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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (697)
  • 1980-1984  (697)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1983  (697)
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  • 1980-1984  (697)
  • 1925-1929
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: chromosome movement ; meiosis ; spermatocytes ; prophase ; nuclear envelope ; aster ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Association of bivalent chromosomes with the astral centers and nuclear envelope was analyzed in crane-fly spermatocytes during the final hours of diakinesis. In contrast to other systems in which movement of chromosomes during diakinesis correlates with the clustering of bivalents near the astral centers, such clustering is not prevalent in crane-fly spermatocytes. Polarization indices of bivalents calculated 5 to 10 minutes before the end of diakinesis provided evidence for polarization of only a fraction of all bivalents. Similar results were obtained in a large number of fixed cells in which asters and chromosomes were preferentially stained. Ultrastructural analysis of cells in late diakinesis revealed significant contact between bivalents and the nuclear envelope in all 46 cells that were analyzed. The extent of contact in some cells was greater than in others. Sites of contact included the telomeric ends of bivalents, and in some cases the distribution of contact sites suggested the possible involvement of centromeres in chromosome-nuclear envelope association. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that a dynamic interaction between chromosomes and nuclear envelope may exist during late prophase, when the movement of chromosomes is known to occur.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; intermediate filaments ; fibroblasts ; epithelial cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol promotes microtubule (MT) assembly in vitro and induces the reorganization of the cytoskeleton into unusual MT arrays in cultured cells. The possibility that taxol also has an indirect effect on intermediate filaments (IF) was investigated. In baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) and human skin (ENSON) fibroblasts treated with 1-10 μM taxol for 1-24 h, the drug induces changes which are similar to those produced by colchicine. These include a loss of major cellular extensions, a redistribution of organelles to a perinuclear location, and an inhibition of locomotion. Saltatory particle movements are not inhibited, however. Ruffling and filopod formation continue, indicating that cells are viable up to 24 h.Polarized light microscopy of living fibroblasts treated with taxol reveals the presence of perinuclear birefringent material which has been examined by immunofluorescence. In control cells, IF and MT radiate from a juxtanuclear region and extend to the cell periphery. In taxol-treated cells, MT and IF are excluded from cell margins, forming large central bundles.In the epithelial cell lines PtK2 and PAM, the keratin system of IF does not become redistributed; in PtK2, however, a second fibroblastlike system of IF does become redistributed to a perinuclear position during taxol treatment.Ultrastructural analyses show that taxol-treated fibroblasts contain parallel arrays of cross-bridged MT-IF as well as bundles of MT exclusive of IF. Epithelial cells contain a predominance of IF-free MT bundles which are organized into hexagonally packed arrays. In these bundles MT frequently exhibit hooks or other incomplete MT profiles and are linked by filamentous material.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: contact inhibition ; contact guidance ; growth cones ; cell-cell interactions ; neuronal contact behavior ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The outcome of contact interactions involving neurons and nonneurons varies depending on the cell types involved. When neuronal growth cones from either ciliary (motor) or dorsal root (sensory) ganglia directly contact the lamellipodium of an embryonic heart fibroblast, both neurite elongation and fibroblast locomotion are inhibited. This occurs in spite of the fact that cell-surface activity in both cells continues unabated. Such contact inhibition is not observed when homologous ganglionic nonneurons are involved in the interaction. In fact, these cells become intimately associated with growth cones and/or neuritic shafts as a result of the contact. The detailed nature of the respose to contact exhibited by nerves and nonnerves varies not only with cell type but also with the portion of the cell involved in the contact. Growth cone filopodia tend to actively palpate the fibroblast surface, whereas spread regions, termed “veils,” form areas of apposition with fibroblast lamellipodia. This latter situation resembles the “typical” contact inhibition of locomotion that occurs following embryonic heart fibroblast-fibroblast interactions. Growth cones also frequently exhibit contact guidance when interacting with nonruffling lateral surfaces of heart fibroblasts.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Caenorhabditis elegans spermatozoa ; cell motility ; electron microscopy ; cell-substrate contact ; 2-nm filaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The locomotion of C. elegans spermatozoa resembles, in many respects, the crawling movements of other eukaryotic cells. However, these sperm contain surprising little actin, which plays no apparent role in this cell's motility. Electron microscopy has revealed that crawling spermatozoa retain a strict morphological polarity so that the organelle-filled cell body is separated from the pseudopod by an array of cytoplasmic laminar membranes. When sperm crawl only the pseudopod contacts the substrate; the cell body is either pulled behind or carried on top of the rear portion of the pseudopod. Fingerlike projections which extend forward from the leading edge of the pseudopod initiate contact with the substrate. The underside of the pseudopod exhibits areas of close (40 nm separation) membrane-substrate association with intervening areas of wide (up to 300 nm) membrane-substrate gaps. The pseudopod cytoplasm contains 2-nm filaments but no filamentous actin has been observed. These 2-nm filaments were detected in thin sections of crawling cells and in negative-stained remnants of spermatozoa disrupted by either hypotonic buffer on Triton X-100. The filaments are found both free in the cytoplasm and closely associated with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane and are usually oriented along the long axis of the cell. Neither the identity nor the function of these filaments has been established although their location and orientation suggest that they may be involved in generating propulsion.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 363-366 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: erythrocyte ; membranes ; spectrin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: focal contacts ; microfilaments ; microinjection ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The role of structural elements in the organization and maintenance of focal contacts was studied by microinjecting into tissue culture cells specific probes which interfere with filamentous actin or with vinculin: actin interaction. Injection of actin capping proteins from Physarum and brain resulted in breakdown of microfilament bundles starting at their distal ends and in loss of focal contacts. This process was fully reversible. Injection of a high affinity antibody against chicken gizzard vinculin led to partial breakdown of microfilament bundles concomitant with disruption of focal contacts with vinculin remaining at the plasma membrane. This process was irreversible.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 383-390 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: F-actin aggregates ; actin-membrane interactions ; transformed/normal cell coculture ; F-actin/tropomyosin interaction ; temperature-sensitive viral mutant ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Observations on the role of transformation-specific F-aggregates [Carley et al, 1981] in altering morphology, adhesion and intercellular interaction in transformed cells are reported here. The appearance and disappearance of membrane- and substrate-associated F-actin aggregates (MAG and SAG, respectively) are followed in a cell line temperature-sensitive for transformation. Since MAG structures also appear near the membrane in suspension cultures of transformed cells and in transformed cells in coculture with untransformed cells, they appear to function at cell-cell contacts. Unlike microfilament bundles in untransformed cells, MAG and SAG do not contain the F-actin regulatory protein tropomyosin. The lack of tropomyosin in these structures near the membrane is reminiscent of areas of an exceptionally active actin cytoskeleton usually associated with motile processes of the normal cell membrane. Such areas of membrane-cytoskeletal interaction may be involved in the aberrant cell-cell communication as well as the aggressive behavior often seen in transformed cells.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microfilament-membrane attachments ; cell-cell contacts ; fascia adherens ; immunofluorescence microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: On the premise that the fascia adherens of cardiac muscle cell intercalated disk membranes is a structure that is closely homologous to the focal adhesions formed by fibroblasts, a fascia adherens preparation was isolated from chicken cardiac muscle, and was analyzed for its protein composition. A prominent 200-kilodalton (kd) protein was purified from the fascia preparation and shown to be antigenically unrelated to several previously characterized cytoskeletal proteins, including cardiac myosin and vinculin. With monospecific antibodies to the 200-kd protein, an identical or closely similar intracellular protein was shown to be associated with the focal adhesion plaques of fibroblasts.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: platelet ; platelet adhesion ; cytoskeleton ; high voltage electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Adhesion of platelets in vitro resulted in rapid polymerization of the amorphous cytoplasmic ground substance into an organized cytoskeletal superstructure. This cytoskeleton, characterized through the use of whole-mount and stereo (3-D), high-voltage microscopy in conjunction with morphometrics and cytochemistry, comprised four major size classes of filaments organized in distinctive zones. The central matrix, or granulomere, at the center of the cell mass, was an ill-defined meshwork of 80-100-Å filaments which enshrouded granules, dense bodies, and elements of the dense tubular system as identified through peroxidase cytochemistry. Demarcasting this central matrix was a trabecular zone containing 30-50, 80-100, and 150-170 Å filaments in an open and rigid-appearing lattice. Circumscribing the trabecular zone and extending to the margins of the hyalomere was the third region, the peripheral web, in which 70-Å filaments were arranged in a tight honeycomb lattice. This organizational pattern was retained in cytoskeletons prepared by Triton x-100 extraction of the adherent cells, and was observed in basally located cells of aggregates which formed subsequent to adhesion. Our observations are consistent with biochemical studies of cytoskeletons prepared from suspended platelets and suggest a contractile protein composition for the superstructure during adhesion.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: brain spectrin ; actin ; immunofluorescence ; peptide mapping ; protein phosphorylation ; syndeins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Membrane-associated mouse brain spectrin is a 972,000 Mr, 10.5S, (αβ)2 tetramer containing two ∼ 240,000 Mr subunits and two ∼ 235,000 Mr subunits. Two-dimensional [125I]tryptic peptide mapping indicates that these subunits share only limited and equivalent overlap with the α- and β-subunits of red blood cell (RBC) spectrin. Both the 220,000 Mr β-subunit of RBC spectrin and the 235,000 Mr β-subunit of brain spectrin are phosphorylated in the intact mouse. In vitro analysis suggests that both are phosphorylated by a cAMP-independent protein kinase. Antibodies against pure native mouse red blood cell spectrin cross-react with brain spectrin, and antibodies against pure brain spectrin cross-react with both the α-and β-subunits of mouse RBC spectrin. Both antibodies have been utilized to localize brain spectrin within distinct cellular entities of the mouse cerebellum. Granule cell neurons of the internal granule layer and Purkinje cell neurons demonstrated intense fluorscence of the cortical cytoplasm immediately adjacent to the plasma membrane and unstained nuclei, when either RBC or brain spectrin antibodies were utilized for staining. The molecular layer of the cerebellum stained only lightly, and oligodendrocytes and astrocytes appeared to have little fluorescence. Therefore, while brain is a tissue rich in nonerythroid spectrin, the concentration of these immunoreactive analogues is quite variable within distinct cellular entities of the cerebellum.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 657-669 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Hela spectrin ; membrane ; cytoskeleton ; filamin ; actin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: From 30-40 g of Hela-S3 cells grown in suspension, 0.25-0.50 mg of spectrin has been purified by conventional biochemical procedures starting from a low ionic strength extraction at alkaline pH of crude Hela membranes. Hela spectrin consists in its native form of a tetramer α2β2 of two high molecular weight polypeptides (240,000 and 230,000 daltons). Three different populations of Hela membranes depleted of both spectrin and actin have been prepared on discontinuous sucrose gradients. Surprisingly, spectrin will reassociate with only the heavier membrane fraction. This reassociation is specific for Hela spectrin, since three other purified Hela proteins as well as human erythrocyte spectrin do not reassociate under the same conditions. This binding is not due to the presence of traces of actin still present in the membrane fraction since two Hela actin-binding proteins (filamin I and II) do not show any significant binding to this fraction. The nature of the membrane-binding site for Hela spectrin is discussed.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoplasmic transport ; Saltation ; microtubules ; keratocytes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We report the first direct demonstration that the cytoplasmic transport of organelles and vesicles (collectively called particles) takes place along microtubules. Living keratocytes from the corneal stroma of the frog, Rana pipiens, were observed with Allen video-enhanced constrast, differential interference constrast (AVEC-DIC) microscopy [Allen et al, 1981]. In sufficiently thin regions of these cells a network of linear elements was visible. When particles were observed in motion, they always moved along these linear elements. The linear elements remained intact and in focus on the microscope when lysed in a cell lysis solution that stabilized microtubules. Preparations were then fixed in formaldehyde, washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), incubated with rabbit antitubulin, washed with PBS, stained with rhodamine-conjugated goat antirabbit, and washed with PBS. The extracted cells continued to remain in place and in focus on the microscope throughout these procedures. The same cells were then observed using epifluorescence optics and a silicon-intensified target (SIT) video camera. A network of fluorescent linear elements was seen to correspond in number, form, and position to the linear elements seen in the live AVEC-DIC image. Taken together, the AVEC-DIC and fluorescence microscopy observations prove that the linear elements along which particles move are microtubules (MTLEs). The observed particle speeds, pause times, and distances moved varied widely, even for the same particle on the same microtubule. Particles were also observed to switch from one microtubule to another as they were transported. The polarity of the microtubules did not seem to affect the particle direction, since particles were observed to move in both directions on the same MTLE. When not in motion these particles behaved as if anchored to the microtubules since they showed negligible Brownian motion. Finally, it was observed that an elongate particle could move onto two intersecting linear elements such that it was deformed into an inverted “Y” shape. This indicates that there may be more than a single site of attachment between the force generator and the particle.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: platelets ; Triton-insoluble residue ; fibrinogen ; fibrin ; tubulin ; cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Several proteins (eg, actin, myosin, and actin-binding protein) in the Tritoninsoluble residue of thrombin-stimulated platelets are important in the formation of cytoskeletal structures. Electrophoretic analyses have shown that unidentified protein bands of 68,000, 55,000, and 48-50,000 daltons are also present in larger amounts after thrombin stimulation. Since these molecular weights correspond roughly to those of the α, β, and γ chains of fibrin, and since fibrinogen is found in platelet α-granules, these bands were compared to those obtained when purified fibrinogen was treated with thrombin, exposed to 1% Triton X-100-5 mM EGTA, and the resultant Triton-insoluble residue sedimented. Identification of the 68,000-, 55,000-, and 48--50,000-dalton bands as fibrinogen derivatives was confirmed by identifying them in comigration studies and in autoradiographs of Triton-insoluble residues of platelets that were electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose paper and treated with antifibrinogen antibody and 125I-protein A. Furthermore, if the platelet suspension was treated with thrombin in the presence of calcium ions, protein bands characteristic of the action of Factor XIII on fibrin were observed, active platelet Factor XIII apparently having been made available by lysis of platelets during preparation. Making use of the electrophoretic properties of tubulin recently described by Best et al [1981], comigration studies using hog brain tubulin indicated that tubulin is not present in significant amounts in the Triton-insoluble residue of platelets as previously suggested. The identification of these proteins as fibrinogen derivatives does not demonstrate a physiological interaction between fibrin and the platelet cytoskeleton, since fibrin is Tritoninsoluble and can be pelleted even in the absence of platelet cytoskeletons.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 47-60 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: neutrophil granulocytes ; motility ; locomotion ; cell-shape ; cell-substratum adhesion ; f-Met-Leu-Phe ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Activation of the motile apparatus by chemokinetic factors cannot be reliably assessed in cells that are attached to a solid substratum because motility can be totally abolished by excessive adhesion. It is however, necesary to quantify the activation of the motile apparatus in order to analyze and understand chemokinetic responses.It was the purpose of the present work to establish morphological criteria that can be used to quantify motility in nonadherent (floating) neutrophils and to predict the locomotor response under conditions of limited adhesion. The proportion of neutrophils performing crawling-like movements (polarized cells) in suspension correlates very closely with stimulated locomotion at low to optimal concentration of f-Met-Leu-Phe, ie, under conditions of limited adhesion. Reduced locomotion at supraoptimal concentrations of f-Met-Leu-Phe has also morphological correlates. The major feature is the decrease in the proportion of neutrophils performing crawling-like movements and the corresponding appearance of cells that are motile but not polarized in suspension and that do not locomote on the substratum. Concentration-dependent changes in neutrophil length and in the proportion of polarized neutrophils with and without tail were also observed. The locomotor potential of neutrophils under conditions of limited contact with the substratum can be predicted on the basis of their motile behavior, in particular the proportion of cells showing crawling-like movements, in suspension. In combination with measurements of adhesion the procedure should permit a more complete analysis of the regulation of chemokinetic responses.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; flagellar outer doublets ; tubulin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol induces the in vitro assembly of calcium stable microtubules from flagellar tubulin solubilized from sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) sperm tail outer doublets by sonication. Assembly occurs in the presence or absence of exogenous GTP. The drug (10 μM) reduces the critical concentration of protein required for assembly to ≤0.04 mg/ml. 3H-Taxol binds specifically to both isolated flagellar outer doublets and to reassembled microtubules with calculated maximal binding ratios of 0.25 and 1.32 moles taxol/mole polymerized flagellar tubulin dimer, respectively. We suggest that the discrepancy in maximal binding ratios may result from the presence of an endogenous molecule(s) along the surface of outer doublet microtubules that restricts taxol binding to that structure.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 131-150 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: flagella ; Chlamydomonas ; motility ; flagellar reversal ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Using a uniflagellate mutant of Chlamydomonas and flash photomicrography at 300 Hz, we have obtained detailed information on the forward and reverse beating modes of Chlamydomonas flagella and on the relationship between rotation of the uniflagellate cell and the bending cycle of the forward mode. Flagella ranging in length from 5 to 15.5 μm were photographed. There is a decrease in wavelength and an increase in curvature in the principal bends when the length of the flagellum is less than the normal length of 12-13 μm, but these changes are not sufficient to maintain similarity of the bending pattern. In the reverse mode, the flagellum propagates symmetrical, planar, undulatory waves with a shear amplitude which is the same as in the forward mode: there is a 19% increase in beat frequency and a similar decrease in wave length. The reorientation of the flagellar beat direction towards the axis of the cell in the reverse mode is caused both by the decrease in asymmetry of beat and by activation of sliding in the principal bends at an earlier time in the beat cycle, relative to the time of activation of sliding in reverse bends. There are additional rare modes of beating which may be related to intermediate stages in the transition between forward and reverse beating modes.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; villin ; fluorescence ; energy transfer ; polymerization ; microfilament ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have investigated the Ca2+-dependent interactions of villin, a protein of the intestinal microvillar core, with actin by monitoring resonance energy tranfer between fluorescently labeled actin subunits. In the presence of elevated free Ca2+(∼20 μM), villin affects both the nucleation and the elongation phases of actin polymerization. Consistent with previous reports, villin stimulates the nucleation process and will form stable nuclei under depolymerization conditions. Compared to the control, the net rate of polymerization is slightly inhibited at low con-centrations of villin (villin/actin ∼ 1:400) but is stimulated at higher concentrations (villin/actin 〉 1:100). Villin also significantly increases the critical concentration of actin polymerization. Addition of either villin or villin-actin complexes induces depolymerization of preassembled actin filaments. This villin-induced depolymerization is reversible upon removal of free Ca2+ or upon the addition of phalloidin. The exchange of actin subunits at steady state is inhibited at low concentrations of villin (villin/actin ∼ 1:200) but is stimulated at higher concentrations (villin/actin ∼ 1:50). None of the above effects is observed at 〈 10-8 M free [Ca2+].
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 211-212 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: saltatory organelle movements ; ciliary movement ; dynein ; vanadate ; microinjection ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To test the idea that saltatory organelle movements of nonmuscle cells might be driven by microtubule-dynein interactions, we microinjected vanadate into several different types of cultured cell. Solutions of sodium metavanadate made up in a simple buffered salt solution were pressure microinjected into fully spread cells in an open-topped culture chamber placed on the stage of an inverted microscope. The cells were observed by oil-immersion phase-contrast optics and results were recorded on movie film. Vanadate, at 10-5-10-2 M, microinjected into cultured chick embryo fibroblasts, failed to inhibit organelle movements. To test the effectiveness of vanadate's inhibitory action under living cell conditions, ciliated epithelial cells were micro-injected. In these cells even the smallest microinjection of 5 × 10-5 M vanadate caused an immediate cessation of ciliary beating. Moreover, in cells that were well spread it was found that whereas vanadate, at 5 × 10-5 × 10-3M, inhibited ciliary motion, it failed to inhibit organelle saltations in the same cell. To determine whether vanadate would inhibit a living actin-myosin system, myocardial cells were also microinjected. Following microinjection of 5 × 10-5 and 5 × 10-4M vanadate a temporary tonic contraction (which also occurred following microinjection of buffer alone) was followed by regular beating. Taken together these results demonstrate that in living cell systems microtubule-dynein interactions are as sensitive to vanadate inhibition as they are in demembranated model systems, and that a working actin-myosin system in a living muscle cell does not share this great sensitivity. In light of the pronounced differential inhibitory effects of vanadate on the movements of cilia and organelles, our results suggest that saltatory organelle movements in chick embryo fibroblasts and rabbit oviduct epithelial cells are unlikely to be brought about by microtubule-dynein interactions.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: dynein ; microtubules ; cell motility ; fibroblasts ; in vitro ; phagokinetic tracks ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Patients with Kartagener syndrome (KS) show defects in ciliary and flagellar movement that are usually associated with the partial or total absence of dynein side arms from axonemal microtubules. Dynein is essential for such movements, but its involvement in other cellular (particularly microtubule-related) processes is unknown. It has recently been reported that neutrophils from KS patients show impaired motility including responses to chemotactic stimuli, suggesting that dynein-like proteins may be generally involved in motile processes. In support of this, we have now found that spontaneous motility of cultured skin fibroblasts from KS patients is also markedly impaired. Three cell lines derived from skin explants of KS patients with deficient dynein side arms in nasal cilia and eight cell lines derived from normal volunteers were studied. Fibroblasts were seeded into dishes containing colloidal gold-coated cover glasses [Albrecht-Buehler, 1977], incubated for 24 h at 37°C, and the area of cell “phagokinetic” tracks determined.Each cell line studied in this manner reproducibly displayed an amount of spontaneous motility characteristic for that cell line. The mean track area (± SE) for all control cells studied was 14.6 ± 0.5 × 103μm2 whereas for KS fibroblasts was 8.7 ± 0.4 × 103μm2 (P 〈 0.001). Immunofluorescence microscopy using antitubulin and antihuman 210 K MAP antibodies revealed no differences in the staining patterns between control and KS fibroblasts. Pinocytic rates were identical, and the complement of tubulin and major microtubule associated proteins as seen on one-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel autoradio-graphs appeared similar for control and KS cells. Thus, the observed motility defect is probably not the result of alterations in the occurrence or distribution of microtubules or in the occurrence or binding of the major microtubule-associated proteins. This defect in cellular motility may be related to the absence of dynein or may reflect another independent cellular defect.
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; Ciona ; axoneme ; quiescence ; twist ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A simple planar model of sliding can predict the amount of sliding required to form a certain degree of bend. The accuracy of this prediction relies on the assumptions that no twists occur in the axoneme and that no sliding occurs at the base. However, previous studies indicated that twists may occur.This paper explores a new method for quantitating and analyzing twists. Preliminary results using this method showed that there were twists. In order to control for possible artifacts due to fixation and other preparative procedures, the characteristic S-shaped quiescent state of Ciona spermatozoa was studied.Analyses of platinum replicas of those flagella in which this waveform is well preserved suggest that most, if not all, of the twists observed are due to the artifact of a curved shape settling onto a surface. Detailed analyses indicate that if twists do occur in quiescent sperm, they are probably less than 0.4 radian. Since axonemes are evidently easily twisted in rigor, and even after fixation, caution should be exercised in interpretation of axonemal twists.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; fertilization ; cell division ; sea urchin ; cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The microtubule-containing structures that appear in eggs during fertilization and cell division in the sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus and Arbacia punctulata were detected by antitubulin immunofluorescence microscopy of detergent extracted cytoskeletal preparations. The extraction buffer, which is composed of 0.55 mM MgCl2, 10 mM EGTA, 25 mM MES, 25% glycerol, 1% Nonidet P-40, and 25 μM PMSF, pH 6.7, allows for dramatically improved fluorescent images compared to those obtained using conventional staining procedures, with residual background staining being reduced to near zero.The immunofluorescent images obtained using this technique provide information on several motile events that occur during the first cell cycle. This technique demonstrates that all of the cytoplasmic microtubules are associated with the incorporated sperm's centrioles during female pronuclear migration. This changes during the centration of the male and female pronuclei at which time a monastral array of microtubules forms in the egg's cytoplasm. A large proportion of the monastral microtubules do not appear to be associated with the centrioles. At prophase and early metaphase, the centrioles are the dominant microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) consistent with mitotic theories that the kinetochore catches, but does not initiate, microtubules. Observations of intercentriolar distances show that there are three stages of pole separation during the first cell cycle. The initial separation occurs during pronuclear centration, the second during the streak stage, and the final one during the late stages of mitosis. At telophase, polar microtubules appear to extend into the cortex supporting the cell surface at all regions except the presumptive cleavage site.
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  • 26
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 227-245 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: swarming ; gliding ; cooperative motility ; cell density effects ; pili ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The coordinated movement of many cells - a process called swarming - permits myxobacteria to spread rapidly over a surface. We have investigated the mechanism of swarming in Myxococcus xanthus by making time-lapse motion pictures and by measuring the dependence of cell movement and spreading rate on the concentration of cells. Motion pictures of spreading zones showed that spreading resulted from motility, not growth, and that a swarm spread outward by establishing a loose reticulum of cells, then later filling it in. The spreading rate of wildtype strains was found to be highly dependent on cell density, increasing about 8-fold as the cell density was increased from 2.5 to 200 units. Mutants swarmed if they possessed only the A-motile component (A+S-) or only the S-motile component (A-S+) of wild type (A+S+); their spreading rate increased with cell density but was always less than A+S+. Individual A+S+, A+S-, and A-S+ cells executed typical gliding movements and (when moving) progressed at approximately the same speed, as if A and S motility were different ways of engaging the same gliding machine. Photographic studies of an A-S+ strain showed that cells moved only if they were separated by less than approximately one cell length from each other. This provided further evidence that pili, which are present on A+S+ and A-S+ cells and which extend about one cell length, could be responsible for switching on movement in S-motile cells, and presumably in wild type as well.
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  • 27
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 28
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 273-280 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas flagellar collars ; Chlamydomonas cell wall ; mating in Chlamydomonas ; cell wall proteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii protrude through the cell wall via short, tunnel-like openings that are lined with 11 nm × 500 nm fibers arranged in parallel array. These cylindrical collections of fibers presumably permit free movement of the flagella within the cell wall. In this report electron-microscopic evidence is presented showing that during the initial stages of the mating reaction intact collars slip off of the ends of the flagella when cell wall loss occurs. Electrophoretic analysis of isolated collars reveals one major protein and several minor species.
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  • 29
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 321-332 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule sliding ; interdoublet links ; radial spokes ; bend formation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ciliary axonemes from Tetrahymena extracted by KCl to remove the dynein arms reveal an orderly array of interdoublet links connecting adjacent A-B or A-A subfibers. The links repeat every 96 nm at a stable site on the A subfiber positioned near the bases of radial spokes 2 and 3. Both links and radial spokes are in lateral register across the nine successive doublets of unbent axonemes. In contrast, bent axonemes or those reactivated by ATP to undergo partial sliding disintegration exhibit systematic displacement of the interdoublet links. The links show no evidence of having elastic or other extendable properties and, therefore, must have undergone intermittent attachment with nonstructural binding sites on the adjacent subfiber. These observations suggest a more dynamic role for the interdoublet links in ciliary motion than previously has been envisioned.
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 31
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: myosin phosphorylation ; actin polymerization ; chemotactic factors ; leukocytes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Changes in the state of polymerization of actin and phosphorylation of myosin have been observed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) soon after the addition of the chemotactic peptide N-formylnorleucylleucylphenylalanine. At a time when the cells are observed to extend many ruffles or lamellipodia from their surface, the fraction of the cellular actin present in a monomeric form is decreased by about 25% as assayed by the ability of the G-actin to inhibit DNAase. These changes are temporally correlated with an increase in the staining by nitrobenzooxadiazole (NBD)-phallacidin, a probe that binds F-actin selectively. The NBD-phallacidin staining is observed in the surface ruffles. When the peptide concentration is decreased by addition of a tenfold excess of buffer, cells withdraw their surface ruffles and form blebs. These changes correlate with an increase in the G-actin levels detected with the DNAase inhibition assay. An increase in phosphorylation of the 20,000-dalton light chain of myosin is also observed in leukocytes stimulated by addition of chemotactic peptide. These observations of changes in cytoskeletal proteins of PMNs provide a beginning for further studies on the regulation of cell motility by chemotactic factors.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 375-382 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; spectrin ; band 4.1 ; cytochalasins ; erythrocyte ; brain ; actin-membrane attachment ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A complex of proteins with properties similar to those of erythrocyte spectrinband 4.1-actin complex has been idientified in a preparation derived from bovine brain. The complex has an apparent sedimentation coefficient of about 26S, and contains brain spectrin (also called fodrin) and actin as major components. The actin in the complex is in the oligomeric form, which nucleates assembly of actin filaments that grow from the “barbed” end. The complex cross-links actin filaments, resulting in an increase in low-shear viscosity. Whether the complex contains a protein analogous to erythrocyte band 4.1 is not known. However, it can be demonstrated that brain spectrin has the capability to interact with band 4.1 in a way which increases its ability to cross-link actin filaments.
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  • 34
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 399-403 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: focal contacts ; cytoskeleton ; microinjection ; mobility ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The dynamic state of cytoskeletal protiens actin and vinculin was studied in living cells using microinjection of fluorescently-labeled proteins combined with fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR). It is shown that both proteins maintain a dynamic equilibrium between their diffusible pools in the cytoplasms and their “organized” cytoskeletal fraction. These interrelationships could be simulated in model systems consisting of isolated substrate attached membranes. It was demonstrated that fluorophore bound vinculin was incorporated into the exposed focal contacts and that this binding was largely actin independent. These results are in line with the hypothesis that local contacts induce binding of vinculin to the endofacial surface of the membranes and that this region serves as a nucleation center for the assembly of actin bundles.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 431-438 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: myotendinous junction ; laminin ; type IV collagen ; heparan sulfate proteoglycan ; alpha actinin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The muscle-tendon junction of murine skeletal muscles has been analyzed by a variety of extraction techniques, by myosin subfragment-1 binding experiments, and by ultrastructural immunocytochemistry. The results indicate that the muscle-tendon junction is composed of four distinct domains: an intracellular domain, the internal lamina; a domain connecting the internal lamina with the lamina densa of the external lamina, the connecting domain; the lamina densa; and a domain which attaches the lamina densa to the collagen fibers, the matrix. Each of these domains is distinct with respect to position, three-dimensional organization, and molecular composition, and is therefore considered to have a unique role in the transmission of contractile force.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 485-489 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell motility ; myosin ; actin ; vesicle transport ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Myosin-coated spheres from 0.6 to 120 μm in diameter move in vitro on a substratum of polar arrays of actin cables derived from the alga Nitella. The force for this movement is provided by skeletal muscle myosin since it is ATP-dependent, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) inactivation of the myosin blocks movement. These observations demonstrate that attachment of myosin in a random orientation to structures will enable those structures to move along polar arrays of actin filaments.
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  • 37
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    Keywords: fertilization ; actin ; microfilaments ; sea urchin ; cell division ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The sea urchin egg at fertilization is an ideal model in which to study actin-mediated surface activity. Electron microscopy of unfertilized eggs demonstrates the presence of thousands of well-arrayed short microvilli, which appear supported by cytochalasin-sensitive actin oligomers as detected with rhodamine-labeled phalloidin staining of permeabilized eggs. At insemination, the previously short microvilli elongate and cluster around the successful sperm during incorporation. Phalloidin staining demonstrates a tremendous recruitement of polymerized actin into the site of sperm incorporation, resulting in the formation of the fertilization cone. Fertilization of cytochalasin-treated eggs results in the normal activation of the metabolic and bioeletric events, but sperm incorporation does not occur since the localized actin assembly required for fertilization cone formation is precluded. After sperm incorporation, the entire fertilized surface is restructured, as a result of a massive polymerization of actin to produce a burst in microvillar elongation. Addition of cytochalasin to eggs immediately following sperm incorporation demonstrates the recruitment of actin assembly for the proper progression through the first cell cycle. During normal cell divison, the egg surface retains the long microvilli. The furrow which forms at cytokinesis does not appear as a unique new structure, but rather as a reorganization of the cortical microfilaments. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy argues against an increase in microfilaments during early cytokinesis. At the latest stages of cytokinesis, a thickening of the cortical actin is noted, which could possibly be interpreted as a contractile ring. A minor basal level of actin assembly with numerous nucleation sites in unfertilized eggs and a tremendous but localized assembly of microfilaments surrounding the sperm during incorporation, followed by a massive global microfilament assembly event to elongate the fertilized egg microvilli resulting later in the reorganization of these microfilaments to produce the forces necessary for cytokinesis, highlight the utility of the study of sea urchin eggs at fertilization for understanding actin-membrane interactions.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin-binding protein ; filamin ; HeLa cell HMWP ; myosin ; HeLa cells ; paracrystals ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: HMWP (high molecular weight protein), a high molecular weight actin binding protein, was previously isolated from HeLa cells; its physical properties, amino acid composition, and intracellular localization indicated its homology with actinbinding protein and filamin [Weihing, 1982, 1983]. We now report the identification of HMWP in striated paracrystals. Purified HMWP is incubated at 25° C and subjected to negative staining with uranyl acetate. Examination by electron microscopy reveals long, striated paracrystals formed from filaments a few nanometers in diameter that lie parallel to the long axis of the paracrystal. At intervals of about 200 nm, the filaments are crossed by granular aggregates, accounting for the striated appearance. Treatment of the paracrystals with an affinity-purified antibody to HMWP decorates the filaments; such decorations are not observed if nonimmune goat IgG or phosphate-buffered saline are substituted for the antibody. Electron microscopic and electrophoretic analysis of paracrystals sedimented onto grids by centrifugation at 864 g reveals that the grids are covered with paracrystals and the major polypeptide present on grids centrifuged in parallel is HMWP. Taken together, these data indicate that the filaments of the paracrystals contain elongated molecules of HMWP. Additional experiments are needed to decide if the paracrystals from by self-association between HMWP molecules or by association with one or more of the minor polypeptides that remain in the purified HMWP.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; murine leukemia viruses ; formaldehyde fixation ; membrane permeability ; immunofluorescence ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mouse fibroblasts chronically infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) were fixed using variable amounts of formaldehyde, then examined by indirect immunofluorescence light microscopy. Several antisera were employed to detect both external and internal antigens associated with the cells, eg, MuLV gp70, tubulin, vimentin, and actin. Our results indicate that the cell membranes could be partially permeabilized to IgG molecules directed against the three cytoskeletal antigens only after 3.7%, but not 1%, formaldehyde treatment. Complete permeabilization was achieved by subsequent acetone treatment of cells after 3.7% formaldehyde fixation. In such cells, normal-appearing cytoskeletal networks of microtubules and intermediate filaments were observed. Stress fibers were also seen; however, they appeared less numerous and thinner than those of uninfected mouse fibroblasts. Further, a significant amounts of F-actin fluorescence was localized in granules in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Similar observations were made using JLS-V9 mouse cells chronically infected with 334C virus, another MuLV. These results taken together suggest that subtle differences exist in the organization of actin within MuLV-infected and uninfected mouse fibroblasts.
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  • 40
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 623-633 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: spectrin ; ankyrin ; brain membranes ; spectrin subunits ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Further similarity between mammalian erythrocyte spectrin and pig brain spectrin has been demonstrated by (a) formation of hybrid molecules with brain α-chains and erythrocyte β-chains and by (b) identification of an ankyrin protein in brain membranes. Hybrid spectrin molecules prepared from brain α-chains and erythrocyte β-chains were visualized by low-angle rotary shadowing as double-stranded rods (dimers) 100 nM in length. 125I-labeled brain α-chain that was hybridized with erythrocyte β-subunit acquired ability to bind to ankyrin sites on erythrocyte membranes. 125I-labeled brain α-chain bound only to β-subunits of erythrocyte and brain spectrin following transfer of these polypeptides to nitrocellulose paper from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels. Thus brain spectrin and mammalian erythrocyte spectrin have shared functional sites involved in association of their subunits. Additional evidence for similarity of brain and erythrocyte membranes is the finding of a 210,000 Mr membrane protein in brain that cross-reacts with erythrocyte ankyrin and has a water-soluble domain of 72,000 Mr that is produced by protease digestion. The 72,000 Mr domain of brain ankyrin has been isolated by affinity chromatography on erythrocyte spectrin-Sepharose, and was demonstrated to bind directly to erythrocyte and brain spectrin. The brain 72,000 Mr fragment has distinct peptide maps from the erythrocyte 72,000 Mr ankyrin fragment and thus is not a result of erythrocyte contamination.
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  • 41
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 649-655 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonal transport ; lymphocyte capping ; spectrin ; fodrin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fodrin is an actin/calmodulin-binding protein with similarities to spectrin (erythrocytes) and TW 260/240 (brush border). It is concentrated beneath the plasma membranes of neurons and other cells. We have observed translocations of fodrin in both neurons and lymphocytes. Newly synthesized, radiolabeled fodrin moves down axons at a maximum velocity (about 50 mm/day) that is slower than the most rapidly axonally transported proteins (group I). A portion of fodrin appears to move more slowly at velocities (1-10 mm/day) resembling those of actin and myosin (group IV) and tubulin and neurofilament proteins (group V). In lymphocytes, when certain surface antigens are induced by cross-linking agents to migrate to one pole of the cell and form a cap, fodrin redistributes beneath the membrane and forms a subcap. The movements of fodrin in lympohocyte capping and in the axonal transport of group IV polypeptides have certain similarities. In both cases, the redistribution of fodrin is accompanied by concomitant redistributions of actin, myosin, and calmodulin, and both processes proceed at similar velocities. We consider the possibilities that these two processes are related, both being driven by a submembrane force-generating system comprising in part actin, myosin, and fodrin, and that fodrin serves to link various organelles or proteins to this system.
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  • 42
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    Keywords: actin ; cytoskeleton ; membrane connections ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Recently, molecules highly related to erythrocyte spectrin have been identified in nonerythroid cells. Here we summarize our current understanding of these molecules and suggest a model for their organization. Significant differences exist between this family of proteins isolated from mammalian cells and avian cells, and this may explain the variability in antibody preparations as well as differences in peptide maps of these subunits which have been reported. We have prepared antibodies specific for the variant subunits of the spectrinlike proteins fodrin, spectrin, and TW260/240 and analyzed the distribution of these variant subunits in different chicken cell types as well as their developmental distribution in the intestine. The results suggest that fodrin is the general member of this family of proteins and can even coexist with other spectrinlike proteins in the same cells.
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  • 43
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 693-697 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 109-109 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: non-actin filaments (NAF) ; flagellar rootlets ; pusule ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Flagellar rootlets play an important role in “primitive motile systems.” They are made of filaments able to contract by twisting and Ca+2 binding. The pusules of Dinoflagellates appear to be under the control of large bundles of 2.4 nm nonactin filaments that correspond to the striated rootlets of their two flagella.
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  • 46
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    Keywords: bacterial motility ; flagella ; sheathed flagella ; complex flagella ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Although bacterial flagellar sheaths were observed over 30 years ago, they may still be characterized as structures in search of a function. In addition to true sheaths, bacterial flagella may possess other adornments that cause an increase in the organelle's cross-sectional diameter. These “complex flagella” are sharply differentiated from sheathed flagella. Immunological and chemical distinctions have been found between flagellar sheaths, flagellar cores, and LPS layers inferred to be the sheath sensu stricto. Although complex flagella may serve as specific receptors for flagellotropic phages or in allowing for more efficient swimming in viscous environments, similar functions have not yet been attributed to true sheaths. It is postulated that flagellar sheaths may allow for specific interaction between a bacterium and a surface. In addition, there is a problem as to the relationship between a rapidly rotating flagellum and the sheath.
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  • 47
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    Keywords: mitosis ; anaphase ; microtubules ; nocodazole ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: During early anaphase PtK1 cells were briefly treated with the rapidly reversible microtubule (MT) poison nocodazole. This treatment abruptly stopped chromosome motion and effected a large decrease in spindle birefringence. On removal of the drug, chromosome to pole motion (anaphase A) returned, though at a lesser rate but not extent than untreated cells. In most cases elongation of the pole-pole distance (anaphase B) also occured, at both a rate and to an extent less than in untreated cells. During the recovery period following drug arrest spindle birefringence did not return to pretreatment levels. Electron microscopic analysis of nocodazole arrested, or arrested and released, cells revealed extensive disassembly of the nonkinetochore class of MTs (nkMTs), particularly evident in the astral region. Microtubules seen in the interzone region were largely fragments of midbody precursors. Kinetochore MTs (kMTs) appeared to be unaffected by the brief drug treatment chosen for these experiments. Analysis of MT profiles seen in transverse sections of the interzone region indicated in treated and released cells approximately 60% fewer MTs. This may suggest that chromosome motion during anaphase is not dependent on interactions between kMTs and nkMTs and separation of the spindle poles can occur in the presence of disrupted interzonal MTs.
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 111-111 
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    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 113-121 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: coelomocytes ; filopodia ; whole cell translocation ; video microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have utilized a video-enhanced contrast system coupled to a DIC-equipped microscope to examine the motility of both whole coelomocytes and individual filopodia. When the cells are left in diluted coelomic fluid, they exhibit a fibroblast-like mode of translocation across the substrate. These cells extend lamellipodia at their advancing margin and develop retraction fibers at the trailing edge. Filopodia are actively extended from the lamellipodia of the advancing margin. Cells that are washed free of the coelomic fluid and placed in an isotonic buffer lose their ability to translocate. Filopodia on these stationary cells are seen to undergo a series of waving and bending motions. These motions are rapid and result in a filopodium folding back upon itself only to reextend later. Both forms of motility are discussed in light of the existing structural and biochemical knowledge of this and other cell types.
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    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 3 (1983), S. 199-210 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm ; flagellum ; motility ; cAMP ; freeze-thawing ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Demembranated and membrane disrupted bull sperm models exhibit an increase in motility when exposed to cAMP. Tritium-labeled cAMP was used to locate the initial site of action of cAMP in the modeled sperm preparations. cAMP did not bind selectively to the modeled cells, and the presence or absence of plasma membrane fragments on the models did not significantly alter this result. When suspension medium taken from modeled sperm preparations was subjected to gel filtration on Sephadex G25-150 columns, cAMP bound to a high molecular weight component that eluted with the void volume. The responsible binding factor is a soluble component that is released when the plasma membranes of the sperm are disrupted during the modeling procedure. To test the importance of the cAMP binding factor, modeled sperm were centrifuged, the super-natant solution was decanted, and the cells were resuspended in fresh medium. After this treat-ment the cells could be restored to motility with Mg-ATP but no longer exhibited a response to cAMP. Furthermore, addition of cAMP binding factor isolated by gel filtration partially restored the response of these sperm to cAMP. Investigation of the properties of the cAMP-binding factor have confirmed that it is specific for cAMP, with a much lower affinity for AMP and cGMP. In the pre-sence of a large excess of unlabeled cAMP the labeled complex has a half-life of approximately 1 hour. Our results indicate that the action of cAMP on the motility of modeled sperm is mediated by its attachment to a high molecular weight, soluble component of the cell cytoplasm.
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  • 52
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    Journal of Morphology 175 (1983), S. 27-32 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Three pairs of specialized axons found in other muscoid flies are absent in the tsetse, Glossina morsitans, which also lacks the tergotrochanteral muscle. Neither light nor electron microscopy could demonstrate any evidence for the cervical giant fiber axon, the peripherally synapsing axon, or the tergotrochanteral motor axon. The specialized characteristics of these axons must have been altered during the evolution of Glossina. This divergence of individual neurons from the more typical muscoid pattern not only demonstrates the evolutionary modification of specific identified cells; it may also provide an opportunity to study the ontogenetic determination of unique neuronal features.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The overall anatomy of Neodasys as well as data for hemoglobin-containing cells are described. Hemoglobin-containing cells are shown to be mesodermal specializations constituting approximately 14% of the animal's total body volume (4.87 ± 104 μl). These globular cells (10-14 μm) are situated in two longitudinal rows, each dorsolateral to the straight gut. Branches from the cells enwrap perikarya of muscle and nerve cells whose mitochondria are found just below their respective plasmalemmata in intimate association with the hemoglobin-containing cells. The ground substance of the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of these nearly organelle-free cells is extremely electron-dense and is presumed to represent the hemoglobin molecules. Locomotion analyses indicate that the cells can undergo a threefold change in linear dimension in 0.25 seconds, raising the possibility of convective mixing in these cells. Structural and ultrastructural comparisons with similar cells in adults of other species of Gastrotricha indicate that the hemoglobin-containing cells of Neodasys may be homologous to the socalled Y cells of other species, some of which contain myofilaments. A muscle-cell origin is considered for the evolution of hemoglobin-containing cells of Neodasys.
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  • 54
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 176 (1983), S. 31-42 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Living embryos of ten species of the teleost fish Nothobranchius were observed from fertilization through the ten-somite stage. Cellular behaviour during early development showed differences as well as similarities among species. In one species at the eight-cell stage the blastomeres are arranged in two rows of four cells, all in one plane. In three other species the blastomeres are arranged in two layers of four cells, each one above the other, and in the remaining six species the arrangement is intermediate between the one-layer and two-layer pattern. Hybridization experiments showed that the sequence of orientation of cleavage planes is not under the control of either the nucleus or of cytoplasmic factors from the sperm. At midcleavage stages, marginal cells of the blastoderm undergo fusion, thus giving rise to the external-Yolk Syncytial Layer. A second period of fusion of cells of the Enveloping Layer occurs just before epiboly starts and a third one after epiboly has concluded. Marginal cells of the Enveloping Layer do not possess cell protrusions such as blebs, lobopodia, or filopodia; therefore, spreading of the Enveloping Layer during epiboly by means of locomotion of marginal cells seems unlikely. Evidence is presented that the deep cells within the segmentation cavity remain separated from one another through contact inhibition during epiboly and that they use the Enveloping Layer as a substratum during their dispersion over the yolk. A description of normal stages applicable to all ten species of Nothobranchius is presented.
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  • 55
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 176 (1983), S. 43-60 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cleavage in the brown marsupial mouse, Antechinus stuartii, from the zygote to the unilaminar blastocyst, was observed in vivo and in culture and in sections of embryos. The first three divisions were meridional and passed from the yolk pole to the opposite pole. Deutoplasmolysis, resulting in a distinct yolk mass, occurred during the first two divisions. Prior to the third and fourth divisions, the blastomeres elongated and flattened against the zona pellucida. The fourth division was latitudinal and resulted in two histologically distinct rings of eight blastomeres which were at first rounded and then became flattened against the zona. Further divisions and flattening of the blastomeres resulted in a complete unilaminar blastocyst by the time the blastocyst numbered 22 to 30 cells. Some expansion, causing compression of the zona and mucoid layers, occurred before completion of the blastocyst, but most expansion occurred once the blastocyst was complete. No histological differences could be detected between the blastomeres at this stage. Embryos were successfully cultured from the zygote to the rounded four-cell stage and from the flattened four-cell stage to the completed unilaminar blastocyst of around 32 cells. Total estimated cleavage times were slower in culture than in vivo, but the relative lengths of time for each division were approximately the same.
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  • 56
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 176 (1983) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 57
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    Journal of Morphology 176 (1983), S. 61-87 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Subungulate hyraces are similar to the condition assumed to have characterized primitive ungulates and subungulates by virtue of their small body size, relatively unspecialized cranial and postcranial anatomy, and primitive type of lophodont dentition. The muscles of mastication of Procavia habessinica and Heterohyrax brucei are here compared with those of other mammals, both with ungulates, as an example of more specialized mammals, and with opossums, as an example of more generalized mammals, to determine aspects of hyrax myology that represent the retention of a condition primitive for herbivorous mammals.The masticatory muscles of hyraces retain the primitive ungulate/subungulate condition in the large, complexly subdivided temporalis, and in the enlarged, pinnated, bilayered medial pterygoid. The medial pterygoid originates from the pterygoid hamulus, a condition that may also be primitive for this assemblage. The large complex superficial masseter is derived compared with the condition in ruminant artiodactyls, but may represent the condition primitive for perissodactyls. The architectural modifications of this muscle in hyraces may represent adaptations to allow a wide gape threat display.Hyraces possess a posterior belly of the digastric alone, paralleling the condition in some perissodactyls. They possess a large and complexly subdivided styloglossus, which may be a shared derived character of subungulates. Hyraces are unique among ungulates and subungulates in the extreme reduction of the anterior hyoid cornua, and may be unique among mammals in the development of paired lingual processes from the ceratohyal ossifications.
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  • 58
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    Journal of Morphology 176 (1983), S. 113-119 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Gross and microscopic study of Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus and Papio cyanocephalus anubis shows that these cercopithecines have a quadriceps tendon the distal portion of which consists mostly of dense collagenous bundles with scattered fine elastic fibres most of which lie in the loose connective tissue planes within and around the tendon and around blood vessels. A distinct fibrovesicular structure, the suprapatella, lies within the tendon of the vastus intermedius above the pony patella. Histologically, this structure is characterised by interwoven bundles of collagenous fibres, among which are enmeshed large cells containing prominent nuclei surrounded by large clear spaces.It is postulated that this structure facilitates hyperfluxion of the knee during the initial phases of springing and jumping.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The structure and secretory activity of the accessory salivary gland in two species of Conus were examined using routine and histochemical techniques of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy.The composite layers of the accessory salivary gland of Conus are a luminal epithelium, fibromuscular layer, submuscular layer, and a capsule. In C. flavidus and C. vexillum, the luminal epithelium is formed by epitheliocytes and cytoplasmic processes extending from the secretory cells, whose perikarya form the submuscular layer. The processes carry secretory cell products (chiefly Golgi-derived glycoprotein) across the fibromuscular layer and terminate between epitheliocytes (at the bases of the secretory canaliculi) or beyond the surface of the epithelial cells. Conus vexillum is distinguished from C. flavidus by its high content of lipofuscin. Epitheliocytes are the only microvillated cells in the accessory salivary gland of Conus. In C. flavidus, epitheliocytes extrude secretory granules, various types of cytoplasmic blebs and clear vesicles by apocrine “pinching off”. Clear vesicles are shed from the tips of microvilli. The luminal epithelial cells of C. vexillum similarly egest clear vesicles, but normally undergo additional holocrine secretion to release lipofuscin.The secretions of epitheliocytes appear to be major products of the accessory salivary gland: consideration of secretory activities by both epitheliocytes and secretory cells will therefore be necessary when directly investigating accessory salivary gland function in Conus.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The atrial wall of Notophthalmus viridescens is 25-75 μm thick and is trabeculated sparsely. Coronary vessels are absent. The endocardial endothelium is continuous and has 50-60 nm-wide fenestrae with diaphragms, rests on a discontinuous basal lamina and lacks occluding junctions. Cells found in the subendothelial connective tissue are xanthophores, melanophores, mast cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, and unmyelinated nerve fibers with Schwann cell investments. Epicardial mesothelial cells contain numerous 6-7 nm filaments and lamellar bodies which resemble myelin figures. Mesothelial cell junctions include maculae adhaerentes diminutae, desmosomes, and interdigitations. The epicardial connective tissue layer is more extensive than that of the endocardium, with xanthophores and melanophores rarely present and nerve fibers never observed. The myocardium consists of a mesh-work of myocytes 3-5 cell layers thick with little intervening connective tissue. Myocytes are 6-10 μm in diameter and have two or three peripheral myofibrillae. Typical A, I, H, Z, and M bands are present with a sarcomere length of 2.5 μm. T tubules are not observed. The sarcoplasmic reticulum has subsarcolemmal dilations. The nuclear pole region contains abundant mitochondria and atrial granules, extensive Golgi, and elements of smooth and rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum. Lateral intercellular junctions consisting of dense plaques, frequently continuous with Z-line material, are common. Oblique and transversely oriented junctions consisting of primarily of fascia adhaerentes, are present. It appears that amphibian atrial myocytes more closely resemble those of the amphibian ventricle than those of the mammalian atrium. Structural differences between amphibian atrial and ventricular myocytes seem to be quantitative rather than qualitative in nature.
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  • 61
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    Journal of Morphology 175 (1983), S. 253-269 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The neuronal morphology of the torus semicircularis of the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens pipiens, was examined in Golgi-impregnated material. Neurons in each of the five subdivisions of the torus semicircularis (Potter, '65a) have distinct morphologies which are characteristic of the subdivision.Laminar nucleus neurons are mostly multipolar with spherical or ovoidal somata and smooth dendrites oriented primarily parallel and perpendicular to the cell laminae. Principal nucleus neurons have variable soma shapes with short dendrites ( 〈 100 μm) radiating in all directions. In the magnocellular nucleus, there are three major cell types: neurons characterized by small, spherical-shaped somata, with short, thin, radiating dendrites and many varicosities; bi- or tripolar neurons with ovoidal somata, and long (100-200 μm) and smooth dendrites orienting primarily dorsoventrally and mediolaterally; and multipolar neurons with triangular-shaped somata and very long (200-350 μm) dendrites, which are either smooth or highly spiny. Neurons in the commissural nucleus are mostly multipolar cells with ovoidal somata and beaded dendrites projecting mostly dorsally and ventrally. The subependymal midline nucleus contains mostly uni- or bipolar neurons with small ovoidal somata and straight, spiny dendrites.In addition to revealing the morphological features of neurons in the torus, the counterstained material shows further cytoarchitectural organization of the principal nucleus, i.e., the presence of a circular lamellar organization. The functional significance of these anatomical features is discussed.
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