptosis-like process are associated with organelle transfer into the oocyte, events reminiscent of nurse cell dumping in Drosophila We propose that cytoplasmic and organelle transport plays an evolutionarily conserved and functionally important role in mammalian oocyte differentiation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lei, Lei -- Spradling, Allan C -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):95-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2156. Epub 2016 Feb 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Laboratories, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 3520 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. spradling@ciwemb.edu leile@med.umich.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917595" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis ; Biological Evolution ; Cytoplasm/physiology/ultrastructure ; Female ; Giant Cells/*cytology ; Mice ; Microtubules/drug effects/physiology ; Oocytes/*cytology ; *Oogenesis ; Organelles/*physiology
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kupferschmidt, Kai -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1143. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1143.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965608" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acinetobacter/*growth & development ; Animals ; *Death ; Humans ; Mice ; Moraxellaceae/*growth & development ; Rhizobiaceae/*growth & development ; Time Factors
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: Mono-ubiquitination of Fancd2 is essential for repairing DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The Fan1 nuclease, also required for ICL repair, is recruited to ICLs by ubiquitinated (Ub) Fancd2. This could in principle explain how Ub-Fancd2 promotes ICL repair, but we show that recruitment of Fan1 by Ub-Fancd2 is dispensable for ICL repair. Instead, Fan1 recruitment--and activity--restrains DNA replication fork progression and prevents chromosome abnormalities from occurring when DNA replication forks stall, even in the absence of ICLs. Accordingly, Fan1 nuclease-defective knockin mice are cancer-prone. Moreover, we show that a Fan1 variant in high-risk pancreatic cancers abolishes recruitment by Ub-Fancd2 and causes genetic instability without affecting ICL repair. Therefore, Fan1 recruitment enables processing of stalled forks that is essential for genome stability and health.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770513/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770513/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lachaud, Christophe -- Moreno, Alberto -- Marchesi, Francesco -- Toth, Rachel -- Blow, J Julian -- Rouse, John -- WT096598MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):846-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5634. Epub 2016 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. ; Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. ; School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. ; Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. j.rouse@dundee.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797144" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; *Chromosome Aberrations ; DNA Repair ; *DNA Replication ; Endodeoxyribonucleases/genetics/*metabolism ; Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein/genetics/*metabolism ; Female ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genomic Instability/*genetics ; Liver Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; Lymphoma/genetics/pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pancreatic Neoplasms/*genetics ; *Ubiquitination
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: In most animal species, juvenile growth is marked by an exponential gain in body weight and size. Here we show that the microbiota of infant mice sustains both weight gain and longitudinal growth when mice are fed a standard laboratory mouse diet or a nutritionally depleted diet. We found that the intestinal microbiota interacts with the somatotropic hormone axis to drive systemic growth. Using monocolonized mouse models, we showed that selected lactobacilli promoted juvenile growth in a strain-dependent manner that recapitulated the microbiota's effect on growth and the somatotropic axis. These findings show that the host's microbiota supports juvenile growth. Moreover, we discovered that lactobacilli strains buffered the adverse effects of chronic undernutrition on the postnatal growth of germ-free mice.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schwarzer, Martin -- Makki, Kassem -- Storelli, Gilles -- Machuca-Gayet, Irma -- Srutkova, Dagmar -- Hermanova, Petra -- Martino, Maria Elena -- Balmand, Severine -- Hudcovic, Tomas -- Heddi, Abdelaziz -- Rieusset, Jennifer -- Kozakova, Hana -- Vidal, Hubert -- Leulier, Francois -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):854-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8588.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5242, 46 Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France. Laboratory of Gnotobiology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., Novy Hradek, Czech Republic. ; Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5242, 46 Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France. Laboratoire CarMeN, Universite Lyon 1, Unite Mixte de Recherche INSERM U-1060 et INRA U-1397, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Chemin du Grand Revoyet, 69600 Oullins, France. ; Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5242, 46 Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France. ; Laboratory of Gnotobiology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., Novy Hradek, Czech Republic. ; UMR203 BF2I, Biologie Fonctionnelle Insectes et Interactions, Universite de Lyon, INRA, INSA-Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France. ; Laboratoire CarMeN, Universite Lyon 1, Unite Mixte de Recherche INSERM U-1060 et INRA U-1397, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Chemin du Grand Revoyet, 69600 Oullins, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912894" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Body Weight/*physiology ; Diet ; Femur/growth & development ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*physiology ; Lactobacillus plantarum/*physiology ; Malnutrition/*microbiology/*physiopathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Weight Gain/*physiology
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Maintaining energy homeostasis is crucial for the survival and health of organisms. The brain regulates feeding by responding to dietary factors and metabolic signals from peripheral organs. It is unclear how the brain interprets these signals. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the posttranslational modification of proteins by O-GlcNAc and is regulated by nutrient access. Here, we show that acute deletion of OGT from alphaCaMKII-positive neurons in adult mice caused obesity from overeating. The hyperphagia derived from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, where loss of OGT was associated with impaired satiety. These results identify O-GlcNAcylation in alphaCaMKII neurons of the PVN as an important molecular mechanism that regulates feeding behavior.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4817221/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4817221/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lagerlof, Olof -- Slocomb, Julia E -- Hong, Ingie -- Aponte, Yeka -- Blackshaw, Seth -- Hart, Gerald W -- Huganir, Richard L -- N01-HV-00240/HV/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL107153/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01HL107153/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK061671/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS036715/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01DK6167/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01NS036715/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1293-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5494.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; National Institute on Drug Abuse + National Institutes of Health/Johns Hopkins University Graduate Partnership Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. ; Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Intramural Research Program, Neuronal Circuits and Behavior Unit, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. ; Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. rhuganir@jhmi.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989246" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylglucosamine/metabolism ; Animals ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/metabolism ; Energy Metabolism/genetics/*physiology ; Feeding Behavior/*physiology ; Gene Deletion ; Homeostasis/genetics ; Hyperphagia/*genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases/genetics/*physiology ; Neurons/enzymology ; Obesity/genetics ; Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/cytology/enzymology/*physiology ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Satiety Response/physiology
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: Tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells permanently localize to portals of pathogen entry, where they provide immediate protection against reinfection. To enforce tissue retention, Trm cells up-regulate CD69 and down-regulate molecules associated with tissue egress; however, a Trm-specific transcriptional regulator has not been identified. Here, we show that the transcription factor Hobit is specifically up-regulated in Trm cells and, together with related Blimp1, mediates the development of Trm cells in skin, gut, liver, and kidney in mice. The Hobit-Blimp1 transcriptional module is also required for other populations of tissue-resident lymphocytes, including natural killer T (NKT) cells and liver-resident NK cells, all of which share a common transcriptional program. Our results identify Hobit and Blimp1 as central regulators of this universal program that instructs tissue retention in diverse tissue-resident lymphocyte populations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mackay, Laura K -- Minnich, Martina -- Kragten, Natasja A M -- Liao, Yang -- Nota, Benjamin -- Seillet, Cyril -- Zaid, Ali -- Man, Kevin -- Preston, Simon -- Freestone, David -- Braun, Asolina -- Wynne-Jones, Erica -- Behr, Felix M -- Stark, Regina -- Pellicci, Daniel G -- Godfrey, Dale I -- Belz, Gabrielle T -- Pellegrini, Marc -- Gebhardt, Thomas -- Busslinger, Meinrad -- Shi, Wei -- Carbone, Francis R -- van Lier, Rene A W -- Kallies, Axel -- van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):459-63. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2035.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia. Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. lkmackay@unimelb.edu.au kallies@wehi.edu.au k.vangisbergen@sanquin.nl. ; Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP), Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Vienna, Austria. ; Department of Hematopoiesis, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center (AMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia. Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. ; Department of Blood Cell Research, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, AMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia. ; Department of Hematopoiesis, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center (AMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia. Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Department of Experimental Immunology, AMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia. Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. ; The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia. Department of Computing and Information Systems, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. ; The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia. Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. lkmackay@unimelb.edu.au kallies@wehi.edu.au k.vangisbergen@sanquin.nl. ; Department of Hematopoiesis, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center (AMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia. Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Department of Experimental Immunology, AMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands. lkmackay@unimelb.edu.au kallies@wehi.edu.au k.vangisbergen@sanquin.nl.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102484" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, Regulator/genetics/*physiology ; Immunologic Memory/*genetics ; Kidney/immunology ; Killer Cells, Natural/*immunology ; Liver/immunology ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Natural Killer T-Cells/*immunology ; Skin/immunology ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*physiology ; Transcription, Genetic ; Up-Regulation
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Genes encoding human beta-type globin undergo a developmental switch from embryonic to fetal to adult-type expression. Mutations in the adult form cause inherited hemoglobinopathies or globin disorders, including sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Some experimental results have suggested that these diseases could be treated by induction of fetal-type hemoglobin (HbF). However, the mechanisms that repress HbF in adults remain unclear. We found that the LRF/ZBTB7A transcription factor occupies fetal gamma-globin genes and maintains the nucleosome density necessary for gamma-globin gene silencing in adults, and that LRF confers its repressive activity through a NuRD repressor complex independent of the fetal globin repressor BCL11A. Our study may provide additional opportunities for therapeutic targeting in the treatment of hemoglobinopathies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4778394/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4778394/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Masuda, Takeshi -- Wang, Xin -- Maeda, Manami -- Canver, Matthew C -- Sher, Falak -- Funnell, Alister P W -- Fisher, Chris -- Suciu, Maria -- Martyn, Gabriella E -- Norton, Laura J -- Zhu, Catherine -- Kurita, Ryo -- Nakamura, Yukio -- Xu, Jian -- Higgs, Douglas R -- Crossley, Merlin -- Bauer, Daniel E -- Orkin, Stuart H -- Kharchenko, Peter V -- Maeda, Takahiro -- R01 AI084905/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL032259/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R56 DK105001/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):285-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3312.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. ; Medical Research Council, Molecular Haematology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, UK. ; Cell Engineering Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. ; Cell Engineering Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. peter.kharchenko@post.harvard.edu tmaeda@partners.org. ; Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. peter.kharchenko@post.harvard.edu tmaeda@partners.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816381" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics ; Animals ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Erythroblasts/cytology ; Erythropoiesis/genetics ; Fetal Hemoglobin/*genetics ; *Gene Silencing ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Repressor Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Sequence Deletion ; Thalassemia/genetics ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; gamma-Globins/*genetics
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: Wakefulness is driven by the widespread release of neuromodulators by the ascending arousal system. Yet, it is unclear how these substances orchestrate state-dependent, global changes in neuronal activity. Here, we show that neuromodulators induce increases in the extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)]e) in cortical slices electrically silenced by tetrodotoxin. In vivo, arousal was linked to AMPA receptor-independent elevations of [K(+)]e concomitant with decreases in [Ca(2+)]e, [Mg(2+)]e, [H(+)]e, and the extracellular volume. Opposite, natural sleep and anesthesia reduced [K(+)]e while increasing [Ca(2+)]e, [Mg(2+)]e, and [H(+)]e as well as the extracellular volume. Local cortical activity of sleeping mice could be readily converted to the stereotypical electroencephalography pattern of wakefulness by simply imposing a change in the extracellular ion composition. Thus, extracellular ions control the state-dependent patterns of neural activity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ding, Fengfei -- O'Donnell, John -- Xu, Qiwu -- Kang, Ning -- Goldman, Nanna -- Nedergaard, Maiken -- NS078167/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS078304/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):550-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4821.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. ; Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. ; Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Center for Basic and Translational Neuroscience, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark. nedergaard@urmc.rochester.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126038" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/analysis/metabolism ; Cations/analysis/*metabolism ; Cerebral Cortex/chemistry/drug effects/*physiology ; Electroencephalography ; Magnesium/analysis/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neurons/drug effects/metabolism/physiology ; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism/pharmacology ; Potassium/*metabolism ; Receptors, AMPA/metabolism ; Sleep/drug effects/*physiology ; Sodium Channel Blockers/pharmacology ; Tetrodotoxin/pharmacology ; Wakefulness/drug effects/*physiology
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Frame-disrupting mutations in the DMD gene, encoding dystrophin, compromise myofiber integrity and drive muscle deterioration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Removing one or more exons from the mutated transcript can produce an in-frame mRNA and a truncated, but still functional, protein. In this study, we developed and tested a direct gene-editing approach to induce exon deletion and recover dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Delivery by adeno-associated virus (AAV) of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 endonucleases coupled with paired guide RNAs flanking the mutated Dmd exon23 resulted in excision of intervening DNA and restored the Dmd reading frame in myofibers, cardiomyocytes, and muscle stem cells after local or systemic delivery. AAV-Dmd CRISPR treatment partially recovered muscle functional deficiencies and generated a pool of endogenously corrected myogenic precursors in mdx mouse muscle.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tabebordbar, Mohammadsharif -- Zhu, Kexian -- Cheng, Jason K W -- Chew, Wei Leong -- Widrick, Jeffrey J -- Yan, Winston X -- Maesner, Claire -- Wu, Elizabeth Y -- Xiao, Ru -- Ran, F Ann -- Cong, Le -- Zhang, Feng -- Vandenberghe, Luk H -- Church, George M -- Wagers, Amy J -- 1DP2OD004345/OD/NIH HHS/ -- 5DP1-MH100706/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- 5PN2EY018244/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- 5R01DK097768-03/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- 5U01HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P50 HG005550/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T2GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):407-11. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5177. Epub 2015 Dec 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, and Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, and Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, and Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Biological and Biomedical Sciences Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Division of Genetics and Program in Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, and Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Grousbeck Gene Therapy Center, Schepens Eye Research Institute, and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 20 Staniford Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, and Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. amy_wagers@harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721686" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CRISPR-Cas Systems ; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats ; Dependovirus ; Disease Models, Animal ; Exons ; Frameshift Mutation ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred mdx ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism ; Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics/*therapy ; Myocardium/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle/*metabolism ; Sequence Deletion ; Transduction, Genetic/*methods
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Muscle contraction depends on release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and reuptake by the Ca(2+)adenosine triphosphatase SERCA. We discovered a putative muscle-specific long noncoding RNA that encodes a peptide of 34 amino acids and that we named dwarf open reading frame (DWORF). DWORF localizes to the SR membrane, where it enhances SERCA activity by displacing the SERCA inhibitors, phospholamban, sarcolipin, and myoregulin. In mice, overexpression of DWORF in cardiomyocytes increases peak Ca(2+) transient amplitude and SR Ca(2+) load while reducing the time constant of cytosolic Ca(2+) decay during each cycle of contraction-relaxation. Conversely, slow skeletal muscle lacking DWORF exhibits delayed Ca(2+) clearance and relaxation and reduced SERCA activity. DWORF is the only endogenous peptide known to activate the SERCA pump by physical interaction and provides a means for enhancing muscle contractility.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Benjamin R -- Makarewich, Catherine A -- Anderson, Douglas M -- Winders, Benjamin R -- Troupes, Constantine D -- Wu, Fenfen -- Reese, Austin L -- McAnally, John R -- Chen, Xiongwen -- Kavalali, Ege T -- Cannon, Stephen C -- Houser, Steven R -- Bassel-Duby, Rhonda -- Olson, Eric N -- AR-063182/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- DK-099653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30AR 067094/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- HL-077439,/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-093039/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-111665/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR063182/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01-HL-100401/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):271-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4076.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Physiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. Department of Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. ; Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. eric.olson@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816378" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Muscle Contraction ; Muscle Proteins/metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal/*metabolism ; Myocardial Contraction ; Myocytes, Cardiac/*metabolism ; Peptides/genetics/*metabolism ; Proteolipids/metabolism ; RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics/metabolism ; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism ; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Postnatal colonization of the body with microbes is assumed to be the main stimulus to postnatal immune development. By transiently colonizing pregnant female mice, we show that the maternal microbiota shapes the immune system of the offspring. Gestational colonization increases intestinal group 3 innate lymphoid cells and F4/80(+)CD11c(+) mononuclear cells in the pups. Maternal colonization reprograms intestinal transcriptional profiles of the offspring, including increased expression of genes encoding epithelial antibacterial peptides and metabolism of microbial molecules. Some of these effects are dependent on maternal antibodies that potentially retain microbial molecules and transmit them to the offspring during pregnancy and in milk. Pups born to mothers transiently colonized in pregnancy are better able to avoid inflammatory responses to microbial molecules and penetration of intestinal microbes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gomez de Aguero, Mercedes -- Ganal-Vonarburg, Stephanie C -- Fuhrer, Tobias -- Rupp, Sandra -- Uchimura, Yasuhiro -- Li, Hai -- Steinert, Anna -- Heikenwalder, Mathias -- Hapfelmeier, Siegfried -- Sauer, Uwe -- McCoy, Kathy D -- Macpherson, Andrew J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1296-302. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2571.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Maurice Muller Laboratories (DKF), Universitatsklinik fur Viszerale Chirurgie und Medizin Inselspital, Murtenstrasse 35, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland. ; Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Division of Chronic Inflammation and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. ; Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland. ; Maurice Muller Laboratories (DKF), Universitatsklinik fur Viszerale Chirurgie und Medizin Inselspital, Murtenstrasse 35, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland. andrew.macpherson@insel.ch.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989247" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies/immunology ; Escherichia coli/immunology ; Female ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*immunology ; Germ-Free Life ; Immune System/*growth & development/*microbiology ; Immunity, Innate/genetics/*immunology ; Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/genetics/*immunology ; Intestines/*immunology ; Lymphocytes/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Pregnancy ; Symbiosis ; Transcription, Genetic
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease affecting about 1 out of 5000 male births and caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Genome editing has the potential to restore expression of a modified dystrophin gene from the native locus to modulate disease progression. In this study, adeno-associated virus was used to deliver the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system to the mdx mouse model of DMD to remove the mutated exon 23 from the dystrophin gene. This includes local and systemic delivery to adult mice and systemic delivery to neonatal mice. Exon 23 deletion by CRISPR-Cas9 resulted in expression of the modified dystrophin gene, partial recovery of functional dystrophin protein in skeletal myofibers and cardiac muscle, improvement of muscle biochemistry, and significant enhancement of muscle force. This work establishes CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing as a potential therapy to treat DMD.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Christopher E -- Hakim, Chady H -- Ousterout, David G -- Thakore, Pratiksha I -- Moreb, Eirik A -- Castellanos Rivera, Ruth M -- Madhavan, Sarina -- Pan, Xiufang -- Ran, F Ann -- Yan, Winston X -- Asokan, Aravind -- Zhang, Feng -- Duan, Dongsheng -- Gersbach, Charles A -- DP1-MH100706/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- DP2-OD008586/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P01HL112761/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01DK097768/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01HL089221/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01NS90634/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):403-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5143. Epub 2015 Dec 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. ; Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA. ; Gene Therapy Center, Departments of Genetics, Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. Society of Fellows, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. Graduate Program in Biophysics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA. Department of Neurology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. charles.gersbach@duke.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721684" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *CRISPR-Cas Systems ; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats ; Dependovirus ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dystrophin/*genetics ; Exons/*genetics ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred mdx ; Muscle, Skeletal/*metabolism ; Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics/*therapy ; Sequence Deletion
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: Recent studies in human populations and mouse models reveal notable congruences in gut microbial taxa whose abundances are partly regulated by host genotype. Host genes associating with these taxa are related to diet sensing, metabolism, and immunity. These broad patterns are further validated in similar studies of nonmammalian microbiomes. The next generation of genome-wide association studies will expand the size of the data sets and refine the microbial phenotypes to fully capture these intriguing signatures of host-microbiome coevolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodrich, Julia K -- Davenport, Emily R -- Waters, Jillian L -- Clark, Andrew G -- Ley, Ruth E -- R01 DK093595/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):532-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9379.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA. Department of Microbiome Science, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tubingen, Germany. ; Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA. Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca NY, USA. Department of Microbiome Science, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tubingen, Germany. rel222@cornell.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126034" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteria/*classification/genetics ; Diet ; *Genome-Wide Association Study ; Genotype ; Humans ; Mice ; Microbiota/genetics/*physiology ; Phenotype ; *Quantitative Trait Loci ; Species Specificity
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-04-16
    Description: Drug resistance compromises control of malaria. Here, we show that resistance to a commonly used antimalarial medication, atovaquone, is apparently unable to spread. Atovaquone pressure selects parasites with mutations in cytochrome b, a respiratory protein with low but essential activity in the mammalian blood phase of the parasite life cycle. Resistance mutations rescue parasites from the drug but later prove lethal in the mosquito phase, where parasites require full respiration. Unable to respire efficiently, resistant parasites fail to complete mosquito development, arresting their life cycle. Because cytochrome b is encoded by the maternally inherited parasite mitochondrion, even outcrossing with wild-type strains cannot facilitate spread of resistance. Lack of transmission suggests that resistance will be unable to spread in the field, greatly enhancing the utility of atovaquone in malaria control.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodman, Christopher D -- Siregar, Josephine E -- Mollard, Vanessa -- Vega-Rodriguez, Joel -- Syafruddin, Din -- Matsuoka, Hiroyuki -- Matsuzaki, Motomichi -- Toyama, Tomoko -- Sturm, Angelika -- Cozijnsen, Anton -- Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo -- Kita, Kiyoshi -- Marzuki, Sangkot -- McFadden, Geoffrey I -- AI031478/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR00052/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 15;352(6283):349-53. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9279.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. gim@unimelb.edu.au deang@unimelb.edu.au. ; School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, JI Diponegoro no. 69, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia. Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. ; School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. ; Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Malaria Research Institute, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, JI Diponegoro no. 69, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia. Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan Km10, Makassar 90245, Indonesia. ; Division of Medical Zoology, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan. ; Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. ; Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. ; Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, JI Diponegoro no. 69, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27081071" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anopheles/*parasitology ; Antimalarials/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Atovaquone/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Cell Line ; Cytochromes b/*genetics ; Drug Resistance/*genetics ; Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Humans ; Life Cycle Stages/drug effects/genetics ; Malaria/drug therapy/*parasitology/transmission ; Male ; Mice ; Mitochondria/*genetics ; Mutation ; Plasmodium berghei/*drug effects/genetics/growth & development ; Selection, Genetic
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: Infection elicits CD4(+) memory T lymphocytes that participate in protective immunity. Although memory cells are the progeny of naive T cells, it is unclear that all naive cells from a polyclonal repertoire have memory cell potential. Using a single-cell adoptive transfer and spleen biopsy method, we found that in mice, essentially all microbe-specific naive cells produced memory cells during infection. Different clonal memory cell populations had different B cell or macrophage helper compositions that matched effector cell populations generated much earlier in the response. Thus, each microbe-specific naive CD4(+) T cell produces a distinctive ratio of effector cell types early in the immune response that is maintained as some cells in the clonal population become memory cells.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776317/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776317/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tubo, Noah J -- Fife, Brian T -- Pagan, Antonio J -- Kotov, Dmitri I -- Goldberg, Michael F -- Jenkins, Marc K -- F32 AI107995/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI039614/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI106791/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007062/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):511-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0483.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Immune Mediated Disease Therapy Group, Genzyme, a Sanofi Company, Framingham, MA 01701, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. ; Department of Medicine, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. jenki002@umn.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823430" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Bacterial Toxins/immunology ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology/*microbiology ; Clone Cells/immunology ; Heat-Shock Proteins/immunology ; Hemolysin Proteins/immunology ; *Immunologic Memory ; Listeria monocytogenes/*immunology ; Listeriosis/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Receptors, CXCR5/genetics/immunology ; Single-Cell Analysis
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  • 31
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tuting, Thomas -- de Visser, Karin E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):145-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf7300.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany. ; Division of Immunology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands. k.d.visser@nki.nl.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124439" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bystander Effect ; Humans ; Immunotherapy/methods ; Leukocyte Count ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*immunology/*therapy ; Neoplasms, Experimental/immunology/pathology/therapy ; Neutrophils/*immunology/*pathology
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  • 32
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Underwood, Emily -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):799-800. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6275.799.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912871" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; Brain Mapping/economics/*methods ; DNA/*analysis ; Financing, Organized ; Fluorescence ; Mice ; Nerve Net/physiology ; Neurons/*chemistry ; Neurosciences/economics/trends ; RNA/*analysis ; Synapses/*physiology
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: Astrocytes are specialized and heterogeneous cells that contribute to central nervous system function and homeostasis. However, the mechanisms that create and maintain differences among astrocytes and allow them to fulfill particular physiological roles remain poorly defined. We reveal that neurons actively determine the features of astrocytes in the healthy adult brain and define a role for neuron-derived sonic hedgehog (Shh) in regulating the molecular and functional profile of astrocytes. Thus, the molecular and physiological program of astrocytes is not hardwired during development but, rather, depends on cues from neurons that drive and sustain their specialized properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Farmer, W Todd -- Abrahamsson, Therese -- Chierzi, Sabrina -- Lui, Christopher -- Zaelzer, Cristian -- Jones, Emma V -- Bally, Blandine Ponroy -- Chen, Gary G -- Theroux, Jean-Francois -- Peng, Jimmy -- Bourque, Charles W -- Charron, Frederic -- Ernst, Carl -- Sjostrom, P Jesper -- Murai, Keith K -- FDN 143337/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP 111152/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP 123390/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP 126137/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- NIA 288936/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):849-54. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3103.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Research in Neuroscience, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Repair and Integrative Neuroscience Program, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. McGill Group for Suicide Studies, Douglas Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ; Molecular Biology of Neural Development, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. McGill Group for Suicide Studies, Douglas Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Douglas Hospital Research Institute, Verdun, Quebec, Canada. ; Centre for Research in Neuroscience, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Repair and Integrative Neuroscience Program, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. keith.murai@mcgill.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912893" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/*metabolism ; Cerebellar Cortex/*cytology ; Female ; Gene Deletion ; Hedgehog Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Steroids regulate cell proliferation, tissue development, and cell signaling via two pathways: a nuclear receptor mechanism and genome-independent signaling. Sperm activation, egg maturation, and steroid-induced anesthesia are executed via the latter pathway, the key components of which remain unknown. Here, we present characterization of the human sperm progesterone receptor that is conveyed by the orphan enzyme alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 2 (ABHD2). We show that ABHD2 is highly expressed in spermatozoa, binds progesterone, and acts as a progesterone-dependent lipid hydrolase by depleting the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) from plasma membrane. The 2AG inhibits the sperm calcium channel (CatSper), and its removal leads to calcium influx via CatSper and ensures sperm activation. This study reveals that progesterone-activated endocannabinoid depletion by ABHD2 is a general mechanism by which progesterone exerts its genome-independent action and primes sperm for fertilization.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Miller, Melissa R -- Mannowetz, Nadja -- Iavarone, Anthony T -- Safavi, Rojin -- Gracheva, Elena O -- Smith, James F -- Hill, Rose Z -- Bautista, Diana M -- Kirichok, Yuriy -- Lishko, Polina V -- 1S10OD020062-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR059385/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AR059385/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM111802/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HD068914/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R21HD081403/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- S10RR025622/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):555-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6887. Epub 2016 Mar 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; QB3/Chemistry Mass Spectrometry Facility, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology; Department of Neuroscience, Program in Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration, and Repair (CNNR), Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06536, USA. ; Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. ; Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. lishko@berkeley.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989199" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Arachidonic Acids/*deficiency ; Calcium/metabolism ; Calcium Channels/metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Endocannabinoids/*deficiency ; Fertilization ; Glycerides/*deficiency ; Humans ; Hydrolases/genetics/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Progesterone/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Rats ; Rats, Wistar ; Receptors, Progesterone/genetics/*metabolism ; Sperm Motility/drug effects/*physiology ; Spermatozoa/drug effects/metabolism/*physiology ; Young Adult
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: Progression through the stages of lymphocyte development requires coordination of the cell cycle. Such coordination ensures genomic integrity while cells somatically rearrange their antigen receptor genes [in a process called variable-diversity-joining (VDJ) recombination] and, upon successful rearrangement, expands the pools of progenitor lymphocytes. Here we show that in developing B lymphocytes, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 are critical for maintaining quiescence before precursor B cell receptor (pre-BCR) expression and for reestablishing quiescence after pre-BCR-induced expansion. These RBPs suppress an evolutionarily conserved posttranscriptional regulon consisting of messenger RNAs whose protein products cooperatively promote transition into the S phase of the cell cycle. This mechanism promotes VDJ recombination and effective selection of cells expressing immunoglobulin-mu at the pre-BCR checkpoint.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Galloway, Alison -- Saveliev, Alexander -- Lukasiak, Sebastian -- Hodson, Daniel J -- Bolland, Daniel -- Balmanno, Kathryn -- Ahlfors, Helena -- Monzon-Casanova, Elisa -- Mannurita, Sara Ciullini -- Bell, Lewis S -- Andrews, Simon -- Diaz-Munoz, Manuel D -- Cook, Simon J -- Corcoran, Anne -- Turner, Martin -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):453-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5978.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK. ; Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK. Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, The Clifford Allbutt Building, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0AH, UK. ; Laboratory of Nuclear Dynamics, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK. ; Laboratory of Signalling, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK. ; Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK. Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QW, UK. ; Bioinformatics Group, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB22 3AT, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102483" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/*cytology ; Conserved Sequence ; Cyclins/metabolism ; G0 Phase/genetics/physiology ; G1 Phase/genetics/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Immunoglobulin mu-Chains/genetics ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Pre-B Cell Receptors ; RNA, Messenger/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; S Phase/genetics/*physiology ; Selection, Genetic ; Transcription, Genetic ; Tristetraprolin/genetics/*physiology ; V(D)J Recombination
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: Influenza A virus (IAV) causes up to half a million deaths worldwide annually, 90% of which occur in older adults. We show that IAV-infected monocytes from older humans have impaired antiviral interferon production but retain intact inflammasome responses. To understand the in vivo consequence, we used mice expressing a functional Mx gene encoding a major interferon-induced effector against IAV in humans. In Mx1-intact mice with weakened resistance due to deficiencies in Mavs and Tlr7, we found an elevated respiratory bacterial burden. Notably, mortality in the absence of Mavs and Tlr7 was independent of viral load or MyD88-dependent signaling but dependent on bacterial burden, caspase-1/11, and neutrophil-dependent tissue damage. Therefore, in the context of weakened antiviral resistance, vulnerability to IAV disease is a function of caspase-dependent pathology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pillai, Padmini S -- Molony, Ryan D -- Martinod, Kimberly -- Dong, Huiping -- Pang, Iris K -- Tal, Michal C -- Solis, Angel G -- Bielecki, Piotr -- Mohanty, Subhasis -- Trentalange, Mark -- Homer, Robert J -- Flavell, Richard A -- Wagner, Denisa D -- Montgomery, Ruth R -- Shaw, Albert C -- Staeheli, Peter -- Iwasaki, Akiko -- 5T32HL066987-13/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- AI062428/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI064705/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI081884/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F31 AG039163/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272201100019C/PHS HHS/ -- K24 AG02489/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- K24 AG042489/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01 AI500031/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AG21342/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01HL102101/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL125501/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007019-36/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007019-38/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI055403/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):463-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3926.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Institute of Virology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 11, 79104 Freiburg, Germany. ; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. akiko.iwasaki@yale.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102485" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics/metabolism ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Bacterial Infections/etiology/*immunology ; Caspase 1/metabolism ; Caspases/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/genetics/*immunology ; Influenza A virus/*immunology ; Influenza, Human/complications/*immunology ; Interferon-beta/immunology ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Monocytes/immunology ; Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Neutrophils/immunology ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*immunology ; Respiratory Tract Infections/*immunology/microbiology ; Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics/metabolism ; Viral Load ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: The intestinal epithelium forms an essential barrier between a host and its microbiota. Protozoa and helminths are members of the gut microbiota of mammals, including humans, yet the many ways that gut epithelial cells orchestrate responses to these eukaryotes remain unclear. Here we show that tuft cells, which are taste-chemosensory epithelial cells, accumulate during parasite colonization and infection. Disruption of chemosensory signaling through the loss of TRMP5 abrogates the expansion of tuft cells, goblet cells, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells during parasite colonization. Tuft cells are the primary source of the parasite-induced cytokine interleukin-25, which indirectly induces tuft cell expansion by promoting interleukin-13 production by innate lymphoid cells. Our results identify intestinal tuft cells as critical sentinels in the gut epithelium that promote type 2 immunity in response to intestinal parasites.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Howitt, Michael R -- Lavoie, Sydney -- Michaud, Monia -- Blum, Arthur M -- Tran, Sara V -- Weinstock, Joel V -- Gallini, Carey Ann -- Redding, Kevin -- Margolskee, Robert F -- Osborne, Lisa C -- Artis, David -- Garrett, Wendy S -- F31DK105653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F32DK098826/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA154426/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM099531/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1329-33. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1648. Epub 2016 Feb 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Immunology and Infectious Diseases and Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Division of Gastroenterology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA. ; Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Jill Roberts Institute for Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA. ; Departments of Immunology and Infectious Diseases and Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. wgarrett@hsph.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26847546" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chemoreceptor Cells/*immunology ; Eosinophils/immunology ; Goblet Cells/immunology ; Helminthiasis/immunology/parasitology ; Helminths/immunology ; Immunity, Mucosal ; Interleukin-13/immunology ; Interleukin-17/immunology ; Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/*immunology/parasitology ; Intestinal Mucosa/*immunology/*parasitology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/immunology ; Protozoan Infections/immunology/parasitology ; Signal Transduction ; TRPM Cation Channels/*immunology ; Taste ; Transducin/genetics/immunology ; Tritrichomonas/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: In response to growth signals, mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates anabolic processes underlying cell growth. We found that mTORC1 increases metabolic flux through the de novo purine synthesis pathway in various mouse and human cells, thereby influencing the nucleotide pool available for nucleic acid synthesis. mTORC1 had transcriptional effects on multiple enzymes contributing to purine synthesis, with expression of the mitochondrial tetrahydrofolate (mTHF) cycle enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 2 (MTHFD2) being closely associated with mTORC1 signaling in both normal and cancer cells. MTHFD2 expression and purine synthesis were stimulated by activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), which was activated by mTORC1 independent of its canonical induction downstream of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha eIF2alpha phosphorylation. Thus, mTORC1 stimulates the mTHF cycle, which contributes one-carbon units to enhance production of purine nucleotides in response to growth signals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ben-Sahra, Issam -- Hoxhaj, Gerta -- Ricoult, Stephane J H -- Asara, John M -- Manning, Brendan D -- K99-CA194192/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01-CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA006516/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA181390/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA181390/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R35 CA197459/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R35-CA197459/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):728-33. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0489.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Division of Signal Transduction, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. bmanning@hsph.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912861" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Activating Transcription Factor 4/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Methenyltetrahydrofolate Cyclohydrolase/genetics ; Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP)/genetics ; Mice ; Mitochondria/*metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Purines/*biosynthesis ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*metabolism ; Tetrahydrofolates/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
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