Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Abstract Probenecid shows dose-dependent pharmacokinetics. When in one volunteer the dose is increased from 250 to 1,500 mg orally, thet 1/2 increased from 3 to 6 h. TheC max was 14μg/ml with a dosage of 250 mg, 31μg/ml with 500 mg, 70μg/ml with 1,000 mg and 120μg/ml with 1,500 mg. Thet max remained 1 h for all four dosages. The AUC/dose ratio increased with the dose, indicating nonlinear elimination. The total body clearance declined from 64.5 ml/min for 250 mg to 26.0 ml/min for 1,500 mg. The renal clearance of probenecid remained constant, 0.6–0.8 ml/min. Protein binding of probenecid is high (91%) and independent of the dose. The phase I metabolites show lower protein binding values (34–59%). The protein binding of probenecid glucuronidein vitro (spiked plasma) is 75%. Probenecid is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 to three phase I metabolites. Each of the metabolites accounts for less than 10% of the dose administered; the percentage recovered in the urine is independent of the dose. The main metabolite probenecid glucuronide is only present in urine and not in plasma. The renal excretion rate-time profile of probenecid glucuronide shows a plateau value of approximately 700μg/min (46 mg/h) with acidic urine pH. The duration of this plateau value depends on the dose: 2 h at 500 mg, 10 h at 1,000 mg and 20 h at 1,500 mg. It is demonstrated that probenecid glucuronide must be formed in the kidney during its passage of the tubule. The plateau value in the renal excretion rate of probenecid value reflects itsV max of formation.
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