ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY  (1,773)
  • 1980-1984  (1,773)
  • 1925-1929
Collection
Years
Year
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Three major potential sources of errors that influence the performance of the proposed LIDAR wind profiling systems are accounted for in the following simulation studies. First, the coherent CO2 laser system proposed by NOAA/ERL for the WINDSAT requires distributions of 10 microns size aerosol concentrations throughout the atmosphere to determine the Doppler shifted backscatter signal. Second, atmospheric influences such as clouds and precipitation affect the LIDAR system's ability to obtain complete vertical wind profiles. In this study, experiments are reported on in which the complete wind profiles are only available in model generated cloud-free regions down to model cloud tops. Third, constraints on the available power required for the expected operational lifetime duration of a LIDAR system govern the number of pulses which can be used to sample a 300 km square area.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Res. Rev., 1983; p 6
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A series of realistic simulation studies is being conducted as a cooperative effort between the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Meteorological Center (NMC), and the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) to provide a quantitative assessment of the potential impact of proposed observation systems on large scale numerical weather prediction. A special objective of this project is to avoid the unrealistic character of earlier simulation studies.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Res. Rev., 1983; p 1
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Space time mapping of very high frequencies (VHF) sources reveals lightning processes for cloud to ground (CG) and for large intracloud (IC) flashes are confined to an altitude below about 10 km and closely associated with the central high reflectivity region of a storm. Another class of IC flashes was identified that produces a splattering of small sources within the main electrically active volume of a storm and also within a large divergent wind canopy at the top of a storm. There is no apparent temporal association between the small high altitude IC flashes occurring almost continuously and the large IC and CG flashes sporadically occurring in the lower portions of storms.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: FAA Eighth Intern. Aerospace and Ground Conf. on Lightning and Static Elec.; 9 p
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The advantages of a technique in which data collection platforms randomly transmit signal to a polar orbiting satellite, thus eliminating satellite interrogation are demonstrated in investigations of the atmosphere; oceanographic parameters; Arctic regions and ice conditions; navigation and position location; and data buoy development.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-SP-457 , LC-82-14553 , NAS 1.21:457
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Past developments, accomplishments and future potential of meteorological satellites are discussed. Meteorological satellite design is described in detail. Space platforms and their meteorological applications are discussed. User needs are also discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CP-2227 , NAS 1.55:2227
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The characteristics of satellite-derived temperature soundings that would significantly affect their use as input for numerical weather prediction models were examined. Independent evaluations of satellite soundings were emphasized to better define error characteristics. Results of a Nimbus-6 sounding study reveal an underestimation of the strength of synoptic scale troughs and ridges, and associated gradients in isobaric height and temperature fields. The most significant errors occurred near the Earth's surface and the tropopause. Soundings from the TIROS-N and NOAA-6 satellites were also evaluated. Results again showed an underestimation of upper level trough amplitudes leading to weaker thermal gradient depictions in satellite-only fields. These errors show a definite correlation to the synoptic flow patterns. In a satellite-only analysis used to initialize a numerical model forecast, it was found that these synoptically correlated errors were retained in the forecast sequence.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-168509
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Information about the Earth hydrosphere, obtained in the field and from aircraft and satellite imagery is reported. Particular emphasis is given to the use of microwave sensors in the study of soil moisture, sea ice, snow cover and atmospheric parameters associated with watersheds.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TP-1788-VOL-2
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A systematic approach to investigating the transfer of basic ambient temperature information and its distortion by satellite systems and subsequent analysis algorithms is discussed. The retrieval analysis cycle is derived, the variance spectrum of information is examined as it takes different forms in that process, and the quality and quantity of information existing at each stop is compared with the initial ambient temperature information. Temperature retrieval algorithms can smooth, add, or further distort information, depending on how stable the algorithm is, and how heavily influenced by a priori data.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: ESA Nowcasting: Mesoscale Observations and Short-Range Prediction; p 73-76
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: An analysis of a tornado outbreak in Wichita Falls, Texas was analyzed. The coupling of upper and lower tropospheric jet streaks, leading to severe storm outbreaks is illustrated. The high resolution SESAME data sets indicate that mass and momentum adjustments which couple upper and lower tropospheric jets occur within a 3 to 6 hr time frame over a 100 to 500 km domain, and establish the role of isallobaric forcing in the storm development. It is suggested that the output rate of data from the existing 12 hr network be increased to provide better temporal resolution of wind, mass and moisture data.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: ESA Nowcasting: Mesoscale Observations and Short-Range Prediction; p 375-380
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Steady axisymmetric basic states in a spherical cap and their stability to azimuthally varying perturbations of different wave numbers were numerically investigated. The main features of the planned computer code and numerical methods are outlined.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: The Numerical Studies Program for the Atmospheric Gen. Circ. Expt. (AGCE) for Spacelab Flights; p 33-36
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A ready reference is presented to 61 papers by members of the Laboratory published between January 1, 1978 and December 31, 1979. To avoid unnecessary duplication, only abstracts or introductions of NASA reports and conference proceedings are included with reprints of articles from various journals.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TP-1788-VOL-1
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Attention is given to the development history of the Central Weather Processor (CWP) program of the Federal Aviation Administration. The CWP will interface with high speed digital communications links, accept data and information products from new sources, generate data processing products, and provide meteorologists with the capability to automate data retrieval and dissemination. The CWP's users are operational (air traffic controllers, meteorologists and pilots), institutional (logistics, maintenance, testing and evaluation personnel), and administrative.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2404
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The objective of the work reported here is to develop a methodology by which electromagnetic measurements of inflight lightning strike data can be understood and extended to other aircraft. A linear and time invariant approach based on a combination of Fourier transform and three dimensional finite difference techniques is demonstrated. This approach can obtain the lightning channel current in the absence of the aircraft for given channel characteristic impedance and resistive loading. The model is applied to several measurements from the NASA F106B lightning research program. A non-linear three dimensional finite difference code has also been developed to study the response of the F106B to a lightning leader attachment. This model includes three species air chemistry and fluid continuity equations and can incorporate an experimentally based streamer formulation. Calculated responses are presented for various attachment locations and leader parameters. The results are compared qualitatively with measured inflight data.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: EMA-83-R-21 , NASA-CR-3746 , NAS 1.26:3746
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A perturbation model to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Reference Atmosphere Model (GRAM) was developed for use in the Aeroassist Orbital Transfer Vehicle (AOTV) trajectory and analysis. The model reflects NASA Space Shuttle experience over the first twelve entry flights. The GRAM was selected over the Air Force 1978 Reference Model because of its more general formulation and wider use throughout NASA. The add-on model, a simple scaling with altitude to reflect density structure encountered by the Shuttle Orbiter was selected principally to simplify implementation. Perturbations, by season, can be utilized to minimize the number of required simulations, however, exact Shuttle flight history can be exercised using the same model if desired. Such a perturbation model, though not meteorologically motivated, enables inclusion of High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) results in the thermosphere. Provision is made to incorporate differing perturbations during the AOTV entry and exit phases of the aero-asist maneuver to account for trajectory displacement (geographic) along the ground track.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-171824-PT-2 , NAS 1.26:171824-PT-2
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The ambient atmospheric parameter comparisons versus derived values from the first twelve Space Shuttle Orbiter entry flights are presented. Available flights, flight data products, and data sources utilized are reviewed. Comparisons are presented based on remote meteorological measurements as well as two comprehensive models which incorporate latitudinal and seasonal effects. These are the Air Force 1978 Reference Atmosphere and the Marshall Space Flight Center Global Reference Model (GRAM). Atmospheric structure sensible in the Shuttle flight data is shown and discussed. A model for consideration in Aero-assisted Orbital Transfer Vehicle (AOTV) trajectory analysis, proposed to modify the GRAM data to emulate Shuttle experiments.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-171824-PT-1 , NAS 1.26:171824-PT-1 , AMA-84-16
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Electromagnetic measurements are being made during direct lightning strikes by NASA Langley Center using a specially instrumented F-106B aircraft. The research is to aid refinement, characterization, and understanding of the lightning-aircraft interaction process and the lightning hazards to aircraft. Statistical methods are applied to characterize some aspects of the lightning data obtained from 176 strikes to the aircraft. Specific attention is given to the problem of estimating the upper extreme quantiles of the distributions of peak-to-peak values for currents and rates of change in the magnetic and flux densities. A formal treatment via a general location-scale family of models allows the estimation method to be adapted to the realized shapes the distributions. The shapes are examined by probability plotting methods.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.60:2252 , NASA-TP-2252 , L-15686
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The severe weather characteristics of convective storms as observed by the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) are investigated. Low 37 GHz brightness temperatures (due to scattering of upwelling radiation by precipitation size ice) are related to the occurrence of severe weather (large hail, strong winds or wind damage, tornadoes and funnel clouds) within one hour of the satellite observation time. During 1979 and 1980 over the United States there were 263 storms which had very cold 37 GHz signatures. Of these storms 15% were severe. The SMMR detected hail, wind, and tornadic storms equally well. Critical Success Indices (CSI's) of 0.32, 0.48, and 0.38 are achieved for the thresholding of severe vs. nonsevere low brightness temperature events during 1979, 1980, and the two years combined, respectively. Such scores are comparable to skill scores for early radar detection methods. These results suggest that a future geostationary passive microwave imaging capability at 37 GHz, with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, would allow the detection of severe convective storms. This capability would provide a useful complement to radar, especially in areas not covered by radar.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:176431 , NASA-CR-176431
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: During the past several years, research on the structure of extra-tropical jet streams has been carried out with direct measurements with instrumented research aircraft from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). These measurements have been used to describe the wind, temperature, turbulence and chemical characteristics of jet streams. A fundamental question is one of assessing the potential value of existing operational numerical forecast models for forecasting the meteorological conditions along commercial aviation flight routes so as to execute Minimum Flight Time tracks and thus obtain the maximum efficiency in aviation fuel consumption. As an initial attempt at resolving this question, the 12 hour forecast output from two models was expressed in terms of a common output format to ease their intercomparison. The chosen models were: (1) the Fine-Mesh Spectral hemispheric and (2) the Limited Area Fine Mesh (LFM) model.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:167884 , NASA-CR-167884
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method for interpreting direct strike and nearby strike lightning data on aircraft is discussed. The theoretical basis for the interpretation involves a transmission line model for the aircraft, and is discussed. Results of applying this model to the F-106 aircraft are presented and in the natural resonances are computed for several different electrical representations of the aircraft. The signal processing techniques useful for extracting pole (resonance) information from experimental data are discussed, and the use of these techniques on the measured lightning data is illustrated. Finally, the results of a related ground-based lightning experiment are discussed and data are presented. The purpose of this test was to gain additional understanding of the resonance properties of the F-106 aircraft.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:172127 , NASA-CR-172127
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 4 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 4 uses flight plan segment wind and temperature differences as indicators of dates and geographic areas for which significant forecast errors may have occurred. An in-depth analysis is then conducted for the days identified. The analysis show that significant errors occur in the operational forecast on 15 of the 33 arbitrarily selected days included in the study. Wind speeds in an area of maximum winds are underestimated by at least 20 to 25 kts. on 14 of these days. The analysis also show that there is a tendency to repeat the same forecast errors from prog to prog. Also, some perceived forecast errors from the flight plan comparisons could not be verified by visual inspection of the corresponding National Meteorological Center forecast and analyses charts, and it is likely that they are the result of weather data interpolation techniques or some other data processing procedure in the airlines' flight planning systems.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:167865 , NASA-CR-167865
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 1 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 1 compares flight plans based on forecasts with plans based on the verifying analysis from 33 days during the summer and fall of 1979. The comparisons show that: (1) potential fuel savings conservatively estimated to be between 1.2 and 2.5 percent could result from using more timely and accurate weather data in flight planning and route selection; (2) the Suitland forecast generally underestimates wind speeds; and (3) the track selection methodology of many airlines operating on the North Atlantic may not be optimum resulting in their selecting other than the optimum North Atlantic Organized Track about 50 percent of the time.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-167862 , NAS 1.26:167862
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: All ground-based observations of the solar five-minute oscillations are affected by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere that leads to substantial refractive index variations. The turbulent motions serve to mix an air mass that is thermally stratified in the vertical, thereby producing intermittent thermal fluctuations over a wide range of heights in the atmosphere. These thermal structures yield refractive index changes that deflect the light path in a complicated way, producing intricate variations of amplitude and phase in what might have started out as simple plane waves. Since the fluid turbulence is statistical in nature, so too is the optical turbulence which is an integral measure of the refractive index changes along the light travel path. All of this produces what is usually called atmospheric seeing, which consists of image motion, blurring and distortion across the field of view. The effects of atmospheric seeing upon observations of five-minute oscillations carried out from the ground were assessed. This will help to provide a baseline estimate of the scienctific benefits that might accrue if one were able to observe the same oscillations from a space observatory unfettered by seeing effects.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:175783 , NASA-CR-175783 , JPL-9950-1091
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The measurements from current and planned geosynchronous satellites provide quantitative estimates of temperature and moisture profiles, surface temperature, wind, cloud properties, and precipitation. A number of significant observation characteristics remain, they include: (1) temperature and moisture profiles in cloudy areas; (2) high vertical profile resolution; (3) definitive precipitation area mapping and precipitation rate estimates on the convective cloud scale; (4) winds from low level cloud motions at night; (5) the determination of convective cloud structure; and (6) high resolution surface temperature determination. Four major new observing capabilities are proposed to overcome these deficiencies: a microwave sounder/imager, a high resolution visible and infrared imager, a high spectral resolution infrared sounder, and a total ozone mapper. It is suggested that the four sensors are flown together and used to support major mesoscale and short range forecasting field experiments.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-86185 , NAS 1.15:86185
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The pitfalls of the present method of reducing surface pressure to sea level are reviewed, and an alternative, adjusted pressure, P, is proposed. P is obtained from solution of a Poisson equation over a continental region, using the simplest boundary condition along the perimeter or coastline where P equals the sea level pressure. The use of P would avoid the empiricisms and disadvantages of pressure reduction to sea level, and would produce surface pressure charts which depict the true geostrophic wind at the surface.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-174174 , NAS 1.26:174174
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A climatology of ozone for altitudes from FL190 to FL590 (19,000 to 59,000 ft) is presented. Climatological tables are given in two appendixes: one with d deg latitude resolution on a monthly basis, and one with 10 deg latitude resolution on a seasonal basis. Data were taken from 11,472 balloon-borne ozonesondes launched at 60 stations from 1963 to 1980 and from over 160,000 observations made by the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program on 4417 commercial airliner flights from 1975 to 1979. Case study and statistical comparisons of results from these two data sets showed that they are compatible and can be combined. Several examples of analyses that can be made by using the tabulated data are given and discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.60:2303 , E-1626 , NASA-TP-2303
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An efficient, flexible, three-dimensional, hydrodynamic, computer code has been developed for a spherical cap geometry. The code will be used to simulate NASA's Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment (AGCE). The AGCE is a spherical, baroclinic experiment which will model the large-scale dynamics of our atmosphere; it has been proposed to NASA for future Spacelab flights. In the AGCE a radial dielectric body force will simulate gravity, with hot fluid tending to move outwards. In order that this force be dominant, the AGCE must be operated in a low gravity environment such as Spacelab. The full potential of the AGCE will only be realized by working in conjunction with an accurate computer model. Proposed experimental parameter settings will be checked first using model runs. Then actual experimental results will be compared with the model predictions. This interaction between experiment and theory will be very valuable in determining the nature of the AGCE flows and hence their relationship to analytical theories and actual atmospheric dynamics.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-171109 , NAS 1.26:171109 , SAI-84/1142
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results of an investigation to study the interaction between ocean and atmosphere on the annual to decadal time scale are reported. Separate studies of the ocean response to atmospheric forcing, and of atmospheric response to ocean forcing were also conducted. The main findings are the dynamics of sea surface temperature anomalies, the role of short time scale weather fluctuations in the seasonal cycle of the upper ocean variability, and the planetary wave response to sea surface temperature anomalies. A numerical model of the ocean atmosphere continent system and a two layer quasi-geostropic ocean model is discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-173834 , NAS 1.26:173834
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The use of two dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) subjected to pattern recognition technology for the identification and classification of low altitude stratus cloud structure from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery was examined. The development of a scene independent pattern recognition methodology, unconstrained by conventional cloud morphological classifications was emphasized. A technique for extracting cloud shape, direction, and size attributes from GOES visual imagery was developed. These attributes were combined with two statistical attributes (cloud mean brightness, cloud standard deviation), and interrogated using unsupervised clustering amd maximum likelihood classification techniques. Results indicate that: (1) the key cloud discrimination attributes are mean brightness, direction, shape, and minimum size; (2) cloud structure can be differentiated at given pixel scales; (3) cloud type may be identifiable at coarser scales; (4) there are positive indications of scene independence which would permit development of a cloud signature bank; (5) edge enhancement of GOES imagery does not appreciably improve cloud classification over the use of raw data; and (6) the GOES imagery must be apodized before generation of FFTs.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: JPL-PUB-84-17 , NASA-CR-173727 , NAS 1.26:173727
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The exploration of a monsoon depression over Burma and the Bay of Bengal is discussed. Aircraft and satellite data were examined, with an emphasis on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) aboard TIROS-N and the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) aboard Nimbus-7. The structure of the monsoon depression was found to be dominated by cumulus convection. The only systematic large scale behavior discerned was a propagation of the depression westward, and diurnal migration of contours of brightness temperature. These contours in the middle troposphere showed a gradient toward the north with the patterns migrating northward at night. From SMMR and dropwindsonde data, water vapor contents were found to be near 65 mm, increasing to more than 70 mm in the northeast Bay of Bengal. Cloud water contents reached about three mm. Rainfall rates exceeding 5.7 mm/h occurred over a small part of the storm area, while mean rainfall rates in areas of order 20,000 sq km reached approximately 0.5 mm/h. Measured MSU brightness temperatures were reconciled very well with dropwindsonde data and with airborne in situ observations of clouds (by photography) and hydrometeors (by radar). Diffuse scattering was determined to be important in computing brightness temperature.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: PB84-212059 , NASA-CR-173590 , NAS 1.26:173590
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation of thermospheric winds, relative to the space station orbital altitudes, was made in order to provide information that is useful in an environmental disturbance assessment. Current plans are for this low Earth orbiting facility to orbit at an inclination of 28.5 deg. The orbital altitudes were not yet defined due to the evolutionary configuration of the Space Station. The upper and lower bounds of the orbital altitudes will be based on constraints set by the drag and expected orbital decay and delivery altitude capability of the Shuttle. The orbital altitude will be estimated on the order of 500 km. Neutral winds in the region from about 80 to 600 km which were derived from satellite drag data, Fabry-Perot interferometers, sounding rockets, ground-based optical Doppler techniques, incoherent scatter radar measurements from Millstone Hill combined with the mass spectrometer and lithium trail neutral wind measurements are examined. The equations of motion of the low Earth orbiting facility are also discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-82577 , NAS 1.15:82577
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Current understanding of a double vortex thunderstorm involves a pair of contra-rotating vortices that exists in the dynamic updraft. The pair is believed to be a result of a blocking effect which occurs when a cylindrical thermal updraft of a thunderstorm protrudes into the upper level air and there is a large amount of vertical wind shear between the low level and upper level air layers. A numerical tornado prediction scheme based on the double vortex thunderstorm was developed. The Energy-Shear Index (ESI) is part of the scheme and is calculated from radiosonde measurements. The ESI incorporates parameters representative of thermal instability and blocking effect, and indicates appropriate environments for which the development of double vortex thunderstorms is likely.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-171023 , NAS 1.26:171023
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The technical characteristics of the Atmospheric Sciences Research Facility, the improvements being made to the instrumentation there which will enhance its usefulness in atmospheric research, and several of the on-going research programs are described. Among the area of atmospheric research discussed are clouds and precipitation, lightning, ozone, wind, and storms. Meteorological instruments including Doppler radar, spectrophotometers, and ozone sensors are mentioned. Atmospheric research relevant to aircraft design and COMSTAR communication satellites is briefly discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-84422 , NAS 1.15:84422
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Mathematical climate modelling has matured as a discipline to the point that it is useful in paleoclimatology. As an example a new two dimensional energy balance model is described and applied to several problems of current interest. The model includes the seasonal cycle and the detailed land-sea geographical distribution. By examining the changes in the seasonal cycle when external perturbations are forced upon the climate system it is possible to construct hypotheses about the origin of midlatitude ice sheets and polar ice caps. In particular the model predicts a rather sudden potential for glaciation over large areas when the Earth's orbital elements are only slightly altered. Similarly, the drift of continents or the change of atmospheric carbon dioxide over geological time induces radical changes in continental ice cover. With the advance of computer technology and improved understanding of the individual components of the climate system, these ideas will be tested in far more realistic models in the near future.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-86106 , NAS 1.15:86106
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Volume 2, of a 3 volume technical memoranda contains a detailed documentation of the GLAS fourth order general circulation model. Volume 2 contains the CYBER 205 scalar and vector codes of the model, list of variables, and cross references. A variable name dictionary for the scalar code, and code listings are outlined.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-86064-VOL-2 , NAS 1.15:86064-VOL-2
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The volume 1, of a 3 volume technical memoranda which contains a documentation of the GLAS Fourth Order General Circulation Model is presented. Volume 1 contains the documentation, description of the stratospheric/tropospheric extension, user's guide, climatological boundary data, and some climate simulation studies.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-86064-VOL-1 , NAS 1.15:86064-VOL-1
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Sounding data which were derived from VAS radiance measurements and anticipated increased time and space resolution of the mesoscale environment are outlined. The new data presents problems which are not encounted when using conventional measurements because of the irregular spacing of the data, biases in the data, and errors due to cloud contaminated measurements. These problems are addressed and an analysis technique which utilizes LFM guess fields to produce a consistent four dimensional data set which describes the mesoscale environment over a large area is presented.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.15:82574 , NASA-TM-82574
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: World-wide continuous measurement of lightning location, intensity, and time during both day and night is to be provided by the Lightning Mapper (LITMAP) instrument. A technology assessment to determine if the LITMAP requirements can be met using existing sensor and electronic technologies is presented. The baseline concept discussed in this report is a compromise among a number of opposing requirements (e.g., ground resolution versus array size; large field of view versus narrow bandpass filter). The concept provides coverage for more than 80 percent of the lightning events as based on recent above-cloud NASA/U2 lightning measurements.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:170909 , NASA-CR-170909
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An overview of the NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program (TOP) is presented. The various instruments flown on the NASA U-2 aircraft, as well as the ground instrumentation used to collect optical and electronic signature from the lightning events, are discussed. Samples of some of the photographic and electronic signatures are presented. Approximately 6400 electronic data samples of optical pulses were collected and are being analyzed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.15:82545 , NASA-TM-82545
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The functional capabilities of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Climate Data Access System (CDAS), an interactive data storage and retrieval system, and the archival data sets which this system manages are discussed. The CDAS manages several climate-related data sets, such as the First Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment (FGGE) Level 2-b and Level 3-a data tapes. CDAS data management support consists of three basic functions: (1) an inventory capability which allows users to search or update a disk-resident inventory describing the contents of each tape in a data set, (2) a capability to depict graphically the spatial coverage of a tape in a data set, and (3) a data set selection capability which allows users to extract portions of a data set using criteria such as time, location, and data source/parameter and output the data to tape, user terminal, or system printer. This report includes figures that illustrate menu displays and output listings for each CDAS function.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.15:85083 , NASA-TM-85083
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results of the Nighttime/Daytime Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiments done on the STS-2 and STS-4 flights are covered. During these two flights of the Space Shuttle Columbia, the astronaut teams of J. Engle and R. Truly, and K. Mattingly II and H. Hartsfield took motion pictures of thunderstorms with a 16 mm cine camera. Film taken during daylight showed interesting thunderstorm cloud formations, where individual frames taken tens of seconds apart, when viewed as stereo pairs, provided information on the three-dimensional structure of the cloud systems. Film taken at night showed clouds illuminated by lightning with discharges that propagated horizontally at speeds of up to 10 to the 5th m/sec and extended for distances on the order of 60 km or more.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.15:82530 , NASA-TM-82530
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Research activities which were performed using atmospheric constituent data obtained by the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program are described. The characteristics of the particle size spectrum in various meteorological settings from a special collection of GASP data are surveyed. The relationship between humidity and cloud particles is analyzed. Climatological and case studies of tropical ozone distributions measured on a large number of flights are reported. Particle counter calibrations are discussed as well as the comparison of GASP particle data in the upper troposphere with other measurements at lower altitudes over the Pacific Ocean.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-3691 , NAS 1.26:3691
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This report presents a summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-5 launch time on November 11, 1982, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. Also presented are the wind and thermodynamic parameters measured at the surface and aloft in he SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final meteorological tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-5 vehicle ascent and SRB descent have been constructed. The STS-5 ascent meteorological data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to Shuttle task agreement No. 936-53-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.15:82515 , NASA-TM-82515
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method for diagnosing surface parameters on a regional scale via geosynchronous satellite imagery is presented. Moisture availability, thermal inertia, atmospheric heat flux, and total evaporation are determined from three infrared images obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Three GOES images (early morning, midafternoon, and night) are obtained from computer tape. Two temperature-difference images are then created. The boundary-layer model is run, and its output is inverted via cubic regression equations. The satellite imagery is efficiently converted into output-variable fields. All computations are executed on a PDP 11/34 minicomputer. Output fields can be produced within one hour of the availability of aligned satellite subimages of a target area.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-170265 , NAS 1.26:170265
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Lightning simulation ground tests conducted on the NASA F-106B research aircraft to elicit natural strikes are summarized. The purpose of the test program was to measure the response of the aircraft's electromagnetic sensors and interior wire circuits to a controlled ground test environment that simulates the electromagnetic effects of a lightning strike. Both direct attachment and radiated field tests were conducted. In most cases, the aircraft's engine was running and test data were gathered simultaneously from NASA and MCAIR sensors on both the aircraft's own instrumentation system and the remote MCAIR computer-controlled data acquisition system. During the direct attachment tests, the input inductance, output condition (hard-wired or spark gap), and the output location were varied to provide a wide variety of test conditons. The radiated tests to the isolated aircraft were conducted to excite and measure the natural resonances of the F-106B aircraft.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-166057 , NAS 1.26:166057 , MDC-17673
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A three dimensional numerical interpolation scheme which resolves frontal gradients with fidelity was developed. The scheme is applied to the study of atmospheric upper baroclinic zones.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:170678 , NASA-CR-170678
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Although many dynamical and statistical prediction schemes are available to forecasters, tropical cyclone track errors are still large. One primary difficulty is that tropical cyclones exist over the data-sparse tropical oceans. Satellite sounders, however, routinely provide numerous data over these areas. Mean layer temperatures from the Scanning Microwave Spectrometer on board the Nimbus 6 satellite are decomposed using empirical orthogonal functions, and the expansion coefficients are related to deviations from the persistence forecast location, to speed change, to direction change and to intensity change. The significance of the regression equations is tested by a null hypothesis of zero correlation coefficient. It appears that significant information about tropical cyclone motion exists in the satellite-estimated mean layer temperatures, especially at upper levels. A physical interpretation of the statistical results is offered, and a one-storm-out independent test is used to test the stability of the equations. Finally, some further work is suggested.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A charged particle generator for use in fog dispersal applications was built and preliminary tests were carried out. The parameter used as a measure of performance was the current measured with a needle probe positioned in the charged jet connected to ground through an ammeter. The needle was movable and allowed the current profile throughout the jet to be determined. The measured current is referred to as the current output. The major independent parameters were liquid water injection rate, plenum pressure, and corona voltage. Optimum current output was achieved at the approximate pressure of 30 psig, corona voltage of 5600 volts, and liquid water injection rate of 6 cc/min. The results of the test with the prototype charged particle generator clearly demonstrate that a current on the order of 20 microamperes can be routinely achieved with the system. This measurement of current does not necessarily represent the total issuing from the nozzle current which is expected to be larger. From these results, confidence was established that a charged particle generator which will operate continuously and consistently can be designed, constructed, and operated. Further work is required, however, to better understand the physical mechanisms involved and to optimize the system for fog dispersal application.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-3654 , NAS 1.26:3654
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The stability and vertical structure of an average severe storm sounding, consisting of both thermodynamic and wind vertical profiles, were investigated to determine if they could be distinguished from an average lag sounding taken 3 to 6 hours prior to severe weather occurrence. The term average is defined here to indicate the arithmetic mean of a parameter, as a function of altitude, determined from a large number of available observations taken either close to severe weather occurrence, or else more than 3 hours before it occurs. The investigative computations were also done to help determine if a severe storm forecast or index could possibly be used or developed. These mean vertical profiles of thermodynamic and wind parameters as a function of severity of the weather, determined from manually digitized radar (MDR) categories are presented. Profile differences and stability index differences are presented along with the development of the Johnson Lag Index (JLI) which is determined entirely upon environmental vertical parameter differences between conditions 3 hours prior to severe weather, and severe weather itself.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TP-2045 , NAS 1.60:2045
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A two level, global, spectral model using pressure as a vertical coordinate was developed. The system of equations describing the model is nonlinear and quasi-geostrophic (linear balance). Static stability is variable in the model. A moisture budget is calculated in the lower layer only. Convective adjustment is used to avoid supercritical temperature lapse rates. The mechanical forcing of topography is introduced as a vertical velocity at the lower boundary. Solar forcing is specified assuming a daily mean zenith angle. The differential diabatic heating between land and sea is paramterized. On land and sea ice surfaces, a steady state thermal energy equation is solved to calculate the surface temperature. On the oceans, the sea surface temperature is specified as the climatological average for January. The model is used to simulate the January, February and March circulations.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-169685 , NAS 1.26:169685 , ASP-360 , (ISSN 0067-0340)
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The contribution of a wide range of time scales to the long time average of atmospheric variances and covariances, and in particular on the contribution of the annual cycle is discussed. The interannual variability of seasonally averaged fluxes is analyzed in the same context. For definiteness, numerical results will be shown for the eddy momentum flux at 200 mb as obtained from seven years of NMC analyses (March 8, 1970 - March 10, 1977). The role of the seasonal cycle is considered.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: PB82-219791 , National Weather Service Proc. of the 6th Ann. Climate Diagn. Workshop; p 247-254
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This summary report discusses the results of each of the four major tasks of the study. Task 1 compared airline flight plans based on operational forecasts to plans based on the verifying analyses and found that average fuel savings of 1.2 to 2.5 percent are possible with improved forecasts. Task 2 consisted of similar comparisons but used a model developed for the FAA by SRI International that simulated the impact of ATc diversions on the flight plans. While parts of Task 2 confirm the Task I findings, inconsistency with other data and the known impact of ATC suggests that other Task 2 findings are the result of errors in the model. Task 3 compares segment weather data from operational flight plans with the weather actually observed by the aircraft and finds the average error could result in fuel burn penalties (or savings) of up to 3.6 percent for the average 8747 flight. In Task 4 an in-depth analysis of the weather forecast for the 33 days included in the study finds that significant errors exist on 15 days. Wind speeds in the area of maximum winds are underestimated by 20 to 50 kts., a finding confirmed in the other three tasks.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:167866 , NASA-CR-167866
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The impact of more timely and accurate weather data on airline flight planning with the emphasis on fuel savings is studied. This volume of the report discusses the results of Task 2 of the four major tasks included in the study. Task 2 compares various catagories of flight plans and flight tracking data produced by a simulation system developed for the Federal Aviation Administrations by SRI International. (Flight tracking data simulate actual flight tracks of all aircraft operating at a given time and provide for rerouting of flights as necessary to resolve traffic conflicts.) The comparisons of flight plans on the forecast to flight plans on the verifying analysis confirm Task 1 findings that wind speeds are generally underestimated. Comparisons involving flight tracking data indicate that actual fuel burn is always higher than planned, in either direction, and even when the same weather data set is used. Since the flight tracking model output results in more diversions than is known to be the case, it was concluded that there is an error in the flight tracking algorithm.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-167863 , NAS 1.26:167863
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A two level, global, spectral model using pressure as a vertical coordinate is developed. The system of equations describing the model is nonlinear and quasi-geostrophic. A moisture budget is calculated in the lower layer only with moist convective adjustment between the two layers. The mechanical forcing of topography is introduced as a lower boundary vertical velocity. Solar forcing is specified assuming a daily mean zenith angle. On land and sea ice surfaces a steady state thermal energy equation is solved to calculate the surface temperature. Over the oceans the sea surface temperatures are prescribed from the climatological average of January. The model is integrated to simulate the January climate.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-175999 , ASP-378 , NAS 1.26:175999 , (ISSN 0067-0340)
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An Earth outgoing longwave radiation (OLWR) climate model was constructed for radiation budget study. Required information is provided by on empirical 100mb water vapor mixing ratio equation of the mixing ratio interpolation scheme. Cloud top temperature is adjusted so that the calculation would agree with NOAA scanning radiometer measurements. Both clear sky and cloudy sky cases are calculated and discussed for global average, zonal average and world-wide distributed cases. The results agree well with the satellite observations. The clear sky case shows that the OLWR field is highly modulated by water vapor, especially in the tropics. The strongest longitudinal variation occurs in the tropics. This variation can be mostly explained by the strong water vapor gradient. Although in the zonal average case the tropics have a minimum in OLWR, the minimum is essentially contributed by a few very low flux regions, such as the Amazon, Indonesian and the Congo.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:175749 , NASA-CR-175749 , REPT-020406-1-F
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two days during July of 1981 the NASA/MSFC Airborne Doppler Lidar System (ADLS) was flown aboard the NASA/AMES Convair 990 on the east side of San Gorgonio Pass California, near Palm Springs, to measure and investigate the accelerated atmospheric wind field discharging from the pass. The vertical and horizontal extent of the fast moving atmospheric flow discharging from the San Gorgonio Pass were examined. Conventional ground measurements were also taken during the tests to assist in validating the ADLS results. This particular region is recognized as a high wind resource region and, as such, a knowledge of the horizontal and vertical extent of this flow was of interest for wind energy applications. The statistics of the atmospheric flow field itself as it discharges from the pass and then spreads out over the desert were also of scientific interests. This data provided the first spatial data for ensemble averaging of spatial correlations to compute longitudinal and lateral integral length scales in the longitudinal and lateral directions for both components.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-171355 , NAS 1.26:171355
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The validity of the stratospheric aerosol measurements made by the satellite sensors SAM II and SAGE was tested by comparing their results with each other and with results obtained by other techniques (lider, dustsonde, filter, and impactor). The latter type of comparison required the development of special techniques that convert the quantity measured by the correlative sensor (e.g. particle backscatter, number, or mass) to that measured by the satellite sensor (extinction) and quantitatively estimate the uncertainty in the conversion process. The results of both types of comparisons show agreement within the measurement and conversion uncertainties. Moreover, the satellite uncertainty is small compared to aerosol natural variability (caused by seasonal changes, volcanoes, sudden warmings, and vortex structure). It was concluded that the satellite measurements are valid.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.15:86003 , NASA-TM-86003 , A-9847
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: How satellite data can be used to improve insight into the mesoscale behavior of the atmosphere is demonstrated with emphasis on the GOES-VAS sounding and image data. This geostationary satellite has the unique ability to observe frequently the atmosphere (sounders) and its cloud cover (visible and infrared) from the synoptic scale down to the cloud scale. These uniformly calibrated data sets can be combined with conventional data to reveal many of the features important in mesoscale weather development and evolution.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:174185 , NASA-CR-174185
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The natural frequencies of the electromagnetic resonances of conducting bodies with attached wires were determined. The bodies included twp cylinders and an approximate scale model of the NASA F-106B aircraft. All were three feet in length. Time domain waveforms of B-dot and D-dot were obtained from a sampling oscilloscope, and Prony analysis was used to extract the natural frequencies. The first four natural frequencies of the cylinders (and wires) were determined, and a comparison with calculated results of other investigators shows reasonable agreement. Seven natural frequencies were determined for the F-106B model (with wires), and these were compared with results obtained by NASA in 1982 during direct lightning strikes to the aircraft. The agreement between the corresponding natural frequencies of the model and the aircraft is fairly good and is better than that obtained in the previous work using wires with less resistance. The frequencies lie between 6.5 MHz and 41 MHz, and all of the normalized damping rates are between 0.14 and 0.27.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-174203 , NAS 1.26:174203
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-41D launch time on August 30, 1984, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given as well as wind and thermodynamic parameters representative of surface and aloft conditions in the SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final atmospheric tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-41D vehicle ascent and SRB descent/impact were constructed. The STS-41D ascent meteorological data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Science Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-86484 , NAS 1.15:86484
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The use of rapid scan satellite imagery to investigate the local environment of severe thunderstorms is discussed. Mesoscale cloud tracking and vertical wind shear as it affects thunderstorm relative flow are mentioned. The role of pre-existing low level cloud cover in the outbreak of tornadoes was investigated. Applying visible atmospheric sounding imagery to mesoscale phenomena is also addressed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-174154 , NAS 1.26:174154
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archive from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle-concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud-encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long-range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminaar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the narrative, analysis, and conclusions. Volume II contains five supporting appendixes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85835-VOL-2 , NAS 1.15:85835-VOL-2 , L-15789-VOL-2
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archieve from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: L-15789-VOL-1 , NASA-TM-85835-VOL-1 , NAS 1.15:85835-VOL-1
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A 35 km grid limited area mesoscale model was initialized with high density SESAME radiosonde data and high density TIROS-N satellite temperature profiles for April 10, 1979. These data sources were used individually and with low level wind fields constructed from surface wind observations. The primary objective was to examine the use of satellite temperature data for initializing a mesoscale model by comparing the forecast results with similar experiments employing radiosonde data. The impact of observed low level winds on the model forecasts was also investigated with experiments varying the method of insertion. All forecasts were compared with each other and with mesoscale observations for precipitation, mass and wind structure. Several forecasts produced convective precipitation systems with characteristics satisfying criteria for a mesoscale convective complex. High density satellite temperature data and balanced winds can be used in a mesoscale model to produce forecasts which verify favorably with observations.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-3826 , NAS 1.26:3826
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Kinetic energy of the near storm environment was analyzed by meso beta scale data. It was found that horizontal winds in the 400 to 150 mb layer strengthen rapidly north of the developing convection. Peak values then decrease such that the maximum disappears 6 h later. Southeast of the storms, wind speeds above 300 mb decrease nearly 50% during the 3 h period of most intense thunderstorm activity. When the convection dissipates, wind patterns return to prestorm conditions. The mesoscale storm environment of AVE-SESAME 5 is characterized by large values of cross contour generation of kinetic energy, transfers of energy to nonresolvable scales of motion, and horizontal flux divergence. These processes are maximized within the upper troposphere and are greatest during times of strongest convection. It is shown that patterns agree with observed weather features. The southeast area of the network is examined to determine causes for vertical wind variations.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-3820 , NAS 1.26:3820
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data obtained from photographs of lightning are presented on the tortuosity of return stroke channels. The data were obtained by making piecewise linear fits to the channels, and recording the cartesian coordinates of the ends of each linear segment. The mean change between ends of the segments was nearly zero in the horizontal direction and was about eight meters in the vertical direction. Histograms of these changes are presented. These data were used to create model lightning channels and to predict the electric fields radiated during return strokes. This was done using a computer generated random walk in which linear segments were placed end-to-end to form a piecewise linear representation of the channel. The computer selected random numbers for the ends of the segments assuming a normal distribution with the measured statistics. Once the channels were simulated, the electric fields radiated during a return stroke were predicted using a transmission line model on each segment. It was found that realistic channels are obtained with this procedure, but only if the model includes two scales of tortuosity: fine scale irregularities corresponding to the local channel tortuosity which are superimposed on large scale horizontal drifts. The two scales of tortuosity are also necessary to obtain agreement between the electric fields computed mathematically from the simulated channels and the electric fields radiated from real return strokes. Without large scale drifts, the computed electric fields do not have the undulations characteristics of the data.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.15:86104 , NASA-TM-86104
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A methodology was developed a assess the upset susceptibility/reliability of a computer system onboard an aircraft flying through a lightning environment. Upset error modes in a general purpose microprocessor were studied. The upset tests involved the random input of analog transients which model lightning induced signals onto interface lines of an 8080 based microcomputer from which upset error data was recorded. The program code on the microprocessor during tests is designed to exercise all of the machine cycles and memory addressing techniques implemented in the 8080 central processing unit. A statistical analysis is presented in which possible correlations are established between the probability of upset occurrence and transient signal inputs during specific processing states and operations. A stochastic upset susceptibility model for the 8080 microprocessor is presented. The susceptibility of this microprocessor to upset, once analog transients have entered the system, is determined analytically by calculating the state probabilities of the stochastic model.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85821 , NAS 1.15:85821
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Land-surface influences on weather and climate are reviewed. The interrelationship of vegetation, evapotranspiration, atmospheric circulation, and climate is discussed. Global precipitation, soil moisture, the seasonal water cycle, heat transfer, and atmospheric temperature are among the parameters considered in the context of a general biosphere model.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:173595 , NASA-CR-173595
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer simulations of a least squares estimator operating on the ERBE scanning channels are discussed. The estimator is designed to minimize the errors produced by nonideal spectral response to spectrally varying and uncertain radiant input. The three ERBE scanning channels cover a shortwave band a longwave band and a ""total'' band from which the pseudo inverse spectral filter estimates the radiance components in the shortwave band and a longwave band. The radiance estimator draws on instantaneous field of view (IFOV) scene type information supplied by another algorithm of the ERBE software, and on a priori probabilistic models of the responses of the scanning channels to the IFOV scene types for given Sun scene spacecraft geometry. It is found that the pseudoinverse spectral filter is stable, tolerant of errors in scene identification and in channel response modeling, and, in the absence of such errors, yields minimum variance and essentially unbiased radiance estimates.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85781 , NAS 1.15:85781
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Volume 3 of a 3-volume technical memoranda which contains documentation of the GLAS fourth order genera circulation model is presented. The volume contains the CYBER 205 scalar and vector codes of the model, list of variables, and cross references. A dictionary of FORTRAN variables used in the Scalar Version, and listings of the FORTRAN Code compiled with the C-option, are included. Cross reference maps of local variables are included for each subroutine.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-86064-VOL-3 , NAS 1.15:86064-VOL-3
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This report presents a summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-9 launch time on November 28, 1983, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final meteorological tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-9 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-9 ascent meteorological data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to Shuttle task agreement No. 561-81-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.15:82572 , NASA-TM-82572
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Pilot Climate Data System (PCDS) was developed by the Information Management Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to manage a large collection of climate-related data of interest to the research community. The PCDS now provides uniform data catalogs, inventories, access methods, graphical displays and statistical calculations for selected NASA and non-NASA data sets. Data manipulation capabilities were developed to permit researchers to easily combine or compare data. The current capabilities of the PCDS include many tools for the statistical survey of climate data. A climate researcher can examine any data set of interest via flexible utilities to create a variety of two- and three-dimensional displays, including vector plots, scatter diagrams, histograms, contour plots, surface diagrams and pseudo-color images. The graphics and statistics subsystems employ an intermediate data storage format which is data-set independent. Outside of the graphics system there exist other utilities to select, filter, list, compress, and calculate time-averages and variances for any data of interest. The PCDS now fully supports approximately twenty different data sets and is being used on a trial basis by several different in-house research grounds.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85115 , NAS 1.15:85115
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-8 launch time on August 30, 1983, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. Also presented are wind and thermodynamic parameters representative of surface and aloft conditions in the SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final meteorological tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-8 vehicle ascent and SRB descent/impact were constructed. The STS-8 ascent meteorological data tape was constructed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-82560 , NAS 1.15:82560
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The electric and magnetic fields associated with the lightning return stroke are expressed as a convolution of the current waveform shape and the fields generated by a moving charge of amplitude one (i.e., the Lienard-Wiechert solution for a unit charge). The representation can be used to compute the fields produced by a current waveform of non-uniform velocity that propagates along a filament of arbitrary, but finite, curvature. To study numerically the effects of linear charge acceleration and channel curvature two simple channel models are used: the linear and the hyperbolic.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85082 , NAS 1.15:85082
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from 17 tropical cyclones during the 1974 through 1979 hurricane seasons are used to investigate whether the high level winds far to the northwest, north and northeast of the hurricane center can be used to predict hurricane track recurvature. When the man 200-mb winds 1500 to 2000 km northwest and north of the storm center equal or exceed 20 m/s, 80 per cent of the storms recurved before traveling as much as 12 degrees of longitude farther west. The high winds were also used to predict change in direction of forward motion during the next 72 hours. The regression equations developed explain up to 41 per cent of the variance in future direction. In addition to the geostrophic winds used, winds were also obtained by tracking clouds with successive satellite imagery. The u-components of the satellite winds are highly correlated with the geostrophic winds at 200-mb and could probably be used instead of them when available. The v-components are less highly correlated.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85114 , NAS 1.15:85114
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The nocturnal frost formation on a wing section, to explain the hazard associated with frost during takeoff was investigated. A model of nocturnal frost formation on a wing section which predicts when the nocturnal frost will form and also its thickness and density as a function of time was developed. The aerodynamic penalities as related to the nocturnal frost formation properties were analyzed to determine how much the takeoff performance would be degraded by a specific frost layer. With an aircraft takeoff assuming equations representing a steady climbing flight, it is determined that a reduction in the maximum gross weight or a partial frost clearance and a reduction in the takeoff angle of attack is needed to neutralize drag and life penalities which are due to frost. Atmospheric conditions which produce the most hazardous frost buildup are determined.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:3733 , NASA-CR-3733
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Electric field measurements near an isolated thunderstorm at 6.4 km distance are presented from both a tethered balloon experiment called Hy-wire and also from ground based fast and slow electric field change systems. Simultaneous measurements were made of the electric fields during several lightning flashes at the beginning of the storm which the data clearly indicate were cloud-to-ground flashes. In addition to providing a comparison between the Hy-wire technique for measuring electric fields and more traditional methods, these data are interesting because the lightning flashes occurred prior to changes in the dc electric field, although Hy-wire measured changes in the dc field of up to 750 V/m in the direction opposite to the fair weather field a short time later. Also, the dc electric field was observed to decay back to its preflash value after each flash. The data suggest that Hy-wire was at the field reversal distance from this storm and suggest the charge realignment was taking place in the cloud with a time constant on the order of 20 seconds.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85072 , NAS 1.15:85072
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A study using the analyses produced from the assimilation cycle of parallel model runs that both include and withhold satellite data was undertaken. The analyzed state of the atmosphere is performed using data from a certain test period during the first Special Observing Period (SOP) of the Global Weather Experiment (FGGE).
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-170578 , NAS 1.26:170578
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A summary of synoptic weather conditions existing over the western United States is given for the time of Shuttle descent into Edwards Air Force Base, California. The techniques and methods used to furnish synoptic atmospheric data at the surface and aloft for flight verification of the STS-4 Orbiter during its descent into Edwards Air Force Base are specified. Examples of the upper level data set are given.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.15:82495 , NASA-TM-82495
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 79
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The rawinsonde sounding program is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals for the 24 stations and 14 special stations participating in the experiment is presented. Sounding were taken at 3 hr intervals. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. Some soundings were computed from raw ordinate data, while others were interpolated from significant level data.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-170739 , NAS 1.26:170739
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 80
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The rawinsonde sounding program is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals for the 24 and 14 special stations participation in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals. The method of processing soundings is discussed briefly, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the meso beta scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.26:170740 , NASA-CR-170740
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The overall performance characteristics of a limited area, hydrostatic, fine (52 km) mesh, primitive equation, numerical weather prediction model are determined in anticipation of satellite data assimilations with the model. The synoptic and mesoscale predictive capabilities of version 2.0 of this model, the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS 2.0), were evaluated. The two part study is based on a sample of approximately thirty 12h and 24h forecasts of atmospheric flow patterns during spring and early summer. The synoptic scale evaluation results benchmark the performance of MASS 2.0 against that of an operational, synoptic scale weather prediction model, the Limited area Fine Mesh (LFM). The large sample allows for the calculation of statistically significant measures of forecast accuracy and the determination of systematic model errors. The synoptic scale benchmark is required before unsmoothed mesoscale forecast fields can be seriously considered.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-84995
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Atmospheric parameters recorded during high surface winds are analyzed to determine magnitude, frequency, duration, and simultaneity of occurrence of low level flow conditions known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the space shuttle. Graphic and tabular presentations of mean and extreme values and simultaneous occurrences of turbulence (gustiness and a gust factor), wind shear (speed and direction), and vertical motion (updrafts and downdrafts), along with associated temperature inversions are included as function of tower height, layer and/or distance for six 5 sec intervals (one interval every 100 sec) of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of 10 speeds, directions and temperatures per second during an approximately 10 min period.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NAS 1.15:82522 , NASA-TM-82522
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...