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  • Mice  (189)
  • 1995-1999  (189)
  • 1999  (189)
  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2168.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890820" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Asthma/*immunology/physiopathology ; Bronchoconstriction ; Eosinophils/immunology ; Goblet Cells/immunology ; Humans ; Interleukin-13/pharmacology/*physiology ; Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit ; Interleukin-4/pharmacology/physiology ; Lung/immunology/physiopathology ; Mice ; Receptors, Interleukin/metabolism ; Receptors, Interleukin-13 ; Receptors, Interleukin-4/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Th2 Cells/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-08-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 16;285(5426):310-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10438289" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies/immunology ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/*immunology ; Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects/*immunology ; Graft vs Host Disease/*prevention & control ; Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology ; Humans ; Mice ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 14;284(5417):1097-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10366336" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Fertilization in Vitro ; *Gene Transfer Techniques ; Green Fluorescent Proteins ; Luminescent Proteins/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Microinjections ; Sperm Head/*physiology ; *Transgenes
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lawler, C -- Erbisch, F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jan 1;283(5398):33-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9917260" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biotechnology ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; *Patents as Topic ; Plants, Genetically Modified/*genetics ; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1999-09-18
    Description: Antithrombin, a member of the serpin family, functions as an inhibitor of thrombin and other enzymes. Cleavage of the carboxyl-terminal loop of antithrombin induces a conformational change in the molecule. Here it is shown that the cleaved conformation of antithrombin has potent antiangiogenic and antitumor activity in mouse models. The latent form of intact antithrombin, which is similar in conformation to the cleaved molecule, also inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. These data provide further evidence that the clotting and fibrinolytic pathways are directly involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Reilly, M S -- Pirie-Shepherd, S -- Lane, W S -- Folkman, J -- P01-CA45548/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA64481/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 17;285(5435):1926-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital, Departments of Surgery and Cellular Biology, Harvard Microchemistry Facility, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. oreilly@hub.tch.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10489375" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry/isolation & purification/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Antithrombins/chemistry/isolation & purification/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Carcinoma, Small Cell/blood supply/drug therapy ; Cell Line ; Culture Media, Conditioned ; Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/blood supply/drug therapy ; Mice ; Mice, SCID ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Neovascularization, Pathologic/*drug therapy ; Peptide Fragments/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Helmuth, L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 20;285(5431):1190-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484726" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Estradiol/*pharmacology/toxicity ; *Genetic Variation ; Humans ; Litter Size ; Male ; Maximum Allowable Concentration ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred Strains ; Species Specificity ; Spermatogenesis/*drug effects ; Testis/*drug effects ; *Toxicity Tests
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1999-11-13
    Description: The p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), also called Erk2 and Erk1, respectively, have been implicated in proliferation as well as in differentiation programs. The specific role of the p44 MAPK isoform in the whole animal was evaluated by generation of p44 MAPK-deficient mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. The p44 MAPK-/- mice were viable, fertile, and of normal size. Thus, p44 MAPK is apparently dispensable and p42 MAPK (Erk2) may compensate for its loss. However, in p44 MAPK-/- mice, thymocyte maturation beyond the CD4+CD8+ stage was reduced by half, with a similar diminution in the thymocyte subpopulation expressing high levels of T cell receptor (CD3high). In p44 MAPK-/- thymocytes, proliferation in response to activation with a monoclonal antibody to the T cell receptor in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate was severely reduced even though activation of p42 MAPK was more sustained in these cells. The p44 MAPK apparently has a specific role in thymocyte development.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pages, G -- Guerin, S -- Grall, D -- Bonino, F -- Smith, A -- Anjuere, F -- Auberger, P -- Pouyssegur, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 12;286(5443):1374-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Signaling, Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, CNRS UMR 6543, Centre A. Lacassagne, 33 Avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice, France. gpages@unice.fr〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10558995" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal ; Antigens, CD/analysis ; Antigens, CD3/immunology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Division ; Cells, Cultured ; DNA/biosynthesis ; Enzyme Activation ; Gene Targeting ; Isoenzymes/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/analysis/physiology ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/*cytology/enzymology/immunology ; Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology ; Thymus Gland/*cytology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1999-12-03
    Description: Linker proteins function as molecular scaffolds to localize enzymes with substrates. In B cells, B cell linker protein (BLNK) links the B cell receptor (BCR)-activated Syk kinase to the phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated kinase pathways. To examine the in vivo role of BLNK, mice deficient in BLNK were generated. B cell development in BLNK-/- mice was blocked at the transition from B220+CD43+ progenitor B to B220+CD43- precursor B cells. Only a small percentage of immunoglobulin M++ (IgM++), but not mature IgMloIgDhi, B cells were detected in the periphery. Hence, BLNK is an essential component of BCR signaling pathways and is required to promote B cell development.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pappu, R -- Cheng, A M -- Li, B -- Gong, Q -- Chiu, C -- Griffin, N -- White, M -- Sleckman, B P -- Chan, A C -- AI42787/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA71516/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 3;286(5446):1949-54.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Immunology, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10583957" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing ; Aging ; Animals ; B-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology/immunology ; B-Lymphocytes/*cytology/immunology/*metabolism ; Bone Marrow Cells/cytology/immunology ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Cell Count ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Separation ; Cell Size ; Flow Cytometry ; Gene Targeting ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Immunoglobulin M/analysis ; Leukopoiesis ; Lymphoid Tissue/cytology/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Phosphoproteins ; Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/*metabolism ; Second Messenger Systems ; Signal Transduction
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1999-11-05
    Description: Focal adhesions (FAs) are clustered integrins and associated proteins that mediate cell adhesion and signaling. A green fluorescent protein-beta1 integrin chimera was used to label FAs in living cells. In stationary cells, FAs were highly motile, moving linearly for several plaque lengths toward the cell center. FA motility was independent of cell density and resulted from contraction of associated actin fibers. In migrating cells, FAs were stationary and only moved in the tail. FA motility in stationary cells suggests that cell movement may be regulated by a clutch-like mechanism by which the affinity of integrins to substrate may be altered in response to migratory cues.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Smilenov, L B -- Mikhailov, A -- Pelham, R J -- Marcantonio, E E -- Gundersen, G G -- GM42026/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM44585/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 5;286(5442):1172-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10550057" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3 Cells ; Actins/physiology ; Animals ; Antigens, CD29/*metabolism ; *Cell Adhesion ; Cell Count ; Cell Line ; *Cell Movement ; Fibroblasts/*cytology/metabolism ; Fluorescence ; Green Fluorescent Proteins ; Luminescent Proteins ; Mice ; Microscopy, Interference ; Rats ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1999-05-15
    Description: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a pancreatic beta cell autoantigen in humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. beta Cell-specific suppression of GAD expression in two lines of antisense GAD transgenic NOD mice prevented autoimmune diabetes, whereas persistent GAD expression in the beta cells in the other four lines of antisense GAD transgenic NOD mice resulted in diabetes, similar to that seen in transgene-negative NOD mice. Complete suppression of beta cell GAD expression blocked the generation of diabetogenic T cells and protected islet grafts from autoimmune injury. Thus, beta cell-specific GAD expression is required for the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, and modulation of GAD might, therefore, have therapeutic value in type 1 diabetes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yoon, J W -- Yoon, C S -- Lim, H W -- Huang, Q Q -- Kang, Y -- Pyun, K H -- Hirasawa, K -- Sherwin, R S -- Jun, H S -- DK 45735/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK 53015-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 14;284(5417):1183-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Viral and Immunopathogenesis of Diabetes, Julia McFarlane Diabetes Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada. yoon@ucalgary.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10325232" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; Autoantigens/genetics/*immunology/physiology ; Autoimmunity ; DNA, Antisense ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/*enzymology/*immunology/pathology ; Female ; Gene Expression ; Glutamate Decarboxylase/genetics/*immunology/physiology ; Insulin/blood/metabolism ; Islets of Langerhans/*enzymology/immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Islets of Langerhans Transplantation ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred NOD ; Mice, SCID ; Mice, Transgenic ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Transgenes
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 1999-02-05
    Description: Stem cell homing and repopulation are not well understood. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 were found to be critical for murine bone marrow engraftment by human severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) repopulating stem cells. Treatment of human cells with antibodies to CXCR4 prevented engraftment. In vitro CXCR4-dependent migration to SDF-1 of CD34+CD38-/low cells correlated with in vivo engraftment and stem cell function. Stem cell factor and interleukin-6 induced CXCR4 expression on CD34+ cells, which potentiated migration to SDF-1 and engraftment in primary and secondary transplanted mice. Thus, up-regulation of CXCR4 expression may be useful for improving engraftment of repopulating stem cells in clinical transplantation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Peled, A -- Petit, I -- Kollet, O -- Magid, M -- Ponomaryov, T -- Byk, T -- Nagler, A -- Ben-Hur, H -- Many, A -- Shultz, L -- Lider, O -- Alon, R -- Zipori, D -- Lapidot, T -- A130389/PHS HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 5;283(5403):845-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9933168" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ADP-ribosyl Cyclase ; Animals ; Antibodies ; *Antigens, CD ; Antigens, CD34/analysis/immunology ; Antigens, CD38 ; Antigens, Differentiation/analysis ; Chemokine CXCL12 ; Chemokines, CXC/pharmacology/*physiology ; Chemotaxis ; Colony-Forming Units Assay ; Fetal Blood ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization ; *Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*physiology ; Humans ; Interleukin-6/pharmacology ; Membrane Glycoproteins ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred NOD ; Mice, Knockout ; Mice, SCID ; NAD+ Nucleosidase/analysis ; Receptors, CXCR4/biosynthesis/immunology/*physiology ; Stem Cell Factor/pharmacology ; Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology ; Up-Regulation
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Steghaus-Kovac, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 1;286(5437):31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10532887" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bioethics ; Cell Line ; Embryo Research ; Embryo, Mammalian/*cytology ; Female ; Fetus/*cytology ; *Genomic Imprinting ; Germ Cells/*cytology ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Stem Cells/*cytology
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 1999-08-24
    Description: Large (more than 16-fold) differences in susceptibility to disruption of juvenile male reproductive development by 17beta-estradiol (E2) were detected between strains of mice. Effects of strain, E2 dose, and the interaction of strain and E2 dose on testes weight and spermatogenesis were all highly significant (P 〈 0.0001). Spermatid maturation was eliminated by low doses of E2 in strains such as C57BL/6J and C17/Jls. In contrast, mice of the widely used CD-1 line, which has been selected for large litter size, showed little or no inhibition of spermatid maturation even in response to 16 times as much E2. Product safety bioassays conducted with animals selected for fecundity may greatly underestimate disruption of male reproductive development by estradiol and environmental estrogenic compounds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Spearow, J L -- Doemeny, P -- Sera, R -- Leffler, R -- Barkley, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 20;285(5431):1259-61.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. jlspearow@ucdavis.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10455051" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Body Weight/drug effects ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Estradiol/*pharmacology/toxicity ; *Genetic Variation ; Litter Size ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred Strains ; Organ Size/drug effects ; Species Specificity ; Spermatids/drug effects ; Spermatogenesis/*drug effects ; Testis/anatomy & histology/*drug effects ; Toxicity Tests
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barinaga, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 16;284(5413):421-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10232983" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Clocks/*physiology ; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology ; Cryptochromes ; Darkness ; *Drosophila Proteins ; *Eye Proteins ; Flavoproteins/genetics/*physiology ; Humans ; *Light ; Mice ; Mutation ; *Ocular Physiological Phenomena ; *Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate ; Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate/*physiology ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 1999-07-27
    Description: Glycoprotein adhesion receptors such as selectins contribute to tissue injury in stroke. Ischemic neurons strongly expressed C1q, which may target them for complement-mediated attack or C1qRp-mediated clearance. A hybrid molecule was used to simultaneously inhibit both complement activation and selectin-mediated adhesion. The extracellular domain of soluble complement receptor-1 (sCR1) was sialyl Lewis x glycosylated (sCR1sLex) to inhibit complement activation and endothelial-platelet-leukocyte interactions. sCR1 and sCR1sLex colocalized to ischemic cerebral microvessels and C1q-expressing neurons, inhibited neutrophil and platelet accumulation, and reduced cerebral infarct volumes. Additional benefit was conferred by sialyl Lewis x glycosylation of the unmodified parent sCR1 molecule.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, J -- Kim, L J -- Mealey, R -- Marsh, H C Jr -- Zhang, Y -- Tenner, A J -- Connolly, E S Jr -- Pinsky, D J -- R01 HL55397/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL59488/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS35144/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 23;285(5427):595-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10417391" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood Platelets/physiology ; Cell Adhesion ; Cerebral Cortex/blood supply/immunology/metabolism ; Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy ; Cerebrovascular Circulation ; Cerebrovascular Disorders/*drug therapy/immunology/physiopathology ; Complement Activation ; Complement C1q/metabolism ; Glycosylation ; Humans ; Ischemic Attack, Transient/*drug therapy/immunology/physiopathology ; Leukocytes/physiology ; Mice ; Neurons/immunology/metabolism ; Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage/adverse ; effects/metabolism/*therapeutic use ; Neutrophils/physiology ; Oligosaccharides/administration & dosage/adverse effects/metabolism/*therapeutic ; use ; Platelet Adhesiveness ; Receptors, Complement/administration & dosage/metabolism/*therapeutic use ; Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy/immunology/metabolism ; Selectins/metabolism ; Time Factors
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-16
    Description: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project is a new effort by the NIH to generate full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) resources. This project will provide publicly accessible resources to the full research community. The MGC project entails the production of libraries, sequencing, and database and repository development, as well as the support of library construction, sequencing, and analytic technologies dedicated to the goal of obtaining a full set of human and other mammalian full-length (open reading frame) sequences and clones of expressed genes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Strausberg, R L -- Feingold, E A -- Klausner, R D -- Collins, F S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 15;286(5439):455-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Cancer Institute, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10521335" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Computational Biology ; DNA, Complementary ; Databases, Factual ; Expressed Sequence Tags ; *Gene Library ; *Genome ; *Genome, Human ; Humans ; Mammals/*genetics ; Mice ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.) ; Private Sector ; Public Sector ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; United States
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: The mammalian inner ear contains the cochlea and vestibular organs, which are responsible for hearing and balance, respectively. The epithelia of these sensory organs contain hair cells that function as mechanoreceptors to transduce sound and head motion. The molecular mechanisms underlying hair cell development and differentiation are poorly understood. Math1, a mouse homolog of the Drosophila proneural gene atonal, is expressed in inner ear sensory epithelia. Embryonic Math1-null mice failed to generate cochlear and vestibular hair cells. This gene is thus required for the genesis of hair cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bermingham, N A -- Hassan, B A -- Price, S D -- Vollrath, M A -- Ben-Arie, N -- Eatock, R A -- Bellen, H J -- Lysakowski, A -- Zoghbi, H Y -- R01 DC002290/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 11;284(5421):1837-41.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10364557" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors ; Calbindin 2 ; Cell Differentiation ; Cochlea/embryology/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Ear, Inner/*embryology/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Epithelium/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Gene Targeting ; *Genes, Essential ; Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner/*cytology/metabolism ; Mice ; Microscopy, Electron ; Myosin Heavy Chains/biosynthesis ; S100 Calcium Binding Protein G/biosynthesis ; Saccule and Utricle/embryology/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Stem Cells/cytology ; Transcription Factors/*genetics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 1999-04-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Besharse, J C -- Carlson, B M -- Jenkins, D P -- Lester, D S -- Olds, J L -- Satir, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 2;284(5411):49-50.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10215528" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Rights/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Animal Welfare/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Animals ; *Animals, Laboratory ; Birds ; Mice ; Rats ; Research ; Societies, Scientific ; United States ; United States Department of Agriculture/legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-11-13
    Description: The factors required for the generation of memory CD4 T cells remain unclear, and whether there is a continuing requirement for antigen stimulation is critical to design of vaccine strategies. CD4 effectors generated in vitro from naive CD4 T cells of mice efficiently gave rise to small resting memory cells after transfer to class II-deficient hosts, indicating no requirement for further antigen or class II recognition.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Swain, S L -- Hu, H -- Huston, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 12;286(5443):1381-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biomedical Research Laboratories, Trudeau Institute, 100 Algonquin Avenue, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA. sswain@northnet.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10558997" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; Cell Division ; Cytokines/biosynthesis ; Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/*immunology ; Immunization ; *Immunologic Memory ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Mice, Transgenic ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology/*immunology ; Th1 Cells/cytology/*immunology ; Th2 Cells/cytology/*immunology
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 1999-12-11
    Description: Subsets of murine CD4+ T cells localize to different areas of the spleen after adoptive transfer. Naive and T helper 1 (TH1) cells, which express the chemokine receptor CCR7, are home to the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath, whereas activated TH2 cells, which lack CCR7, form rings at the periphery of the T cell zones near B cell follicles. Retroviral transduction of TH2 cells with CCR7 forces them to localize in a TH1-like pattern and inhibits their participation in B cell help in vivo but not in vitro. Thus, differential expression of chemokine receptors results in unique cellular migration patterns that are important for effective immune responses.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Randolph, D A -- Huang, G -- Carruthers, C J -- Bromley, L E -- Chaplin, D D -- AI34580/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM07200/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 10;286(5447):2159-62.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10591648" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; B-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Calcium/metabolism ; Cell Movement ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Transgenic ; Ovalbumin/immunology ; Receptors, CCR7 ; Receptors, Chemokine/*immunology/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Spleen/*immunology ; Th1 Cells/*immunology/metabolism ; Th2 Cells/*immunology/metabolism ; Transfection
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 1999-07-31
    Description: The generation of cell-mediated immunity against many infectious pathogens involves the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), a key signal of the innate immune system. Yet, for many pathogens, the molecules that induce IL-12 production by macrophages and the mechanisms by which they do so remain undefined. Here it is shown that microbial lipoproteins are potent stimulators of IL-12 production by human macrophages, and that induction is mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Several lipoproteins stimulated TLR-dependent transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide, a powerful microbicidal pathway. Activation of TLRs by microbial lipoproteins may initiate innate defense mechanisms against infectious pathogens.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brightbill, H D -- Libraty, D H -- Krutzik, S R -- Yang, R B -- Belisle, J T -- Bleharski, J R -- Maitland, M -- Norgard, M V -- Plevy, S E -- Smale, S T -- Brennan, P J -- Bloom, B R -- Godowski, P J -- Modlin, R L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 30;285(5428):732-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Anges, CA 90095, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10426995" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Bacterial/chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Cell Line ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Interleukin-12/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Lipopolysaccharides/immunology ; Lipoproteins/chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Macrophages/*immunology/metabolism ; Membrane Glycoproteins/*metabolism ; Mice ; Monocytes/*immunology/metabolism ; Mycobacterium tuberculosis/*immunology ; NF-kappa B/biosynthesis ; Nitric Oxide Synthase/genetics ; Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Toll-Like Receptors ; Transcription, Genetic ; Transfection ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 1999-01-15
    Description: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation has been implicated in many cellular responses, including fibroblast growth, transformation, survival, and chemotaxis. Although PI3K is activated by several agents that stimulate T and B cells, the role of PI3K in lymphocyte function is not clear. The mouse gene encoding the PI3K adapter subunit p85alpha and its splice variants p55alpha and p50alpha was disrupted. Most p85alpha-p55alpha-p50alpha-/- mice die within days after birth. Lymphocyte development and function was studied with the use of the RAG2-deficient blastocyst complementation system. Chimeric mice had reduced numbers of peripheral mature B cells and decreased serum immunoglobulin. The B cells that developed had diminished proliferative responses to antibody to immunoglobulin M, antibody to CD40, and lipopolysaccharide stimulation and decreased survival after incubation with interleukin-4. In contrast, T cell development and proliferation was normal. This phenotype is similar to defects observed in mice lacking the tyrosine kinase Btk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fruman, D A -- Snapper, S B -- Yballe, C M -- Davidson, L -- Yu, J Y -- Alt, F W -- Cantley, L C -- R01 GM041890/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jan 15;283(5400):393-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Signal Transduction, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA. dfruman@bidmc.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9888855" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD45/analysis ; Apoptosis ; B-Lymphocytes/cytology/enzymology/*immunology ; Catalytic Domain ; Cell Cycle ; Chimera ; Chromones/pharmacology ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Female ; Gene Targeting ; Immunoglobulins/*blood ; *Lymphocyte Activation ; Lymphocyte Count ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Morpholines/pharmacology ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics/metabolism ; Spleen/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/cytology/enzymology/immunology
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 1999-10-09
    Description: The effect of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) on the activation and differentiation of normal B cells was investigated. B cells of transgenic mice expressing LMP1 under the control of immunoglobulin promoter/enhancer displayed enhanced expression of activation antigens and spontaneously proliferated and produced antibody. Humoral immune responses of LMP1 transgenic mice in CD40-deficient or normal backgrounds revealed that LMP1 mimics CD40 signals to induce extrafollicular B cell differentiation but, unlike CD40, blocks germinal center formation. Thus, these specific properties of LMP1 may determine the site of primary B cell infection and the state of infection in the natural course of EBV infection, whereas subsequent loss of LMP1 expression may affect the site of persistent latent infection.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Uchida, J -- Yasui, T -- Takaoka-Shichijo, Y -- Muraoka, M -- Kulwichit, W -- Raab-Traub, N -- Kikutani, H -- CA19014/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 8;286(5438):300-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Immunology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10514374" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Affinity ; Antigens, CD40/genetics/*metabolism ; B-Lymphocytes/*immunology/metabolism/virology ; Cell Differentiation ; Female ; Germinal Center/immunology/metabolism ; Herpesvirus 4, Human/*metabolism/physiology ; Immunization ; Immunoglobulin Class Switching ; Immunoglobulins/biosynthesis ; Interleukin-4/pharmacology ; *Lymphocyte Activation ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; *Molecular Mimicry ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Spleen/immunology ; Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 1999-11-27
    Description: Apoptosis can be triggered by members of the Bcl-2 protein family, such as Bim, that share only the BH3 domain with this family. Gene targeting in mice revealed important physiological roles for Bim. Lymphoid and myeloid cells accumulated, T cell development was perturbed, and most older mice accumulated plasma cells and succumbed to autoimmune kidney disease. Lymphocytes were refractory to apoptotic stimuli such as cytokine deprivation, calcium ion flux, and microtubule perturbation but not to others. Thus, Bim is required for hematopoietic homeostasis and as a barrier to autoimmunity. Moreover, particular death stimuli appear to activate apoptosis through distinct BH3-only proteins.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bouillet, P -- Metcalf, D -- Huang, D C -- Tarlinton, D M -- Kay, T W -- Kontgen, F -- Adams, J M -- Strasser, A -- CA43540/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA80188/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 26;286(5445):1735-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria 3050, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10576740" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Apoptosis ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins ; Autoimmune Diseases/etiology ; *Autoimmunity ; B-Lymphocytes/physiology ; Carrier Proteins/*physiology ; Cells, Cultured ; Crosses, Genetic ; Female ; Gene Targeting ; Glomerulonephritis/etiology ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/physiology ; Homeostasis ; Leukocyte Count ; Leukocytes/*physiology ; Male ; *Membrane Proteins ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; *Proto-Oncogene Proteins ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/physiology ; Signal Transduction ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/physiology
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 1999-11-27
    Description: Extracellular signals often result in simultaneous activation of both the Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt pathways (where ERK is extracellular-regulated kinase, MEK is mitogen-activated protein kinase or ERK kinase, and PI3K is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase). However, these two signaling pathways were shown to exert opposing effects on muscle cell hypertrophy. Furthermore, the PI3K-Akt pathway was shown to inhibit the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway; this cross-regulation depended on the differentiation state of the cell: Akt activation inhibited the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway in differentiated myotubes, but not in their myoblast precursors. The stage-specific inhibitory action of Akt correlated with its stage-specific ability to form a complex with Raf, suggesting the existence of differentially expressed mediators of an inhibitory Akt-Raf complex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rommel, C -- Clarke, B A -- Zimmermann, S -- Nunez, L -- Rossman, R -- Reid, K -- Moelling, K -- Yancopoulos, G D -- Glass, D J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 26;286(5445):1738-41.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10576741" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 ; Cyclins/genetics ; Enzyme Activation ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Flavonoids/pharmacology ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/pharmacology ; MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects ; Mice ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal/*cytology/*metabolism ; Myogenin/genetics ; Phenotype ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Transfection ; Transgenes
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  • 26
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Marx, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jan 15;283(5400):306.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9925481" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy/physiopathology ; Behavior, Animal/drug effects ; Brain/drug effects/*metabolism ; Carrier Proteins/genetics ; Central Nervous System Stimulants/*pharmacology ; Child ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins ; Humans ; Hyperkinesis/*drug therapy/physiopathology ; Maze Learning ; *Membrane Glycoproteins ; *Membrane Transport Proteins ; Methylphenidate/*pharmacology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Nerve Tissue Proteins ; Serotonin/metabolism/*physiology
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 1999-09-08
    Description: Delivery of therapeutic proteins into tissues and across the blood-brain barrier is severely limited by the size and biochemical properties of the proteins. Here it is shown that intraperitoneal injection of the 120-kilodalton beta-galactosidase protein, fused to the protein transduction domain from the human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein, results in delivery of the biologically active fusion protein to all tissues in mice, including the brain. These results open new possibilities for direct delivery of proteins into patients in the context of protein therapy, as well as for epigenetic experimentation with model organisms.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schwarze, S R -- Ho, A -- Vocero-Akbani, A -- Dowdy, S F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 3;285(5433):1569-72.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10477521" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood-Brain Barrier ; Brain/metabolism ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Drug Carriers ; *Drug Delivery Systems ; Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate ; Gene Products, tat/administration & dosage/*metabolism ; Humans ; Injections, Intraperitoneal ; Jurkat Cells ; Lipid Bilayers ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Microscopy, Fluorescence ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage/*metabolism ; Spleen/metabolism ; Tissue Distribution ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; beta-Galactosidase/administration & dosage/*metabolism
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 1999-11-13
    Description: An understanding of how T cell memory is maintained is crucial for the rational design of vaccines. Memory T cells were shown to persist indefinitely in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-deficient mice and retained the ability to make rapid cytokine responses upon reencounter with antigen. In addition, memory CD8 T cells, unlike naive cells, divided without MHC-T cell receptor interactions. This "homeostatic" proliferation is likely to be important in maintaining memory T cell numbers in the periphery. Thus, after naive CD8 T cells differentiate into memory cells, they evolve an MHC class I-independent "life-style" and do not require further stimulation with specific or cross-reactive antigen for their maintenance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Murali-Krishna, K -- Lau, L L -- Sambhara, S -- Lemonnier, F -- Altman, J -- Ahmed, R -- AI30048/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- NS21496/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 12;286(5443):1377-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10558996" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; Antigens, CD44/analysis ; Antigens, Viral/immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology/*immunology ; Cell Division ; Epitopes/immunology ; Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/*immunology ; Homeostasis ; *Immunologic Memory ; Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis ; Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis/immunology ; Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; Radiation Chimera ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology/*immunology ; beta 2-Microglobulin/genetics
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-03-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gura, T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 26;283(5406):1238-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10084921" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autoimmune Diseases/immunology/microbiology ; Bacterial Proteins/*immunology ; Chlamydia/*immunology/metabolism ; Chlamydia Infections/complications/immunology ; Heart/microbiology ; Humans ; Mice ; *Molecular Mimicry ; Myocarditis/immunology/*microbiology ; Myocardium/*immunology ; Myosins/*immunology ; Peptides/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 1999-04-16
    Description: The cytokines LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) and BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) signal through different receptors and transcription factors, namely STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription) and Smads. LIF and BMP2 were found to act in synergy on primary fetal neural progenitor cells to induce astrocytes. The transcriptional coactivator p300 interacts physically with STAT3 at its amino terminus in a cytokine stimulation-independent manner, and with Smad1 at its carboxyl terminus in a cytokine stimulation-dependent manner. The formation of a complex between STAT3 and Smad1, bridged by p300, is involved in the cooperative signaling of LIF and BMP2 and the subsequent induction of astrocytes from neural progenitors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nakashima, K -- Yanagisawa, M -- Arakawa, H -- Kimura, N -- Hisatsune, T -- Kawabata, M -- Miyazono, K -- Taga, T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 16;284(5413):479-82.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Cell Fate Modulation Research Unit, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 101-0062, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10205054" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/cytology ; Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 ; Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors ; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/metabolism/pharmacology ; COS Cells ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Cytokines/*pharmacology ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; E1A-Associated p300 Protein ; Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/genetics ; Growth Inhibitors/metabolism/pharmacology ; *Interleukin-6 ; Leukemia Inhibitory Factor ; Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit ; Lymphokines/metabolism/pharmacology ; Mice ; Nuclear Proteins/*metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism ; Receptors, Cytokine/metabolism ; *Receptors, Growth Factor ; Receptors, OSM-LIF ; STAT3 Transcription Factor ; Sequence Deletion ; *Signal Transduction ; Smad Proteins ; Smad1 Protein ; Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Telencephalon/embryology/metabolism ; Trans-Activators/*metabolism ; *Transcriptional Activation ; *Transforming Growth Factor beta
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 1999-07-31
    Description: Blood coagulation capacity increases with age in healthy individuals. Through extensive longitudinal analyses of human factor IX gene expression in transgenic mice, two essential age-regulatory elements, AE5' and AE3', have been identified. These elements are required and together are sufficient for normal age regulation of factor IX expression. AE5', a PEA-3 related element present in the 5' upstream region of the gene encoding factor IX, is responsible for age-stable expression of the gene. AE3', in the middle of the 3' untranslated region, is responsible for age-associated elevation in messenger RNA levels. In a concerted manner, AE5' and AE3' recapitulate natural patterns of the advancing age-associated increase in factor IX gene expression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kurachi, S -- Deyashiki, Y -- Takeshita, J -- Kurachi, K -- AG13283/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- HL38644/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL53713/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 30;285(5428):739-43.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0618, USA. kkurachi@umich.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10426997" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *3' Untranslated Regions ; Aging/blood/*genetics ; Animals ; Consensus Sequence ; DNA Footprinting ; Dinucleotide Repeats ; Factor IX/*genetics/metabolism ; Female ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Vectors ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; *Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 1999-12-30
    Description: Expression of Q205L Galphao (Galphao*), an alpha subunit of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) that lacks guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity in NIH-3T3 cells, results in transformation. Expression of Galphao* in NIH-3T3 cells activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) but not mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases 1 or 2. Coexpression of dominant negative Stat3 inhibited Galphao*-induced transformation of NIH-3T3 cells and activation of endogenous Stat3. Furthermore, Galphao* expression increased activity of the tyrosine kinase c-Src, and the Galphao*-induced activation of Stat3 was blocked by expression of Csk (carboxyl-terminal Src kinase), which inactivates c-Src. The results indicate that Stat3 can function as a downstream effector for Galphao* and mediate its biological effects.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ram, P T -- Horvath, C M -- Iyengar, R -- 1F32 CA79134-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK-38671/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM-54508/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Jan 7;287(5450):142-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology, Immunobiology Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA. ramp01@doc.mssm.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10615050" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3 Cells ; Animals ; Cell Line, Transformed ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Enzyme Activation ; GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits ; Genes, Reporter ; Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Mice ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Neurites/physiology ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Neurons/metabolism/physiology ; Phosphorylation ; Phosphotyrosine/metabolism ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism ; STAT3 Transcription Factor ; Signal Transduction ; Trans-Activators/*metabolism ; Transfection ; src-Family Kinases
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 33
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-12-30
    Description: DNA topoisomerase IIbeta is shown to have an unsuspected and critical role in neural development. Neurogenesis was normal in IIbeta mutant mice, but motor axons failed to contact skeletal muscles, and sensory axons failed to enter the spinal cord. Despite an absence of innervation, clusters of acetylcholine receptors were concentrated in the central region of skeletal muscles, thereby revealing patterning mechanisms that are autonomous to skeletal muscle. The defects in motor axon growth in IIbeta mutant mice resulted in a breathing impairment and death of the pups shortly after birth.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, X -- Li, W -- Prescott, E D -- Burden, S J -- Wang, J C -- NS10537/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS27963/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS36193/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS036193/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS036193-02/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS041311/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS041311-03/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Jan 7;287(5450):131-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Skirball Institute of Molecular Medicine, New York University Medical School, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10615047" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Axons/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Cell Lineage ; Cues ; DNA Repair ; DNA Topoisomerases, Type II/genetics/*metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins ; Diaphragm/chemistry/embryology/innervation ; Embryonic and Fetal Development ; Gene Targeting ; Intercostal Muscles/innervation ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Motor Neurons/physiology/ultrastructure ; Muscle, Skeletal/embryology/*innervation ; Neuromuscular Junction/*embryology/growth & development ; Neurons, Afferent/physiology/ultrastructure ; Presynaptic Terminals/ultrastructure ; Receptors, Cholinergic/analysis ; Skin/innervation ; Spinal Cord/embryology/ultrastructure
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-08-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 30;285(5428):645, 647.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10454908" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/*metabolism ; Humans ; Killer Cells, Natural/*immunology/metabolism ; Ligands ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Mice ; Neoplasms/immunology ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/immunology ; Receptors, Immunologic/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptors, Natural Killer Cell ; Signal Transduction ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 1999-03-26
    Description: Spatially resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measured by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), provides a method for tracing the catalytic activity of fluorescently tagged proteins inside live cell cultures and enables determination of the functional state of proteins in fixed cells and tissues. Here, a dynamic marker of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) activation is identified and exploited. Activation of PKCalpha is detected through the binding of fluorescently tagged phosphorylation site-specific antibodies; the consequent FRET is measured through the donor fluorophore on PKCalpha by FLIM. This approach enabled the imaging of PKCalpha activation in live and fixed cultured cells and was also applied to pathological samples.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ng, T -- Squire, A -- Hansra, G -- Bornancin, F -- Prevostel, C -- Hanby, A -- Harris, W -- Barnes, D -- Schmidt, S -- Mellor, H -- Bastiaens, P I -- Parker, P J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Mar 26;283(5410):2085-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory and Cell Biophysics Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF), 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, WC2A 3PX, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10092232" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3 Cells ; Animals ; Breast Neoplasms/enzymology ; COS Cells ; Catalysis ; Cytoplasm/enzymology ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/enzymology ; Energy Transfer ; Enzyme Activation ; Fluorescence ; Fluorescent Dyes ; Golgi Apparatus/enzymology ; Green Fluorescent Proteins ; Humans ; Immune Sera ; Isoenzymes/immunology/*metabolism ; Luminescent Proteins ; Mice ; *Microscopy, Fluorescence ; Phosphorylation ; Phosphothreonine/immunology/metabolism ; Protein Kinase C/immunology/*metabolism ; Protein Kinase C-alpha ; Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology ; Transfection
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 1999-07-27
    Description: Candida glabrata is an important fungal pathogen of humans that is responsible for about 15 percent of mucosal and systemic candidiasis. Candida glabrata adhered avidly to human epithelial cells in culture. By means of a genetic approach and a strategy allowing parallel screening of mutants, it was possible to clone a lectin from a Candida species. Deletion of this adhesin reduced adherence of C. glabrata to human epithelial cells by 95 percent. The adhesin, encoded by the EPA1 gene, is likely a glucan-cross-linked cell-wall protein and binds to host-cell carbohydrate, specifically recognizing asialo-lactosyl-containing carbohydrates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cormack, B P -- Ghori, N -- Falkow, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 23;285(5427):578-82.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Fairchild D039, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5124, USA. bcormack@jhmi.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10417386" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Candida/*genetics/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/microbiology ; Carbohydrates/pharmacology ; Cell Adhesion ; Cloning, Molecular ; Epithelial Cells/*microbiology ; Female ; *Fungal Proteins ; Genes, Fungal ; Humans ; Lectins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; Ligands ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred DBA ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Mutation ; Plasmids ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Transformation, Genetic ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; Virulence/genetics
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  • 37
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 30;284(5415):723, 725.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10336390" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis ; Breast Neoplasms/*genetics/pathology ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; *Genes, BRCA1 ; Genes, p53 ; Humans ; Mammary Glands, Animal/pathology ; Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/*genetics/pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Mice, Transgenic ; Mutation
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-03-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 19;283(5405):1091,1093.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075562" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors ; Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/physiology ; DiGeorge Syndrome/*genetics ; Gene Deletion ; Heart/embryology ; Heart Defects, Congenital/*genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Neural Crest/cytology/embryology ; Proteins/*genetics/physiology ; Transcription Factors/genetics/physiology ; Ubiquitins ; Zebrafish Proteins
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 1999-08-28
    Description: The gene expression profile of the aging process was analyzed in skeletal muscle of mice. Use of high-density oligonucleotide arrays representing 6347 genes revealed that aging resulted in a differential gene expression pattern indicative of a marked stress response and lower expression of metabolic and biosynthetic genes. Most alterations were either completely or partially prevented by caloric restriction, the only intervention known to retard aging in mammals. Transcriptional patterns of calorie-restricted animals suggest that caloric restriction retards the aging process by causing a metabolic shift toward increased protein turnover and decreased macromolecular damage.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, C K -- Klopp, R G -- Weindruch, R -- Prolla, T A -- P01 AG11915/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA78723/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 27;285(5432):1390-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Environmental Toxicology Center, Institute on Aging, Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10464095" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*genetics ; Animals ; DNA Damage/genetics ; DNA Repair/genetics ; *Diet ; *Energy Intake ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mitochondria, Muscle/metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal/innervation/*metabolism ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Oxidative Stress/genetics ; Proteins/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism
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  • 40