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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (4,899)
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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bohannon, John -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):131-2. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6282.131. Epub 2016 Apr 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124431" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Female ; Homophobia/*prevention & control ; Humans ; Male ; *Politics ; *Transgender Persons
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gottlieb, Roberta A -- Bernstein, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1162-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8222.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. roberta.gottlieb@cshs.org. ; Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785456" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Heart/*embryology ; Heart Failure/*metabolism ; Male ; Mitochondria, Heart/*metabolism/*physiology ; Mitochondrial Degradation/*physiology ; *Mitochondrial Dynamics ; Myocardium/*metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Several recent studies link parental environments to phenotypes in subsequent generations. In this work, we investigate the mechanism by which paternal diet affects offspring metabolism. Protein restriction in mice affects small RNA (sRNA) levels in mature sperm, with decreased let-7 levels and increased amounts of 5' fragments of glycine transfer RNAs (tRNAs). In testicular sperm, tRNA fragments are scarce but increase in abundance as sperm mature in the epididymis. Epididymosomes (vesicles that fuse with sperm during epididymal transit) carry RNA payloads matching those of mature sperm and can deliver RNAs to immature sperm in vitro. Functionally, tRNA-glycine-GCC fragments repress genes associated with the endogenous retroelement MERVL, in both embryonic stem cells and embryos. Our results shed light on sRNA biogenesis and its dietary regulation during posttesticular sperm maturation, and they also link tRNA fragments to regulation of endogenous retroelements active in the preimplantation embryo.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sharma, Upasna -- Conine, Colin C -- Shea, Jeremy M -- Boskovic, Ana -- Derr, Alan G -- Bing, Xin Y -- Belleannee, Clemence -- Kucukural, Alper -- Serra, Ryan W -- Sun, Fengyun -- Song, Lina -- Carone, Benjamin R -- Ricci, Emiliano P -- Li, Xin Z -- Fauquier, Lucas -- Moore, Melissa J -- Sullivan, Robert -- Mello, Craig C -- Garber, Manuel -- Rando, Oliver J -- DP1ES025458/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- R01HD080224/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000161/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR001453/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):391-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6780. Epub 2015 Dec 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction, Universite Laval, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec Research Center, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada. ; RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. RNAi Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. oliver.rando@umassmed.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721685" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blastocyst/metabolism ; Diet, Protein-Restricted ; Epididymis/metabolism ; *Fertilization ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Male ; Mice ; MicroRNAs/metabolism ; RNA, Transfer, Gly/*metabolism/*physiology ; Retroelements/genetics ; *Sperm Maturation ; Spermatozoa/*metabolism ; Testis/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing holds clinical potential for treating genetic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To correct DMD by skipping mutant dystrophin exons in postnatal muscle tissue in vivo, we used adeno-associated virus-9 (AAV9) to deliver gene-editing components to postnatal mdx mice, a model of DMD. Different modes of AAV9 delivery were systematically tested, including intraperitoneal at postnatal day 1 (P1), intramuscular at P12, and retro-orbital at P18. Each of these methods restored dystrophin protein expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle to varying degrees, and expression increased from 3 to 12 weeks after injection. Postnatal gene editing also enhanced skeletal muscle function, as measured by grip strength tests 4 weeks after injection. This method provides a potential means of correcting mutations responsible for DMD and other monogenic disorders after birth.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4760628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Long, Chengzu -- Amoasii, Leonela -- Mireault, Alex A -- McAnally, John R -- Li, Hui -- Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain -- Bhattacharyya, Samadrita -- Shelton, John M -- Bassel-Duby, Rhonda -- Olson, Eric N -- DK-099653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL-077439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-093039/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-111665/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK099653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL077439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL093039/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL111665/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL100401/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01-HL-100401/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HD 087351/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):400-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5725. Epub 2015 Dec 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Sen. Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Sen. Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Cooperative Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. eric.olson@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721683" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *CRISPR-Cas Systems ; Dependovirus ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dystrophin/*genetics ; Exons/genetics ; Female ; Forelimb/physiopathology ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Genome/genetics ; Hand Strength ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred mdx ; Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism ; Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics/*therapy ; Myocardium/metabolism
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stevens, Beth -- Muthukumar, Allie K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):813. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf2849.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurology, F. M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. beth.stevens@childrens.harvard.edu. ; Department of Neurology, F. M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912878" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/*metabolism ; Cerebellar Cortex/*cytology ; Female ; Hedgehog Proteins/*metabolism ; Male ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: Frank presents an alternative interpretation of our data, yet reports largely similar results to those in our original Report. A critical difference centers on how to interpret and test interaction effects. Frank finds no mistakes in our analyses. We stand by our original conclusions of meaningful effects of the Bedtime Learning Together (BLT) math app on children's math achievement.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berkowitz, Talia -- Schaeffer, Marjorie W -- Rozek, Christopher S -- Maloney, Erin A -- Levine, Susan C -- Beilock, Sian L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1161. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8555. Epub 2016 Mar 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. ; University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. s-levine@uchicago.edu beilock@uchicago.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965620" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Educational Status ; Female ; Humans ; *Intergenerational Relations ; Male ; Mathematics/*education ; *Parent-Child Relations ; Students/*psychology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Cell assembly sequences during learning are "replayed" during hippocampal ripples and contribute to the consolidation of episodic memories. However, neuronal sequences may also reflect preexisting dynamics. We report that sequences of place-cell firing in a novel environment are formed from a combination of the contributions of a rigid, predominantly fast-firing subset of pyramidal neurons with low spatial specificity and limited change across sleep-experience-sleep and a slow-firing plastic subset. Slow-firing cells, rather than fast-firing cells, gained high place specificity during exploration, elevated their association with ripples, and showed increased bursting and temporal coactivation during postexperience sleep. Thus, slow- and fast-firing neurons, although forming a continuous distribution, have different coding and plastic properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grosmark, Andres D -- Buzsaki, Gyorgy -- MH102840/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- MH54671/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- NS075015/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH107396/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1440-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad1935.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10019, USA. The Neuroscience Institute, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; The Neuroscience Institute, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA. Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA. gyorgy.buzsaki@nyumc.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013730" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Hippocampus/cytology/*physiopathology ; Learning/*physiology ; Male ; Maze Learning ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Pyramidal Cells/*physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred LEC ; Sleep/physiology
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Landolt, Hans-Peter -- Holst, Sebastian C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):517-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf8178.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Zurich Center for Interdisciplinary Sleep Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. landolt@pharma.uzh.ch. ; Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Zurich Center for Interdisciplinary Sleep Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cations/*metabolism ; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology ; Male ; Potassium/*metabolism ; Sleep/*physiology ; Wakefulness/*physiology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Shadlen et al's Comment focuses on extrapolations of our results that were not implied or asserted in our Report. They discuss alternate analyses of average firing rates in other tasks, the relationship between neural activity and behavior, and possible extensions of the standard models we examined. Although interesting to contemplate, these points are not germane to the findings of our Report: that stepping dynamics provided a better statistical description of lateral intraparietal area spike trains than diffusion-to-bound dynamics for a majority of neurons.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Latimer, Kenneth W -- Yates, Jacob L -- Meister, Miriam L R -- Huk, Alexander C -- Pillow, Jonathan W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1406. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3596.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Perceptual Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Center for Perceptual Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. ; Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Center for Perceptual Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Department of Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. ; Center for Perceptual Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Institute for Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Princeton Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. pillow@princeton.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013724" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Choice Behavior/*physiology ; Decision Making/*physiology ; Male ; Parietal Lobe/*physiology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Latimeret al (Reports, 10 July 2015, p. 184) claim that during perceptual decision formation, parietal neurons undergo one-time, discrete steps in firing rate instead of gradual changes that represent the accumulation of evidence. However, that conclusion rests on unsubstantiated assumptions about the time window of evidence accumulation, and their stepping model cannot explain existing data as effectively as evidence-accumulation models.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shadlen, Michael N -- Kiani, Roozbeh -- Newsome, William T -- Gold, Joshua I -- Wolpert, Daniel M -- Zylberberg, Ariel -- Ditterich, Jochen -- de Lafuente, Victor -- Yang, Tianming -- Roitman, Jamie -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1406. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3242.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. shadlen@columbia.edu. ; Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY, USA. ; HHMI and Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ; Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ; HHMI and Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ; Center for Neuroscience and Department of Neurobiology, Physiology, and Behavior, University of California, Davis, CA, USA. ; Institute for Neuroscience, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Queretaro, Mexico. ; Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. ; Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013723" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Choice Behavior/*physiology ; Decision Making/*physiology ; Male ; Parietal Lobe/*physiology
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cohen, Jon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):434. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6272.434.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823407" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anti-Retroviral Agents/*pharmacokinetics/therapeutic use ; *Drug Resistance, Viral ; HIV/drug effects/*genetics/physiology ; HIV Infections/blood/*drug therapy/*virology ; Humans ; Lymph Nodes/*virology ; Male ; Mutagenesis ; RNA, Viral/analysis ; Tissue Distribution ; Virus Replication
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shanahan, Jesse -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):418. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6271.418.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Jesse Shanahan is a master's student in astronomy at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. Send your story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798017" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Astronomy/*education ; *Career Mobility ; Disabled Persons/*psychology/statistics & numerical data ; Fear ; *Hostility ; Humans ; Male ; United States
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schwartz, Gary J -- DK 020541/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK 026687/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK 105441/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1268-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf5216. Epub 2016 Mar 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Medicine & Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. gary.schwartz@einstein.yu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989239" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Energy Metabolism/*physiology ; Feeding Behavior/*physiology ; Hyperphagia/*genetics ; Male ; N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases/*physiology ; Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/*physiology
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: Mono-ubiquitination of Fancd2 is essential for repairing DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The Fan1 nuclease, also required for ICL repair, is recruited to ICLs by ubiquitinated (Ub) Fancd2. This could in principle explain how Ub-Fancd2 promotes ICL repair, but we show that recruitment of Fan1 by Ub-Fancd2 is dispensable for ICL repair. Instead, Fan1 recruitment--and activity--restrains DNA replication fork progression and prevents chromosome abnormalities from occurring when DNA replication forks stall, even in the absence of ICLs. Accordingly, Fan1 nuclease-defective knockin mice are cancer-prone. Moreover, we show that a Fan1 variant in high-risk pancreatic cancers abolishes recruitment by Ub-Fancd2 and causes genetic instability without affecting ICL repair. Therefore, Fan1 recruitment enables processing of stalled forks that is essential for genome stability and health.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770513/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770513/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lachaud, Christophe -- Moreno, Alberto -- Marchesi, Francesco -- Toth, Rachel -- Blow, J Julian -- Rouse, John -- WT096598MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):846-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5634. Epub 2016 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. ; Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. ; School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. ; Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. j.rouse@dundee.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797144" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; *Chromosome Aberrations ; DNA Repair ; *DNA Replication ; Endodeoxyribonucleases/genetics/*metabolism ; Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein/genetics/*metabolism ; Female ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genomic Instability/*genetics ; Liver Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; Lymphoma/genetics/pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pancreatic Neoplasms/*genetics ; *Ubiquitination
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Maintaining energy homeostasis is crucial for the survival and health of organisms. The brain regulates feeding by responding to dietary factors and metabolic signals from peripheral organs. It is unclear how the brain interprets these signals. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the posttranslational modification of proteins by O-GlcNAc and is regulated by nutrient access. Here, we show that acute deletion of OGT from alphaCaMKII-positive neurons in adult mice caused obesity from overeating. The hyperphagia derived from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, where loss of OGT was associated with impaired satiety. These results identify O-GlcNAcylation in alphaCaMKII neurons of the PVN as an important molecular mechanism that regulates feeding behavior.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4817221/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4817221/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lagerlof, Olof -- Slocomb, Julia E -- Hong, Ingie -- Aponte, Yeka -- Blackshaw, Seth -- Hart, Gerald W -- Huganir, Richard L -- N01-HV-00240/HV/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL107153/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01HL107153/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK061671/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS036715/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01DK6167/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01NS036715/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1293-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5494.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; National Institute on Drug Abuse + National Institutes of Health/Johns Hopkins University Graduate Partnership Program, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. ; Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Intramural Research Program, Neuronal Circuits and Behavior Unit, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. ; Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. rhuganir@jhmi.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989246" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylglucosamine/metabolism ; Animals ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/metabolism ; Energy Metabolism/genetics/*physiology ; Feeding Behavior/*physiology ; Gene Deletion ; Homeostasis/genetics ; Hyperphagia/*genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases/genetics/*physiology ; Neurons/enzymology ; Obesity/genetics ; Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/cytology/enzymology/*physiology ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Satiety Response/physiology
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Sanchez et al.'s textbook k-anonymization example does not prove, or even suggest, that location and other big-data data sets can be anonymized and of general use. The synthetic data set that they "successfully anonymize" bears no resemblance to modern high-dimensional data sets on which their methods fail. Moving forward, deidentification should not be considered a useful basis for policy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre -- Pentland, Alex Sandy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1274. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1578.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Harvard University, Institute for Quantitative Social Science, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. yvesalexandre@demontjoye.com. ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989244" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Commerce ; *Data Collection ; Female ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Male ; *Privacy
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, Ann -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1250-1. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6279.1250. Epub 2016 Mar 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989228" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia ; Biological Evolution ; Bone and Bones ; DNA/genetics ; Europe ; Female ; Fossils ; Humans ; Male ; *Mating Preference, Animal ; Neanderthals/*genetics/*psychology ; *Sexual Behavior
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, Ann -- Culotta, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):503-4. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6285.503.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126016" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anthropology ; Congresses as Topic ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Research Personnel ; Sexual Harassment/*prevention & control
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: Wakefulness is driven by the widespread release of neuromodulators by the ascending arousal system. Yet, it is unclear how these substances orchestrate state-dependent, global changes in neuronal activity. Here, we show that neuromodulators induce increases in the extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)]e) in cortical slices electrically silenced by tetrodotoxin. In vivo, arousal was linked to AMPA receptor-independent elevations of [K(+)]e concomitant with decreases in [Ca(2+)]e, [Mg(2+)]e, [H(+)]e, and the extracellular volume. Opposite, natural sleep and anesthesia reduced [K(+)]e while increasing [Ca(2+)]e, [Mg(2+)]e, and [H(+)]e as well as the extracellular volume. Local cortical activity of sleeping mice could be readily converted to the stereotypical electroencephalography pattern of wakefulness by simply imposing a change in the extracellular ion composition. Thus, extracellular ions control the state-dependent patterns of neural activity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ding, Fengfei -- O'Donnell, John -- Xu, Qiwu -- Kang, Ning -- Goldman, Nanna -- Nedergaard, Maiken -- NS078167/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS078304/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):550-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4821.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. ; Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. ; Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Center for Basic and Translational Neuroscience, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark. nedergaard@urmc.rochester.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126038" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/analysis/metabolism ; Cations/analysis/*metabolism ; Cerebral Cortex/chemistry/drug effects/*physiology ; Electroencephalography ; Magnesium/analysis/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Neurons/drug effects/metabolism/physiology ; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism/pharmacology ; Potassium/*metabolism ; Receptors, AMPA/metabolism ; Sleep/drug effects/*physiology ; Sodium Channel Blockers/pharmacology ; Tetrodotoxin/pharmacology ; Wakefulness/drug effects/*physiology
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease affecting about 1 out of 5000 male births and caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Genome editing has the potential to restore expression of a modified dystrophin gene from the native locus to modulate disease progression. In this study, adeno-associated virus was used to deliver the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system to the mdx mouse model of DMD to remove the mutated exon 23 from the dystrophin gene. This includes local and systemic delivery to adult mice and systemic delivery to neonatal mice. Exon 23 deletion by CRISPR-Cas9 resulted in expression of the modified dystrophin gene, partial recovery of functional dystrophin protein in skeletal myofibers and cardiac muscle, improvement of muscle biochemistry, and significant enhancement of muscle force. This work establishes CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing as a potential therapy to treat DMD.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Christopher E -- Hakim, Chady H -- Ousterout, David G -- Thakore, Pratiksha I -- Moreb, Eirik A -- Castellanos Rivera, Ruth M -- Madhavan, Sarina -- Pan, Xiufang -- Ran, F Ann -- Yan, Winston X -- Asokan, Aravind -- Zhang, Feng -- Duan, Dongsheng -- Gersbach, Charles A -- DP1-MH100706/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- DP2-OD008586/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P01HL112761/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01DK097768/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01HL089221/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01NS90634/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):403-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5143. Epub 2015 Dec 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. ; Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA. ; Gene Therapy Center, Departments of Genetics, Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. Society of Fellows, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. Graduate Program in Biophysics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA. Department of Neurology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Center for Genomic and Computational Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. charles.gersbach@duke.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721684" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *CRISPR-Cas Systems ; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats ; Dependovirus ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dystrophin/*genetics ; Exons/*genetics ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred mdx ; Muscle, Skeletal/*metabolism ; Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics/*therapy ; Sequence Deletion
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-04-16
    Description: Drug resistance compromises control of malaria. Here, we show that resistance to a commonly used antimalarial medication, atovaquone, is apparently unable to spread. Atovaquone pressure selects parasites with mutations in cytochrome b, a respiratory protein with low but essential activity in the mammalian blood phase of the parasite life cycle. Resistance mutations rescue parasites from the drug but later prove lethal in the mosquito phase, where parasites require full respiration. Unable to respire efficiently, resistant parasites fail to complete mosquito development, arresting their life cycle. Because cytochrome b is encoded by the maternally inherited parasite mitochondrion, even outcrossing with wild-type strains cannot facilitate spread of resistance. Lack of transmission suggests that resistance will be unable to spread in the field, greatly enhancing the utility of atovaquone in malaria control.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodman, Christopher D -- Siregar, Josephine E -- Mollard, Vanessa -- Vega-Rodriguez, Joel -- Syafruddin, Din -- Matsuoka, Hiroyuki -- Matsuzaki, Motomichi -- Toyama, Tomoko -- Sturm, Angelika -- Cozijnsen, Anton -- Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo -- Kita, Kiyoshi -- Marzuki, Sangkot -- McFadden, Geoffrey I -- AI031478/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR00052/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 15;352(6283):349-53. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9279.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. gim@unimelb.edu.au deang@unimelb.edu.au. ; School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, JI Diponegoro no. 69, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia. Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. ; School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. ; Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Malaria Research Institute, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, JI Diponegoro no. 69, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia. Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan Km10, Makassar 90245, Indonesia. ; Division of Medical Zoology, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan. ; Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. ; Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. ; Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, JI Diponegoro no. 69, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27081071" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anopheles/*parasitology ; Antimalarials/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Atovaquone/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Cell Line ; Cytochromes b/*genetics ; Drug Resistance/*genetics ; Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Humans ; Life Cycle Stages/drug effects/genetics ; Malaria/drug therapy/*parasitology/transmission ; Male ; Mice ; Mitochondria/*genetics ; Mutation ; Plasmodium berghei/*drug effects/genetics/growth & development ; Selection, Genetic
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ordman, Roc -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):886. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6275.886.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Roc Ordman is a professor emeritus of chemistry and biochemistry at Beloit College in Wisconsin. For more on life and careers, visit sciencecareers.org. Send your story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912897" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Biochemistry/*education ; *Career Mobility ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Faculty ; Financing, Organized ; Humans ; Male ; Neoplasms/drug therapy ; Pensions ; Retirement/*psychology
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McNutt, Marcia -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):791. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf4216.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Marcia McNutt Editor-in Chief Science Journals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912866" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Humans ; Leadership ; Male ; Policy ; Sexual Harassment/*prevention & control ; Societies ; Students ; Women
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: Astrocytes are specialized and heterogeneous cells that contribute to central nervous system function and homeostasis. However, the mechanisms that create and maintain differences among astrocytes and allow them to fulfill particular physiological roles remain poorly defined. We reveal that neurons actively determine the features of astrocytes in the healthy adult brain and define a role for neuron-derived sonic hedgehog (Shh) in regulating the molecular and functional profile of astrocytes. Thus, the molecular and physiological program of astrocytes is not hardwired during development but, rather, depends on cues from neurons that drive and sustain their specialized properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Farmer, W Todd -- Abrahamsson, Therese -- Chierzi, Sabrina -- Lui, Christopher -- Zaelzer, Cristian -- Jones, Emma V -- Bally, Blandine Ponroy -- Chen, Gary G -- Theroux, Jean-Francois -- Peng, Jimmy -- Bourque, Charles W -- Charron, Frederic -- Ernst, Carl -- Sjostrom, P Jesper -- Murai, Keith K -- FDN 143337/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP 111152/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP 123390/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP 126137/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- NIA 288936/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):849-54. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3103.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Research in Neuroscience, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Repair and Integrative Neuroscience Program, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. McGill Group for Suicide Studies, Douglas Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ; Molecular Biology of Neural Development, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. McGill Group for Suicide Studies, Douglas Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Douglas Hospital Research Institute, Verdun, Quebec, Canada. ; Centre for Research in Neuroscience, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Repair and Integrative Neuroscience Program, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. keith.murai@mcgill.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912893" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/*metabolism ; Cerebellar Cortex/*cytology ; Female ; Gene Deletion ; Hedgehog Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/genetics/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction
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  • 25
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Underwood, Emily -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):116-9. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6269.116.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744391" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibodies/*therapeutic use ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; *Cortical Spreading Depression/drug effects/immunology/physiology ; Drug Design ; Drug Industry ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Migraine Disorders/*immunology/physiopathology/*therapy ; Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/*antagonists & inhibitors/immunology ; Sex Ratio
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  • 26
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mervis, Jeffrey -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):216. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6270.216. Epub 2016 Jan 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816359" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Astronomy/education ; California ; *Faculty ; Humans ; Male ; Sexual Harassment/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Universities
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Motivation for reward drives adaptive behaviors, whereas impairment of reward perception and experience (anhedonia) can contribute to psychiatric diseases, including depression and schizophrenia. We sought to test the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) controls interactions among specific subcortical regions that govern hedonic responses. By using optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging to locally manipulate but globally visualize neural activity in rats, we found that dopamine neuron stimulation drives striatal activity, whereas locally increased mPFC excitability reduces this striatal response and inhibits the behavioral drive for dopaminergic stimulation. This chronic mPFC overactivity also stably suppresses natural reward-motivated behaviors and induces specific new brainwide functional interactions, which predict the degree of anhedonia in individuals. These findings describe a mechanism by which mPFC modulates expression of reward-seeking behavior, by regulating the dynamical interactions between specific distant subcortical regions.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772156/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772156/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ferenczi, Emily A -- Zalocusky, Kelly A -- Liston, Conor -- Grosenick, Logan -- Warden, Melissa R -- Amatya, Debha -- Katovich, Kiefer -- Mehta, Hershel -- Patenaude, Brian -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Kalanithi, Paul -- Etkin, Amit -- Knutson, Brian -- Glover, Gary H -- Deisseroth, Karl -- 1F31MH105151_01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P41 EB015891/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- R00 MH097822/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):aac9698. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9698.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Brain Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. ; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. deissero@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26722001" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anhedonia/*physiology ; Animals ; Brain Mapping ; Corpus Striatum/cytology/drug effects/*physiology ; Depressive Disorder/physiopathology ; Dopamine/pharmacology ; Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects/*physiology ; Female ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Mesencephalon/cytology/drug effects/physiology ; *Motivation ; Nerve Net/physiology ; Oxygen/blood ; Prefrontal Cortex/cytology/drug effects/*physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred LEC ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; *Reward ; Schizophrenia/physiopathology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: Berkowitz et al. (Reports, 9 October 2015, p. 196) described a randomized field experiment testing whether a math app designed to increase parent-child interaction could also bring academic benefits. A reanalysis of the data suggests that this well-designed trial failed to find strong evidence for the efficacy of the intervention. In particular, there was no significant effect of the intervention on math performance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Frank, Michael C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1161. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8008. Epub 2016 Mar 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. mcfrank@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965619" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Educational Status ; Female ; Humans ; *Intergenerational Relations ; Male ; Mathematics/*education ; *Parent-Child Relations ; Students/*psychology
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Vocal imitation involves incorporating instructive auditory information into relevant motor circuits through processes that are poorly understood. In zebra finches, we found that exposure to a tutor's song drives spiking activity within premotor neurons in the juvenile, whereas inhibition suppresses such responses upon learning in adulthood. We measured inhibitory currents evoked by the tutor song throughout development while simultaneously quantifying each bird's learning trajectory. Surprisingly, we found that the maturation of synaptic inhibition onto premotor neurons is correlated with learning but not age. We used synthetic tutoring to demonstrate that inhibition is selective for specific song elements that have already been learned and not those still in refinement. Our results suggest that structured inhibition plays a crucial role during song acquisition, enabling a piece-by-piece mastery of complex tasks.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vallentin, Daniela -- Kosche, Georg -- Lipkind, Dina -- Long, Michael A -- R01NS075044/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):267-71. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3023.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉NYU Neuroscience Institute and Department of Otolaryngology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. ; Laboratory of Vocal Learning, Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; NYU Neuroscience Institute and Department of Otolaryngology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. mlong@med.nyu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816377" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Finches/*physiology ; High Vocal Center/*physiology ; *Learning ; Male ; Motor Neurons/physiology ; Music ; *Neural Inhibition ; Neural Pathways/*physiology ; Prosencephalon/physiology ; Synapses/physiology ; *Vocalization, Animal
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Steroids regulate cell proliferation, tissue development, and cell signaling via two pathways: a nuclear receptor mechanism and genome-independent signaling. Sperm activation, egg maturation, and steroid-induced anesthesia are executed via the latter pathway, the key components of which remain unknown. Here, we present characterization of the human sperm progesterone receptor that is conveyed by the orphan enzyme alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 2 (ABHD2). We show that ABHD2 is highly expressed in spermatozoa, binds progesterone, and acts as a progesterone-dependent lipid hydrolase by depleting the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) from plasma membrane. The 2AG inhibits the sperm calcium channel (CatSper), and its removal leads to calcium influx via CatSper and ensures sperm activation. This study reveals that progesterone-activated endocannabinoid depletion by ABHD2 is a general mechanism by which progesterone exerts its genome-independent action and primes sperm for fertilization.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Miller, Melissa R -- Mannowetz, Nadja -- Iavarone, Anthony T -- Safavi, Rojin -- Gracheva, Elena O -- Smith, James F -- Hill, Rose Z -- Bautista, Diana M -- Kirichok, Yuriy -- Lishko, Polina V -- 1S10OD020062-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR059385/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AR059385/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM111802/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01HD068914/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R21HD081403/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- S10RR025622/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):555-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6887. Epub 2016 Mar 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; QB3/Chemistry Mass Spectrometry Facility, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology; Department of Neuroscience, Program in Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration, and Repair (CNNR), Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06536, USA. ; Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. ; Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. lishko@berkeley.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989199" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Arachidonic Acids/*deficiency ; Calcium/metabolism ; Calcium Channels/metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Endocannabinoids/*deficiency ; Fertilization ; Glycerides/*deficiency ; Humans ; Hydrolases/genetics/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Progesterone/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Rats ; Rats, Wistar ; Receptors, Progesterone/genetics/*metabolism ; Sperm Motility/drug effects/*physiology ; Spermatozoa/drug effects/metabolism/*physiology ; Young Adult
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: Influenza A virus (IAV) causes up to half a million deaths worldwide annually, 90% of which occur in older adults. We show that IAV-infected monocytes from older humans have impaired antiviral interferon production but retain intact inflammasome responses. To understand the in vivo consequence, we used mice expressing a functional Mx gene encoding a major interferon-induced effector against IAV in humans. In Mx1-intact mice with weakened resistance due to deficiencies in Mavs and Tlr7, we found an elevated respiratory bacterial burden. Notably, mortality in the absence of Mavs and Tlr7 was independent of viral load or MyD88-dependent signaling but dependent on bacterial burden, caspase-1/11, and neutrophil-dependent tissue damage. Therefore, in the context of weakened antiviral resistance, vulnerability to IAV disease is a function of caspase-dependent pathology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pillai, Padmini S -- Molony, Ryan D -- Martinod, Kimberly -- Dong, Huiping -- Pang, Iris K -- Tal, Michal C -- Solis, Angel G -- Bielecki, Piotr -- Mohanty, Subhasis -- Trentalange, Mark -- Homer, Robert J -- Flavell, Richard A -- Wagner, Denisa D -- Montgomery, Ruth R -- Shaw, Albert C -- Staeheli, Peter -- Iwasaki, Akiko -- 5T32HL066987-13/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- AI062428/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI064705/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI081884/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F31 AG039163/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272201100019C/PHS HHS/ -- K24 AG02489/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- K24 AG042489/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01 AI500031/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AG21342/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01HL102101/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL125501/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007019-36/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007019-38/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI055403/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):463-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3926.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Institute of Virology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 11, 79104 Freiburg, Germany. ; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. akiko.iwasaki@yale.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102485" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics/metabolism ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Bacterial Infections/etiology/*immunology ; Caspase 1/metabolism ; Caspases/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/genetics/*immunology ; Influenza A virus/*immunology ; Influenza, Human/complications/*immunology ; Interferon-beta/immunology ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Monocytes/immunology ; Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Neutrophils/immunology ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*immunology ; Respiratory Tract Infections/*immunology/microbiology ; Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics/metabolism ; Viral Load ; Young Adult
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balter, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):652-5, 657. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6274.652. Epub 2016 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912840" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anthropology ; Faculty ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Museums ; New York City ; Paleontology ; Sex Offenses/*psychology ; Sexual Harassment/*psychology ; Students/psychology ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Women/*psychology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Robbins, Trevor W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):24-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9698.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychology and Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK. twr2@cam.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721987" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anhedonia/*physiology ; Animals ; Corpus Striatum/*physiology ; Dopaminergic Neurons/*physiology ; Female ; Male ; *Motivation ; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology ; *Reward
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Mitochondrial morphology is shaped by fusion and division of their membranes. Here, we found that adult myocardial function depends on balanced mitochondrial fusion and fission, maintained by processing of the dynamin-like guanosine triphosphatase OPA1 by the mitochondrial peptidases YME1L and OMA1. Cardiac-specific ablation of Yme1l in mice activated OMA1 and accelerated OPA1 proteolysis, which triggered mitochondrial fragmentation and altered cardiac metabolism. This caused dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Cardiac function and mitochondrial morphology were rescued by Oma1 deletion, which prevented OPA1 cleavage. Feeding mice a high-fat diet or ablating Yme1l in skeletal muscle restored cardiac metabolism and preserved heart function without suppressing mitochondrial fragmentation. Thus, unprocessed OPA1 is sufficient to maintain heart function, OMA1 is a critical regulator of cardiomyocyte survival, and mitochondrial morphology and cardiac metabolism are intimately linked.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wai, Timothy -- Garcia-Prieto, Jaime -- Baker, Michael J -- Merkwirth, Carsten -- Benit, Paule -- Rustin, Pierre -- Ruperez, Francisco Javier -- Barbas, Coral -- Ibanez, Borja -- Langer, Thomas -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):aad0116. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0116.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, 50674 Cologne, Germany. Max-Planck-Institute for Biology of Aging, Cologne, Germany. ; Myocardial Pathophysiology Area, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain. ; Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, 50674 Cologne, Germany. ; INSERM UMR 1141, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France. Universite Paris 7, Faculte de Medecine Denis Diderot, Paris, France. ; Centre for Metabolomics and Bioanalysis (CEMBIO), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Campus Monteprincipe, Boadilla del Monte, 28668 Madrid, Spain. ; Myocardial Pathophysiology Area, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Madrid, Spain. Department of Cardiology, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IIS), Fundacion Jimenez Diaz Hospital, Madrid, Spain. thomas.langer@uni-koeln.de bibanez@cnic.es. ; Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, 50674 Cologne, Germany. Max-Planck-Institute for Biology of Aging, Cologne, Germany. Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. Center for Molecular Medicine (CMMC), University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. thomas.langer@uni-koeln.de bibanez@cnic.es.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785494" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Diet, High-Fat ; Embryonic Development ; Female ; GTP Phosphohydrolases ; Gene Deletion ; Heart/embryology ; Heart Failure/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Male ; Metalloendopeptidases/genetics ; Metalloproteases/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Mitochondria, Heart/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; *Mitochondrial Degradation ; *Mitochondrial Dynamics ; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal/enzymology ; Myocardium/*metabolism/pathology ; Myocytes, Cardiac/enzymology/pathology ; Proteolysis
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-02-27
    Description: Ebola virus disease in humans is highly lethal, with case fatality rates ranging from 25 to 90%. There is no licensed treatment or vaccine against the virus, underscoring the need for efficacious countermeasures. We ascertained that a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit Ebola virus disease outbreak maintained circulating antibodies against the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein for more than a decade after infection. From this survivor we isolated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize recent and previous outbreak variants of Ebola virus and mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Strikingly, monotherapy with mAb114 protected macaques when given as late as 5 days after challenge. Treatment with a single human mAb suggests that a simplified therapeutic strategy for human Ebola infection may be possible.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Corti, Davide -- Misasi, John -- Mulangu, Sabue -- Stanley, Daphne A -- Kanekiyo, Masaru -- Wollen, Suzanne -- Ploquin, Aurelie -- Doria-Rose, Nicole A -- Staupe, Ryan P -- Bailey, Michael -- Shi, Wei -- Choe, Misook -- Marcus, Hadar -- Thompson, Emily A -- Cagigi, Alberto -- Silacci, Chiara -- Fernandez-Rodriguez, Blanca -- Perez, Laurent -- Sallusto, Federica -- Vanzetta, Fabrizia -- Agatic, Gloria -- Cameroni, Elisabetta -- Kisalu, Neville -- Gordon, Ingelise -- Ledgerwood, Julie E -- Mascola, John R -- Graham, Barney S -- Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques -- Trefry, John C -- Lanzavecchia, Antonio -- Sullivan, Nancy J -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1339-42. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5224. Epub 2016 Feb 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. Humabs BioMed SA, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. ; Humabs BioMed SA, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. ; National Institute for Biomedical Research, National Laboratory of Public Health, Kinshasa B.P. 1197, Democratic Republic of the Congo. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. njsull@mail.nih.gov.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917593" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/*administration & dosage/immunology/isolation & ; purification ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*administration & dosage/immunology/isolation & ; purification ; Antibodies, Viral/*administration & dosage/immunology/isolation & purification ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Disease Outbreaks ; Ebolavirus/*immunology ; Female ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology/*prevention & control ; Humans ; Macaca ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Survivors
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Couzin-Frankel, Jennifer -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):440-3. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6272.440.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823410" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Child ; Child, Preschool ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; DNA Repair/genetics ; Female ; *Genes, Neoplasm ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Humans ; Male ; Mutation ; Neoplasms/*genetics/mortality ; Pedigree ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Couzin-Frankel, Jennifer -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1126. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1126.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965598" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cholesterol, HDL/*blood ; Coronary Disease/*blood/*genetics ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Scavenger Receptors, Class B/*genetics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Leslie, Mitch -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):13. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6268.13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721982" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; DNA/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Male ; Metabolism/*genetics ; Mice ; RNA, Transfer/genetics/*metabolism ; *Spermatozoa
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Devkota, Suzanne -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):452-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1353.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉F. Widjaja Foundation Inflammatory Bowel and Immunobiology Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. suzanne.devkota@cshs.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823414" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/*microbiology ; Female ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*drug effects/*physiology ; Humans ; Male ; Metformin/*pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3222 British adults of Pakistani heritage with high parental relatedness, discovering 1111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer homozygous knockout genotypes than we expected, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent loss-of-function (LOF) variants per adult. When genetic data were linked to the individuals' lifelong health records, we observed no significant relationship between gene knockouts and clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this data set, we identified a healthy PRDM9-knockout mother and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child, and control individuals. Our results show that meiotic recombination sites are localized away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform on essential genetic loci and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Narasimhan, Vagheesh M -- Hunt, Karen A -- Mason, Dan -- Baker, Christopher L -- Karczewski, Konrad J -- Barnes, Michael R -- Barnett, Anthony H -- Bates, Chris -- Bellary, Srikanth -- Bockett, Nicholas A -- Giorda, Kristina -- Griffiths, Christopher J -- Hemingway, Harry -- Jia, Zhilong -- Kelly, M Ann -- Khawaja, Hajrah A -- Lek, Monkol -- McCarthy, Shane -- McEachan, Rosie -- O'Donnell-Luria, Anne -- Paigen, Kenneth -- Parisinos, Constantinos A -- Sheridan, Eamonn -- Southgate, Laura -- Tee, Louise -- Thomas, Mark -- Xue, Yali -- Schnall-Levin, Michael -- Petkov, Petko M -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- Maher, Eamonn R -- Trembath, Richard C -- MacArthur, Daniel G -- Wright, John -- Durbin, Richard -- van Heel, David A -- GM 099640/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MR/M009017/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 GM104371/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM104371/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- WT098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT099769/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT101597/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT102627/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Department of Health/United Kingdom -- Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):474-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aac8624. Epub 2016 Mar 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK. ; Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Teaching Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Bradford BD9 6RJ, UK. ; Center for Genome Dynamics, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK. ; Diabetes and Endocrine Centre, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham B9 5SS, UK. ; TPP, Mill House, Troy Road, Leeds LS18 5TN, UK. ; Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK. ; 10X Genomics, 7068 Koll Center Parkway, Suite 415, Pleasanton, CA 94566, USA. ; Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, London NW1 2DA, UK. Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London NW1 2DA, UK. ; School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. ; Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Box 238, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK. Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. rd@sanger.ac.uk d.vanheel@qmul.ac.uk. ; Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK. rd@sanger.ac.uk d.vanheel@qmul.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940866" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Consanguinity ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Drug Prescriptions ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Fertility ; Gene Knockout Techniques ; Genes, Lethal ; Genetic Loci ; Genome, Human ; Great Britain ; *Health ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/*genetics ; Homologous Recombination ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Male ; Mothers ; Pakistan/ethnology ; Phenotype
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: During corticogenesis, excitatory neurons are born from progenitors located in the ventricular zone (VZ), from where they migrate to assemble into circuits. How neuronal identity is dynamically specified upon progenitor division is unknown. Here, we study this process using a high-temporal-resolution technology allowing fluorescent tagging of isochronic cohorts of newborn VZ cells. By combining this in vivo approach with single-cell transcriptomics in mice, we identify and functionally characterize neuron-specific primordial transcriptional programs as they dynamically unfold. Our results reveal early transcriptional waves that instruct the sequence and pace of neuronal differentiation events, guiding newborn neurons toward their final fate, and contribute to a road map for the reverse engineering of specific classes of cortical neurons from undifferentiated cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Telley, Ludovic -- Govindan, Subashika -- Prados, Julien -- Stevant, Isabelle -- Nef, Serge -- Dermitzakis, Emmanouil -- Dayer, Alexandre -- Jabaudon, Denis -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1443-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8361. Epub 2016 Mar 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Basic Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland. Institute for Genetics and Genomics in Geneva (iGE3), University of Geneva, Switzerland. ; Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva, Switzerland. Institute for Genetics and Genomics in Geneva (iGE3), University of Geneva, Switzerland. ; Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva, Switzerland. Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, Greece. Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Institute for Genetics and Genomics in Geneva (iGE3), University of Geneva, Switzerland. ; Department of Basic Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland. Department of Psychiatry, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland. Institute for Genetics and Genomics in Geneva (iGE3), University of Geneva, Switzerland. ; Department of Basic Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland. Clinic of Neurology, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland. Institute for Genetics and Genomics in Geneva (iGE3), University of Geneva, Switzerland. denis.jabaudon@unige.ch.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940868" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics ; Cerebral Ventricles/cytology/embryology ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Female ; GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics ; Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Neocortex/cytology/*embryology ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics ; Neural Stem Cells/cytology ; Neurogenesis/*genetics ; Neurons/*cytology ; Neuropeptides/genetics ; SOXB1 Transcription Factors/genetics ; *Transcription, Genetic ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: As tumors grow, they acquire mutations, some of which create neoantigens that influence the response of patients to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We explored the impact of neoantigen intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) on antitumor immunity. Through integrated analysis of ITH and neoantigen burden, we demonstrate a relationship between clonal neoantigen burden and overall survival in primary lung adenocarcinomas. CD8(+)tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reactive to clonal neoantigens were identified in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and expressed high levels of PD-1. Sensitivity to PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade in patients with advanced NSCLC and melanoma was enhanced in tumors enriched for clonal neoantigens. T cells recognizing clonal neoantigens were detectable in patients with durable clinical benefit. Cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced subclonal neoantigens, contributing to an increased mutational load, were enriched in certain poor responders. These data suggest that neoantigen heterogeneity may influence immune surveillance and support therapeutic developments targeting clonal neoantigens.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McGranahan, Nicholas -- Furness, Andrew J S -- Rosenthal, Rachel -- Ramskov, Sofie -- Lyngaa, Rikke -- Saini, Sunil Kumar -- Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam -- Wilson, Gareth A -- Birkbak, Nicolai J -- Hiley, Crispin T -- Watkins, Thomas B K -- Shafi, Seema -- Murugaesu, Nirupa -- Mitter, Richard -- Akarca, Ayse U -- Linares, Joseph -- Marafioti, Teresa -- Henry, Jake Y -- Van Allen, Eliezer M -- Miao, Diana -- Schilling, Bastian -- Schadendorf, Dirk -- Garraway, Levi A -- Makarov, Vladimir -- Rizvi, Naiyer A -- Snyder, Alexandra -- Hellmann, Matthew D -- Merghoub, Taha -- Wolchok, Jedd D -- Shukla, Sachet A -- Wu, Catherine J -- Peggs, Karl S -- Chan, Timothy A -- Hadrup, Sine R -- Quezada, Sergio A -- Swanton, Charles -- 12100/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 1R01CA155010-02/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 1R01CA182461-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 1R01CA184922-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1463-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1490. Epub 2016 Mar 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. Centre for Mathematics and Physics in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology (CoMPLEX), University College London (UCL), London WC1E 6BT, UK. Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Cancer Immunology Unit, UCL Cancer Institute, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Section for Immunology and Vaccinology, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 1970 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. ; The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. ; Cancer Immunology Unit, UCL Cancer Institute, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Department of Cellular Pathology, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Center for Cancer Precision Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany. German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), 69121 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Hematology/Oncology Division, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Ludwig Collaborative Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. Ludwig Collaborative Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Internal Medicine, Brigham and Woman's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Cancer Immunology Unit, UCL Cancer Institute, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. s.quezada@ucl.ac.uk charles.swanton@crick.ac.uk. ; The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. s.quezada@ucl.ac.uk charles.swanton@crick.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940869" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy/genetics/*immunology ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics/*immunology ; Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; CTLA-4 Antigen/immunology ; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics/immunology ; Cell Cycle Checkpoints/immunology ; Female ; Humans ; *Immunologic Surveillance ; Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics/*immunology ; Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology ; Male ; Melanoma/immunology ; Middle Aged ; Mutation ; Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology ; Skin Neoplasms/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 43
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McLaughlin, Kathleen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 15;352(6283):283. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6283.283.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Kathleen McLaughlin is a writer in Beijing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27081050" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Aging ; China/epidemiology ; *Family Relations ; Female ; Human Migration ;