ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Life Sciences (General)  (506)
  • 1995-1999  (506)
  • 1999  (506)
Collection
Years
  • 1995-1999  (506)
Year
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The data confirm previous findings that quail embryos can, under proper circumstances, develop until hatching in microgravity. There were no gross abnormalities in the few ears of the late embryos (we received 3 ears at E14.5 and 4 ears at E16.5). Due to inadequate numbers of samples returned and their fully insufficient fixation, no conclusions could be reached that warrant any publications.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2018-06-09
    Description: Under an SBIR contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International developed a new system for the treatment of wastewater based on the metabolic activity of photorphic bacteria. These microorganisms are now being sold as a liquid product called Mega-Bac TF. It is currently used for septic systems and wastewater ponds, lakes and lagoons to degrade fat, oil, fecal matter and other biologically derived wastes. Potential applications include homes, agriculture, food processors and chemical manufacturing.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Spinoff 1999; 60; NASA/NP-1999-10-254-HQ
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: GSA 1999 Annual Meeting; Denver, CO; United States
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: In the microgravity environment of spaceflight, the relationship between sensory input and motor output is altered. During prolonged missions, neural adaptive processes come into play to recalibrate central nervous system function, thereby permitting new motor control strategies to emerge in the novel sensory environment of microgravity. However, the adaptive state achieved during spaceflight is inappropriate for a unit gravity environment and leads to motor control alterations upon return to Earth that include disturbances in locomotion. Indeed, gait and postural instabilities following the return to Earth have been reported in both U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts even after short duration (5- to 10-day) flights. After spaceflight, astronauts may: (1) experience the sensation of turning while attempting to walk a straight path, (2) encounter sudden loss of postural stability, especially when rounding corners, (3) perceive exaggerated pitch and rolling head movements during walking, (4) experience sudden loss of orientation in unstructured visual environments, or (5) experience significant oscillopsia during locomotion.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project; 5.5-1 - 5.5-57; NASA/SP-1999-534
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Radiations encountered in space include protons and heavy ions such as iron as well as their secondaries. The relative biological effect (RBE) of these ions is not known, particularly at the doses and dose-rates expected for planetary missions. Neutrons, are not particularly relevant to space travel, but have been found experimentally to have an increase in their RBE with decreasing dose. If a similar trend of increasing RBE with decreasing dose is present for heavy ions and protons during irradiation in space, the small doses received during space travel could potentially have substantial carcinogenic risk. Clearly more investigation of the effects of heavy ions and protons is needed before accurate risk assessment for prolonged travel in space can be done. One means to mitigate the increased risk of cancer due to radiation exposure in space is by developing effective countermeasures that can reduce the incidence of tumor development. Tamoxifen has recently been shown to be an effective chemopreventive agent in both animal models and humans for the prevention of mammary tumors. Tamoxifen is a unique drug, with a highly specific mechanism of action affecting a specific radiation-sensitive population of epithelial cells in the mammary gland. In human studies, the annual incidence of a primary tumor in the contralateral breast of women with previous breast cancer is about 8 per 1000, making them an exceedingly high-risk group for the development of breast cancer. In this high risk group, treated with tamoxifen, daily, for 2 years, the incidence of a new primary tumor in the contralateral breast was approximately one third of that noted in the non-tamoxifen treatment group. Tamoxifen antagonizes the action of estrogen by competing for the nuclear receptor complex thereby altering the association of the receptor complex and nuclear binding sites. Its effects in reducing the development of breast cancer could be accomplished by controlling clinically undetectable microcancers, arresting preneoplastic lesions, or correcting abnormal environments which predispose to high risk of malignant transformation.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: National Space Biomedical Research Institute; B-97 - B-98
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: We report initial data from a suspended rat model that quantitatively relates chronic partial weightbearing to bone loss. Chronic partial weightbearing is our simulation of the effect of limited artificial gravity aboard spacecraft or reduced planetary gravity. Preliminary analysis of bone by PQCT, histomorphometry, mechanical testing and biochemistry suggest that chronic exposure to half of Earth gravity is insufficient to prevent severe bone loss. The effect of episodic full weightbearing activity (Earth Gravity) on rats otherwise at 50% weightbearing was also explored. This has similarity to treatment by an Earth G-rated centrifuge on a spacecraft that normally maintained artificial gravity at half of Earth G. Our preliminary evidence, using the above techniques to analyze bone, indicate that 2 hours daily of full weightbearing was insufficient to prevent the bone loss observed in 50% weightbearing animals. The effectiveness of partial weightbearing and episodic full weightbearing as potential countermeasures to bone loss in spaceflight was compared with treatment by ibandronate. Ibandronate, a long-acting potent bisphosphonate proved more effective in preventing bone loss and associated functionality based upon structure than our first efforts at mechanical countermeasures. The effectiveness of ibandronate was notable by each of the testing methods we used to study bone from gross structure and strength to tissue and biochemistry. These results appear to be independent of generalized systemic stress imposed by the suspension paradigm. Preliminary evidence does not suggest that blood levels of vitamin D were affected by our countermeasures. Despite the modest theraputic benefit of mechanical countermeasures of partial weightbearing and episodic full weightbearing, we know that some appropriate mechanical signal maintains bone mass in Earth gravity. Moreover, the only mechanism that correctly assigns bone mass and strength to oppose regionally specific force applied to bone is mechanical, a process based upon bone strain. Substantial evidence indicates that the specifics of dynamic loading i.e. time-varying forces are critical. Bone strain history is a predictor of the effect that mechanical conditions have on bone structure mass and strength. Using servo-controlled force plates on suspended rats with implanted strain gauges we manipulated impact forces of ambulation in the frequency (Fourier) domain. Our results indicate that high frequency components of impact forces are particularly potent in producing bone strain independent of the magnitude of the peak force or peak energy applied to the leg. Because a servo-system responds to forces produced by the rat's own muscle activity during ambulation, the direction of ground-reaction loads act on bone through the rat's own musculature. This is in distinction to passive vibration of the floor where forces reach bone through the natural filters of soft tissue and joints. Passive vibration may also be effective, but it may or may not increase bone in the appropriate architectural pattern to oppose the forces of normal ambulatory activity. Effectiveness of high frequency mechanical stimulation in producing regional (muscle directed) bone response will be limited by 1. the sensitivity of bone to a particular range of frequencies and 2. the inertia of the muscles, limiting their response to external forces by increasing tension along insertions. We have begun mathematical modeling of normal ambulatory activity. Effectiveness of high frequency mechanical stimulation in producing regional (muscle directed) bone response will be limited by 1. the sensitivity of bone to a particular range of frequencies and 2. the inertia of the muscles, limiting their response to external forces by increasing tension along insertions. We have begun mathematical modeling of the rat forelimb as a transfer function between impact force and bone strain to predict optimal dynamic loading conditions for this system. We plan additional studies of mechanical counter-measures that incorporate improved dynamic loading, features relevant to anticipated evaluation of artificial gravity, exercise regimens and exposure to Martian gravity, The combination of mechanical countermeasures with ibandronate will also be investigated for signs of synergy.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: National Space Biomedical Research Institute; B-10 - B-11
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: A major issue associated with long-duration space flight is the possibility of infectious disease causing an unacceptable medical risk to crew members. Our proposal is designed to gain information that addresses several issues outlined in the Immunology/Infectious disease critical path. The major hypothesis addressed is that space flight causes alterations in the immune system that may allow latent viruses which are endogenous in the human population to reactivate and shed to higher levels than normal which can affect the health of crew members during a long term space-flight mission. We will initially focus our studies on the human herpesviruses and human polyomaviruses which are important pathogens known to establish latent infections in the human population. Both primary infection and reactivation from latent infection with this group of viruses can cause a variety of illnesses that result in morbidity and occasionally mortality of infected individuals. Effective vaccines exist for only one of the eight known human herpesviruses and the vaccine itself can still reactivate from latent infection. Available antivirals are of limited use and are effective against only a few of the human herpesviruses. Although most individuals display little if any clinical consequences from latent infection, events which alter immune function such as immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplantation are known to increase the risk of developing complications as a result of latent virus reactivation. This proposal will measure both the frequency and magnitude of viral shedding and genome loads in the blood from humans participating in activities that serve as ground based models of space flight conditions. Our initial goal is to develop sensitive quantitative competitive PCR- based assays (QC-PCR) to detect the herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the polyomaviruses SV40, BKV, and JCV. Using these assays we will establish baseline patterns of viral genome load in the blood and viral shedding from normal volunteers in a longitudinal study over I year in length. As a comparison, we will measure patterns of viral genome loads and shedding from individuals who are severely immunosuppressed, in whom herpesvirus reactivation or primary infection with a herpesvirus is known to cause complications. In addition, we will proceed to testing ground based analogs in collaboration with Dr. Duane Pierson (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center). This will include measuring samples obtained from individuals living and working in the extreme environment of Antarctica. We expect to detect viral shedding or reactivation from most of the test groups, although the magnitude of shedding or reactivation cannot be predicted. The data accumulated from studies in this proposal should allow us to evaluate whether events that simulate certain aspects of space flight reactivate viral infections severe enough in nature that they may compromise the success of long-term space flight missions. These studies will also provide a foundation to monitor viral reactivation and shedding from crew members participating in actual space flight missions. We will present data showing the establishment of our QC-PCR assay for detection of EBV.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 338-339
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The Ames Research Center R&D Services Directorate teams with NASA, other government agencies and/or industry investigators for the development, design, fabrication, manufacturing and qualification testing of space-flight and ground-based experiment hardware for biomedical and general aerospace applications. In recent years, biomedical research hardware and software has been developed to support space-flight and ground-based experiment needs including the E 132 Biotelemetry system for the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), E 100 Neurolab neuro-vestibular investigation systems, the Autogenic Feedback Systems, and the Standard Interface Glove Box (SIGB) experiment workstation module. Centrifuges, motion simulators, habitat design, environmental control systems, and other unique experiment modules and fixtures have also been developed. A discussion of engineered systems and capabilities will be provided to promote understanding of possibilities for future system designs in biomedical applications. In addition, an overview of existing engineered products will be shown. Examples of hardware and literature that demonstrate the organization's capabilities will be displayed. The Ames Research Center R&D Services Directorate is available to support the development of new hardware and software systems or adaptation of existing systems to meet the needs of academic, commercial/industrial, and government research requirements. The Ames R&D Services Directorate can provide specialized support for: System concept definition and feasibility Mathematical modeling and simulation of system performance Prototype hardware development Hardware and software design Data acquisition systems Graphical user interface development Motion control design Hardware fabrication and high-fidelity machining Composite materials development and application design Electronic/electrical system design and fabrication System performance verification testing and qualification.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 581
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Our ability to confidently develop appropriate countermeasures for radiations in space in terms of shielding and design of a spacecraft, the mission scenario, or chemoprevention is severely limited by the uncertainties in both the risk itself and the change in that risk with intervention. Despite the fact that the risk of carcinogenesis from exposures of personnel to radiations on long-term missions is considered one of the worst hazards in space, only a limited amount of in-vivo data exist for tumor induction from exposures to protons or energetic heavy ions (HZEs) at lower doses. The most extensive work remains the landmark study. for tumor development in the harderian gland of the mouse. The objective of this study is to characterize the level of risk for tumor induction in another relevant animal model. Subsequent experiments are designed to test the hypothesis that the level of risk can be reduced by pharmaceutical intervention in the promoting and progressing stages of the disease rather than in the initiating stage. The work presented here results from a cooperative effort on the part of investigators from two projects of the Radiation-Effects Team of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The collaborating projects are the Core Project which is investigating the risk of carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats and the Chemoprevention Project which is investigating the ability of Tamoxifen to reduce the number of malignant tumors in the irradiated animals. Research at the cellular and subcellular levels is being conducted in two other projects of the Radiation-Effects Team, Cytogenetics with J. R. Williams as Principal Investigator and Mutations from Repeated DNA Sequences. Results for these other projects also are being presented at this Workshop.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 490-492
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The product of the critical path roadmap project is an integrated strategy for mitigating the risks associated with human exploration class missions. It is an evolving process that will assure the ability to communicate the integrated critical path roadmap. Unlike previous reports, this one will not sit on a shelf - it has the full support of the JSC Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SA) and is already being used as a decision making tool (e.g., budget and investigation planning for Shuttle and Space Station mission). Utility of this product depends on many efforts, namely: providing the required information (completed risk data sheets, critical question information, technology data). It is essential to communicate the results of the critical path roadmap to the scientific community - this meeting is a good opportunity to do so. The web site envisioned for the critical path roadmap will provide the capability to communicate to a broader community and to track and update the system routinely.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 19-37
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Changes in blood pressure can occur for two reasons: 1) A decrease in cardiac output resulting from the altered contractility of the heart or through changes in venous filling pressure via the Frank Starling mechanism or; 2) A change in systemic vascular resistance. The observed changes in cardiac output and blood pressure after long term space flight cannot be entirely explained through changes in contractility or heart rate alone. Therefore, alterations in filling pressure mediated through changes in systemic venous capacitance and arterial resistance function may be important determinants of cardiac output and blood pressure after long term space flight. Our laboratory and previous studies have shown the importance of veno-constriction mediated by the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex system on overall circulatory homeostasis and in the regulation of cardiac output. Our proposed experiments test the overall hypothesis that alterations in venous capacitance function and arterial resistance by the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex system are an important determinant of the cardiac output and blood pressure response seen in astronauts after returning to earth from long term exposure to microgravity. This hypothesis is important to our overall understanding of circulatory adjustments made during long term space flight. It also provides a framework for investigating counter measures to reduce the incidence of orthostatic hypotension caused by an attenuation of cardiac output. We continue to use hind limb unweighted (HLU) rat model to simulate the patho physiological effects as they relate to cardiovascular deconditioning in microgravity. We have used this model to address the hypothesis that microgravity induced cardiovascular deconditioning results in impaired vascular responses and that these impaired vascular responses result from abnormal alpha-1 AR signaling. The impaired vascular reactivity results in attenuated blood pressure and cardiac output responses to an orthostatic challenge. We have used in vitro vascular reactivity assays to explore abnormalities in vascular responses in vessels from HLU animals and, cardiac output (CO), blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) measurements to characterize changes in hemodynamics following HLU.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: National Space Biomedical Research Institute; B-24 - B-25
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The best documented change in bone during space flight is the near cessation of bone formation. Space flight leads to a decrease in osteoblast number and activity, likely the result of altered differentiation of osteoblast precursors. The net result of these space flight induced changes is weaker bone. To understand the mechanism for these changes poses a challenge. Space flight studies must overcome enormous technical problems, and are necessarily limited in size and frequency. Therefore, ground based models have been developed to evaluate the effects of skeletal unloading. The hindlimb elevation (tail suspension) model simulates space flight better than other models because it reproduces the fluid shifts seen in space travel, is reversible, and is well tolerated by the animals with minimal evidence of stress as indicated by continued weight gain and normal levels and circadian rhythms of corticosterone. This is the model we have used for our experiments. Skeletal unloading by the hindlimb elevation method simulates a number of features of space flight in that bone formation, mineralization, and maturation are inhibited, osteoblast number is decreased, serum and skeletal osteocalcin levels fall, the ash content of bone decreases, and bone strength diminishes. We and others have shown that when osteoblasts or osteoprogenitor cells from the bones of the unloaded limbs are cultured in vitro they proliferate and differentiate more slowly, suggesting that skeletal unloading causes a persistent change in cell function which can be assessed in vitro. In contrast to the unweighted bones of the hindlimbs, no significant change in bone mass or bone formation is observed in the humeri, mandible, and cervical vertebrae during hindlimb elevation. The lack of effect of hindlimb elevation on bones like the humeri, mandible, and cervical vertebrae which are not unloaded by this procedure suggests that local factors rather than systemic effects dominate the response of bone to skeletal unloading. We have focussed on the role of IGF- 1 as the local factor mediating the effects of skeletal unloading on bone formation. IGF-I is produced by bone cells and chondrocytes; these cells have receptors for IGF-I, and respond to IGF-I with an increase in proliferation and function (e.g. collagen, and glycosaminoglycan production, respectively). IGF-I production by bone is under hormonal control, principally by GH and PTH, and IGF-I is thought to mediate some if not all of the effects of GH and PTH on bone growth. Thus, systemic changes in hormones such as GH and PTH may still have effects which vary from bone to bone depending on the loading history.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 198-199
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Historical perspectives, reasons for gravitational research, key questions regarding centrifuges, particular centrifuge discussions, vestibular research facilities, the hypergravity facility for cell culture, the human research facility, as well as the center for bioinformatics are all topics discussed in viewgraph form.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 46-56
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Decompression is an important aspect of extravehicular activity (EVA). Errors can result in decompression sickness (DCS) if the protective measures are too liberal, while valuable on-orbit time is dissipated in prophylactic methodologies that are excessively conservative. Nucleation is an important consideration in many natural events, and its control is very important in many industrial procedures. The amount of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) that will be required during the construction of the International Space Station exceeds all of the other activity combined. The requirements in astronaut time and consumables (breathing oxygen and air) will be considerable. In an attempt to mitigate these requirements, Project ARGO was investigated in 1990 to investigate the effects of gravitational forces on the musculoskeletal system. This work has led to the present plans for the reduction of prebreathe duration. Over the past decade, research has been directed towards an understanding of the biophysical basis of the formation and growth of the decompression gas phase with the goal of improving the efficiency of the EVA process. In the past, we have direct work towards a more complete understanding of gas bubble formation and growth and exercise-enhanced washout during oxygen prebreathe.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 127-131
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Johnson Space Center (JSC) medical sciences laboratories constitute a national resource for support of medical operations and life sciences research enabling a human presence in space. They play a critical role in evaluating, defining, and mitigation the untoward effect of human adaption to space flight. Over the years they have developed the unique facilities and expertise required to perform: biomedical sample analysis and physiological performance tests supporting medical evaluations of space flight crew members and scientific investigations of the operationally relevant medical, physiological, cellular, and biochemical issues associated with human space flight. A general overview of these laboratories is presented in viewgraph form.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 38-45
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be an important threat to crew health during extended space missions. Cellular immunity, which is decreased during and after space flight, is responsible for controlling EBV replication in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-term space flight on latent EBV reactivation.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 356
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Reactivation of latent viruses is an important health risk for people working and living in physically isolated extreme environments such as Antarctica and space. Preflight quarantine does not significantly reduce the risk associated with latent viruses, however, pharmaceutical countermeasures are available for some viruses. The molecular basis of latency is not fully understood, but physical and psychosocial stresses are known to initiate the reactivation of latent viruses. Presumably, stress induced changes in selected hormones lead to alterations in the cell- mediated immune (CMI) response resulting in increased shedding of latent viruses. Limited access to space makes the use of ground-based analogs essential. The Australian Antarctic stations serve as a good stress model and simulate many aspects of space flight. Closed environmental chambers have been used to simulate space flight since the Skylab missions and have also proven to be a valuable analog of selected aspects of space flight.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 348-349
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: An overview of the Human Space Life Sciences Programs Office (HSLSPO) presents the following topics in viewgraph form: Agency structure, objectives of the HSLSPO lead center implementation plan, HSLSPO relationship to Johnson Space Center (JSC) as lead center, HSLSPO programs and projects, biomedical research and countermeasures, HSLSPO relationship to the International Space Station (ISS), and BR&C ISS flight research content.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 12-18
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2005-06-30
    Description: The human element is the most complex element of the mission design Mars missions will pose significant physiological and psychological challenges to crew members Some challenges (human engineering, life support) must be overcome (potential "non-starters") Some challenges (bone, radiation) may be show-stoppers ISS will only Indirectly address Mars questions before any "Go/No Go" decision Significant amount of ground-based and specialized flight research will be required -- Critical Path Roadmap project will direct HSLSPO's research toward Mars exploration objectives
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 80-93
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Journal of experimental biology (ISSN 0022-0949); Volume 202; 1; 33-8
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Nitric oxide is hypothesized to be an inhibitory modulator of central sympathetic nervous outflow, and deficient neuronal nitric oxide production to cause sympathetic overactivity, which then contributes to nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension. The biochemical and neuroanatomical basis for this concept revolves around nitric oxide modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission within brainstem vasomotor centers. The functional consequence of neuronal nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation is, however, marked by an apparent conflict in the literature. On one hand, conscious animal studies using sympathetic blockade suggest a significant role for neuronal nitric oxide deficiency in the development of nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension, and on the other hand, there is evidence against such a role derived from 'knock-out' mice lacking nitric-oxide synthase 1, the major source of neuronal nitric oxide.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension (ISSN 1062-4821); Volume 8; 1; 61-73
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Methods in enzymology (ISSN 0076-6879); Volume 294; 458-82
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The microtubule network is thought to be used for long-range transport of cellular components in animal cells whereas the actin network is proposed to be used for short-range transport, although the mechanism(s) by which this transport is coordinated is poorly understood. For example, in sea urchins long-range Ca2+-regulated transport of exocytotic vesicles requires a microtubule-based motor, whereas an actin-based motor is used for short-range transport. In neurons, microtubule-based kinesin motor proteins are used for long-range vesicular transport but microtubules do not extend into the neuronal termini, where actin filaments form the cytoskeletal framework, and kinesins are rapidly degraded upon their arrival in neuronal termini, indicating that vesicles may have to be transferred from microtubules to actin tracks to reach their final destination. Here we show that an actin-based vesicle-transport motor, MyoVA, can interact directly with a microtubule-based transport motor, KhcU. As would be expected if these complexes were functional, they also contain kinesin light chains and the localization of MyoVA and KhcU overlaps in the cell. These results indicate that cellular transport is, in part, coordinated through the direct interaction of different motor molecules.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); Volume 397; 6716; 267-70
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The American journal of physiology (ISSN 0002-9513); Volume 276; 2 Pt 2; R298-307
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: In the present study, F ratios for both stable chromosome aberrations, i.e. ratios of translocations to pericentric inversions, and unstable aberrations, i.e. dicentrics and centric rings, were measured using fluorescence in situ hybridization. F ratios for stable aberrations measured after exposure to low (2.89 Gy 60Co gamma rays) and high-LET (0.25 Gy 56Fe ions; 1.25 Gy 56Fe ions; 3.0 Gy 12C ions) radiation were 6.5 +/- 1.5, 4.7 +/- 1.6, 9.3 +/- 2.5 and 10.4 +/- 3.0, respectively. F ratios for unstable aberrations measured after low (2.89 Gy 60Co gamma rays) and high-LET (0.25 Gy 56Fe ions; 3.0 Gy 12C ions) radiations were 6.5 +/- 1.6, 6.3 +/- 2.3 and 11.1 +/- 3.7, respectively. No significant difference between the F ratios for low- and high-LET radiation was found. Further tests on the models for calculation of the F ratio proposed by Brenner and Sachs (Radiat. Res. 140, 134-142, 1994) showed that the F ratio may not be straightforward as a practical fingerprint for densely ionizing radiation.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Radiation research (ISSN 0033-7587); Volume 151; 1; 85-91
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: BACKGROUND: Although the lignins and lignans, both monolignol-derived coupling products, account for nearly 30% of the organic carbon circulating in the biosphere, the biosynthetic mechanism of their formation has been poorly understood. The prevailing view has been that lignins and lignans are produced by random free-radical polymerization and coupling, respectively. This view is challenged, mechanistically, by the recent discovery of dirigent proteins that precisely determine both the regiochemical and stereoselective outcome of monolignol radical coupling. RESULTS: To understand further the regulation and control of monolignol coupling, leading to both lignan and lignin formation, we sought to clone the first genes encoding dirigent proteins from several species. The encoding genes, described here, have no sequence homology with any other protein of known function. When expressed in a heterologous system, the recombinant protein was able to confer strict regiochemical and stereochemical control on monolignol free-radical coupling. The expression in plants of dirigent proteins and proposed dirigent protein arrays in developing xylem and in other lignified tissues indicates roles for these proteins in both lignan formation and lignification. CONCLUSIONS: The first understanding of regiochemical and stereochemical control of monolignol coupling in lignan biosynthesis has been established via the participation of a new class of dirigent proteins. Immunological studies have also implicated the involvement of potential corresponding arrays of dirigent protein sites in controlling lignin biopolymer assembly.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Chemistry & biology (ISSN 1074-5521); Volume 6; 3; 143-51
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: These experiments tested the hypothesis that the ability to change sensorimotor set quickly for automatic responses depends on the time interval between successive surface perturbations. Sensorimotor set refers to the influence of prior experience or context on the state of the sensorimotor system. Sensorimotor set for postural responses was influenced by first giving subjects a block of identical backward translations of the support surface, causing forward sway and automatic gastrocnemius responses. The ability to change set quickly was inferred by measuring the suppression of the stretched antagonist gastrocnemius responses to toes-up rotations causing backward sway, following the translations. Responses were examined under short (10-14 s) and long (19-24 s) inter-trial intervals in young healthy subjects. The results showed that subjects in the long-interval group changed set immediately by suppressing gastrocnemius to 51% of translation responses within the first rotation and continued to suppress them over succeeding rotations. In contrast, subjects in the short-interval group did not change set immediately, but required two or more rotations to suppress gastrocnemius responses. By the last rotation, the short-interval group suppressed gastrocnemius responses to 33%, similar to the long-interval group of 29%. Associated surface plantarflexor torque resulting from these responses showed similar results. When rotation and translation perturbations alternated, however, the short-interval group was not able to suppress gastrocnemius responses to rotations as much as the long-interval group, although they did suppress more than in the first rotation trial after a series of translations. Set for automatic responses appears to linger, from one trial to the next. Specifically, sensorimotor set is more difficult to change when surface perturbations are given in close succession, making it appear as if set has become progressively stronger. A strong set does not mean that responses become larger over consecutive trials. Rather, it is inferred by the extent of difficulty in changing a response when it is appropriate to do so. These results suggest that the ability to change sensorimotor set quickly is sensitive to whether the change is required after a long or a short series of a prior different response, which in turn depends on the time interval between successive trials. Different rate of gastrocnemius suppression to toes-up rotation of the support surface have been reported in previous studies. This may be partially explained by different inter-trial time intervals demonstrated in this study.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation cerebrale (ISSN 0014-4819); Volume 124; 4; 513-9
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Relatively low levels of expression from naturally occurring promoters have limited the use of muscle as a gene therapy target. Myogenic restricted gene promoters display complex organization usually involving combinations of several myogenic regulatory elements. By random assembly of E-box, MEF-2, TEF-1, and SRE sites into synthetic promoter recombinant libraries, and screening of hundreds of individual clones for transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo, several artificial promoters were isolated whose transcriptional potencies greatly exceed those of natural myogenic and viral gene promoters.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Nature biotechnology (ISSN 1087-0156); Volume 17; 3; 241-5
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The ectostriatum is a major visual component of the avian telencephalon. The core region of the ectostriatum (Ec) receives visual input from the optic tectum through thalamic nuclei. In the present study, the efferent projections of the ectostriatum were investigated by using the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and biotinylated dextran amine. Projection patterns resulting from these tracers were confirmed by the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. When anterograde tracers were injected in Ec, primary projections were seen traveling dorsolaterally to the belt region of the ectostriatum (Ep) and the neostriatal area immediately surrounding Ep (Ep2). Neurons in Ep sent projections primarily to the overlying Ep2. The efferents of Ep2 traveled dorsolaterally to terminate in three telencephalic regions, from anterior to posterior: (1) neostriatum frontale, pars lateralis (NFL), (2) area temporo-parieto-occipitalis (TPO), and (3) neostriatum intermedium, pars lateralis (NIL). A part of the archistriatum intermedium and the lateral part of the neostriatum caudale also received somewhat minor projections. In addition, some neurons in Ec were also the source of direct, but minor, projections to the NFL, TPO, NIL, and archistriatum intermedium. The topographical relationship among the primary (Ec), secondary (Ep and Ep2), and tertiary (NFL, TPO, NIL) areas indicate that the neural populations for visual processing are organized along the rostral-caudal axis. Thus, the anterior Ec sent efferents to the anterior Ep, which in turn sent projections to anterior Ep2. Neurons in the anterior Ep2 sent projections to NFL and the anterior TPO. Similarly, the intermediate and posterior Ec sent projections to corresponding parts of Ep, whose efferents projected to intermediate and posterior Ep2, respectively. The intermediate Ep2 gave rise to major projections to TPO, whereas posterior Ep2 neurons sent efferents primarily to NIL. The organization of this neural circuit is compared with those of other sensory circuits in the avian telencephalon, as well as the laminar arrangement of the mammalian isocortex.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Journal of comparative neurology (ISSN 0021-9967); Volume 406; 3; 329-45
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A number of new methods have been recently developed to quantify complex heart rate (HR) dynamics based on nonlinear and fractal analysis, but their value in risk stratification has not been evaluated. This study was designed to determine whether selected new dynamic analysis methods of HR variability predict mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular (LV) function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Traditional time- and frequency-domain HR variability indexes along with short-term fractal-like correlation properties of RR intervals (exponent alpha) and power-law scaling (exponent beta) were studied in 159 patients with depressed LV function (ejection fraction 〈35%) after an AMI. By the end of 4-year follow-up, 72 patients (45%) had died and 87 (55%) were still alive. Short-term scaling exponent alpha (1.07 +/- 0.26 vs 0.90 +/- 0.26, p 〈0.001) and power-law slope beta (-1.35 +/- 0.23 vs -1.44 +/- 0.25, p 〈0.05) differed between survivors and those who died, but none of the traditional HR variability measures differed between these groups. Among all analyzed variables, reduced scaling exponent alpha (〈0.85) was the best univariable predictor of mortality (relative risk 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.96 to 5.15, p 〈0.0001), with positive and negative predictive accuracies of 65% and 86%, respectively. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, mortality was independently predicted by the reduced exponent alpha (p 〈0.001) after adjustment for several clinical variables and LV function. A short-term fractal-like scaling exponent was the most powerful HR variability index in predicting mortality in patients with depressed LV function. Reduction in fractal correlation properties implies more random short-term HR dynamics in patients with increased risk of death after AMI.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The American journal of cardiology (ISSN 0002-9149); Volume 83; 6; 836-9
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Color Doppler images of aortic regurgitation (AR) flow acceleration, flow convergence (FC), and the vena contracta (VC) have been reported to be useful for evaluating severity of AR. However, clinical application of these methods has been limited because of the difficulty in clearly imaging the FC and VC. This study aimed to explore new windows for imaging the FC and VC to evaluate AR volumes in patients and to validate this in animals with chronic AR. Forty patients with AR and 17 hemodynamic states in 4 sheep with strictly quantified AR volumes were evaluated. A Toshiba SSH 380A with a 3.75-MHz transducer was used to image the FC and VC. After routine echo Doppler imaging, patients were repositioned in the right lateral decubitus position, and the FC and VC were imaged from high right parasternal windows. In only 15 of the 40 patients was it possible to image clearly and measure accurately the FC and VC from conventional (left decubitus) apical or parasternal views. In contrast, 31 of 40 patients had clearly imaged FC regions and VCs using the new windows. In patients, AR volumes derived from the FC and VC methods combined with continuous velocity agreed well with each other (r = 0.97, mean difference = -7.9 ml +/- 9.9 ml/beat). In chronic animal model studies, AR volumes derived from both the VC and the FC agreed well with the electromagnetically derived AR volumes (r = 0.92, mean difference = -1.3 +/- 4.0 ml/beat). By imaging from high right parasternal windows in the right decubitus position, complementary use of the FC and VC methods can provide clinically valuable information about AR volumes.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The American journal of cardiology (ISSN 0002-9149); Volume 83; 7; 1064-8
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Integrins are a large family of integral membrane proteins that function in signal transduction in animal systems. These proteins are conserved in vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungi. Evidence from previous research suggests that integrin-like proteins may be present in plants as well, and that these proteins may function in signal transduction during gravitropism. In past studies, researchers have used monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to localize beta 1 integrin-like proteins in plants. However, there is a disparity between data collected from these studies, especially since molecular weights obtained from these investigations range from 55-120 kDa for integrin-like proteins. To date, a complete investigation which employs all three basic immunolabeling procedures, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunogold labeling, in addition to extensive fractionation and exhaustive controls, has been lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate that use of a polyclonal antibody against the cytoplasmic domain of avian beta 1-integrin can produce potential artifacts in immunolocalization studies. However, these problems can be eliminated through use of starchless mutants or proper specimen preparation prior to electrophoresis. We also show that this antibody, when applied within the described parameters and with careful controls, identifies a large (100 kDa) integrin-like protein that is localized to plasma membrane fractions in Arabidopsis.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Plant & cell physiology (ISSN 0032-0781); Volume 40; 2; 173-83
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was previously cloned and characterized in this laboratory. To investigate the biological functions of CCaMK, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to isolate genes encoding proteins that interact with CCaMK. One of the cDNA clones obtained from the screening (LlEF-1alpha1) has high similarity with the eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha). CCaMK phosphorylated LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner. The phosphorylation site for CCaMK (Thr-257) was identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, Thr-257 is located in the putative tRNA-binding region of LlEF-1alpha1. An isoform of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) phosphorylated multiple sites of LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-dependent but calmodulin-independent manner. Unlike CDPK, CCaMK phosphorylated only one site, and this site is different from CDPK phosphorylation sites. This suggests that the phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by these two kinases may have different functional significance. Although the phosphorylation of LlEF-1alpha1 by CCaMK is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent, in vitro binding assays revealed that CCaMK binds to LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-independent manner. This was further substantiated by coimmunoprecipitation of CCaMK and EF-1alpha using the protein extract from lily anthers. Dissociation of CCaMK from EF-1alpha by Ca2+ and phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by CCaMK in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner suggests that these interactions may play a role in regulating the biological functions of EF-1alpha.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Journal of biological chemistry (ISSN 0021-9258); Volume 274; 17; 12001-8
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Sedimentation and movement of plastids in columella cells of the root cap were measured in seedlings of wild-type, a reduced starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis. To assay for sedimentation, we used both linear measurements and the change of angle from the cell center as indices in vertical and reoriented plants with the aid of computer-assisted image analysis. Seedlings were fixed at short periods after reorientation, and plastid sedimentation correlated with starch content in the three strains of Arabidopsis. Amyloplasts of wild-type seedlings showed the greatest sedimentation, whereas plastids of the starchless mutant showed no significant sedimentation in the vertically grown and reoriented seedlings. Because previous research has shown that a full complement of starch is needed for full gravitropic sensitivity, this study correlates increased sensitivity with plastid sedimentation. However, although plastid sedimentation contributed to gravisensitivity, it was not required, because the gravitropic starchless mutant had plastids that did not sediment. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to measure plastid sedimentation in Arabidopsis roots after reorientation of seedlings. Taken together, the results of this study are consistent with the classic plastid-based and protoplast-based models of graviperception and suggest that multiple systems of perception exist in plant cells.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Plant physiology (ISSN 0032-0889); Volume 120; 1; 183-92
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The nucleus rotundus is a large thalamic nucleus in birds and plays a critical role in many visual discrimination tasks. In order to test the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subdivisions in the nucleus rotundus, effects of selective lesions of the nucleus were studied in pigeons. The birds were trained to discriminate between different types of stationary objects and between different directions of moving objects. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lesions in the anterior, but not posterior, division caused deficits in discrimination of small stationary stimuli. Lesions in neither the anterior nor posterior divisions predicted effects in discrimination of moving stimuli. These results are consistent with a prediction led from the hypothesis that the nucleus is composed of functional subdivisions.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Neuroreport (ISSN 0959-4965); Volume 10; 5; 981-5
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Biological bulletin (ISSN 0006-3185); Volume 196; 3; 359-61; discussion 361-2
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Ethylene is known to interact with auxin in regulating stem growth, and yet evidence for the role of ethylene in tropic responses is contradictory. Our analysis of four mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) altered in their response to gravity, auxin, and/or ethylene revealed concentration-dependent modulation of shoot gravitropism by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors reduce wild-type gravicurvature, and extremely low (0.0005-0.001 microliter L-1) ethylene concentrations can restore the reduced gravitropic response of the auxin-resistant dgt (diageotropica) mutant to wild-type levels. Slightly higher concentrations of ethylene inhibit the gravitropic response of all but the ethylene-insensitive nr (never-ripe) mutant. The gravitropic responses of nr and the constitutive-response mutant epi (epinastic) are slightly and significantly delayed, respectively, but otherwise normal. The reversal of shoot gravicurvature by red light in the lz-2 (lazy-2) mutant is not affected by ethylene. Taken together, these data indicate that, although ethylene does not play a primary role in the gravitropic response of tomato, low levels of ethylene are necessary for a full gravitropic response, and moderate levels of the hormone specifically inhibit gravicurvature in a manner different from ethylene inhibition of overall growth.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Plant physiology (ISSN 0032-0889); Volume 120; 3; 897-906
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: At the onset of exercise there is a rapid increase in skeletal muscle vascular conductance and blood flow. Several mechanisms involved in the regulation of muscle perfusion have been proposed to initiate this hyperemic response, including neural, metabolic, endothelial, myogenic, and muscle pump mechanisms. Investigators utilizing pharmacological blockade of cholinergic muscarinic receptors and sympathectomy have concluded that neither sympathetic cholinergic nor adrenergic neural mechanisms are involved in the initial hyperemia. Studies have also shown that the time course for vasoactive metabolite release, diffusion, accumulation, and action is too long to account for the rapid increase in vascular conductance at the initiation of exercise. Furthermore, there is little or no evidence to support an endothelium or myogenic mechanism as the initiating factor in the muscle hyperemia. Thus, the rise in muscle blood flow does not appear to be explained by known neural, metabolic, endothelial, or myogenic influences. However, the initial hyperemia is consistent with the mechanical effects of the muscle pump to increase the arteriovenous pressure gradient across muscle. Because skeletal muscle blood flow is regulated by multiple and redundant mechanisms, it is likely that neural, metabolic, and possibly endothelial factors become important modulators of mechanically induced exercise hyperemia following the first 5-10 s of exercise.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Medicine and science in sports and exercise (ISSN 0195-9131); Volume 31; 7; 1011-8
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: BACKGROUND: Temporary shunt placement can quickly restore perfusion after extremity arterial injury. This study examined the adequacy of limb blood flow with shunt use, non-heparin-bonded shunt patency over prolonged periods, and the safety of this technique. METHODS: Common iliac arteries were divided and 4.0-mm Silastic Sundt shunts placed in 16 anesthetized pigs. Eight (group I) had shunts placed immediately; eight others (group II) were shunted after an hour of limb ischemia and hemorrhagic shock. Physiologic parameters and femoral artery blood flow in both hindlimbs were continuously monitored. Limb lactic acid generation, oxygen utilization, and hematologic and metabolic effects were serially evaluated for 24 hours. RESULTS: Shunts remained patent in 13 of 16 pigs. Shunts thrombosed in two group I animals because of technical errors, but functioned well after thrombectomy and repositioning. Patency could not be maintained in one animal that died from shock. Flow in group I shunted limbs was 57 (+/-11 SD) % of control. For group II animals in shock, shunted limb flow initially averaged 46 +/- 15% of control, but 4 hours after shunt placement, the mean limb blood flow was the same as in group I. Increased oxygen extraction compensated for the lower flow. Lactic acid production was not increased in comparison to control limbs. CONCLUSION: Shunts provided adequate flow in this model of extremity trauma. Correctly placed shunts stayed patent for 24 hours, without anticoagulation, if shunt placement followed resuscitation.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Journal of trauma (ISSN 0022-5282); Volume 47; 1; 64-71
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Methods in enzymology (ISSN 0076-6879); Volume 306; 3-18
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A suite of fluorescent intracellular stains and probes was used, in conjunction with viable plate counts, to assess the effect of chlorine disinfection on membrane potential (rhodamine 123; Rh123 and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol; DiBAC4(3)), membrane integrity (LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit), respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; CTC) and substrate responsiveness (direct viable counts; DVC) in the commensal pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. After a 5 min exposure to the disinfectant, physiological indices were affected in the following order: viable plate counts 〉 substrate responsiveness 〉 membrane potential 〉 respiratory activity 〉 membrane integrity. In situ assessment of physiological activity by examining multiple targets, as demonstrated in this study, permits a more comprehensive determination of the site and extent of injury in bacterial cells following sublethal disinfection with chlorine. This approach to assessing altered bacterial physiology has application in various fields where detection of stressed bacteria is of interest.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Letters in applied microbiology (ISSN 0266-8254); Volume 29; 1; 42-7
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Planta (ISSN 0032-0935); Volume 209; 2; 161-71
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Both yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interactions at two separate frequencies of chair rotation (0.2 and 0.8 Hz) in combination with a single velocity of optokinetic stimulus (36 degrees/s) were used to investigate the effects of sustained weightlessness on neural strategies adopted by astronaut subjects to cope with the stimulus rearrangement of spaceflight. Pitch and yaw oscillation in darkness at 0.2 and 0.8 Hz without optokinetic stimulation, and constant velocity linear optokinetic stimulation at 18, 36, and 54 degrees/s presented relative to the head with the subject stationary, were used as controls for the visual-vestibular interactions. The results following 8 days of space flight showed no significant changes in: (1) either the horizontal and vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain, phase, or bias; (2) the yaw visual-vestibular response (VVR); or (3) the horizontal or vertical optokinetic (OKN) slow phase velocity (SPV). However, significant changes were observed: (1) when during pitch VVR at 0.2 Hz late inflight, the contribution of the optokinetic input to the combined oculomotor response was smaller than during the stationary OKN SPV measurements, followed by an increased contribution during the immediate postflight testing; and (2) when during pitch VVR at 0.8 Hz, the component of the combined oculomotor response due to the underlying vertical VOR was more efficiently suppressed early inflight and less suppressed immediately postflight compared with preflight observations. The larger OKN response during pitch VVR at 0.2 Hz and the better suppression of VOR during pitch VVR at 0.8 Hz postflight are presumably due to the increased role of vision early inflight and immediately after spaceflight, as previously observed in various studies. These results suggest that the subjects adopted a neural strategy to structure their spatial orientation in weightlessness by reweighting visual, otolith, and perhaps tactile/somatic signals.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of vestibular research : equilibrium & orientation (ISSN 0957-4271); Volume 9; 3; 207-20
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A memorable workshop, focused on causal mechanisms in metazoan evolution and sponsored by NASA, was held in early June 1998, at MBL. The workshop was organized by Mike Levine and Eric H. Davidson, and it included the PI and associates from 12 different laboratories, a total of about 30 people. Each laboratory had about two and one half hours in which to represent its recent research and cast up its current ideas for an often intense discussion. In the following we have tried to enunciate some of the major themes that emerged, and to reflect on their implications. The opinions voiced are our own. We would like to tender apologies over those contributions we have not been able to include, but this is not, strictly speaking, a meeting review. Rather we have focused on those topics that bear more directly on evolutionary mechanisms, and have therefore slighted some presentations (including some of our own), that were oriented mainly toward developmental processes. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol. ) 285:104-115, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Journal of experimental zoology (ISSN 0022-104X); Volume 285; 2; 104-15
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Biological bulletin (ISSN 0006-3185); Volume 196; 3; 303-420
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Current opinion in neurobiology (ISSN 0959-4388); Volume 9; 4; 495-9
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The major purpose of this spaceflight project was to investigate the starch-statolith hypothesis for gravity perception, and a secondary goal was to study plant growth and development under spaceflight conditions. This research was based on our ground studies of gravity perception in the wild type and three starch-deficient (one starchless and two reduced starch) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Dark-grown seedlings that developed in microgravity were given one of several (30 min, 60 min, or 90 min) 1-g stimuli by an on-board centrifuge, and additional controls for seedling development also were performed. These latter control experiments included a morphological study of plants that developed in space in microgravity (F microg), in space on a centrifuge (F 1g), on the ground (G 1g), and on a rotating clinostat on the ground. Since elevated levels of ethylene were reported in the spacecraft atmosphere, additional controls for morphology and gravitropism with added ethylene also were performed. While exogenous ethylene reduced the absolute magnitude of the response in all four strains of Arabidopsis, this gas did not appear to change the relative graviresponsiveness among the strains. The relative response of hypocotyls of microgravity-grown seedlings to the stimuli provided by the in-flight centrifuge was: wild type 〉 starch-deficient mutants. Although the protoplast pressure model for gravity perception cannot be excluded, these results are consistent with a statolith-based model for perception in plants.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Planta (ISSN 0032-0935); Volume 209; 1; 96-103
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The most common cause of an inferior vena caval mass is renal cell carcinoma that extends through the lumen, occurring in 47 of 62 patients (85%). Detection of an inferior vena caval mass affects the surgical approach requiring cardiopulmonary bypass for resection when the mass extends to the heart.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The American journal of cardiology (ISSN 0002-9149); Volume 84; 5; 613-5, A9
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Although alteration in pulmonary venous flow has been reported to relate to mitral regurgitant severity, it is also known to vary with left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic dysfunction. There are few data relating pulmonary venous flow to quantitative indexes of mitral regurgitation (MR). The object of this study was to assess quantitatively the accuracy of pulmonary venous flow for predicting MR severity by using transesophageal echocardiographic measurement in patients with variable LV dysfunction. This study consisted of 73 patients undergoing heart surgery with mild to severe MR. Regurgitant orifice area (ROA), regurgitant stroke volume (RSV), and regurgitant fraction (RF) were obtained by quantitative transesophageal echocardiography and proximal isovelocity surface area. Both left and right upper pulmonary venous flow velocities were recorded and their patterns classified by the ratio of systolic to diastolic velocity: normal (〉/=1), blunted (〈1), and systolic reversal (〈0). Twenty-three percent of patients had discordant patterns between the left and right veins. When the most abnormal patterns either in the left or right vein were used for analysis, the ratio of peak systolic to diastolic flow velocity was negatively correlated with ROA (r = -0.74, P 〈.001), RSV (r = -0.70, P 〈.001), and RF (r = -0.66, P 〈.001) calculated by the Doppler thermodilution method; values were r = -0.70, r = -0.67, and r = -0.57, respectively (all P 〈.001), for indexes calculated by the proximal isovelocity surface area method. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the reversed pulmonary venous flow pattern for detecting a large ROA (〉0.3 cm(2)) were 69%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the normal pulmonary venous flow pattern for detecting a small ROA (〈0.3 cm(2)) were 60%, 96%, and 94%, respectively. However, the blunted pattern had low sensitivity (22%), specificity (61%), and predictive values (30%) for detecting ROA of greater than 0.3 cm(2) with significant overlap with the reversed and normal patterns. Among patients with the blunted pattern, the correlation between the systolic to diastolic velocity ratio was worse in those with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction 〈50%, r = 0.23, P 〉.05) than in those with normal LV function (r = -0.57, P 〈.05). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the peak systolic to diastolic velocity ratio was independently correlated with RF (P 〈.001) and effective stroke volume (P 〈.01), with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.71 (P 〈.001). In conclusion, reversed pulmonary venous flow in systole is a highly specific and reliable marker of moderately severe or severe MR with an ROA greater than 0.3 cm(2), whereas the normal pattern accurately predicts mild to moderate MR. Blunted pulmonary venous flow can be seen in all grades of MR with low predictive value for severity of MR, especially in the presence of LV dysfunction. The blunted pulmonary venous flow pattern must therefore be interpreted cautiously in clinical practice as a marker for severity of MR.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography (ISSN 0894-7317); Volume 12; 9; 736-43
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: MscL, a 15 kDa transmembrane protein, is the only component involved in the formation of a 3 nS channel in the inner membrane of Escherichia coli that opens in response to mechanical or osmotic stress. While previous data had suggested that the functional MscL complex might be a hexamer, a recent crystallographic study of the MscL homologue from M. tuberculosis reveals a pentameric structure. The present work further examines the stoichiometry of the E. coli MscL using a variety of biochemical approaches. Detergent-purified 6His-MscL in solution and MscL in the membrane could be chemically crosslinked with the products displaying ladderlike patterns on SDS gels. Three crosslinking agents (EDC, DMS, and DMA) used at saturating concentrations invariably generated pentamers as the largest product. DSS produced additional bands corresponding to larger complexes although the pentamer band appeared to be the predominant product at high levels of crosslinker. It is not clear whether these extra bands reflect a difference in the crosslinking chemistry of DSS or whether its spacer arm is the longest of those used, or a combination of both facts. For the detergent-solubilized 6His-MscL both sedimentation equilibrium and gel chromatography showed the presence of multiple species. Thus the longer spacer arm could permit both intra- and intercomplex linkages. Nonetheless, the patterns obtained with all agents are consistent with and strongly suggest a pentameric organization for the MscL channel. Expression of MscL as genetically engineered double or triple subunit tandems yields low numbers of functional channels as compared to expressed monomers. The double-tandem assemblies must have an even number of subunits and crosslinking in the membrane confirmed hexamerization. Gel chromatography clearly demonstrated that the channels formed from the double tandems were larger than those formed from WT MscL, consistent with the native channel being pentameric. The observation that both double and triple tandems form channels of normal conductance implies that the pentameric assembly is to some degree independent of the number of subunit repeats in the polypeptide precursor. The channel is thus a pentameric core with the 'extra' subunits left out of the functional complex. From sedimentation equilibrium and size-exclusion chromatography, we also conclude that MscL complexes are not in a dynamic equilibrium with monomers, but are pre-assembled; and thus, their gating properties must result from changes in the conformation of the entire complex induced by the mechanical stress.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Journal of membrane biology (ISSN 0022-2631); Volume 171; 3; 183-93
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Gravity receptor function was characterized in four mammalian species using far-field vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs). VsEPs are compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve and central relays that are elicited by linear acceleration ramps applied to the cranium. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, and gerbils were studied. In all species, response onset occurred within 1.5 ms of the stimulus onset. Responses persisted during intense (116 dBSPL) wide-band (50 to 50 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000 Hz) forward masking, whereas auditory responses to intense clicks (112 dBpeSPL) were eliminated under the same conditions. VsEPs remained after cochlear extirpation but were eliminated following bilateral labyrinthectomy. Responses included a series of positive and negative peaks that occurred within 8 ms of stimulus onset (range of means at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms: P1=908 to 1062 micros, N1=1342 to 1475 micros, P2=1632 to 1952 micros, N2=2038 to 2387 micros). Mean response amplitudes at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms ranged from 0.14 to 0.99 microV. VsEP input/output functions revealed latency slopes that varied across peaks and species ranging from -19 to -51 micros/dB. Amplitude-intensity slopes also varied ranging from 0.04 to 0.08 microV/dB for rats and mice. Latency values were comparable to those of birds although amplitudes were substantially smaller in mammals. VsEP threshold values were considerably higher in mammals compared to birds and ranged from -8.1 to -10.5 dBre 1.0 g/ms across species. These results support the hypothesis that mammalian gravity receptors are less sensitive to dynamic stimuli than are those of birds.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Hearing research (ISSN 0378-5955); Volume 136; 1-2; 75-85
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Lamb waves offer a promising method of evaluating damage in composite materials. The Lamb wave velocity is directly related to the material parameters, so an effective tool exists to monitor damage in composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. The Lamb Wave Imager (LWI) uses a pulse/receive technique that excites an antisymmetric Lamb mode and measures the time-of-flight over a wide frequency range. Given the material density and plate thickness, the bending and out-of-plane shear stiffnesses are calculated from a reconstruction of the dispersion curve. In this study, the time-of-flight as well as the elastic stiffnesses D11, D22, A44, and A55 for composite samples which have undergone combined thermal and mechanical aging are obtained. The samples examined include a baseline specimen with 0 cycles, specimens which have been aged 2350 and 3530 cycles at high strain levels, and one specimen aged 3530 cycles at low strain levels.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (ISSN 0001-4966); Volume 106; 3 Pt 1; 1346-52
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The remarkable order of striated muscle is the result of a complex series of protein interactions at different levels of organization. Within muscle, the thick filament and its major protein myosin are classical examples of functioning protein machines. Our understanding of the structure and assembly of thick filaments and their organization into the regular arrays of the A-band has recently been enhanced by the application of biochemical, genetic, and structural approaches. Detailed studies of the thick filament backbone have shown that the myosins are organized into a tubular structure. Additional protein machines and specific myosin rod sequences have been identified that play significant roles in thick filament structure, assembly, and organization. These include intrinsic filament components, cross-linking molecules of the M-band and constituents of the membrane-cytoskeleton system. Muscle organization is directed by the multistep actions of protein machines that take advantage of well-established self-assembly relationships. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology (ISSN 0265-9247); Volume 21; 10; 813-23
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Personal cooling systems are used to alleviate symptoms of multiple sclerosis and to prevent increased core temperature during daily activities. The objective of this study was to determine the thermal and physiologic responses of patients with multiple sclerosis to short-term maximal head and neck cooling. A Life Support Systems, Inc. Mark VII portable cooling system and a liquid cooling helmet were used to cool the head and neck regions of 24 female and 26 male patients with multiple sclerosis in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approximately 22 degrees C), were cooled for 30 min by the liquid cooling garment, which was operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Oral, right, and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Forearm, calf, chest, and rectal temperatures, heart rate, and respiration rate were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. This protocol was performed during the winter and summer to investigate the seasonal differences in the way patients with multiple sclerosis respond to head and neck cooling. No significant differences were found between the male and female subject group's mean rectal or oral temperature responses during any phase of the experiment. The mean oral temperature decreased significantly (P 〈 0.05) for both groups approximately 0.3 degrees C after 30 min of cooling and continued to decrease further (approximately 0.1-0.2 degrees C) for a period of approximately 15 min after removal of the cooling helmet. The mean rectal temperatures decreased significantly (P 〈 0.05) in both male and female subjects in the winter studies (approximately 0.2-0.3 degrees C) and for the male subjects during the summer test (approximately 0.2 degrees C). However, the rectal temperature of the female subjects did not change significantly during any phase of the summer test. These data indicate that head and neck cooling may, in general, be used to reduce the oral and body temperatures of both male and female patients with multiple sclerosis by the approximate amount needed for symptomatic relief as shown by other researchers. However, thermal response of patients with multiple sclerosis may be affected by gender and seasonal factors, which should be considered in the use of liquid cooling therapy.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists (ISSN 0894-9115); Volume 78; 5; 447-56
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A long (20-30 micrometer), wide (3-5 micrometer) microbial-mat bacterium from the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) was grown in mixed culture and videographed live. Intracellular elemental sulfur globules and unique cell termini were observed in scanning-electron-microprobe and transmission-electron micrographs. A polar organelle underlies bundles of greater than 60 flagella at each indented terminus. These Gram-negative bacteria bend, flex, and swim in a spiral fashion; they translate at speeds greater than 10 body lengths per second. The large size of the spirillum permits direct observation of cell motility in single individual bacteria. After desiccation (i.e., absence of standing water for at least 24 h), large populations developed in mat samples remoistened with sea water. Ultrastructural observations reveal abundant large sulfur globules irregularly distributed in the cytoplasm. A multilayered cell wall, pliable and elastic yet rigid, distends around the sulfur globules. Details of the wall, multiflagellated termini, and large cytoplasmic sulfur globules indicate that these fast-moving spirilla are distinctive enough to warrant a genus and species designation: Titanospirillum velox genus nov., sp. nov. The same collection techniques at a similar habitat in the United States (Plum Island, northeast Essex County, Massachusetts) also yielded large populations of the bacterium among purple phototrophic and other inhabitants of sulfurous microbial-mat muds. The months-long survival of T. velox from Spain and from the United States in closed jars filled with mud taken from both localities leads us to infer that this large spirillum has a cosmopolitan distribution.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (ISSN 0027-8424); Volume 96; 20; 11584-8
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Chiral separations of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled amino acids have been performed on a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip to explore the feasibility of using such devices to analyze for extinct or extant life signs in extraterrestrial environments. The test system consists of a folded electrophoresis channel (19.0 cm long x 150 microns wide x 20 microns deep) that was photolithographically fabricated in a 10-cm-diameter glass wafer sandwich, coupled to a laser-excited confocal fluorescence detection apparatus providing subattomole sensitivity. Using a sodium dodecyl sulfate/gamma-cyclodextrin pH 10.0 carbonate electrophoresis buffer and a separation voltage of 550 V/cm at 10 degrees C, baseline resolution was observed for Val, Ala, Glu, and Asp enantiomers and Gly in only 4 min. Enantiomeric ratios were determined for amino acids extracted from the Murchison meteorite, and these values closely matched values determined by HPLC. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfabricated lab-on-a-chip systems to analyze extraterrestrial samples for amino acids.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Analytical chemistry (ISSN 0003-2700); Volume 71; 18; 4000-6
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The ultrastructure of root cap columella cells was studied by morphometric analysis in wild-type, a reduced-starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis grown in microgravity (F-microgravity) and compared to ground 1g (G-1g) and flight 1g (F-1g) controls. Seedlings of the wild-type and reduced-starch mutant that developed during an experiment on the Space Shuttle (both the F-microgravity samples and the F-lg control) exhibited a decreased starch content in comparison to the G-1g control. These results suggest that some factor associated with spaceflight (and not microgravity per se) affects starch metabolism. Elevated levels of ethylene were found during the experiments on the Space Shuttle, and analysis of ground controls with added ethylene demonstrated that this gas was responsible for decreased starch levels in the columella cells. This is the first study to use an on-board centrifuge as a control when quantifying starch in spaceflight-grown plants. Furthermore, our results show that ethylene levels must be carefully considered and controlled when designing experiments with plants for the International Space Station.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: American journal of botany (ISSN 0002-9122); Volume 86; 10; 1357-66
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The role of gravity in the autolysis of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli was studied by growing cells on Earth and in microgravity on Space Station Mir. Autolysis analysis was completed by examining the death phase or exponential decay of cells for approximately 4 months following the stationary phase. Consistent with published findings, the stationary-phase cell population was 170% and 90% higher in flight B. subtilis and E. coli cultures, respectively, than in ground cultures. Although both flight autolysis curves began at higher cell densities than control curves, the rate of autolysis in flight cultures was identical to that of their respective ground control rates.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Applied microbiology and biotechnology (ISSN 0175-7598); Volume 52; 3; 437-9
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We investigated the regulation of collagenase-3 expression in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts. Fetal rat calvarial cell cultures showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity reaching maximal levels between 7-14 days post-confluence, then declining with the onset of mineralization. Collagenase-3 mRNA was just detectable after proliferation ceased at day 7, increased up to day 21, and declined at later ages. Postconfluent cells maintained in non-mineralizing medium expressed collagenase-3 but did not show the developmental increase exhibited by cells switched to mineralization medium. Cells maintained in non-mineralizing medium continued to proliferate; cells in mineralization medium ceased proliferation. In addition, collagenase-3 mRNA was not detected in subcultured cells allowed to remineralize. These results suggest that enhanced accumulation of collagenase-3 mRNA is triggered by cessation of proliferation or acquisition of a mineralized extracellular matrix and that other factors may also be required. After initiation of basal expression, parathyroid hormone (PTH) caused a dose-dependent increase in collagenase-3 mRNA. Both the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analogue, 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP), and the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol myristate acetate, increased collagenase-3 expression, while the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, did not, suggesting that PTH was acting through the protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC pathways. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide caused an increase in basal collagenase-3 expression but blocked the effect of PTH, suggesting that an inhibitory factor prevents basal expression while an inductive factor is involved with PTH action. In summary, collagenase-3 is expressed in mineralized osteoblasts and cessation of proliferation and initiation of mineralization are triggers for collagenase-3 expression. PTH also stimulates expression of the enzyme through both PKA and PKC pathways in the mineralizing osteoblast. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of cellular physiology (ISSN 0021-9541); Volume 181; 3; 479-88
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of a diphtheria toxin A-chain gene. Transgenic toxin-expressing plants are viable and have normal aerial parts but agravitropic roots, implying loss of root cap function. Several cell layers are missing from the transgenic root caps, and the remaining cells are abnormal. Although the radial organization of the roots is normal in toxin-expressing plants, the root tips have fewer cytoplasmically dense cells than do wild-type root tips, suggesting that root meristematic activity is lower in transgenic than in wild-type plants. The roots of transgenic plants have more lateral roots and these are, in turn, more highly branched than those of wild-type plants. Thus, root cap ablation alters root architecture both by inhibiting root meristematic activity and by stimulating lateral root initiation. These observations imply that the root caps contain essential components of the signaling system that determines root architecture.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (ISSN 0027-8424); Volume 96; 22; 12941-6
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This research focused on two main problems: 1) low cost, high fidelity stereoscopic imaging of complex tissues and organs; and 2) virtual cutting of tissue. A further objective was to develop these images and virtual tissue cutting methods for use in a telemedicine project that would connect remote sites using the Next Generation Internet. For goal one we used a CT scan of a human heart, a desktop PC with an OpenGL graphics accelerator card, and LCD stereoscopic glasses. Use of multiresolution meshes ranging from approximately 1,000,000 to 20,000 polygons speeded interactive rendering rates enormously while retaining general topography of the dataset. For goal two, we used a CT scan of an infant skull with premature closure of the right coronal suture, a Silicon Graphics Onyx workstation, a Fakespace Immersive WorkBench and CrystalEyes LCD glasses. The high fidelity mesh of the skull was reduced from one million to 50,000 polygons. The cut path was automatically calculated as the shortest distance along the mesh between a small number of hand selected vertices. The region outlined by the cut path was then separated from the skull and translated/rotated to assume a new position. The results indicate that widespread high fidelity imaging in virtual environment is possible using ordinary PC capabilities if appropriate mesh reduction methods are employed. The software cutting tool is applicable to heart and other organs for surgery planning, for training surgeons in a virtual environment, and for telemedicine purposes.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Studies in health technology and informatics (ISSN 0926-9630); Volume 62; 297-301
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides exact anatomy of arteries, allowing accurate quantitative analysis. Automated segmentation of IVUS images is a prerequisite for routine quantitative analyses. We present a new three-dimensional (3D) segmentation technique, called active surface segmentation, which detects luminal and adventitial borders in IVUS pullback examinations of coronary arteries. The technique was validated against expert tracings by computing correlation coefficients (range 0.83-0.97) and William's index values (range 0.37-0.66). The technique was statistically accurate, robust to image artifacts, and capable of segmenting a large number of images rapidly. Active surface segmentation enabled geometrically accurate 3D reconstruction and visualization of coronary arteries and volumetric measurements.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Computerized medical imaging and graphics : the official journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society (ISSN 0895-6111); Volume 23; 6; 299-309
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Motion transparency requires that the visual system distinguish different motion vectors and selectively integrate similar motion vectors over space into the perception of multiple surfaces moving through or over each other. Using large-field (7 degrees x 7 degrees) displays containing two populations of random-dots moving in the same (horizontal) direction but at different speeds, we examined speed-based segmentation by measuring the speed difference above which observers can perceive two moving surfaces. We systematically investigated this 'speed-segmentation' threshold as a function of speed and stimulus duration, and found that it increases sharply for speeds above approximately 8 degrees/s. In addition, speed-segmentation thresholds decrease with stimulus duration out to approximately 200 ms. In contrast, under matched conditions, speed-discrimination thresholds stay low at least out to 16 degrees/s and decrease with increasing stimulus duration at a faster rate than for speed segmentation. Thus, motion segmentation and motion discrimination exhibit different speed selectivity and different temporal integration characteristics. Results are discussed in terms of the speed preferences of different neuronal populations within the primate visual cortex.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Vision research (ISSN 0042-6989); Volume 39; 26; 4297-308
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: To elucidate the mechanism of interaction of restriction endonuclease EcoRII with DNA, we studied by native gel electrophoresis the binding of this endonuclease to a set of synthetic DNA-duplexes containing the modified or canonical recognition sequence 5'-d(CCA/TGG)-3'. All binding substrate or substrate analogues tested could be divided into two major groups: (i) duplexes that, at the interaction with endonuclease EcoRII, form two types of stable complexes on native gel in the absence of Mg2+ cofactor; (ii) duplexes that form only one type of complex, observed both in the presence and absence of Mg2+. Unlike the latter, duplexes under the first group can be hydrolyzed by endonuclease. Data obtained suggest that the active complex is most likely formed by one protein subunit and one DNA recognition sequence. A model of EcoRII endonuclease action is presented.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: IUBMB life (ISSN 1521-6543); Volume 48; 1; 91-8
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Interstellar dust grains intercepted by the dust detectors on the Ulysses and Galileo spacecrafts at heliocentric distances from 2 to 4 astronomical units show a deficit of grains with masses from 1 x 10(-17) to 3 x 10(-16) kilograms relative to grains intercepted outside 4 astronomical units. To divert grains out of the 2- to 4-astronomical unit region, the solar radiation pressure must be 1.4 to 1.8 times the force of solar gravity. These figures are consistent with the optical properties of spherical or elongated grains that consist of astronomical silicates or organic refractory material. Pure graphite grains with diameters of 0.2 to 0.4 micrometer experience a solar radiation pressure force as much as twice the force of solar gravity.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Science (ISSN 0036-8075); Volume 286; 5448; 2319-22
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A substantial body of evidence indicates that aged-related changes in the fluidity and lipid composition of the plasma membrane contribute to cellular dysfunction in humans and other mammalian species. In the CNS, reductions in neuronal plasma membrane order (PMO) (i.e., increased plasma membrane fluidity) have been attributed to age as well as the presence of the beta-amyloid peptide-25-35, known to play an important role in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These PMO increases may influence neurotransmitter synthesis, receptor binding, and second messenger systems as well as signal transduction pathways. The effects of neuronal PMO on learning and memory processes have not been adequately investigated, however. Based on the hypothesis that an increase in PMO may alter a number of aspects of synaptic transmission, we investigated several neurochemical and behavioral effects of the membrane ordering agent, PF-68. In cell culture, PF-68 (nmoles/mg SDS extractable protein) reduced [3H]norepinephrine (NE) uptake into differentiated PC-12 cells as well as reduced nicotine stimulated [3H]NE release. The compound (800-2400 microg/kg, i.p., resulting in nmoles/mg SDS extractable protein in the brain) decreased step-through latencies and increased the frequencies of crossing into the unsafe side of the chamber in inhibitory avoidance training. In the Morris water maze, PF-68 increased the latencies and swim distances required to locate a hidden platform and reduced the time spent and distance swam in the previous target quadrant during transfer (probe) trials. PF-68 did not impair performance of a well-learned working memory task, the rat delayed stimulus discrimination task (DSDT), however. Studies with 14C-labeled PF-68 indicated that significant (pmoles/mg wet tissue) levels of the compound entered the brain from peripheral (i.p.) injection. No PF-68 related changes were observed in swim speeds or in visual acuity tests in water maze experiments, rotorod performance, or in tests of general locomotor activity. Furthermore, latencies to select a lever in the DSDT were not affected. These results suggest that PF-68 induced deficits in learning and memory without confounding peripheral motor, sensory, or motivational effects at the tested doses. Furthermore, none of the doses induced a conditioned taste aversion to a novel 0.1% saccharin solution indicating a lack of nausea or gastrointestinal malaise induced by the compound. The data indicate that increases in neuronal plasma membrane order may have significant effects on neurotransmitter function as well as learning and memory processes. Furthermore, compounds such as PF-68 may also offer novel tools for studying the role of neuronal PMO in mnemonic processes and changes in PMO resulting from age-related disorders such as AD.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) (ISSN 1072-0502); Volume 6; 6; 634-49
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Scientific knowledge develops through the evolution of new concepts. This process is usually driven by new methodologies that provide observations not previously available. Understanding of pulmonary blood flow determinants advanced significantly in the 1960s and is now changing rapidly again, because of increased spatial resolution of regional pulmonary blood flow measurements.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: News in physiological sciences : an international journal of physiology produced jointly by the International Union of Physiological Sciences and the American Physiological Society (ISSN 0886-1714); Volume 14; 182-6
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Biological bulletin (ISSN 0006-3185); Volume 196; 3; 356-7; discussion 357-8
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Potato and wheat plants were grown for 50 d at 400, 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide (CO2). and sweetpotato and soybean were grown at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in controlled environment chambers to study stomatal conductance and plant water use. Lighting was provided with fluorescent lamps as a 12 h photoperiod with 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 PAR. Mid-day stomatal conductances for potato were greatest at 400 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-day conductances for wheat were greatest at 400 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-dark period conductances for potato were significantly greater at 10000 micromoles mol-1 than at 400 or 1000 micromoles mol-1, whereas dark conductance for wheat was similar in all CO2 treatments. Temporarily changing the CO2 concentration from the native 1000 micromoles mol-1 to 400 micromoles mol-1 increased mid-day conductance for all species, while temporarily changing from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 also increased conductance for potato and sweetpotato. Temporarily changing the dark period CO2 from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 increased conductance for potato, soybean and sweetpotato. In all cases, the stomatal responses were reversible, i.e. conductances returned to original rates following temporary changes in CO2 concentration. Canopy water use for potato was greatest at 10000, intermediate at 400, and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2, whereas canopy water use for wheat was greatest at 400 and similar at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Elevated CO2 treatments (i.e. 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1) resulted in increased plant biomass for both wheat and potato relative to 400 micromoles mol-1, and no injurious effects were apparent from the 10000 micromoles mol-1 treatment. Results indicate that super-elevated CO2 (i.e. 10000 micromoles mol-1) can increase stomatal conductance in some species, particularly during the dark period, resulting in increased water use and decreased water use efficiency.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Annals of botany (ISSN 0305-7364); Volume 83; 3; 243-51
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Tunable narrowband mid-infrared radiation from 3.25 to 4.4 micrometers is generated by a compact fiber-coupled, difference-frequency-based spectroscopic source. A 20-mW external cavity diode laser (with a tuning range from 814 to 870 nm) and a 50-mW distributed-Bragg-reflector diode-laser-seeded ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier operating at 1083 nm are difference-frequency mixed in a multi-grating, temperature-controlled periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal. A conversion efficiency of 0.44 mW/(W2cm) (corresponding to a power of approximately equal to 3 microW at 3.3 micrometers) represents the highest conversion efficiency reported for a portable device. Performance characteristics of such a sensor and its application to spectroscopic detection of CO2, N2O, H2CO, HCl, NO2, and CH4 will be reported in this work.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Applied physics. B, Lasers and optics (ISSN 0946-2171); Volume 69; 459-65
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An improved prediction for space radiations in the lower earth orbits measured by the shuttle TEPC is obtained when energy loss straggling and chord length distribution of the detector are considered. A generalized analytic model is used to describe the energy deposition of direct ion interaction events in a micron-size detector. The transport calculation accounting for the shuttle configuration is accomplished by using a new version of HZETRN that has been extensively verified with laboratory and flight data. The agreement of predicted and measured lineal energy spectra is within 70% for the region above 2 keV/micrometer but within a factor of 2.3 underpredicted for the region below this value. The inclusion of indirect delta ray events in the model is needed before possible causes for the underprediction below 2 keV/micrometer can be assessed.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Radiation measurements (ISSN 1350-4487); Volume 30; 1; 19-28
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We consider the question of how the cardiac rhythm spontaneously self-regulates and propose a new mechanism as a possible answer. We model the neuroautonomic regulation of the heart rate as a stochastic feedback system and find that the model successfully accounts for key characteristics of cardiac variability, including the 1/f power spectrum, the functional form and scaling of the distribution of variations of the interbeat intervals, and the correlations in the Fourier phases which indicate nonlinear dynamics.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Computer physics communications (ISSN 0010-4655); Volume 121-122; 126-8
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We review evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene, and utilize this fact to build a Coding Sequence Finder Algorithm, which uses statistical ideas to locate the coding regions of an unknown DNA sequence. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work adapting to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function, and reporting that noncoding regions in eukaryotes display a larger redundancy than coding regions. Specifically, we consider the possibility that this result is solely a consequence of nucleotide concentration differences as first noted by Bonhoeffer and his collaborators. We find that cytosine-guanine (CG) concentration does have a strong "background" effect on redundancy. However, we find that for the purine-pyrimidine binary mapping rule, which is not affected by the difference in CG concentration, the Shannon redundancy for the set of analyzed sequences is larger for noncoding regions compared to coding regions.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Physica A (ISSN 0378-4371); Volume 273; 1-2; 1-18
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Microgravity and horizontal clinorotation are known to cause the rearrangement of the structural-functional organization of plant cells, leading to accelerated aging. Altered gravity conditions resulted in an increase in the droplets volume in cells and the destruction of chloroplast structure in Arabidopsis thaliana plants, an enhancement of cytosolic autophagaous processes, an increase in the respiration rate and a greater number of multimolecular forms of succinate- and malate dehydrogenases in cells of the Funaria hygrometrica protonema and Chlorella vulgaris, and changes in calcium balance of cells. Because ethylene is known to be involved in cell aging and microgravity appears to speed the process, and because soybean seedlings grown in space produce higher ethylene levels we asked: 1) does an acceleration of soybean cotyledon cell development and aging occur in microgravity? 2) what roles do Ca2+ ions and the enhanced ethylene level play in these events? Therefore, the goal of our investigation was to examine of the interaction of microgravity and ethylene on the localization of Ca2+ in cotyledon mesophyll of soybean seedlings.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal of gravitational physiology : a journal of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology (ISSN 1077-9248); Volume 6; 1; P123-4
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Thanks to the mid-IR sensitivities of the ISO and IRTS orbiting spectrometers it is now possible to search the diffuse interstellar medium for heretofore inaccessible molecular emission. In view of the recent strong case for the presence of C(7-) (Kirkwood et al. 1998, Tulej et al. 1998),and the fact that carbon chains possess prominent infrared active modes in a very clean portion of the interstellar spectrum, we have analyzed the IRTS spectrum of the diffuse interstellar medium for the infrared signatures of these species. Theoretical and experimental infrared band frequencies and absolute intensities of many different carbon chain species are presented. These include cyanopolyynes, neutral and anionic linear carbon molecules, and neutral and ionized, even-numbered, hydrogenated carbon chains. We show that--as a family--these species have abundances in the diffuse ISM on the order of 10(-10) with respect to hydrogen, values consistent with their abundances in dense molecular clouds. Assuming an average length of 10 C atoms per C-chain implies that roughly a millionth of the cosmically available carbon is in the form of carbon chains and that carbon chains can account for a few percent of the visible to near-IR diffuse interstellar band (DIB) total equivalent width (not DIB number).
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Astronomy and astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361); Volume 352; 2; 659-64
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Tuber content of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGA) was determined for the potato cultivars, Norland, Russet Burbank, and Denali grown under different environmental conditions in growth chambers. The lowest TGA concentrations (0.30 to 0.35 mg g-1 dry tissue) were found in the cv. Norland with 400 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), 12 h day length, 16 C temperature, and 350 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide. The ratio of alpha-chaconine to alpha-solanine was close to 60:40 under all growing conditions, except that it was 50:50 under the low temperature of 12 C. Cultivars responded similarly to environmental conditions although TGA was about 20% greater in cv. Russet Burbank and about 30% greater in Denali compared to Norland. The largest changes in TGA occurred with changes in temperature. In comparison to 16 C, TGA were 40% greater at 12 C, 80% greater at 20 C, and 125% greater at 24 C (0.70 mg g-1 dry weight). The TGA concentration increased from 10 to 25% with an increase in light from 400 to 800 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF for all three cultivars. TGA increased 20% with extension of the day length from 12 to 24 hr and also increased 20% when carbon dioxide was increased from 350 to 1000 micromoles mol-1. TGA concentrations were not influenced by changes in relative humidity from 50 to 80%. TGA concentrations decreased only slightly in harvests made from 9 to 21 weeks after planting. Variations in TGA among the different growing conditions and cultivars were below 20 mg/100 g fresh weight (approximately 1.0 mg g-1 dry weight) recognized as the upper concentration for food safety. However the results suggest that TGA should be considered when potatoes are grown at temperatures above 20 C.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: American potato journal (ISSN 0003-0589); Volume 76; 6; 337-43
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 77
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have developed a neural system identification method for fitting models to stimulus-response data, where the response is a spike train. The method involves using a general nonlinear optimisation procedure to fit models in the time domain. We have applied the method to model bullfrog semicircular canal afferent neuron responses during naturalistic, broad-band head rotations. These neurons respond in diverse ways, but a simple four parameter class of models elegantly accounts for the various types of responses observed. c1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Neurocomputing (ISSN 0925-2312); Volume 26-27; 1-3; 223-8
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 78
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The Reduced-Gravity Program, operated by the NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), provides engineers, scientists, and astronauts alike, a unique opportunity to perform testing and training in a weightless environment but without ever having to leave the confines of the earth's orbit. Given the frequency of Space Shuttle missions and the anticipated construction and eventual habitation of the New International Space Station, the Reduced-Gravity Program provides a truly ideal environment to test and evaluate space hardware and experimental procedures prior to launch. The Reduced-Gravity Program was established in 1959 to investigate the reactions of humans and hardware during operations in a weightless environment. A specially modified KC-135 turbojet (KC-135A), flying parabolic arcs, produces periodic episodes of weightlessness lasting 20-25 secs. The KC-135 is sometimes also flown to provide short periods of lunar (1/6) and Martian (1/3) gravity.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: KC-135 and Other Microgravity Simulations; a-2; NASA/CR-1999-208922
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 79
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Proceedings of the First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators' Workshop; 209-210
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 80
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: In Drosophila the precursors of the adult musculature arise during embryogenesis. These precursor cells have been termed Persistent Twist Cells (PTCs), as they continue to express the transcription factor Twist after that gene ceases expression elsewhere in the mesoderm. In the larval abdomen, the PTCs are associated with peripheral nerves in stereotypic ventral, dorsal, and lateral clusters, which give rise, respectively, to the ventral, dorsal, and lateral muscle fiber groups of the adult. We tested the developmental potential of the PTCs by using a microbeam laser to ablate specific clusters in larvae. We found that the ablation of a single segmental PTC cluster does not usually result in the deletion of the corresponding adult fibers of that segment. Instead, normal or near normal numbers of adult fibers can form after the ablation. Examination of pupae following ablation showed that migrating PTCs from adjacent segments are able to invade the affected segment, replenishing the ablated cells. However, the ablation of homologous PTCs in multiple segments does result in the deletion of the corresponding adult muscle fibers. These data indicate that the PTCs in an abdominal segment can contribute to the formation of muscle fibers in adjacent abdominal segments, and thus are not inherently restricted to the formation of muscle fibers within their segment of origin.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Development (Cambridge, England) (ISSN 0950-1991); Volume 126; 2; 273-80
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 81
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This study presents evidence for a close relationship between the oxidation state of the skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel (RyR1) and its ability to bind calmodulin (CaM). CaM enhances the activity of RyR1 in low Ca2+ and inhibits its activity in high Ca2+. Oxidation, which activates the channel, blocks the binding of 125I-labeled CaM at both micromolar and nanomolar Ca2+ concentrations. Conversely, bound CaM slows oxidation-induced cross-linking between subunits of the RyR1 tetramer. Alkylation of hyperreactive sulfhydryls (〈3% of the total sulfhydryls) on RyR1 with N-ethylmaleimide completely blocks oxidant-induced intersubunit cross-linking and inhibits Ca2+-free 125I-CaM but not Ca2+/125I-CaM binding. These studies suggest that 1) the sites on RyR1 for binding apocalmodulin have features distinct from those of the Ca2+/CaM site, 2) oxidation may alter the activity of RyR1 in part by altering its interaction with CaM, and 3) CaM may protect RyR1 from oxidative modifications during periods of oxidative stress.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The American journal of physiology (ISSN 0002-9513); Volume 276; 1 Pt 1; C46-53
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 82
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Archives of microbiology (ISSN 0302-8933); Volume 171; 2; 107-14
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...