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  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (14,409)
  • AERODYNAMICS  (12,791)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on an NACA 2412 airfoil section at Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10(exp 6) and Mach number of 0.13. Detailed measurements of flow fields associated with turbulent boundary layers have been obtained at angles of attack of 12.4 degrees, 14.4 degrees, and 16.4 degrees. Pre- and post-separated velocity and pressure survey results over the airfoil and in the associated wake are presented. Extensive force, pressure, tuft survey, hot-film survey, local skin friction, and boundary layer data are also included. Pressure distributions and separation point locations show good agreement with theory for the two layer angles of attack. Boundary layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and shape factor agree well with theory up to the point of separation. There is considerable disparity between extent of flow reversal in the wake as measured by pressure and hot-film probes. The difference is attributed to the intermittent nature of the flow reversal.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-197497 , NAS 1.26:197497 , AR77-3
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: An approach for solving the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations upon meshes composed of nearly arbitrary polyhedra is described. Each polyhedron is constructed from an arbitrary number of triangular and quadrilateral face elements, allowing the unified treatment of tetrahedral, prismatic, pyramidal, and hexahedral cells, as well the general cut cells produced by Cartesian mesh approaches. The basics behind the numerical approach and the resulting data structures are described. The accuracy of the mixed volume grid approach is assessed by performing a grid refinement study upon a series of hexahedral, tetrahedral, prismatic, and Cartesian meshes for an analytic inviscid problem. A series of laminar validation cases are made, comparing the results upon differing grid topologies to each other, to theory, and experimental data. A computation upon a prismatic/tetrahedral mesh is made simulating the laminar flow over a wall/cylinder combination.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-107135 , NAS 1.15:107135 , AIAA PAPER 96-0762 , E-10065 , NIPS-96-07909 , Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; 15-18 Jan. 1996; Reno, NV; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The implementation of a two-equation k-omega turbulence model into the NPARC flow solver is described. Motivation for the selection of this model is given, major code modifications are outlined, new imputs to the code are described, and results are presented for several validation cases: an incompressible flow over a smooth flat plate, a subsonic diffuser flow, and a shock-induced separated flow. Comparison of results with the k-epsilon model indicate that the k-omega model predicts simple flows equally well whereas, for adverse pressure gradient flows, the k-omega model outperforms the other turbulence models in NPARC.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-107080 , NAS 1.15:107080 , E-9955 , AIAA PAPER 96-0383 , NIPS-96-08118 , Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; 15-18 Jan. 1996; Reno, NV; United States
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: We have investigated the interaction of Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite, with the Io plasma torus. The interaction of Io with the plasma surrounding it has been a subject of interest for almost 30 years, dating from the discovery by Bigg (1964) that radio emissions from the Jovian magnetosphere are controlled by Io's position. Since that time, both ground-based and spacecraft observations have shown that Io is a unique satellite that influences the Jovian magnetosphere in important ways. In particular, material from Io is a major source of plasma for the magnetosphere, and the energy that this plasma harnesses from Jupiter's co-rotating magnetic field is an important power source for the magnetosphere. It is apparent that the local interaction of the torus plasma with Io plays a key role in the formation, composition, and energetics of the Io torus; the interaction is also highly nonlinear. We have modeled this interaction using time-dependent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. During this past year, we have used NASA support to develop a new MHD code to study the interaction. As part of the Galileo spacecraft's recent successful insertion into orbit around Jupiter, the spacecraft passed within 900 km of Io's surface. Our calculations have focused on using Galileo particles and fields data to examine a question that was not resolved by the Voyager observations: Does Io have an intrinsic magnetic field? In this progress summary, we describe our efforts on this problem to date.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-200134 , NAS 1.26:200134 , SAIC-95/1381:APPAT-174 , NIPS-96-07877
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  • 5
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Grid generation plays an integral part in the solution of computational fluid dynamics problems for aerodynamics applications. A major difficulty with standard structured grid generation, which produces quadrilateral (or hexahedral) elements with implicit connectivity, has been the requirement for a great deal of human intervention in developing grids around complex configurations. This has led to investigations into unstructured grids with explicit connectivities, which are primarily composed of triangular (or tetrahedral) elements, although other subdivisions of convex cells may be used. The existence of large gradients in the solution of aerodynamic problems may be exploited to reduce the computational effort by using high aspect ratio elements in high gradient regions. However, the heuristic approaches currently in use do not adequately address this need for high aspect ratio unstructured grids. High aspect ratio triangulations very often produce the large angles that are to be avoided. Point generation techniques based on contour or front generation are judged to be the most promising in terms of being able to handle complicated multiple body objects, with this technique lending itself well to adaptivity. The eventual goal encompasses several phases: first, a partitioning phase, in which the Voronoi diagram of a set of points and line segments (the input set) will be generated to partition the input domain; second, a contour generation phase in which body-conforming contours are used to subdivide the partition further as well as introduce the foundation for aspect ratio control, and; third, a Steiner triangulation phase in which points are added to the partition to enable triangulation while controlling angle bounds and aspect ratio. This provides a combination of the advancing front/contour techniques and refinement. By using a front, aspect ratio can be better controlled. By using refinement, bounds on angles can be maintained, while attempting to minimize the number of Steiner points.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Surface Modeling, Grid Generation, and Related Issues in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solutions; p 88
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: A newly discovered source of energetic particle streams directed at Venus' nightside may cause several exosphere phenomena. The streams evolve from dispersed cosmoids, a surreptitious population of meteoroids in nearly hyperbolic orbits, measured with three dust experiments on Pioneer 10/11. Loose fragile comet-like ensembles of frozen volatile material, they are orders of magnitude more populous than short-period meteoroids. Dispersion is forced near a planet masking the meteor signature at Earth, but recently terrestrial exosphere interactions have been detected principally from VLF radar returns and as suddenly formed layers of neutral sodium and iron probed by lidar. Venus influx is estimated greater than 10(exp -14)(g)/((sq cm)(s)) with nightside directed kinetic power of greater than 0.3 (erg)/((sq cm)s)). Compared to Earth, Venus, lacking a dipole field with almost no rotation, has a readily recognized set of nightside interaction signatures of these downward energetic particle streams: i.e., density depressions of the neutral thermosphere, hydrogen and helium bulges, a non-disappearing ionosphere, electron holes, nightglows, VLF bursty signals, and local magnetic fields. From Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) measurements, the cosmoid population, its temporal and solar azimuthal variation may be determined.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)123-(4)129
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: High-resolution, near-infrared (1.09 to 2.5 micrometers) spectra of the night side of Venus have been obtained in 1990 and 1991 using the Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Absorptions due to H2O were detected in spectral windows near 2.3, 1.74, and 1.18 micrometers. Our analysis of these absorptions constrains the abundance of water vapor in three different altitude ranges located between the clouds and the surface: 30-40 km, 15-25 km and 0-15 km. A constant water vapor mixing ratio of 30 +/- 15 ppm below the clouds can fit the observations. These values are consistent with recent near-infrared studies of the night side of Venus at lower spectral resolution. The atmosphere of Venus appears to be dryer than originally suggested by the in-situ measurements made by the Pioneer Venus and Venera mass-spectrometers and gas-chromatographs.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)79-(4)88
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  • 8
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Using Pioneer Venus data, hydrogen and deuterium ions are shown to escape from the hydrogen bulge region in the nightside ionosphere. The polarization electric field propels these light ions upward through the ionosphere and into the ion-exosphere, where H(+) and D(+) continue to be accelerated away from Venus and move into the ionotail and beyond. The vertical flow speeds of H(+) and D(+) are found to be about the same; therefore, selective escape between H(+) and D(+) is negligible for this mechanism. Present day planetary loss rates of about 8.6 x 10(exp 25)/s and 3.2 X 10(exp 23)/s were obtained for H(+) and D(+), respectively. Such rates, persisting over a few billion years, should have significantly affected the planetary water budget.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4; p. (4)117-(4)122
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  • 9
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Estimates of the mass of dust suspended in the Martian atmosphere are derived from global and regional 9-micrometer opacity maps produced from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data. During the peak of the 1977b storm, a total dust mass of approximately 4.3 x 10(exp 14) g was suspended, equivalent to 4.3 x 10(exp -4) g/sq cm, or a layer 1.4 micrometers thick. During a local dust storm near Solis Planum at L(sub s) 227 deg, approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 13) g of dust were lofted, equal to about a 6-micrometer layer in that vicinity.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E4; p. 7509-7512
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Based on the conservation of chemical elements in chemical reactions, a rule is proved that the number of boundary conditions given by densities and/or nonzero velocities should not be less than the number of chemical elements in the system, and the boundary conditions for species given by densities and velocities should include all elements in the system. Applications of this rule to Mars are considered. It is shown that the problem of the CO2-H2O chemistry in the lower and middle atmosphere of Mars, say, in the range of 0-80 km does not have a unique solution, if only CO2 and H2O densities are given at the lower boundary, and the remaining boundary conditions are fluxes. Two examples of models of this type are discussed. Two models of the photochemistry of the Martian atmosphere, with and without nitrogen chemistry, are considered. The oxygen nonthermal escape ratio of 1.2 x 10(exp 8)/cu cm/s is given at 240 km and is balanced with the total hydrogen escape rate within an uncertainty of 1% for both models. Both models fit the measured O2 and CO mixing ratios, the O3 abundance, and the O2 1.27-micrometer dayglow almost within the uncertainties of the measured values, though the model without nitrogen chemistry fits better. The importance of nitrogen chemistry in the lower and middle atmosphere of Mars depends on a fine balance between production of NO and N in the upper atmosphere which is not known within the required accuracy.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3263-3276
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The valley network channels on the heavily cratered ancient surface of Mars suggest the presence of liquid water approximately 3.8 Gyr ago. However, the implied warm climate is difficult to explain in the context of the standard solar model, even allowing for the maximum CO2 greenhouse heating. In this paper we investigate the astronomical and planetary implications of a nonstandard solar model in which the zero-age, main-sequence Sun had a mass of 1.05 +/- 0.02 Solar Mass. The excess mass was subsequently lost in a solar wind during the first 1.2(-0.2, +0.4) Gyr of the Sun's main sequence phase. The implied mass-loss rate of 4(+3, -2) x 10(exp -11) M/yr, or about 10(exp 3) x that of the current Sun, may be detectable in several nearby young solar type stars.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5457-5464
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Visible and near-IR refectivity, Moessbauer, and X ray diffraction data were obtained on powders of impact melt rock from the Manicouagan Impact Crater located in Quebec, Canada. The iron mineralogy is dominated by pyroxene for the least oxidized samples and by hematite for the most oxidized samples. Phyllosilicate (smectite) contents up to approximately 15 wt % were found in some heavily oxidized samples. Nanophase hematite and/or paramagnetic ferric iron is observed in all samples. No hydrous ferric oxides (e.g., goethite, lepidocrocite, and ferrihydrite) were detected, which implies the alteration occurred above 250 C. Oxidative alteration is thought to have occurred predominantly during late-stage crystallization and subsolidus cooling of the impact melt by invasion of oxidizing vapors and/or solutions while the impact melt rocks were still hot. The near-IR band minimum correlated with the extent of aleration Fe(3+)/Fe(sub tot) and ranged from approximately 1000 nm (high-Ca pyroxene) to approximately 850 nm (bulk, well-crystalline hematite) for least and most oxidized samples, respectively. Intermediate band positions (900-920 nm) are attributed to low-Ca pyroxene and/or a composite band from hematite-pyroxene assemblages. Manicouagan data are consistent with previous assignments of hematite and pyroxene to the approximately 850 and approximately 1000nm bands observed in Martian reflectivity spectra. Manicouagan data also show that possible assignments for intermediate band positions (900-920 nm) in Martian spectra are pyroxene and/or hematite-pyroxene assemblages. By analogy with impact melt sheets and in agreement with observables for Mars, oxidative alteration of Martian impact melt sheets above 250 C and subsequent erosion could produce rocks and soils with variable proportions of hematite (both bulk and nanophase), pyroxene, and phyllosilicates as iron-bearing mineralogies. If this process is dominant, these phases on Mars were formed rapidly at relativly high temperatures on a sporadic basis throughout the history of the planet. The Manicouagan samples also show that this mineralogical diversity can be accomplished at constant chemical composition, which is also indicated for Mars from the analyses of soil at the two Viking landing sites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); pp. 5319-5328
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A coordinated effort has been underway over the past four years to elevate unstructured-grid methodology to a mature level. The goal of this endeavor is to provide a validated capability to non-expert users for performing rapid aerodynamic analysis and design of complex configurations. The Euler component of the system is well developed, and is impacting a broad spectrum of engineering needs with capabilities such as rapid grid generation and inviscid flow analysis, inverse design, interactive boundary layers, and propulsion effects. Progress is also being made in the more tenuous Navier-Stokes component of the system. A robust grid generator is under development for constructing quality thin-layer tetrahedral grids, along with a companion Navier-Stokes flow solver. This paper presents an overview of this effort, along with a perspective on the present and future status of the methodology.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Surface Modeling, Grid Generation, and Related Issues in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solutions; p 289-308
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analytical investigation of dynamic stall on HAWT (horizontal-axis wind turbines) rotor loads was conducted. Dynamic stall was modeled using the Gormont approach on the MOD-2 rotor, treating the blade as a rigid body teetering about a fixed axis. Blade flapwise bending moments at station 370 were determined with and without dynamic stall for spatial variations in local wind speed due to wind shear and yaw. The predicted mean flapwise bending moments were found to be in good agreement with test results. Results obtained with and without dynamic stall showed no significant difference for the mean flapwise bending moment. The cyclic bending moments calculated with and without dynamic stall effects were substantially the same. None of the calculated cyclic loads reached the level of the cyclic loads measured on the MOD-2 using the Boeing five-minute-average technique.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: DASCON Engineering, Collected Papers on Wind Turbine Technology; p 41-46
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Voyager 1 spacecraft flew by Jupiter on March 5, 1979. Spacecraft navigation was performed with radio tracking data from NASA's Deep Space Network. In the years since then, there has been a great deal of progress in the definition of celestial reference frames and in determining the orbit and orientation of the Earth. Using these improvements, the radio metric range and Doppler data acquired from the Voyager 1 spacecraft near its encounter with Jupiter have been reanalyzed to determine the plane-of-sky position of Jupiter with much greater accuracy than was possible at the time of the encounter. The position of Jupiter at the time of encounter has been determined with an accuracy of 40 nrad in right ascension and 140 nrad in declination with respect to the celestial reference frame defined by the International Earth Rotation Service. This position estimate has been done to improve the ephemeris of Jupiter prior to the upcoming encounter of the Galileo spacecraft with Jupiter.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report; p 1-8
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: On July 4,1997, the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft lands on Mars and starts conducting technological and scientific experiments. One experiment, the Alpha-Proton-X-ray Spectrometer, uses a sensor head placed against rocks and soil to determine their composition. To guarantee proper placement, a deployment mechanism mounted on the Mars Rover aligns the sensor head to within 20 deg of the rock and soil surfaces. In carrying out its task, the mechanism mimics the action of a human hand and arm. Consisting of a flexible wrist, a parallel link arm, a brush dc motor actuator, and a revolutionary non-pyrotechnic fail-safe release device, the mechanism correctly positions the sensor head on rocks as high as 0.29 m and on targets whose surfaces are tilted as much as 45 deg from the nominal orientation of the sensor head face. The mechanism weighs less than 0.5 kg, can withstand 100 g's, and requires less than 2.8 N x m of actuation torque. The fail-safe coupler utilizes Cerrobend, a metal alloy that melts at 60 C, to fuse the actuator and the rest of the mechanism together. A film heater wrapped around the coupler melts the metal, and Negator springs drive the mechanism into its stowed position. The fail-safe actuates using 6.75 Watts for 5 minutes in the event of an actuator failure.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Johnson Space Center, The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium; p 61-78
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Measurements of wing buffeting, using root strain gages, were made in the NASA Langley 0.3 m cryogenic wind tunnel to refine techniques which will be used in larger cryogenic facilities such as the United States National Transonic Facility (NTF) and the European Transonic Wind Tunnel (ETW). The questions addressed included the relative importance variations in frequency parameter and Reynolds number, the choice of model material (considering both stiffness and damping) and the effects of static aeroelastic distortion. The main series of tests was made on three half models of slender 65 deg delta wings with a sharp leading edge. The three delta wings had the same planform but widely differing bending stiffnesses and frequencies (obtained by varying both the material and the thickness of the wings). It was known that the steady flow on this configuration would be insensitive to variations in Reynolds number. On this wing at vortex breakdown the spectrum of the unsteady excitation is unusual, having a sharp peak at particular frequency parameter. Additional tests were made on one unswept half-wing of aspect ratio 1.5 with an NPL 9510 aerofoil section, known to be sensitive to variations in Reynolds number at transonic speeds. The test Mach numbers were M = 0.21 and 0.35 for the delta wings and to M = 0.30 for the unswept wing. On this wing the unsteady excitation spectrum is fairly flat (as on most wings). Hence correct representation of the frequency parameter is not particularly important.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: Aeronautical Journal (ISSN 0001-9240); 99; 981; p. 1-14
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  • 18
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We investigate the orbital dynamics of small dust particles generated via the continuous micrometeoroid bombardment of the Martian moons. In addition to Mar's oblateness, we also consider the radiation pressure perturbation that is complicated by the planet's eccentric orbit and tilted rotational axis. Considering the production rates and the lifetimes of dust grains, we show that particles from Deimos with radii of about 15 micrometers are expected to dominate the population of a permanently present and tilted dust torus. This torus has an estimated peak number density of approximately equals 5 x 10(exp -12)/cu cm and an optical depth of approximately equals 4 x 10(exp -8).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3277-3284
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Goethite-bearing samples with values of Mn(s) (Mn/(Mn+Fe) mole fraction) up to 0.206 were synthesized by precipitation from alkaline solution. Samples with Mn(s) less than or equal 0.061 were single-phase Mn-goethites: samples with higher Mn(s) values contained another Mn-bearing phase (probably jacobsite). Mn-hematites were prepared by dehydroxylation of corresponding Mn-goethites at 500 C. Orthorhombic a and b unit cell dimensions of Mn-goethites changed in a linear manner with Mn(s), but not at rates predicted by the Vegrad law. Hexagonal unit cell dimensions of Mn-hematites did not vary with Mn(s). Moessbauer parameters isomer shift (IS), quadrupole splitting (QS), and hyperfine field (B(sub hf)) were measured at 293 and 15 K. For all single-phase Mn-goethites and Mn-hematites (Mn(s) less than or equal 0.061), magnetic splitting was observed at both temperatures. At 293 K, small but systematic decreases in B(sub hf) were observed with increasing Mn substitution; IS and QS were not dependent on Mn(s). Mn substitution strongly lowered the Morin transition temperature of hematite. At 15 K, the Morin transition was not present for Mn(s) greater than 0.020(4). The saturation magnetization of Mn-goethites and Mn-hematites (Mn(s) less than or equal 0.061) was the expected zero (within error) for antiferromagnetic goethite and for hematites obtained from dehydroxylation of goethites. Mn-geothites with Mn(s) greater than 0.061 were magnetic because of the presence of strongly magnetic jacobsite. For reflectivity spectra, bands resulting from MN(3+) were centered near 454 and 596 nm for Mn-goethites and near 545 and 700 nm for Mn-hematites. There is evidence for a approximately 700 nm band in spectral data for Martian bright regions, but association of it with Mn(3+) is not a unique interpretation. Comparison of laboratory and Martian spectral data implies that Mn(s) less than 0.032 for the Mn(3+) content of Martian hematites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E2; p. 3285-3295
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Hellas basin on Mars has been the site of volcanism, tectonism, and modification by fluvial, mass-wasting, and eolian processes over its more than 4-b.y. existence. Our detailed geologic mapping and related studies have resulted in the following new interpretations. The asymmetric distribution of highland massifs and other structures that define the uplifted basin rim suggest a formation of the basin by the impact of a low-angle bolide having a trajectory heading S60E. During the Late Noachian, the basin was infilled, perhaps by lava flows, that were sufficiently thick (greater than 1 km) to produce wrinkle ridges on the fill material and extensional faulting along the west rim of the basin. At about the same time, deposits buried northern Malea Planum, which are interpreted to be pyroclastic flows from Amphitrites and Peneus Paterae on the basis of their degraded morphology, topology, and the application of a previous model for pyroclastic volcanism on Mars. Peneus forms a distinctive caldera structure that indicates eruption of massive volumes of magma, whereas Amphitrites is a less distinct circular feature surrounded by a broad, low, dissected shield that suggests generally smaller volume eruptions. During the Early Hesperian, an approximately 1-to 2km-thick sequence of primarily fined-grained, eolian material was deposited on the floor of Hellas basin. Subsequently, the deposit was deeply eroded, except where armored by crater ejecta, and it retreated as much as 200-300 km along its western margin, leaving behind pedestal craters and knobby outliers of the deposit. Local debris flows within the deposit attest to concentrations of groundwater, perhaps in part brought in by outflow floods along the east rim of the basin. These floods may have deposited approximately 100-200m of sediment, subduing wrinkle ridges in the eastern part of the basin floor. During the Late Hesperian and Amazonian, eolian mantles were emplaced on the basin rim and floor and surrounding highlands. Their subsequent erosion resulted in pitted and etched plains and crater fill, irregular mesas, and pedestal craters. Local evidence occurs for the possible former presence of ground ice or ice sheets approximately 100 km across; however, we disagree with a hypothesis that suggest that the entire south rim and much of the floor of Hellas have been glaciated. Orientations of dune fields and yardangs in lower parts of Hellas basin follow directions of the strongest winds predicted by a recently published general circulation model (GCM). Transient frost and dust splotches in the region are, by contrast, related to the GCM prediction for the season in which the images they appear in were taken.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5407-5432
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Ferric-iron-bearing materials play an important role in the interpretation of visible to near-IR Mars spectra, and they may play a similarly important role in the analysis of new mid-IR spacecraft spectral observations to be obtained over the next decade. We review exisiting data on mid-IR transmission spectra of ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides and present new transmission spectra for ferric-bearing materials spanning a wide range of mineralogy and crystallinity. These materials include 11 samples of well-crystallized ferric oxides (hematite, maghemite, and magnetite) and ferric oxyhydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite). We also report the first transmission spectra for purely nanophase ferric oxide samples that have been shown to exhibit spectral similarities to Mars in the visible to near-IR and we compare these data to previous and new transmission spectra of terrestial palagonites. Most of these samples show numerous, diagnostic absorption features in the mid-IR due to Fe(3+) - 0(2-) vibrational transitions, structural and/or bound OH, and/or silicates. These data indicate that high spatial resolution, moderate spectral resolution mid-IR ground-based and spacecraft observations of Mars may be able to detect and uniquely discriminate among different ferric-iron-bearing phases on the Martian surface or in the airborne dust.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); p. 5297-5307
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We model an infrared outburst on Io as being due to a large, erupting lava flow which increased its area at a rate of 1.5 x 10(exp 5)/sq m and cooled from 1225 to 555 K over the 2.583-hr period of observation. The inferred effusion rate of 3 x 10(exp 5) cu m/sec for this eruption is very high, but is not unprece- dented on the Earth and is similar to the high eruption rates suggested for early lunar volcanism. Eruptions occur approxi- mately 6% of the time on Io. These eruptions provide ample resurfacing to explain Io's lack of impact craters. We suggest that the large total radiometric heat flow, 10(exp 14) W, and the size and temperature distribution of the thermal anomalies (McEwen et al. 1992; Veeder et al. 1994) can be accounted for by a series of silicate lava flows in various stages of cooling. We propose that the whole suite of Io's currently observed thermal anomalies was produced by multiple, high-eruptive-rate silicate flows within the past century.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 113; 1; p. 220-225
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-03-30
    Description: Two symposia related to the exploration of the Venus and Mars atmospheres produced papers which described the results of spacecraft-based and ground-based observations of these two planets. The topics addressed included solar wind interactions, molecular ions, planetary magnetospheres, planetary ionospheres, planetary thermospheres, gravity waves, the homopause, radiative transfer, radiative balance, atmospheric water, planetary lightning, very low frequency bursts, cosmic-ray ionization, planetary loss, and future missions to study Mars aeronomy, energetic particles near Mars, radar exploration of Mars, and the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 4
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A direct numerical simulation (DNS) algorithm has been developed and validated for use in the investigation of crossflow instability on supersonic swept wings, an application of potential relevance to the design of the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The algorithm is applied to the investigation of stationary crossflow instability on an infinitely long 77-degree swept wing in Mach 3.5 flow. The results of the DNS are compared with the predictions of linear parabolized stability equation (PSE) methodology. In-general, the DNS and PSE results agree closely in terms of modal growth rate, structure, and orientation angle. Although further validation is needed for large-amplitude (nonlinear) disturbances, the close agreement between independently derived methods offers preliminary validation of both DNS and PSE approaches.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-198267 , NAS 1.26:198267 , NIPS-96-08486
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Among the hazards that must be negotiated by lunar-landing spacecraft are blocks on the surface of the Moon. Unfortunately, few data exist that can be used to evaluate the threat posed by such blocks to landing spacecraft. Perhaps the best information is that obtained from Surveyor photographs, but those data do not extend to the dimensions of the large blocks that would pose the greatest hazards. Block distributions in the vicinities of the Surveyor 1, 3, 6, and 7 sites have been determined from Lunar Orbiter photography and are presented here. Only large (i.e., greater than or equal to 2.5 m) blocks are measurable in these pictures, resulting in a size gap between the Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter distributions. Nevertheless, the orbital data are self-consistent, a claim supported by the similarity in behavior between the subsets of data from the Surveyor 1, 3, and 6 sites and by the good agreement in position (if not slopes) between the data obtained from the Surveyor 3 photography and those derived from the Lunar Orbiter photographs. Confidence in the results is also justified by the well-behaved distribution of large blocks at the surveyor site. Comparisons between the Surveyor distributions and those derived from the orbital photography permit these observations: (1) in all cases but that for Surveyor 3, the density of large blocks is overestimated by extrapolation of the Surveyor-derived trends; (2) the slopes of the Surveyor-derived distributions are consistently lower than those determined for the large blocks; and (3) these apparent disagreements could be mitigated if the overall shapes of the cumulative lunar block populations were nonlinear, allowing for different slopes over different size intervals. The relatively large gaps between the Surveyor-derived and Orbiter-derived data sets, however, do not permit a determination of those shapes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-104804 , NAS 1.15:104804 , S-782 , NIPS-96-07702
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The work reported here pertains only to the first year of research for a three year proposal period. As a prelude to this two dimensional interface element, the one dimensional element was tested and errors were discovered in the code for built-up structures and curved interfaces. These errors were corrected and the benchmark Boeing composite crown panel was analyzed successfully. A study of various splines led to the conclusion that cubic B-splines best suit this interface element application. A least squares approach combined with cubic B-splines was constructed to make a smooth function from the noisy data obtained with random error in the coordinate data points of the Boeing crown panel analysis. Preliminary investigations for the formulation of discontinuous 2-D shell and 3-D solid elements were conducted.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199951 , NAS 1.26:199951 , NIPS-96-07072
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Substantial evidence suggests that a UV spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAMs exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SaM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAMs on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAMs has been determined, further constraints on their composition cable made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-199361 , NAS 1.26:199361 , SWRI PROJ. 15-5653
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft. An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-104312 , H-2067 , NAS 1.15:104312
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This report summarizes some NASA Lewis (i.e., government owned) computer codes capable of being used for airbreathing propulsion system studies to determine the design geometry and to predict the design/off-design performance of compressors and turbines. These are not CFD codes; velocity-diagram energy and continuity computations are performed fore and aft of the blade rows using meanline, spanline, or streamline analyses. Losses are provided by empirical methods. Both axial-flow and radial-flow configurations are included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-198433 , NAS 1.26:198433 , E-10041 , NIPS-95-06493
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Spectral observations providing evidence for the presence of volatile-bearing minerals on the surface of Mars were obtained in 1988 and 1990 from the KAO. The 1988 data suggest the presence of 1-3 weight percent (wt%) of carbonate/bicarbonate and 10-15 wt% sulfate/bisulfate associated with martian atmospheric dust. Estimates of the optical depths are approximately 0.60 and approximately 0.35 in 1988 and 1990, respectively.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Airborne Astronomy Symposium on the Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust, Volume 73; p 345-348
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: An unswept, semispan wing model incorporating a NACA 0012 airfoil section was tested in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This report contains pressure data which document effects of wing configuration and free-stream conditions on wing pressure distributions. The untwisted wing incorporated a full-span, leading-edge Krueger flap and a full-span, single-slotted trailing-edge flap. The trailing-edge flap was tested at a deflection angle of 40 degrees and the Krueger flap at a deflection of 55 degrees. Three wing configurations were tested: cruise, trailing-edge flap only, and Knueger flap and trailing-edge flap deployed. Tests were conducted at free-stream dynamic pressures of 15, 30 and 60 psf, with corresponding chord Reynolds numbers of 1.22 to 2.11 million and Mach numbers of 0.12 to 0.20. Angles of attack presented range from 0 to 20 degrees, depending on wing configuration. The data are presented without analysis.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-110148 , NAS 1.15:110148
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This report addresses the development of a multidisciplinary optimization procedure using an efficient semi-analytical sensitivity analysis technique and multilevel decomposition for the design of aerospace vehicles. A semi-analytical sensitivity analysis procedure is developed for calculating computational grid sensitivities and aerodynamic design sensitivities. Accuracy and efficiency of the sensitivity analysis procedure is established through comparison of the results with those obtained using a finite difference technique. The developed sensitivity analysis technique are then used within a multidisciplinary optimization procedure for designing aerospace vehicles. The optimization problem, with the integration of aerodynamics and structures, is decomposed into two levels. Optimization is performed for improved aerodynamic performance at the first level and improved structural performance at the second level. Aerodynamic analysis is performed by solving the three-dimensional parabolized Navier Stokes equations. A nonlinear programming technique and an approximate analysis procedure are used for optimization. The proceduredeveloped is applied to design the wing of a high speed aircraft. Results obtained show significant improvements in the aircraft aerodynamic and structural performance when compared to a reference or baseline configuration. The use of the semi-analytical sensitivity technique provides significant computational savings.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199290 , NAS 1.26:199290
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: An extensive quantity of airload measurements was obtained for a pressure-instrumented model of the BO-105 main rotor for a large number of higher-harmonic control (HHC) settings at Duits-Nederlandse Wind Tunnel (DNW). The wake geometry, vortex strength, and vortex core size were also measured through a laser light sheet technique and LDV. These results are used to verify the BVI airload prediction methodologies developed by AFDD, DLR, NASA Langley, and ONERA. The comparisons show that an accurate prediction of the blade motion and the wake geometry is the most important aspect of the BVI airload predictions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-110824 , NAS 1.15:110824 , AD-A294468
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  • 34
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This paper presents an overview of the complex unsteady vortical flows that comprise the wakes of rotary-wing aircraft; of the effects these tangled vortical structures have on the performance, noise, and vibration; and of some of the recent attempts to measure, predict, and control the phenomena. The main points are illustrated with a number of examples from the recent literature and technical conferences.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-110822 , NAS 1.15:110822 , AD-A294465
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) III precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT III precision approach and landing applications. An IAI Westwind 1124 aircraft (N24RH) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by E-Systems. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and landings. The navigation sensor error accuracy requirements were based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and landings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and landings shows that the E-Systems DGPS system met the navigation sensor error requirements for a successful approach and landing 98 out of 100 approaches and landings, based on the requirements specified in the FAA CAT III Level 2 Flight Test Plan. In addition, the E-Systems DGPS system met the integrity requirements for a successful approach and landing or stationary trial for all 100 approaches and landings and all ten stationary trials, based on the requirements specified in the FAA CAT III Level 2 Flight Test Plan.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-110368 , NAS 1.15:110368 , A-950096
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Low-speed wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel on a model of the Boeing Multirole Fighter (BMRF) aircraft. This single-seat, single-engine configuration was intended to be an F-16 replacement that would incorporate many of the design goals and advanced technologies of the F-22. Its mission requirements included supersonic cruise without afterburner, reduced observability, and the ability to attack both air-to-air and air-to-ground targets. So that it would be effective in all phases of air combat, the ability to maneuver at angles of attack up to and beyond maximum lift was also desired. Traditional aerodynamic yaw controls, such as rudders, are typically ineffective at these higher angles of attack because they are usually located in the wake from the wings and fuselage. For this reason, this study focused on investigating forebody-mounted controls that produces yawing moments by modifying the strong vortex flowfield being shed from the forebody at high angles of attack. Two forebody strakes were tested that varied in planform and chordwise location. Various patterns of porosity in the forebody skin were also tested that differed in their radial coverage and chordwise location. The tests were performed at a dynamic pressure of 4 lb/ft(exp 2) over an angle-of-attack range of -4 deg to 72 deg and a sideslip range of -10 deg to 10 deg. Static force data, static pressures on the surface of the forebody, and videotapes of flow-visualization using laser-illuminated smoke were obtained.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-4685 , NAS 1.26:4685
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: During the Higher Harmonic Control Aeroacoustic Rotor Test, extensive measurements of the rotor aerodynamics, the far-field acoustics, the wake geometry, and the blade motion for powered, descent, flight conditions were made. These measurements have been used to validate and improve the prediction of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. The improvements made to the BVI modeling after the evaluation of the test data are discussed. The effects of these improvements on the acoustic-pressure predictions are shown. These improvements include restructuring the wake, modifying the core size, incorporating the measured blade motion into the calculations, and attempting to improve the dynamic blade response. A comparison of four different implementations of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is presented. A common set of aerodynamic input has been used for this comparison.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-110825 , NAS 1.15:110825 , AD-A294477
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of diverter wedge half-angle and nacelle lip height on the drag characteristics of an assembly consisting of a nacelle fore cowl from a typical high-speed civil transport (HSCT) and a diverter mounted on a flat plate. Data were obtained for diverter wedge half-angles of 4.0 deg, 6.0 deg, and 8.0 deg and ratios of the nacelle lip height above a flat plate to the boundary-layer thickness (h(sub n)/delta) of approximately 0.87 to 2.45. Limited drag data were also obtained on a complete nacelle/diverter configuration that included fore and aft cowls. Although the nacelle/diverter drag data were not corrected for base pressures or internal flow drag, the data are useful for comparing the relative drag of the configuration tested. The tests were conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.50, 1.80, 2.10, and 2.40 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 2.00 x 10(exp 6) to 5.00 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The results of this investigation showed that the nacelle/diverter drag essentially increased linearly with increasing h(sub n)/delta except near 1.0 where the data showed a nonlinear behavior. This nonlinear behavior was probably caused by the interaction of the shock waves from the nacelle/diverter configuration with the flat-plate boundary layer. At the lowest h(sub n)/delta tested, the diverter wedge half-angle had virtually no effect on the nacelle/diverter drag. However, as h(sub n)/delta increased, the nacelle/diverter drag increased as diverter wedge half-angle increased.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-4660 , L-17416 , NAS 1.15:4660
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Internal fluid flows are subject not only to self-sustained oscillations of the purely hydrodynamic type but also to the coupling of the instability with the acoustic mode of the surrounding cavity. This situation is common to turbomachinery, since flow instabilities are confined within a flow path where the acoustic wavelength is typically smaller than the dimensions of the cavity and flow speeds are low enough to allow resonances. When acoustic coupling occurs, the fluctuations can become so severe in amplitude that it may induce structural failure of engine components. The potential for catastrophic failure makes identifying flow-induced noise and vibration sources a priority. In view of the complexity of these types of flows, this report was written with the purpose of presenting many of the methods used to compute frequencies for self-sustained oscillations. The report also presents the engineering formulae needed to calculate the acoustic resonant modes for ducts and cavities. Although the report is not a replacement for more complex numerical or experimental modeling techniques, it is intended to be used on general types of flow configurations that are known to produce self-sustained oscillations. This report provides a complete collection of these models under one cover.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-4671 , M-778 , NAS 1.26:4671
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A methodology is described for computing viscous flows of air and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The basis is an existing flow solver that calculates turbulent flows in two dimensions on unstructured triangular meshes. The solver has been modified to incorporate the thermodynamic model for SF6 and used to calculate the viscous flow over two multielement airfoils that have been tested in a wind tunnel with air as the test medium. Flows of both air and SF6 at a free-stream Mach number of 0.2 and a Reynolds number of 9 x 10(exp 6) are computed for a range of angles of attack corresponding to the wind-tunnel test. The computations are used to investigate the suitability of SF6 as a test medium in wind tunnels and are a follow-on to previous computations for single-element airfoils. Surface-pressure, lift, and drag coefficients are compared with experimental data. The effects of heavy gas on the details of the flow are investigated based on computed boundary-layer and skin-friction data. In general, the predictions in SF6 vary little from those in air. Within the limitations of the computational method, the results presented are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further experiments.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-3496 , L-17401 , NAS 1.60:3496
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Substantial evidence suggests that a UV (ultraviolet) Spectrally Absorbing Material (UV-SAM) exists on Triton's surface. This evidence is found in the positive slope in Triton's spectrum from the UV to the near-IR, and the increasing contrast in Triton's light curve in the blue and UV. Although it is now widely-thought that UV-SAM's exist on Triton, little is known about their distribution and spectral properties. The goal of this NDAP Project is to determine the spatial distribution and geological context of the UV-SAM material. We hope to determine if UV-SAM's on Triton are correlated with geologic wind streaks, craters, calderas, geomorphic/topographic units, regions containing (or lacking) volatile frosts, or some other process (e.g., magnetospheric interactions). Once the location and distribution of UV-SAM's has been determined, further constraints on their composition can be made by analyzing the spectrographic data set. To accomplish these goals, various data sets will be used, including Voyager 2 UV and visible images of Triton's surface, IUE and HST spectra of Triton, and a geologic map of the surface based on Voyager 2 and spectrophotometric data. The results of this research will be published in the planetary science literature.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-198008 , NAS 1.26:198008
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The Magellan radar-mapping mission collected a large amount of science and engineering data. Now available to the general scientific community, this data set can be overwhelming to someone who is unfamiliar with the mission. This user guide outlines the mission operations and data set so that someone working with the data can understand the mapping and data-processing techniques used in the mission. Radar-mapping parameters as well as data acquisition issues are discussed. In addition, this user guide provides information on how the data set is organized and where specific elements of the set can be located.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-RP-1356 , NAS 1.61:1356
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Defense Research Agency (United Kingdom) have ongoing experimental research programs in rotary-flow aerodynamics. A cooperative effort between the two agencies is currently underway to collect an extensive database for the development of high angle of attack computational methods to predict the effects of Reynolds number on the forebody flowfield at dynamic conditions, as well as to study the use of low Reynolds number data for the evaluation of high Reynolds number characteristics. Rotary balance experiments, including force and moment and surface pressure measurements, were conducted on circular and rectangular aftbodies with hemispherical and ogive noses at the Bedford and Farnborough wind tunnel facilities in the United Kingdom. The bodies were tested at 60 and 90 deg angle of attack for a wide range of Reynolds numbers in order to observe the effects of laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow separation on the forebody characteristics when rolling about the velocity vector.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-195033 , REPT-94-4 , NAS 1.26:195033
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-197986 , NAS 1.26:197986
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A wind tunnel investigation was conducted on a generic, high-wing transport model in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This report contains pressure data that document effects of various model configurations and free-stream conditions on wing pressure distributions. The untwisted wing incorporated a full-span, leading-edge Krueger flap and a part-span, double-slotted trailing-edge flap system. The trailing-edge flap was tested at four different deflection angles (20 deg, 30 deg, 40 deg, and 60 deg). Four wing configurations were tested: cruise, flaps only, Krueger flap only, and high lift (Krueger flap and flaps deployed). Tests were conducted at free-stream dynamic pressures of 20 psf to 60 psf with corresponding chord Reynolds numbers of 1.22 x 10(exp 6) to 2.11 x 10(exp 6) and Mach numbers of 0.12 to 0.20. The angles of attack presented range from 0 deg to 20 deg and were determined by wing configuration. The angle of sideslip ranged from minus 20 deg to 20 deg. In general, pressure distributions were relatively insensitive to free-stream speed with exceptions primarily at high angles of attack or high flap deflections. Increasing trailing-edge Krueger flap significantly reduced peak suction pressures and steep gradients on the wing at high angles of attack. Installation of the empennage had no effect on wing pressure distributions. Unpowered engine nacelles reduced suction pressures on the wing and the flaps.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-4583 , L-17380 , NAS 1.15:4583
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The computational fluid dynamics code, PARC3D, is tested to see if its use of non-physical artificial dissipation affects the accuracy of its results. This is accomplished by simulating a shock-laminar boundary layer interaction and several hypersonic flight conditions of the Pegasus(TM) launch vehicle using full artificial dissipation, low artificial dissipation, and the Engquist filter. Before the filter is applied to the PARC3D code, it is validated in one-dimensional and two-dimensional form in a MacCormack scheme against the Riemann and convergent duct problem. For this explicit scheme, the filter shows great improvements in accuracy and computational time as opposed to the nonfiltered solutions. However, for the implicit PARC3D code it is found that the best estimate of the Pegasus experimental heat fluxes and surface pressures is the simulation utilizing low artificial dissipation and no filter. The filter does improve accuracy over the artificially dissipative case but at a computational expense greater than that achieved by the low artificial dissipation case which has no computational time penalty and shows better results. For the shock-boundary layer simulation, the filter does well in terms of accuracy for a strong impingement shock but not as well for weaker shock strengths. Furthermore, for the latter problem the filter reduces the required computational time to convergence by 18.7 percent.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-186033 , H-2071 , NAS 1.26:186033
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: To identify planform characteristics which have promise for a highly maneuverable vehicle, an investigation was conducted in the Langley Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel to determine the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of 21 planform geometries. Concepts studied included twin bodies, double wings, cutout wings, and serrated forebodies. The planform models tested were all 1/4-in.-thick flat plates with beveled edges on the lower surface to ensure uniform flow separation at angle of attack. A 1.0-in.-diameter cylindrical metric body with a hemispherical nose was used to house the six-component strain gauge balance for each configuration. Aerodynamic force and moment data were obtained across an angle-of-attack range of 0 to 70 deg with zero sideslip at a free-stream dynamic pressure of 30 psf. Surface flow visualization studies were also conducted on selected configurations using fluorescent minitufts. Results from the investigation indicate that a cutout wing planform can improve lift characteristics; however, cutout size, shape, and position and wing leading-edge sweep will all influence the effectiveness of the cutout configuration. Tests of serrated forebodies identified this concept as an extremely effective means of improving configuration lift characteristics; increases of up to 25 percent in the value of maximum lift coefficient were obtained.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-3503 , L-17301 , NAS 1.60:3503
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This report summarizes the research performed by North Carolina State University and NASA Ames Research Center under Cooperative Agreement NCA2-719, 'Numerical Simulation of Supersonic and Hypersonic Inlet Flow Fields". Four distinct rotated upwind schemes were developed and investigated to determine accuracy and practicality. The scheme found to have the best combination of attributes, including reduction to grid alignment with no rotation, was the cell centered non-orthogonal (CCNO) scheme. In 2D, the CCNO scheme improved rotation when flux interpolation was extended to second order. In 3D, improvements were less dramatic in all cases, with second order flux interpolation showing the least improvement over grid aligned upwinding. The reduction in improvement is attributed to uncertainty in determining optimum rotation angle and difficulty in performing accurate and efficient interpolation of the angle in 3D. The CCNO rotational technique will prove very useful for increasing accuracy when second order interpolation is not appropriate and will materially improve inlet flow solutions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199428 , NAS 1.26:199428
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A high Reynolds number investigation of a commercial transport model was conducted in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at Langley Research Center. This investigation was part of a cooperative effort to test a 0.03-scale model of a Boeing 767 airplane in the NTF over a Mach number range of 0.70 to 0.86 and a Reynolds number range of 2.38 to 40.0 x 10(exp 6) based on the mean aerodynamic chord. One of several specific objectives of the current investigation was to evaluate the level of data repeatability attainable in the NTF. Data repeatability studies were performed at a Mach number of 0.80 with Reynolds numbers of 2.38, 4.45, and 40.0 x 10(exp 6) and also at a Mach number of 0.70 with a Reynolds number of 40.0 x 10(exp 6). Many test procedures and data corrections are addressed in this report, but the data presented do not include corrections for wall interference, model support interference, or model aeroelastic effects. Application of corrections for these three effects would not affect the results of this study because the corrections are systematic in nature and are more appropriately classified as sources of bias error. The repeatability of the longitudinal stability-axis force and moment data has been accessed. Coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment are shown to repeat well within the pretest goals of plus or minus 0.005, plus or minus 0.0001, and plus or minus 0.001, respectively, at a 95-percent confidence level over both short- and near-term periods.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-3522 , L-17412 , NAS 1.60:3522
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  • 50
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council charged its Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) to (1) examine the degree to which small missions, such as those fitting within the constraints of the Discovery program, can achieve priority objectives in the lunar and planetary sciences; (2) determine those characteristics, such as level of risk, flight rate, target mix, university involvement, technology development, management structure and procedures, and so on, that could allow a successful program; (3) assess issues, such as instrument selection, mission operations, data analysis, and data archiving, to ensure the greatest scientific return from a particular mission, given a rapid deployment schedule and a tightly constrained budget; and (4) review past programmatic attempts to establish small planetary science mission lines, including the Planetary Observers and Planetary Explorers, and consider the impact management practices have had on such programs. A series of small missions presents the planetary science community with the opportunity to expand the scope of its activities and to develop the potential and inventiveness of its members in ways not possible within the confines of large, traditional programs. COMPLEX also realized that a program of small planetary missions was, in and of itself, incapable of meeting all of the prime objectives contained in its report 'An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010.' Recommendations are provided for the small planetary missions to fulfill their promise.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-199590 , NAS 1:26:199590
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  • 51
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This document outlines the tests performed to make aerodynamic force and torque measurements on the SOFIA wind tunnel model telescope. These tests were performed during the SOFIA 2 wind tunnel test in the 14 ft wind tunnel during the months of June through August 1994. The test was designed to measure the dynamic cross elevation moment acting on the SOFIA model telescope due to aerodynamic loading. The measurements were taken with the telescope mounted in an open cavity in the tail section of the SOFIA model 747. The purpose of the test was to obtain an estimate of the full scale aerodynamic disturbance spectrum, by scaling up the wind tunnel results (taking into account differences in sail area, air density, cavity dimension, etc.). An estimate of the full scale cross elevation moment spectrum was needed to help determine the impact this disturbance would have on the telescope positioning system requirements. A model of the telescope structure, made of a light weight composite material, was mounted in the open cavity of the SOFIA wind tunnel model. This model was mounted via a force balance to the cavity bulkhead. Despite efforts to use a 'stiff' balance, and a lightweight model, the balance/telescope system had a very low resonant frequency (37 Hz) compared to the desired measurement bandwidth (1000 Hz). Due to this mechanical resonance of the balance/telescope system, the balance alone could not provide an accurate measure of applied aerodynamic force at the high frequencies desired. A method of measurement was developed that incorporated accelerometers in addition to the balance signal, to calculate the aerodynamic force.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-110668 , SER-PK-001 , NAS 1.15:110668
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A numerical scheme utilizing a chimera zonal grid approach for solving the full potential equation in two spatial dimensions is described. Within each grid zone a fully-implicit approximate factorization scheme is used to advance the solution one interaction. This is followed by the explicit advance of all common zonal grid boundaries using a bilinear interpolation of the velocity potential. The presentation is highlighted with numerical results simulating the flow about a two-dimensional, nonlifting, circular cylinder. For this problem, the flow domain is divided into two parts: an inner portion covered by a polar grid and an outer portion covered by a Cartesian grid. Both incompressible and compressible (transonic) flow solutions are included. Comparisons made with an analytic solution as well as single grid results indicate that the chimera zonal grid approach is a viable technique for solving the full potential equation.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-110360 , A-950082 , NAS 1.15:110360
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Distributions of static pressure coefficient over the afterbody and axisymmetric nozzles of a generic, twin-tail twin-engine fighter were obtained in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The longitudinal positions of the vertical and horizontal tails were varied for a total of six aft-end configurations. Static pressure coefficients were obtained at Mach numbers between 0.6 and 1.2, angles of attack between 0 deg and 8 deg, and nozzle pressure ratios ranging from jet-off to 8. The results of this investigation indicate that the influence of the vertical and horizontal tails extends beyond the vicinity of the tail-afterbody juncture. The pressure distribution affecting the aft-end drag is influenced more by the position of the vertical tails than by the position of the horizontal tails. Transonic tail-interference effects are seen at lower free-stream Mach numbers at positive angles of attack than at an angle of attack of 0 deg.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-3509 , L-17438 , NAS 1.60:3509
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) 3 precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT 3 precision approach and landing applications. A United Airlines Boeing 737-300 (N304UA) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by Stanford University. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and autolandings; 90 touch and go, and 10 terminating with a full stop. Two types of accuracy requirements were evaluated: 1) Total system error, based on the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and 2) Navigation sensor error, based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and autolandings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and autolandings shows that the Stanford University/United Airlines system met the requirements for a successful approach and autolanding 98 out of 100 approaches and autolandings, based on the total system error requirements as specified in the FAA CAT 3 Level 2 Flight Test Plan.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-110354 , A-950066 , NAS 1.15:110354
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A proposed wing-body reusable launch vehicle was tested in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's 14 x 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel during the winter of 1994. This test resulted in the vehicle's subsonic and transonic, Mach 0.3 to 1.96, longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics. The effects of control surface deflections on the basic vehicle's aerodynamics, including a body flap, elevons, ailerons, and tip fins, are presented.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-108489 , NAS 1.15:108489
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for axial-flow turbomachinery blading is described in this report. The linearization is based on the Euler equations of fluid motion and is motivated by the need for an efficient aerodynamic analysis that can be used in predicting the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of blade rows. The field equations and surface conditions required for inviscid, nonlinear and linearized, unsteady aerodynamic analyses of three-dimensional flow through a single, blade row operating within a cylindrical duct, are derived. An existing numerical algorithm for determining time-accurate solutions of the nonlinear unsteady flow problem is described, and a numerical model, based upon this nonlinear flow solver, is formulated for the first-harmonic linear unsteady problem. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a first-harmonic unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. At present this code applies only to two-dimensional flows, but an extension to three-dimensions is planned as future work. The three-dimensional aerodynamic and numerical formulations are described in this report. Numerical results for two-dimensional unsteady cascade flows, excited by prescribed blade motions and prescribed aerodynamic disturbances at inlet and exit, are also provided to illustrate the present capabilities of the LINFLUX analysis.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-4677 , E-9575 , NAS 1.26:4677 , R95-970293
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Comprehensive experimental and analytical studies have been conducted to assess the potential aerodynamic benefits from spanwise blowing at the tip of a moderate-aspect-ratio swept wing. Previous studies on low-aspect-ratio wings indicated that blowing from the wingtip can diffuse the tip vortex and displace it outward. The diffused and displaced vortex will induce a smaller downwash at the wing, and consequently the wing will have increased lift and decreased induced drag at a given angle of attack. Results from the present investigation indicated that blowing from jets with a short chord had little effect on lift or drag, but blowing from jets with a longer chord increased lift near the tip and reduced drag at low Mach numbers. A Navier-Stokes solver with modified boundary conditions at the tip was used to extrapolate the results to a Mach number of 0.72. Calculations indicated that lift and drag increase with increasing jet momentum coefficient. Because the momentum of the jet is typically greater than the reduction in the wing drag and the increase in the wing lift due to spanwise blowing is small, spanwise blowing at the wingtip does not appear to be a practical means of improving the aerodynamic efficiency of moderate-aspectratio swept wings at high subsonic Mach numbers.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-3515 , L-17368 , NAS 1.60:3515
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: High resolution numerical simulations of thermal convection in a rapidly rotating channel with gravity perpendicular to the rotation vector are described. The convecting columns are subject to a beta-effect resulting from cross-channel topographic vortex stretching. The symmetries of the problem allow many invariant wavenumber sets, and this property is associated with the existence of stable multiple-equilibria at modest supercriticality. The transition to chaotic behavior involves the production of intermittent unstable orbits off a two-torus in energy space. At very high Rayleigh number (of order 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7)) the motion can be turbulent, depending on the size of beta. However, the turbulence is usually characterized by an almost-periodic formation of patches of small scale convection that cause regular pulsations in the accompanying strong zonal jets. The processes maintaining these flows may be related to those responsible for the zonal currents on Jupiter and for cyclic variability on the Sun.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-198646 , NAS 1.26:198646
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Aeroelastic stability analyses have been performed for the MOD-5A blade/aileron system. Various configurations having different aileron torsional stiffness, mass unbalance, and control system damping have been investigated. The analysis was conducted using a code recently developed by the General Electric Company - AILSTAB. The code extracts eigenvalues for a three degree of freedom system, consisting of: (1) a blade flapwise mode; (2) a blade torsional mode; and (3) an aileron torsional mode. Mode shapes are supplied as input and the aileron can be specified over an arbitrary length of the blade span. Quasi-steady aerodynamic strip theory is used to compute aerodynamic derivatives of the wing-aileron combination as a function of spanwise position. Equations of motion are summarized herein. The program provides rotating blade stability boundaries for torsional divergence, classical flutter (bending/torsion) and wing/aileron flutter. It has been checked out against fixed-wing results published by Theodorsen and Garrick. The MOD-5A system is stable with respect to divergence and classical flutter for all practical rotor speeds. Aileron torsional stiffness must exceed a minimum critical value to prevent aileron flutter. The nominal control system stiffness greatly exceeds this minimum during normal operation. The basic system, however, is unstable for the case of a free (or floating) aileron. The instability can be removed either by the addition of torsional damping or mass-balancing the ailerons. The MOD-5A design was performed by the General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Program Department under Contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and sponsored by the Department of Energy.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: DASCON Engineering, Collected Papers on Wind Turbine Technology; p 99-114
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A numerical model has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center which can predict both the unsteady flow quantities within a wave rotor passage and the steady averaged flows in the ports. The model is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, unsteady, perfect gas flow. The model assesses not only the dominant wave behavior, but the loss effects of finite passage opening time, leakage from the passage ends, viscosity, and heat transfer to and from the passages. The model operates in the rotor reference frame; however, until recently no account was made for the often significant effect of the rotor circumferential velocity component. The present model accounts for this by modifying the passage boundary conditions, allowing the internal computational scheme to remain the rotor reference frame, while quantities such as inlet duct stagnation properties may be specified in the fixed or absolute reference frame. Accurate modeling of this effect is critical to successful wave rotor analysis and design, particularly in off-design predictions where the flows in the inlet ducts are mismatched with the rotor passages and significant turning may take place (i.e., work is done on the gas). The relative simplicity of the model makes it useful for design and optimization, as well as analysis, of wave rotor cycles for many applications. This report, building on several earlier papers, describes the most recent modifications to the model. These include accounting for the relative/absolute transition at the passage boundaries and refinements to the viscous source term correlation which resulted from this accounting. Comparison of model predictions with measured data is then presented and discussed.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-106913 , E-9621 , NAS 1.15:106913
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A flow visualization investigation with a laser light sheet system was conducted on a 27-percent-scale AH-64 attack helicopter model fitted with two mast-mounted sights in the langley 14- by 22-foot subsonic tunnel. The investigation was conducted to identify aerodynamic phenomena that may have contributed to adverse vibration encountered during full-scale flight of the AH-64D apache/longbow helicopter with an asymmetric mast-mounted sight. Symmetric and asymmetric mast-mounted sights oriented at several skew angles were tested at simulated forward and rearward flight speeds of 30 and 45 knots. A laser light sheet system was used to visualize the flow in planes parallel to and perpendicular to the free-stream flow. Analysis of these flow visualization data identified frequencies of flow patterns in the wake shed from the sight, the streamline angle at the sight, and the location where the shed wake crossed the rotor plane. Differences in wake structure were observed between the sight configurations and various skew angles. Analysis of lateral light sheet plane data implied significant vortex structure in the wake of the asymmetric mast-mounted sight in the configuration that produced maximum in-flight vibration. The data showed no significant vortex structure in the wake of the asymmetric and symmetric configurations that produced no increase in in-flight adverse vibration.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-4634 , L-17409 , NAS 1.15:4634 , ATCOM-TR-95-A-001
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Modeling enhancements made to a radial-inflow turbine conceptual design code are documented in this report. A stator-endwall clearance-flow model was added for use with pivoting vanes. The rotor calculations were modified to account for swept blades and splitter blades. Stator and rotor trailing-edge losses and a vaneless-space loss were added to the loss model. Changes were made to the disk-friction and rotor-clearance loss calculations. The loss model was then calibrated based on experimental turbine performance. A complete description of code input and output along with sample cases are included in the report.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-195454 , E-9538 , NAS 1.26:195454
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: An analytical/numerical method has been developed to predict the static thrust performance of non-axisymmetric, two-dimensional convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles. Thermodynamic nozzle performance effects due to over- and underexpansion are modeled using one-dimensional compressible flow theory. Boundary layer development and skin friction losses are calculated using an approximate integral momentum method based on the classic karman-Polhausen solution. Angularity effects are included with these two models in a computational Nozzle Performance Analysis Code, NPAC. In four different case studies, results from NPAC are compared to experimental data obtained from subscale nozzle testing to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the NPAC method. In several cases, the NPAC prediction matched experimental gross thrust efficiency data to within 0.1 percent at a design NPR, and to within 0.5 percent at off-design conditions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-195050 , NAS 1.26:195050
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver was used to determine how accurately computations can predict local and average skin friction coefficients for attached and separated flows for simple experimental geometries. Algebraic and transport equation closures were used to model turbulence. To simulate anisotropic turbulence, the standard two-equation turbulence model was modified by adding nonlinear terms. The effects of both grid density and the turbulence model on the computed flow fields were also investigated and compared with available experimental data for subsonic and supersonic free-stream conditions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TP-3480 , L-17354 , NAS 1.60:3480
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: It is well known in the aerodynamic field that pressure distribution measurement over the surface of an aircraft model is a problem in experimental aerodynamics. For one thing, a continuous pressure map can not be obtained with the current experimental methods since they are discrete. Therefore, interpolation or CFD methods must be used for a more complete picture of the phenomenon under study. For this study, a new technique was investigated which would provide a continuous pressure distribution over the surface under consideration. The new method is pressure sensitive paint. When pressure sensitive paint is applied to an aerodynamic surface and placed in an operating wind-tunnel under appropriate lighting, the molecules luminesce as a function of the local pressure of oxygen over the surface of interest during aerodynamic flow. The resulting image will be brightest in the areas of low pressure (low oxygen concentration), and less intense in the areas of high pressure (where oxygen is most abundant on the surface). The objective of this investigation was to use pressure sensitive paint samples from McDonnell Douglas (MDD) for calibration purpose in order to assess the response of the paint under appropriate lighting and to use the samples over a flat plate/conical fin mounted at 75 degrees from the center of the plate in order to study the shock/boundary layer interaction at Mach 6 in the Von Karman wind-tunnel. From the result obtained it was concluded that temperature significantly affects the response of the paint and should be given the uppermost attention in the case of hypersonic flows. Also, it was found that past a certain temperature threshold, the paint intensity degradation became irreversible. The comparison between the pressure tap measurement and the pressure sensitive paint showed the right trend. However, there exists a shift when it comes to the actual value. Therefore, further investigation is under way to find the cause of the shift.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-106824 , E-9373 , NAS 1.15:106824
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Modifications made to the axial-flow compressor conceptual design code CSPAN are documented in this report. Endwall blockage and stall margin predictions were added. The loss-coefficient model was upgraded. Default correlations for rotor and stator solidity and aspect-ratio inputs and for stator-exit tangential velocity inputs were included in the code along with defaults for aerodynamic design limits. A complete description of input and output along with sample cases are included.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-106833 , E-9394 , NAS 1.15:106833
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This paper describes ground-level measurements of sonic boom signatures made as part of the SR-71 sonic boom propagation experiment recently completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Ground level measurements were the final stage of this experiment which also included airborne measurements at near and intermediate distances from an SR-71 research aircraft. Three types of sensors were deployed to three station locations near the aircraft ground track. Pressure data were collected for flight conditions from Mach 1.25 to Mach 1.60 at altitudes from 30,000 to 48,000 ft. Ground-level measurement techniques, comparisons of data sets from different ground sensors, and sensor system strengths and weaknesses are discussed. The well-known N-wave structure dominated the sonic boom signatures generated by the SR-71 aircraft at most of these conditions. Variations in boom shape caused by atmospheric turbulence, focusing effects, or both were observed for several flights. Peak pressure and boom event duration showed some dependence on aircraft gross weight. The sonic boom signatures collected in this experiment are being compiled in a data base for distribution in support of the High Speed Research Program.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-104310 , H-2062 , NAS 1.15:104310 , NASA High Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop; 11-13 Sep. 1995; Hampton, VA; United States
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: An innovative inlet total pressure distortion measurement rake has been designed and developed for the F/A-18 A/B/C/D aircraft inlet. The design was conceived by NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines personnel. This rake has been flight qualified and flown in the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The eight-legged, one-piece, wagon wheel design of the rake was developed at a reduced cost and offered reduced installation time compared to traditional designs. The rake features 40 dual-measurement ports for low- and high-frequency pressure measurements with the high-frequency transducer mounted at the port. This high-frequency transducer offers direct absolute pressure measurements from low to high frequencies of interest, thereby allowing the rake to be used during highly dynamic aircraft maneuvers. Outstanding structural characteristics are inherent to the design through its construction and use of lightweight materials.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-4722 , NAS 1.15:4722 , H-2078 , AIAA PAPER 94-2132 , NIPS-95-05907 , Biennial AIAA Flight Test Conference; 20-23 Jun. 1994; Colorado Springs, CO; United States
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This paper reports the extension of the stress wave force balance to the measurement of forces on models which are non-axisymmetric or which have non-axisymmetric load distributions. Recent results are presented which demonstrate the performance of the stress wave force balance for drag measurement, for three-component force measurement and preliminary results for thrust measurement on a two-dimensional scramjet nozzle. In all cases, the balances respond within a few hundred microseconds.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 94-2596 , AIAA Aerospace Ground Testing Conference; 20-23 Jun. 1994; Colorado Springs, CO; United States|Shock Tunnel Studies of Scramjet Phenomena 1994; 9 p
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We report on further studies of radio wave bursts detected by the Orbiting Electric Field Detector (OEFD) on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) in the nightside ionosphere of Venus. We have tested a total of 25 cases of wave burst activity for evidence of whistler-mode propagation to the spacecraft from impulsive subionospheric sources. As in a previous study of 11 of these cases (Sonwalkar et al., 1991) we find at least two distinct classes of events, one, mostly involving bursts at 100 Hz only, that passes certain tests for whistler-mode propagation, and another, mostly involving bursts in two or more of the four PVO narrowband channels (at 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz), that fails to pass the tests. The subionospheric lightning hypothesis continues to be tenable as a candidate explanation for many of the 100 Hz-only events, but its number of 100 Hz-only cases that do no pass all the applicable whistler-mode tests, as well as the existence at a wide range of altitudes of multichannel cases that are clearly not propagating whistler-mode waves. The wideband bursts are often observed at altitudes above 1000 km and frequently occur in regions of locally reduced electron density. Those observed at high altitude (and possibly low altitude as well) are believed to be generated near the spacecraft, possibly by an as yet unknown mechanism responsible for similar burst observations made near Earth and other planets.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 5; p. 557-573
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  • 71
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Plasma wave data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter provide the largest body of data cited as evidence for lightning on Venus. These data are also the most controversial, mainly because of the ambiguity in mode identification due to limited spectral information. We review some of the more recent studies of the plasma wave data at Venus, and we demonstrate that the characteristics of the 100 Hz waves are consistent with whistler-mode waves propagating vertically from below the ionosphere. We further show that in situ instabilities are too weak to generate whistler-mode waves, mainly because the thermal pressure is comparable with the magnetic field pressure in the ionosphere of Venus. The lower hybrid drift instability has also been suggested as an alternative source for the 100 Hz waves. However, the wave properties are more consistent with whistler-mode propagation; the lower hybrid dirft instability requires very short gradient scale lengths to overcome damping due to collisions. We also note that an apparent association between Langmuir probe anomalies and 100 Hz waves is much lower than previously reported, once we apply a consistent intensity threshold for identifying wave bursts. The lightning hyposthesis remains the most probable explanation of the plasma waves detected at low altitudes in the nightside ionosphere of Venus.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 5; p. 537-556
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A workshop was convened at Ames Research Center on September 28 and 29, 1993, to address the unexplained electrical anomalies experienced in December 1978 by the four Pioneer Venus probes below a Venus altitude of 12.5 km. These anomalies caused the loss of valuable data in the deep atmosphere, and, if their cause were to remain unexplained, could reoccur on future Venus missions. The workshop participants reviewed the evidence and studied all identified mechanisms that could consistently account for all observed anomalies. Both hardware problems and atmospheric interactions were considered. Based on a workshop recommendation, subsequent testing identified the cause as being an insulation failure of the external harness. All anomalous events are now explained.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CP-3303 , A-950043 , NAS 1.55:3303 , 28-29 Sep. 1993; Moffett Field, CA; United States
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: An experimental study is conducted to examine the crossplane structure and streamwise decay of vortices shed from airfoil-type vortex generators. The vortex generators are set in a counter-rotating array spanning the full circumference of a straight pipe. The span of the vortex generators above the duct surface, h, is approximately equal to the local turbulent boundary layer thickness, delta. Measurement of three-component mean flow velocity in downstream crossplanes are used to characterize the structure of the shed vortices. Measurements in adjacent crossplanes (closely spaced along the streamwise coordinate) characterize the interaction and decay of the embedded vortices. A model constructed by the superposition of Oseen vortices is compared to the data for one test case.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-198356 , E-9730 , NAS 1.26:198356 , AIAA PAPER 95-1797 , Applied Aerodynamics Conference; 19-22 Jun. 1995; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: An experimental program to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 64-621 airfoil when equipped with plain ailerons of 0.38 chord and 0.30 chord and with 0.38 chord balanced aileron has been conducted in the pressurized O.S.U. 6 x 12 ft High Reynolds Number Wind Tunnel. Surface pressures were measured and integrated to yield lift and pressure drag coefficients for angles of attack from -3 to +42 deg and for selected aileron deflections from 0 to -90 deg at nominal Mach and Reynolds numbers of 0.25 and 5 x 10(exp 6). When resolved into thrust coefficient for wind turbine aerodynamic control applications, the data indicated the anticipated decrease in thrust coefficient with negative aileron deflection at low angles of attack; however, as angle of attack increased, thrust coefficients eventually became positive. All aileron configurations, even at -90 deg deflections showed this trend. Hinge moments for each configuration complete the data set.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: DOE/NASA Workshop on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Technology; 8-10 May 1984; Cleveland, OH; United States|DASCON Engineering, Collected Papers on Wind Turbine Technology; p 53-66
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The viability of applying a state-of-the-art Euler code to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments through maximum lift coefficient for a generic sharp-edge configuration is assessed. The OVERFLOW code, a method employing overset (Chimera) grids, was used to conduct mesh refinement studies, a wind-tunnel wall sensitivity study, and a 22-run computational matrix of flow conditions, including sideslip runs and geometry variations. The subject configuration was a generic wing-body-tail geometry with chined forebody, swept wing leading-edge, and deflected part-span leading-edge flap. The analysis showed that the Euler method is adequate for capturing some of the non-linear aerodynamic effects resulting from leading-edge and forebody vortices produced at high angle-of-attack through C(sub Lmax). Computed forces and moments, as well as surface pressures, match well enough useful preliminary design information to be extracted. Vortex burst effects and vortex interactions with the configuration are also investigated.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-4651 , NAS 1.26:4651
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The basic objectives of this NASA Grant are to develop theoretical understandings (tested with spacecraft data) of the generation and characteristics of electron plasma waves, commonly known as Langmuir-like waves, and associated radiation near f(sub p) and 2f(sub p) in planetary foreshocks. (Here f(sub p) is plasma frequency.) Related waves and radiation in the source regions of interplanetary type III solar radio bursts provide a simpler observational and theoretical context for developing and testing such understandings. Accordingly, applications to type III bursts constitute a significant fraction of the research effort. The testing of the new Stochastic Growth Theory (SGT) for type III bursts, and its extension and testing for foreshock waves and radiation, constitutes a major longterm strategic goal of the research effort.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-197376 , NAS 1.26:197376
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The objective of the proposal was to model the rototranslational and rotovibrational collision induced absorption spectral bands of importance for the radiative transfer analysis of the atmosphere of Venus. Our main task has involved CO2 pairs. The approach is not straightforward: whereas computational techniques to compute CIA spectra of small linear molecules exist, and were successfully applied to molecules like H2 or N2, they fail when applied to large molecules like CO2. For small molecules one can safely assume that the interaction potential is isotropic. The same approximation does not work for CO2, and when employed, it gives an incorrect band shape and only 50 percent of the CIA intensity.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-197373 , NAS 1.26:197373
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This report documents results from the Euler Technology Assessment program. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Euler computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for use in preliminary aircraft design. Both the accuracy of the predictions and the rapidity of calculations were to be assessed. This portion of the study was conducted by Lockheed Fort Worth Company, using a recently developed in-house Cartesian-grid code called SPLITFLOW. The Cartesian grid technique offers several advantages for this study, including ease of volume grid generation and reduced number of cells compared to other grid schemes. SPLITFLOW also includes grid adaptation of the volume grid during the solution convergence to resolve high-gradient flow regions. This proved beneficial in resolving the large vortical structures in the flow for several configurations examined in the present study. The SPLITFLOW code predictions of the configuration forces and moments are shown to be adequate for preliminary design analysis, including predictions of sideslip effects and the effects of geometry variations at low and high angles of attack. The time required to generate the results from initial surface definition is on the order of several hours, including grid generation, which is compatible with the needs of the design environment.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-4649 , NAS 1.26:4649
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  • 79
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Progress in the development of the model for the circumplanetary distribution of atomic hydrogen in the Saturn system produced by a Titan source is discussed. Because of the action of the solar radiation acceleration and the obliquity of Saturn, the hydrogen distribution is shown to undergo seasonal changes as the planet moves about the Sun. Preliminary model calculations show that for a continuous Titan source, the H distribution is highly asymmetric about the planet and has a density maximum near the dusk side of Saturn, qualitatively similar to the pattern recently deduced by Shemansky and Hall from observations acquired by the UVS instruments aboard the Voyager spacecrafts. The investigation of these Voyager data will be undertaken in the next project year.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-197377 , P-498 , NAS 1.26:197377
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