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  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (14,409)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Exploration of the Moon and planets began with telescopic studies of their surfaces, continued with orbiting spacecraft and robotic landers, and will culminate with manned exploration and sample return. For the Moon and Mars we also have accidental samples provided by impacts on their surfaces, the lunar and martian meteorites. How much would we know about the lunar surface if we only had lunar meteorites, orbital spacecraft, and robotic exploration, and not the Apollo and Luna returned samples? What does this imply for Mars? With martian meteorites and data from Mariner, Viking, and the future Pathfinder missions, how much could we learn about Mars? The basis of most of our detailed knowledge about the Moon is the Apollo samples. They provide ground truth for the remote mapping, timescales for lunar processes, and samples from the lunar interior. The Moon is the foundation of planetary science and the basis for our interpretation of the other planets. Mars is similar to the Moon in that impact and volcanism are the dominant processes, but Mars' surface has also been affected by wind and water, and hence has much more complex surface geology. Future geochemical or mineralogical mapping of Mars' surface should be able to tell us whether the dominant rock types of the ancient southern highlands are basaltic, anorthositic, granitic, or something else, but will not be able to tell us the detailed mineralogy, geochemistry, or age. Without many more martian meteorites or returned samples we will not know the diversity of martian rocks, and therefore will be limited in our ability to model martian geological evolution.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 4; p. 491
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Chondrule J2689, a large (8-mm) RP chondrule from Bachmut (L6) was previously found to be in disequilibrium with its host in a variety of features: (1) It has a fine-grained hornfelsic texture; (2) it contains low amounts of metal with a low-Ni taenite composition not found in the matrix; (3) the Ni/Co ratio of that metal is close to the solar ratio, which is equal to the bulk Ni/Co ratio (23) of the chondrule; (4) the bulk alkali content of the chondrule is high and the Na/K ratio is fractionated with respect to the average L chondrite ratio of 8; (5) Cr is depleted in spite of the high pyroxene content; (6) the siderophile elements are strongly depleted but are fractionated with their abundances increasing with volatility; and (7) the O isotopes of the chondrule and the host are out of equilibrium. However, the (Fe,Mg) silicates, feldspar, and chromite have chemical compositions indistinguishable from that of the host chondrite. We have studied a chip of the chondrite and of adjacent matrix by stepwise heating and by combustion in O for N and Xe isotopic abundances. (1) The chondrule preserved distinct bulk, metal, and O isotopic compositional features. It is therefore unlikely that the 'equilibration' of the major silicates Fe/Mg ratios could have taken place after accretion; (2) the chondrule was well equilibrated before break-up and exposure to cosmic rays; (3) two N signatures in the matrix also indicate that the matrix is not equilibrated; and (4) all data collected so far point toward the presence of unequilibrated Bachmut components. Very few reactions took place after accretion.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 4; p. 483
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: We wish to draw attention to a major controversy that has arisen in the area of CM-chondrite petrology. The problem is important because its resolution will have profound implications for ideas concerning nebular dynamics, gas-solid interactions in the nebula, and accretionary processes in the nebula, among other issues. On the one hand, cogent arguments have been presented that 'accretionary dust mantles,' were formed in the solar nebula prior to accretion of the CM parent asteroid(s). On the other hand, no-less-powerful arguments have been advanced that a significant fraction of the CM lithology is secondary, produced by aqueous alteration in the near-surface regions of an asteroid-sized object. Because most, if not all, CM chondrites are breccias, these two views could coexist harmoniously, were it not for the fact that some of the coarse-grained lithologies surrounded by 'accretion dust mantles' are themselves of apparently secondary origin. Such an observation must clearly force a reassessment of one or both of the present schools of thought. Our objective here is to stimulate such a reassessment. Four possible resolutions of this conflict may be postulated. First, perhaps nature found a way of permitting such secondary alteration to take place in the nebula. Second, maybe dust mantles could form in a regolith, rather than a nebular, environment. Third, it is possible that dust mantles around secondary lithologies are different from those around primary lithologies. Finally, perhaps formation of CM chondrites involved a more complex sequence of events than visualized so far, so that some apparently 'primary' processes postdated certain 'secondary' processes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 4; p. 481
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: A fragment of a carbonaceous chondrite (#53.12, maximal dimension about 2 mm) containing a phyllosilicate-sulfide vein was found during an inspection of small pieces of the Kaidun meteorite. Phyllosilicate veins are apparently rare in carbonaceous chondrites and have so far only been reported from the Y82162 CI chondrite. In hand sample the vein was visible on two perpendicular faces. The polished section prepared from one side displays a complex structure. A single vein, 150 microns in width, bifurcates, and each branch narrows toward a large rounded object (RO). The section contains abundant ROs, most of them less than or equal to 100 microns in diameter. The vein has sharp contacts to the surrounding matrix, whereas the RO contacts are diffuse. The phyllosilicate in the main vein has a massive texture along the contact, which becomes platy toward the vein center where the crystals protrude into an open space. The texture of the largest RO resembles that of a barred olivine (BO) chondrule. Some of the smaller ROs also texturally resemble chondrules. The BO chondrule contains rounded sulfide-silicate objects and small metal grains covered by oxides. Phyllosilicates of the main vein consist mainly of serpentine. The phyllosilicate near the contact with the matrix has low contents of minor elements and a high Mg/Fe ratio. The composition changes in a regular manner toward the center: Al, Na, Ca, Ni, and S increase, indicating increasing amounts of sulfates admixed. The phyllosilicate vein could only have formed after a substantial rock was formed. Mechanical stress probably opened a crack that was subsequently filled by phyllosilicate, pyrrhotite, and finally by a (Fe,Mg)-sulfate. The source of the matter mobilized to form the vein could have been within the rock itself or outside. No compositional or mineralogical zoning is apparent at the vein-rock contacts. The nature of the transporting agent (liquid H2O or vapor) must also remain an enigma. M. Zolensky has recently observed similar phyllosilicate-filled veins in dark, wet clasts in the Al Rais CR chondrite.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 4; p. 477
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Compound chondrules are considered to be the product of collisions between molten chondrules during chondrule formation Wasson, J. T. et al. (1994) have argued that some compound chondrules are formed when a chondrule with an accretional rim experienced a flash-melting event similar to a chondrule-forming event. We have designed experiments to investigate the formation of compound chondrules by both methods. Experiments were performed on a Deltech vertical muffle tube furnace to form synthetic chondrules to use as accretion rim material. For our experimental conditions, it is clear that compound chondrules can only be made by a collisional event. Our changes maintain their spherical shape and produce distinct boundaries between charges that are similar to natural compound chondrules. Furthermore, collision event(s) between chondrules will cause nucleation if they are molten and undercooled, thus producing chondrule textures. Flash melting chondrules with accretionary rims will not produce compound chondrules but will produce new chondrules with new textures.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 4; p. 458
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: The size, evolution and energetics of the earth's core and the probable central, metalic cores of Mercury, Venus, the moon and Mars are discussed. The cores of Mercury, Mars and the earth are considered likely to decrease in relative mass and volume with distance from the sun; the moon does not fit this sequence and data from Venus are insufficient. Core formation is concluded to have occurred early (prior to four billion years ago) on the earth and Mercury, while that on the moon would have occurred over a longer interval and the core of Mars would have formed much later. Of the possible energy sources in planetary cores able to maintain a molten state and drive magnetic dynamos, the energy of core formation was probably spent too early in planetary history to provide much present power, and the energy gained from freezing an inner core in the earth and Mercury are considered at best marginally able to match conductive heat loss. Future measurements proposed to improve the quantitative understanding of core properties include a better documentation of the magnetic fields of Venus and Mars and the seismometry of Mars.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-03-29
    Description: Ranging in size from mere grains and palm-size stones to boulders and many-mile- wide hunks of rock, meteorites hold many secrets of our solar system, and indeed of our universe. The 57th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society discussed many aspects of this fascinating 'chunk' of the evolution of the Solar System. Topics covered included: chemical composition, meteorite types, meteorite age determination, meteorite origins, and find locations, as well as a multitude of other important subjects.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Meteoritics (ISSN 0026-1114); 29; 4
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Analysis of the Mariner 9 IRIS and Viking Orbiter IRTM temperature data and of the time series of surface pressure from the Viking landers has indicated that atmospheric thermal tides are a significant component of the martian general circulation. Classical tidal theory, considering only the Sun synchronous components, has been shown to at least roughly account for the amplitudes of the observed diurnal and semidirunal surface pressure oscillations. In particular, Zurek and Leovy have demonstrated that classical tidal theory can reproduce the observed dependence of the strength of the semidiurnal tide on aerosol optical depth. The high-amplitude topograph of Mars, however, can cause longitudinal distortions in the thermotidal forcing, leading to additional tidal modes that are not Sun synchronous. In particular, observation and theory have suggested the likely presence of a diurnal, zonal wavenumber-1 K wave. Hamilton and Garcia noted that the wavenumber-1 K normal mode has a period of close to 24 hr and may be detectable in surface pressure observations. Zurek has discussed the possibility of this mode being resonantly excited for various atmospheric temperature studies. The semidiurnal wavenumber-2 K mode, with roughly a 12-hr period, could also be resonantly excited. A numerical model with finite amplitude topography and a self-consistent thermotidal forcing resulting from the daily heat flux at the surface and atmospheric absorption of solar radiation by aerosols is used here to explore the influence of topography on martian thermal tides and to examine the possibility of Kelvin wave resonance.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Atmospheric Transport on Mars; p 37-39
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: This work is based on the study of the photochemical balance of molecular oxygen in the martian atmosphere by using a one-dimensional model of photochemical reactions involving species derived from CO2 and H2O. The model is basically similar to one used previously for the study of the regulation of CO on a global scale, but the chemical rates are taken from another source. In the present scheme, the regulation of molecular oxygen is studied over timescales of the order of its photochemical lifetime (approximately equals 30 yr), which is much shorter than typical escape timescales. Thus, the escape fluxes are fixed to the values given by 3 and 4. We examine the calculated equilibrium abundances of O2 for given thermal, eddy diffusion coefficients and H2O profiles. The thermal profile is taken from in the lower atmosphere. At higher levels, in order to include the diurnal and seasonal thermal profile variability, we have also used the IRTM data. In order to study the influence of both temperature and pressure profiles on the O2 mixing ratio, we have made several tests corresponding to different martian seasons. The results show that the influence of pressure and temperature is quantitatively weak compared to the one of K and of the water vapor density (H2O). Thus, in the following we have fixed the pressure at the surface to a value of 7 mbar and we have used unique standard thermal profile corresponding to a profile roughly averaged over the year, the season, and the day: T equal 205 K at 0 km altitude, 175 K at 25 km, and 145 K at 50 km.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Atmospheric Transport on Mars; p 30-32
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In theory, a thermal emission spectrum of Mars (220-1600 cm(exp -1)) contains a wealth of information about the composition and thermal structure of the atmosphere and surface. However, in practice, the ability to retrieve quantitative information from the spectrum is limited by a number of factors including (1) the ill-posed nature of the spectral inversion problem and the resulting nonuniqueness of all solutions; (2) assumptions built into any spectral inversion program; (3) uncertainties in surface pressure, temperature, and emissivity; and (4) uncertainties in the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Below, factors (1) and (2) are discussed as fundamental limitations on temperature retrievals from Mariner 9 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) spectra. In preparation for the Mars Observer mission and the return of tens of thousands of infrared spectra per day from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), we have developed a fast inversion algorithm to retrieve temperature structure and aerosol opacity from the infrared spectra. The derived atmospheric models will be used to provide the atmospheric contribution to the TES spectra, so that the thermal emission spectra of the underlying surface can be determined for making mineralogical identifications. As a test of our algorithm, we are undertaking a systematic analysis of the entire Mariner 9 Infrared Interferometric Spectrometer (IRIS) dataset of 21,000 plus spectra. While portions of the IRIS dataset have been previously analyzed, the lack of a speedy and robust algorithm to invert the IRIS spectra to retrieve temperature profiles and aerosol opacities has been a major impediment to a truly comprehensive analysis.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Atmospheric Transport on Mars; p 24-25
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: During the courses of a day, the Mars Observer spacecraft will acquire globally distributed profiles of the martian atmosphere. It is highly desirable that this data be assembled into synoptic weather maps (complete specifications of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and winds at a given time), which can in turn be used as starting points in the study of many meteorological phenomena. Unfortunately, the special nature of the Mars Observer data presents several challenges above and beyond the usual difficult problem of data initialization. Mars Observer atmospheric data will consist almost exclusively of asynoptic vertical profiles of temperatures (or radiances) and pressures, whereas winds are generally in balance with horizontal gradients of these quantities (which will not be observed). It will therefore be necessary to resort to dynamical models to analyze the wind fields. As a rule, data assimilation into atmospheric models can result in the generation of spurious gravity waves, so special steps must be taken to suppress these. In addition, the asynoptic nature of the data will require a four-dimensional (space and time) data assimilation scheme. The problem is to find a full set of meteorological fields (winds and temperatures) such that, when marched forward in time in the model, they achieve a best fit (in the weighted least-squares sense) to the data. The proposed solution is to develop a model especially for the Mars Observer data assimilation problem. Gravity waves are filtered from the model by eliminating all divergence terms from the prognostic divergence equation. This leaves a diagnostic gradient wind relation between the rotational wind and the temperature field. The divergent wind is diagnosed as the wind required to maintain the gradient wind balance in the presence of the diabatic heating. The primitive equations of atmospheric dynamics (with three principal dependent variables) are thus reduced to a simpler system with a single prognostic equation for temperature - the variable that will be best observed. (This balance system was apparently first derived by Charney as a first-order Rossby number expansion of the equations of motion). Experience with a full primitive equation model of the martian atmosphere indicates that a further simplification is possible: at least for short-term integrations, the model can be linearized about the zonally symmetric basic state.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Workshop on Atmospheric Transport on Mars; p 15-16
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Radar interferometry has been applied to radar mapping of the surface of Venus to resolve the ambiguity in the backscatter from the areas with the same delay-Doppler coordinates. For observations of the Moon these points are usually isolated by the small extent of the area illuminated by the radar beam so that interferometric techniques can be used to determine a third dimension to the location of the radar backscatter. Recent observations of Sinus Iridum (41.5 deg N, 31.0 deg W) using the Arecibo Observatory S-Band radar system (12.6 cm wavelength) in Apr. and Aug. 1992 have yielded a pair of images viewed with a very small 0.0420 deg difference in incidence angle. These images can be used as a delay interferometric pair and have been correlated to generate phase fringes that are related to topography. The spatial resolution of the images are 18 m in delay and 33 m in cross range (Doppler). The anticipated topographic resolution once the phase fringes have been unwrapped is approximately +/- 10 m.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1343-1344
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Serenitatis basin is prominent on the near side of the Moon, just east of Mare Imbrium. Originally thought to be one of the oldest lunar basins, re-interpretation of both geological relations and Apollo 17 isotopic data suggest instead that Serenitatis is one of the youngest basins, having formed in the Nectarian Period about 3.87 Ga ago. As part of our continuing effort to understand the geology of multi-ring basins on the Moon and to use basins as probes of the deep lunar crust, we here report results for the Serenitatis basin. Our examination of Serenitatis was stimulated in part by a new effort to re-examine the geology of the Apollo 17 landing site.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1341-1342
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Impact is one of the many processes that have shaped the surface of Venus. The largest impact craters, basins, are important features affecting the evolution of the terrestrial planets. Because Venus has an atmosphere, a gravity similar to Earth's, and a surface target with a high geothermal gradient, venusian basins provide an important comparative set of data to test our ideas about basin-forming impacts and their geological effects on the evolution of the crusts of the terrestrial planets.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1339-1340
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Clementine mission will provide us with an abundance of information about lunar surface morphology, topography, and composition, and it will permit us to infer the history of the Moon and the processes that have shaped that history. This information can be used to address fundamental questions in lunar science and allow us to make significant advances towards deciphering the complex story of the Moon. The Clementine mission will also permit a first-order global assessment of the resources of the Moon and provide a strategic base of knowledge upon which future robotic and human missions to the Moon can build.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1337-1338
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  • 16
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The size-frequency pattern of the 842 impact craters on Venus measured to date can be well described (across four standard deviation units) as a single log normal distribution with a mean crater diameter of 14.5 km. This result was predicted in 1991 on examination of the initial Magellan analysis. If this observed distribution is close to the real distribution, the 'missing' 90 percent of the small craters and the 'anomalous' lack of surface splotches may thus be neither missing nor anomalous. I think that the missing craters and missing splotches can be satisfactorily explained by accepting that the observed distribution approximates the real one, that it is not craters that are missing but the impactors. What you see is what you got. The implication that Venus crossing impactors would have the same type of log normal distribution is consistent with recently described distribution for terrestrial craters and Earth crossing asteroids.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1333-1334
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  • 17
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Two remarkable aspects of the population of impact craters on Venus are as follows: that craters at all sizes are indistinguishable from a random population; and that the vast majority of craters have not been significantly modified by tectonic strain or by volcanic flows external to the crater rim, despite evidence from Magellan images that volcanic and tectonic features are widespread on Venus. One interpretation of these observations is that most of the surface dates from the end of a catastrophic global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 My ago, and that the small fraction of craters volcanically embayed or modified by deformation indicates that volcanic and tectonic activity subsequent to that time has been at much lower levels. An alternative model, in which resurfacing occurs episodically in patches a few hundred kilometers in extent and there is a wider spectrum of surface ages, also appears to be consistent with the characteristics of impact craters on Venus. A number of potential mechanisms for catastrophic resurfacing of Venus have been proposed ranging from geologically sudden convective destabilization of the global lithosphere to strongly time-dependent heat flux and melt generation in the underlying mantle. In most of these geophysical models, resurfacing occurs implicitly or explicitly by volcanism. We explore here the hypothesis that, at least in the geologically recent history of Venus, the primary resurfacing mechanism has been tectonic deformation rather than volcanism. We show how such a hypothesis provides at least as good an explanation of a wide range of observations as do volcanic resurfacing models. Finally, we explore the implications of the tectonic resurfacing hypothesis for the controversy over the recent resurfacing history of the planet.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1331-1332
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Various arguments suggest that Venus probably has no asthenosphere, and it is likely that beneath the crust there is a highly depleted and highly viscous mantle layer which was probably formed in the early history of the planet when it was partially or completely molten. Models of crystallization of magma oceans suggest that just after crystallization of a hypothetical magma ocean, the internal structure of Venus consists of a crust up to about 70 km thickness, a depleted layer up to about 500 km, and an enriched lower layer which probably consists of an undepleted 'lower mantle' and heavy enriched accumulates near the core-mantle boundary. Partial or even complete melting of Venus due to large impacts during the formation period eventually results in differentiation. However, the final result of such a differentiation can vary from a completely differentiated mantle to an almost completely preserved homogeneous mantle depending on competition between convection and differentiation: between low viscosity ('liquid') convection and crystal settling at small crystal fractions, or between high viscosity ('solid') convection and percolation at large crystal fractions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1329-1330
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Breccias from the Apollo 14 landing site have provided a wealth of information on the genesis of the lunar highlands. Various pristine rock-types have been discovered in relative abundance including rare ferroan anorthosites and alkali-suite and magnesian-suite rocks. Mineral-chemical and radiogenic isotopic data are reported here for a newly discovered Mg-suite anorthosite from Apollo 14, sample 14303,347. Meyer et al. reported U-Pb zircon analyses of Mg-suite highlands rocks from the western limb of the Moon. We have compiled these ages and generated a weighted average age of 4211 = 6 Ma; some 200 Ma younger than ferroan anorthosites. Utilizing this age for Mg-anorthosite 14303,347, our data results in an initial epsilon(sub Nd) value of -1.0 and initial Sr-87/Sr-86 of 0.69915. Based on trace-element, isotopic, and mineral-chemical data, the western highlands Mg-suite is interpreted to be crustal precipitates of a picritic magma, which assimilated KREEPy trapped liquid from upper-mantle cumulates during its transport to the crust.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1327-1328
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: It is widely believed that the next step beyond low Earth orbit in attaining the United States' stated goal of 'Expanding human presence beyond the Earth' should be to reestablish a lunar capability, building on the Apollo program, and preparing the way for eventual human missions to Mars. The Moon offers important questions in planetary and Earth science, can provide a unique platform for making astronomical observations of high resolution and sensitivity, and can be in the development path for unlocking resources of the inner solar system to support space activities and return benefits to Earth. NASA's Office of Exploration has undertaken the planning of future lunar exploration missions with the assistance of the Solar System Exploration Division in matters dealing with the quality of scientific data and the manner in which it will be made available to the scientific community. The initial elements of the proposed program include the Lunar Scout missions, which consist of two small identical spacecraft in polar orbit around the Moon, which can accomplish most of the objectives associated with previous proposals for Lunar Polar Orbiters. These missions would be followed by 'Artemis' landers, capable of emplacing up to 200 kg payloads anywhere on the Moon. In addition, the exploration program must incorporate data obtained from other missions, including the Galileo lunar flybys, the Clementine high orbital observations, and Japanese penetrator missions. In the past year, a rather detailed plan for a 'First Lunar Outpost (FLO)' which would place 4 astronauts on the lunar surface for 45 days has been developed as a possible initial step of a renewed human exploration program. In the coming year, the FLO concept will be reviewed and evolved to become more highly integrated with planning for the initial human exploration of Mars, which could come perhaps 5 years after the reestablishment of lunar capability. Both programs could benefit from the common development of systems and subsystems, where that is sensible from a performance perspective.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 433
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune, which have comparable dipole, quadrupole, and octupole harmonics, are unique in the present-day solar system, but they resemble the geomagnetic field at the epochs of excursions and reversals known from paleomagnetic data. The precession dynamo model, in which the dominant role in the generation of the planetary magnetic fields is played by external gravitational forces, allows us to propose two scenarios for the formation of the unique topology of the magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune. In the first case, tidal flows in the 'oceans' of these two planets extend down to the depths where the matter has a noticeable electric conductivity and velocity. A hydromagnetic interaction of the moving conducting fluid with the planetary magnetic field outside the generation region results in the deformation of the field and the deceleration of the motion under the action of the radial magnetic field. In the second case, the deformation of the field facilitates drastic changes in cyclonic cells within the generation region causing instabilities that result in a multi-polar field structure, excursions, and inversions. This paper considers this problem in greater detail by using the Neptune-Triton system as an example.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 417-418
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Mapping highland and lowland channels and reassessing their time-stratigraphic positions shows that many channels in the cratered highlands are younger than Noachian, that all channels in the lowland plains are Hesperian or younger, and that although Martian channels formed throughout the planet's history, the rate of their formation appears to have declined with time. This detailed examination of the age relation between Martian terrains and the channels that transect them was made possible by the completion of the global geologic maps of Mars and the availability of other geologic maps at scales of 1:5,000,000, 1:2,000,000, and 1:500,000. The present study focuses on the sources (heads) of the channels of the initial study to see if there is a relation between channel age and elevation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 407-408
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Apollo 15 green glasses that occur most prominently in 15425, 15426, and 15427 consist of compositionally distinct groups. The six groups that have thus far been defined are thought to represent different batches of magma that were erupted as fire-fountains, probably at different times in lunar history; although isotopic analyses of representative glasses within some of these groups have not yet found any differences in age at the +/- 100 Ma precision. While the petrogenesis of these picritic magmas has been contentious, the discovery of a compositionally heterogeneous, dumbbell-shaped green glass raises additional questions and problems about their origin.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 393-394
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  • 24
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Water-borne sediments in streams are deposited, upon eventual cessation of flow, either as deltas or as alluvial fans or plains. Deltas and alluvial fans share a common characteristic; both may be described as deposition Al plains at the mouth of a river or stream. A delta is formed where a stream or river deposits its sedimentary load into a standing body of water such as an ocean or lake. An alluvial fan is produced where a stream loses capacity by a greatly decreased gradient. A delta has subaerial and subaqueous components, but an alluvial fan is entirely subaerial. In terrestrial conditions, deltas and alluvial fans are reasonably distinct landforms. The juxtaposition of concomitant features composition and internal structure are sufficiently explicit as to avoid any confusion regarding their proper identification on Mars, the recognition of deltas and their distinction from alluvial fans is made difficult by low resolution imaging. Further, although it may be demonstrated that standing bodies of water existed on the surface of Mars, many of these bodies may have existed for extremely short periods of time (a few days to months); hence, distinctive shoreline features were not developed. Thus, in an attempt to derive a Martian classification of deltas, the inclusion of wholly subaerial deposits may be unavoidable. A simple, broad, morphological classification of Martian deltas, primarily on planimetric shape, includes digitate deltas, fan-shaped deltas, and re-entrant deltas. A fourth, somewhat problematical class includes featureless plains at the end of many valley systems.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 389-390
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  • 25
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Current high resolution Magellan data enables more detailed geological study of arachnoids, first identified by Barsukov et al. as features characterized by a combination of radar-bright, concentric rings and radiating lineations, named 'arachnoids' on the basis of their spider and web-like appearance. Identification of arachnoids in Magellan data has been based on SAR images, in keeping with the original definition. However, there is some overlap by other workers in identification of arachnoids, corona (predominantly bright rings), and novae (predominantly radiating lineations), as all of these features share some common characteristics. Features used in this survey were chosen based on their classification as arachnoids in Head et al.'s catalog and on SAR characteristics matching Barsukov et al.'s original definition. The 259 arachnoids have been currently identified on Venus, all of which were considered in this study. Fifteen arachnoids from different regions, chosen for their 'type' characteristics and lack of deformation by other regional processes, were studied in depth, using SAR and altimetric data to map and profile these arachnoids in an attempt to better determine their geologic and altimetric characteristics and possible formation sequences.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 383-384
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  • 26
    facet.materialart.
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Venus topography can be mapped morphostructurally to reveal nested hierarchical patterns of quasi-circular upland/lowland complexes. These patterns are interpreted as surficial effects of hierarchically structured, long-acting mantle convection. Beta Regio, Alpha Regio, and Artemis illustrate this process of dynamical interaction between the deforming lithosphere and the convecting mantle.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 471-472
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The visible and near infrared reflectance of Martian weathered soils, abundant in the bright regions, have been shown to resemble certain examples of the X-ray amorphous mineraloid palagonite. To date, most comparisons between terrestrial palagonites and Martian telescopic spectra have been done using palagonites that were formed under ambient semi-arid weathering conditions on Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Kea. Here we examine palagonites associated with the tephra deposits that make up tuff rings and tuff cones. Tuff rings and tuff cones result from hydrovolcanic activity, defined as the interaction of magmas (in this instance, of basaltic composition) with surface or near-surface water. Tuff rings and tuff cones can contain variable amounts of country rock and juvenile crystals, but their primary constituent is fine grained sideromelane (basaltic glass). Sideromelane alters to palagonite. Unlike the aforementioned Hawaiian palagonites, the alteration of sideromelane to palagonite seems to occur relatively rapidly in tuff cones, on the order of days to months. In comparing the spectra of hydrovolcanically produced palagonites with telescopic spectra of Mars, one is struck by their similarity in the VNIR and dissimilarity in the SWIR.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 465-466
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Development of space rocketry and cosmic instrument making has made it possible to create interplanetary stations to be sent to the solar system bodies. In the last decade of the century the planet Mars will be in the focus of planetary science problems. Russia, USA (the NASA) and Europe (the ESA) plan to do a new step in the study of the planetary system by spacecraft missions to Mars. One part of the programs of these missions is Martian surface measurements of iron, which is a dominant element in both the Martian soil and rocks (about 13 percent by weight). The chemistry of iron in space is strongly coupled to the chemistry of abundant elements (to begin with hydrogen, carbon, oxygen) and it is this coupling of chemical cycles of abundant elements that gives us the possibility of understanding some features of the chemical evolution of matter. In this connection of extremely great importance for the understanding of the evolution of the solar system are the oxidation state of the iron and its mineral composition of the Mars surface. Being highly successful, the Viking landers had no instrumentation to answer these questions. Such instrumentation has to be specifically sensitive to mineralogy. For this purpose the back scattering Moessbauer spectrometer (MS-96) was proposed to be installed on a rover to be launched on board the Russian spacecraft Mars-96 mission to Mars. Due to power and mass restrictions three systems of the device MS-96 (velocity transducer, detector and electronic components) have been extremely miniaturized in comparison to a standard system. In this paper we intend to place for consideration a radioactive source to find out what characteristics it should have to be suitable for purposes of the experiment.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 459-460
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  • 29
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Direct magnetic measurements performed by space probes demonstrated the existence of small-scale, stationary surface magnetic fields on the Moon. The magnetic field averaged over a region of approximately 600 km was found to be no larger than approximately 10(exp -5) G, that of the regions approximately 100-200 km is approximately 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -4) G, and that of approximately 10-100 km reaches approximately 10(exp -3) G. Investigations of certain lunar rocks reveal stable residual magnetization, which could have been acquired during the crystallization of the rocks in the presence of the outer magnetic field, provided such a field existed at the initial stage of lunar evolution. Estimates show that 4 x 10(exp 9) yr ago the field was small, then it rose to approximately 1.3 G at the beginning of 3.9 x 10(exp 9) yr with a subsequent exponential decrease during the period of 3.9 x 10(exp 9) yr to 3.2 x 10(exp 9) yr ago. Small-scale fields have been explained by some authors as due to mechanical impacts produced by meteors. The theory of this effect is not elaborated in detail. This can in no way explain the paleomagnetic data. These data are commonly explained as a result of the dynamo action in the liquid lunar core.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 411-412
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: We recently obtained photoclinometric profiles across all simple grabens and erosional landforms (e.g., troughs, pits, wall-valley heads, and scarps that are bounded above and below by flat surfaces) that occur within Tempe Terra. These data, together with similar data that we obtained for Syria, Sinai, and Lunae Plana and the Alba Patera region, allow regional examination of shallow crust Al discontinuities between latitude 30 deg. S and 50 deg. N and longitude 50 deg. W and 112 deg. W. The profile for each simple graben was used with an appropriate structural model to estimate the depth to the base of the faulted layer. The depths of erosional wall scarps may also indicate the depths of mechanical discontinuities such as a local lithologic or cryospheric boundary. Examination of these data indicates a surprisingly consistent set of shallow crust Al discontinuities for the Tharsis region at depths of 0.4-0.6 km, 1.0-1.4 km, and 2 km; the maximum depth of the features in most study areas appears to be about 4 km. The concentration of values between 0.4 and 0.6 km in most scarp and some faulted-layer depth data is similar to the range in estimated thicknesses of individual exposed Noachian and Hesperian plains units in the Tharsis region. The regional depth data also show two modes near 1 and 2 km in some study areas and a maximum depth near 4 km in most study areas; the faulted-layer depths in excess of 4 km at Alba Patera occur near the summit of the caldera and could be attributed to volcanic loading. Our detailed examination of these depth data includes the following observations: (1) The mode at 1.0-1.4 km depth transcends age and geologic setting in this broad study area; (2) The 2-km mode is most obvious at Alba Patera and moderately well developed at Syria and Sinai Plana, but it is muted at Tempe Terra, which is in the same latitude range as Alba Patera but older; and (3) The 2-km-depth mode is not present in all areas that have features of Amazonian age. We suggest two possible explanations for our observations in the Tharsis region.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 381-382
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Tempe Terra province contains a variety of volcanic landforms that range in size from small vents (less than 10 km in diameter) to moderately sized volcanoes (150 km in diameter). The volcanoes are aligned along the dominant northerly and northeasterly trends of the faults in this region, and many of the volcanoes occur on grabens. Some workers have speculated on the nature of some of the volcanoes on the basis of their general morphology, shadow measurement height, lateral dimension, and geologic setting. As part of a larger study, we have obtained detailed photoclinometric profiles across five of the more conspicuous small volcanoes in the Tempe Terra region. For these data, we extracted for each volcano its flank width and edifice height and the width and depth of its summit crater. We statistically compared these dimensions for each volcano with a set of average dimensions for each type of terrestrial volcanic feature listed in Pike and Clow (1981). These comparisons indicate that the morphometries of the Martian volcanoes 1, 2, and 3 most closely match Earth's cratered basaltic lava shields, and the morphometries of volcanoes 4 and 5 are similar to those of terrestrial basaltic tuff rings.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 379-380
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Large volcanoes characterized by radial lava flows and similar evidence for a topographic edifice are widely distributed over the surface of Venus and geologically diverse. Based on the global identification of more than 165 examples and preliminary geologic mapping, large volcanoes range from those characterized geologically as simple lava edifices to those bearing evidence of complexly developed volcanic and structural histories. Many large volcanoes exhibit characteristics transitional to other large magnetic center types such as coronae and novae. In this study, we examine the geology and structure of several type examples of large volcanoes not addressed in previous studies which are representative of several of the morphological classes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 365-366
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The discovery of layered deposits in the walls of a deep trough in Lunae Planum has implications for the origin of similar-appearing deposits in some canyons of Valles Marineris. Although layering is visible in the competent, cliff-forming upper walls of the canyons, the dissimilarity in appearance between canyon walls and soft rounded hills of layered deposits on canyon floors, as well as their contrasting patterns of erosion, has been considered strong evidence that their modes of origin were different. Most workers agree that the wall rocks are volcanic flows derived from fissure vents and other volcanic sources in the region. However, several hypotheses have been advanced to account for the softer-appearing stratified floor deposits. Chief among them is the proposal that the floor deposits are waterlaid sediments that accumulated in large lakes within the canyons and include materials eroded from canyon walls, eolian deposits, and subaqueous volcanic eruptives.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1265-1266
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The change in morphology of central structures with crater size on the terrestrial planets has been studied by many investigators. While the progression of morphological change essentially follows the same basic pattern, the appearance of central peaks, and the transitions from single to multiple peaks and peaks to peak rings occur at crater diameters that appear to be dependent on parameters associated with the target planet. Statistical data, morphological information, and model results exist for central structures in large craters, but the amount of 'ground truth' is comparatively meager. What, for instance, is the amount of stratigraphic uplift in craters? Answers to questions such as this will provide useful constraints on models of origin for central structures and would help in interpretation of remote-sensing data. This contribution uses terrestrial information and model calculations to estimate the amount of stratigraphic uplift for central-peak craters on the Moon--the only planet other than Earth for which sufficient topographic data are available.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 291-292
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In preparation for the start of Mars Observer operations at Mars later this year, Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) observations were synthesized into a simple but geologically coherent conceptual model for use in establishing targets for coordinated Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Mars Observer Camera (MOC) observations. The model is based on three assumptions that are, at best, only partly true: that albedo is a measure of the presence or absence of dust; that thermal inertia is a measure of the weighted average particle size; and that rock abundance is a measure of the statistical thickness of fine sediment (i.e., that the observed areal abundance of rock reflects the whole or partial burial of rocks). Using this model, it is possible to show that, on the scale of 30 km, mantles of wind-transportable sediment (dust and sand) are at most about 1 m thick, and that on a global average such mantles are about 35 cm thick. It is shown that 3.8 x 10(exp 19) cu cm of such sediment covers Mars equatorward of +/- 60 deg latitude. Using the model, interpretation of digital maps of IRTM data focus attention not only on areas where dust is the primary sediment (e.g., Arabia Terra), but also on areas where sand is the primary sediment (e.g., eastern Valles Marineris) and where rocks and other coarse materials are abundant (e.g., eastern Kasei Vallis). Three IRTM data sets are used in the analysis: Viking 1 and 2 pre-dawn observations mosaiced into a global map of single-point thermal inertias at 0.5 deg/bin resolution; Pleskot and Miner's global albedo map using the best available, clear-period IRTM observations (1x/bin); and Christensen's 1 deg/bin rock abundance map. Uncertainty analyses indicate these data sets to be accurate to 5 percent, 2 percent, and 20 percent, respectively.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 285-286
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  • 36
    facet.materialart.
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Measurement of the gravity field of the Moon has a high science priority because of its implications for the internal structure and thermal history of the Moon, and it has a high priority for future exploration activities because of the influence of lunar gravity on spacecraft navigation and orbit maintenance. The current state of knowledge in the lunar gravity field (and the uncertainty in the knowledge) is based primarily on data accumulated from the Lunar Orbiter and Apollo programs. Data are sparse and emphasize the equatorial band (+/- 30 deg) on the near side of the Moon. There are no tracking data on the far side and only the Lunar Orbiter 5 provides a small amount of high inclination data. A host of gravity models developed from different combinations of tracking data have large discrepancies in their predictions of spacecraft motion and orbit lifetimes. There are also large disagreements in the Mercator projections of the gravity acceleration from each model, especially on the far side, where the contours tend to have no obvious relationship with the local topography. The science and engineering requirements for global gravity field mapping will be satisfied with continuous radio metric tracking of Lunar Scout 1 in a low polar orbit using the Deep Space Network and Lunar Scout 2 in a high elliptical orbit. The gravity field of the Moon will be mapped during the Scout Program using a two spacecraft concept. In the two spacecraft concept, one spacecraft is placed in a high altitude eccentric orbit while the second spacecraft is in a low altitude polar orbit. The gravity experiment requires a radio frequency that will permit two-way Doppler tracking between the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network (DSN). Both spacecraft carry NASA standard transponder systems for data transmission to Earth as well as for tracking and orbit determination. Data sufficient to produce a gravity field map could be acquired within one month with this system.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 279
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Geological mapping at 1:500,000 scale of the Granicus Valles area west of Elysium Mons (MTM quadrangles 30227, 30222, and 25227) indicates that (1) the oldest deposits in the area are Upper Hesperian lavas of the Elysium shield; (2) a basal scarp formed by Early Amazonian faulting around the northwest flank of Elysium Mons triggered growth of Elysium Fossae; (3) a glacier or an ice sheet west and north of the scarp was of long duration; (4) water and lava flows from Elysium Fossae became dominant during and after glacial recession; and (5) the last volcanic-fissure-related flows resulted in linear chains of small domes on the Elysium shield.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 271-272
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The central troughs of the Valles Marineris system on Mars are generally regarded to be of tectonic origin because they are linear and bounded by faults. Their radial orientation to the Tharsis rise suggests that at least their incipient formation was influenced by the formation of the rise, but the exact role of Tharsis is not yet well understood. Collapse and erosion may have significantly modified the original tectonic troughs. To better understand the magnitude and mechanism of crustal extension across the Valles Marineris, the attitudes of trough-wall faults that parallel the long axes of the troughs were studied. Our results will help to determine if the extension is related to the Tharsis rise, to a local arch along which the troughs lie, or to other mechanisms. Fault-plane attitudes were obtained by performing a photogrammetric study of fault traces in the walls of Candor and Melas Chasmata. If the exposed wall faults are not major trough-bounding faults, it is assumed that these major faults are buried at the base of the walls and have similar geometries to the exposed faults. Three dimensional coordinates of several points along each fault trace were obtained and three-point solutions to their geometries were constructed. As expected, the results show that the faults dip toward the interior of the troughs, suggesting that they are indeed normal faults associated with trough formation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 263-264
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The survey of Ma'adim Vallis and crater Gusev area by the new topographic Aeolis southeast map allows to document the hydrodynamics processes which occurred in the valley. The inner Ma'adim Vallis hypsometric and volume deposits analyses point out that Gusev impact was subsequent to the first incision of Ma'adim Vallis in the craterized upland. The study of the deposit distributions as revealed by the topography leads to reconstruct the chronology of three major events in the Aeolis Region : Ma'adim incision, Gusev impact, and Apollinaris Patera/flow interactions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 241-242
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Spatial variations in infrared spectra of the seasonal south polar cap of Mars were noted by the original Mariner 7 IRS instrument team as well as in subsequent examinations of the Mariner 7 data set. Up to now, however, there has been little effort to synthesize this information to understand variations in the south seasonal cap as a function of position or latitude. An attempt to quantify the spectra is made by providing estimates of CO2 grain sizes as well as upper limits on the amount of water frost contained in the polar collar. The variation in brightness at two wavelengths as well as the band depth of a weak CO2-ice feature at 2.28 microns as a function of spectrum number or subsequent location on the cap is presented. The full spectra, corrected only for the solar incidence angle, of three of the most significant areas are compared.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 243-244
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Altitude-dependent, high radar-reflectivity surfaces on Venus are observed on most mountainous volcanic terranes above a planetary radius of about 6054 km. However, high radar-reflectivity areas also occur at lower altitudes in some impact craters and plain terranes. Pyrite (FeS2) is commonly believed to be responsible for the high radar reflectivities at high elevations on Venus, on account of large dielectric constants measured for sulfide-bearing rocks that were erroneously attributed to pyrite instead of pyrrhotite. Pentlandite-pyrrhotite assemblages may be responsible for high reflectivities associated with impact craters on the Venusian surface, by analogy with Fe-Ni sulfide deposits occurring in terrestrial astroblemes. Mixed-valence Fe(2+)-Fe(3+) silicates, including oxyhornblende, oxybiotite, and ilvaite, may contribute to high radar reflecting surfaces on mountain-tops of Venus.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 233-234
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The physics and geology of Io have been extensively studied, but there has been little discussion of the chemistry. Relatively little is known about Io chemistry, but there are constraints. Further, it will be a long time before improvements will result from direct observation, given the severe difficulties with the Galileo mission. Via laboratory simulation experiments, plausible thermochemical and photochemical processes which determine the nature and amounts of surface constituents of Io are explored. The well-known density of Io shows that the planet overall is rocky. Because the orbit of Io is well within the magnetosphere of Jupiter and because Io only has a thin, transient SO2 atmosphere, the surface is continually sputtered with magnetospheric ions. Complex processes ionize and accelerate the Io surface atoms to keV and MeV energies. Remarkably, only S, O, and Na ions were found by Voyager. Sputtering also produces an atomic cloud of Na and S (O not observable) with a trace of K. Both gaseous and solid SO2 are known from spectroscopic studies. A trace of H2S and possibly CO2 are present. Geologic features are interpreted in terms of elemental S, but there is no direct evidence for this constituent. We thus have a rocky planet which does not have rocks on the surface. Our general goal is to understand the cycling of Na, S, and O through the crust and atmosphere on present-day Io and to understand how Io evolved to this state. A specific objective was to determine the phases on the surface which are the source of the Na in the atmosphere of Io.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 229-230
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The effect on geoid and topography of low viscosity crust overlying a steady-state convecting mantle is estimated under the assumption that the shear between crust and mantle does not alter the mantle flow. The weak crustal layer can change the sign of the geoid to topography ratio (admittance). The positive long wavelength admittance for Venus is consistent with a weak crust overlying a mantle with a viscosity that increases strongly with depth. The accepted interpretation of the strong positive correlation of geoid and topography on Venus, is that the convecting mantle of Venus has a constant viscosity with depth. Topography results from vertical normal stresses caused by mantle convection and highlands occur where mantle upwells. For topography to be supported by normal stress, the time scale for crustal flow must be long compared to the time scale for changes in the pattern of mantle flow. Because the high surface temperature of Venus may cause the crust to have a low viscosity, this assumption may be false. Topography should then be dominated by shear coupling between the crust and mantle. In the absence of a crustal layer, convection in a constant viscosity layer gives rise to a geoid anomaly that correlates positively with surface topography. When the viscosity in the layer increases with depth by several orders of magnitude, the surface topography and geoid anomaly become anti-correlated.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 211-212
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Telescopic and spacecraft spectroscopic and geochemical data have been used to constrain the surface mineralogy of Mars and to yield clues about past and present Mars surface weathering/alteration scenarios. Based primarily on their visible to near-IR reflectance properties, several terrestrial iron-bearing minerals have been either identified on Mars or proposed as Mars spectral analogs. Among these are crystalline hematite, pyroxenes, as well as poorly crystalline materials like nonophase hematite and palagonite. Other iron-bearing minerals include nontronite, magnetite, jarosite, and goethite and the have been proposed as Mars surface constituents based on Viking Lander measurements or geochemical modeling. If present on Mars, these materials likely appear as spectral mixtures at the coarse spatial resolution of remotely sensed data. The detectability of any of these components must be evaluated relative to the other components with which they occur. The primary goal of this study is to determine how much of any given mineral would have to be present for it to be detectable in remotely-sensed data. Here, the detectability of iron-bearing minerals was evaluated using detection threshold analysis (DTA), an analytical technique based on spectral mixture analysis.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1229-1230
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Magellan imagery has revealed that channels, apparently volcanic in origin, are abundant on the surface of Venus. There has been much debate about the origin of these channels. Are they the result of erosional (either thermal or mechanical) or constructional processes? A common characteristic of the simple sinuous channels is that they show evidence of erosion near their source and then become purely constructional, forming levees and in some cases roofing over completely. One method of showing that thermal erosion is capable of producing the type of channels seen is to use computer modeling incorporating the physical conditions on Venus and the physical characteristics of the different types of lava that may have been erupted. It is possible to calculate, relatively easily, two channel parameters. The first is the erosion rate, which combined with eruption duration, gives depth. The second is for how long after leaving the source the erupted lava will continue to be capable of thermal erosion before constructional processes dominate. Making assumptions about the rheology of the lava (e.g., assume it behaves as a Bingham plastic) along with the slope angle yields a flow velocity and therefore a distance over which thermal erosion will take place. Due to the resolution (both vertical and horizontal) of the Magellan altimetric data, the distance from the source that the channel is erosional can be much more accurately measured than the depth of the channel. This will remain the case until stereo imagery becomes available for large areas of the planet.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 237-238
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Potentially low lithospheric densities, caused by high Venus surface and perhaps mantle temperatures, could inhibit the development of negative buoyancy-driven subduction and a global system of plate tectonics/crustal recycling on that planet. No evidence for a global plate tectonic system was found so far, however, specific features strongly resembling terrestrial subduction zones in planform and topographic cross-section were described, including trenches around large coronae and chasmata in eastern Aphrodite Terra. The cause for the absence, or an altered expression, of plate tectonics on Venus remains to be found. Slab buoyancy may play a role in this difference, with higher lithospheric temperatures and a tendency toward positive buoyancy acting to oppose the descent of slabs and favoring under thrusting instead. The effect of slab buoyancy on subduction was explored and the conditions which would lead to under thrusting versus those allowing the formation of trenches and self-perpetuating subduction were defined. Applying a finite element code to assess the effects of buoyant forces on slabs subducting into a viscous mantle, it was found that mantle flow induced by horizontal motion of the convergent lithosphere greatly influences subduction angle, while buoyancy forces produce a lesser effect. Induced mantle flow tends to decrease subduction angle to near an under thrusting position when the subducting lithosphere converges on a stationary overriding lithosphere. When the overriding lithosphere is in motion, as in the case of an expanding corona, subduction angles are expected to increase. An initial stage involved estimating the changes in slab buoyancy due to slab healing and pressurization over the course of subduction. Modeling a slab, descending at a fixed angle and heated by conduction, radioactivity, and the heat released in phase changes, slab material density changes due to changing temperature, phase, and pressure were derived.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 235-236
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 193-194
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  • 48
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: As part of a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological evolution of Aeolis Quadrangle, I have encountered evidence suggesting that near surface ice exists at low latitudes and was formed by partial or complete freezing of an inland sea. The area of interest is centered at approximately -2 deg, 196 deg. As seen in a suite of Viking Orbiter frames obtained at a range of approximately 600 km, the plains surface at this location is very lightly cratered or uncratered, and it is thus of late Amazonian age. Extant topographic data indicate that the Amazonian plains at this location occupy a trough whose surface lies at least 1000 m below the Mars datum. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. In either case, the thin (a few meters at most) high albedo, low thermal inertia cover of aeolian materials was instrumental in allowing ice preservation, and at least the lower portions of this dust cover may be cemented by water ice. Detailed mapping using Viking stereopairs and quantitative comparisons to terrestrial shelf ice geometries are underway.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 175-176
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The regional geology of the two Vega landing sites, where geochemical measurements on the Venusian surface were made, was studied using Magellan Cl-MIDRP imagery and MIT-processed altimetry for the large region which we will call the Vega region (22.90 deg. N to 22.90 deg. S and 154.12 deg. W to 211.12 deg. E). The results of the analysis were compiled in the form of a synoptic geologic map of about 1:10 m scale.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 69-70
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  • 50
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Marslink Project focuses on the development, dissemination, and evaluation of instructional materials about the composition, structure, and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, surface, and interior. A multi-year effort is underway so that middle and high school students can follow a full Martian year of seasonal changes using data from NASA's Mars Observer spacecraft, and the Mars Observer Project has time to process and release the appropriate data sets. Monthly activity packets for students, teacher enhancement sessions, a teacher resource center, an on-call Mars data specialist, daily SPACELINK electronic bulletin board updates, and semi-annual NASA Select TV broadcasts will constitute the basis of the Marslink Project. Various aspects of the Marslink Project are briefly discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 41-42
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Eleven samples were ground from the glass coated surface of lunar rock 64455,82 with an average depth resolution of 50 microns and were measured for Be-10, Al-26, and Cl-36 using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry). Results show no evidence of SCR (solar cosmic ray) effects. The flat cosmogenic nuclide profiles and activity levels are consistent with a 2 My exposure history for the rock and a sample location on the bottom of the rock. These AMS measurements are some of the most precise ever obtained for these three nuclides. This precision and the demonstrated fine depth resolution will enable us to conduct a number of detailed studies of depth effects in lunar and meteoritic samples, including investigating SCR effects in the surface exposed top of the glass coating of 64455 and possibly in the underlying rock.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 39-40
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  • 52
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The high resolution and global coverage of the Magellan radar image data set allows detailed study of the smallest volcanoes on the planet. A modified classification scheme for volcanoes less than 20 km in diameter is shown and described. It is based on observations of all members of the 556 significant clusters or fields of small volcanoes located and described by this author during data collection for the Magellan Volcanic and Magmatic Feature Catalog. This global study of approximately 10 exp 4 volcanoes provides new information for refining small volcano classification based on individual characteristics. Total number of these volcanoes was estimated to be 10 exp 5 to 10 exp 6 planetwide based on pre-Magellan analysis of Venera 15/16, and during preparation of the global catalog, small volcanoes were identified individually or in clusters in every C1-MIDR mosaic of the Magellan data set. Basal diameter (based on 1000 measured edifices) generally ranges from 2 to 12 km with a mode of 34 km, and follows an exponential distribution similar to the size frequency distribution of seamounts as measured from GLORIA sonar images. This is a typical distribution for most size-limited natural phenomena unlike impact craters which follow a power law distribution and continue to infinitely increase in number with decreasing size. Using an exponential distribution calculated from measured small volcanoes selected globally at random, we can calculate total number possible given a minimum size. The paucity of edifice diameters less than 2 km may be due to inability to identify very small volcanic edifices in this data set; however, summit pits are recognizable at smaller diameters, and 2 km may represent a significant minimum diameter related to style of volcanic eruption. Guest, et al, discussed four general types of small volcanic edifices on Venus: (1) small lava shields; (2) small volcanic cones; (3) small volcanic domes; and (4) scalloped margin domes ('ticks'). Steep-sided domes or 'pancake domes', larger than 20 km in diameter, were included with the small volcanic domes. For the purposes of this study, only volcanic edifices less than 20 km in diameter are discussed. This forms a convenient cutoff since most of the steep-sided domes ('pancake domes') and scalloped margin domes ('ticks') are 20 to 100 km in diameter, are much less numerous globally than are the smaller diameter volcanic edifices (2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower in total global number), and do not commonly occur in large clusters or fields of large numbers of edifices.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 47-48
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  • 53
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The relationship between the present atmospheres of the Earth, Venus, and Mars and the earliest (primordial) atmospheres which surrounded these planets is discussed. The termination of the co-accretion of an atmosphere results from at least three different mechanisms, and these mechanisms are presented. To calculate the energy, and hence, approximate planetesimal size, such that upon impact the entire planetary atmosphere is blown off, a different approach than previous efforts is employed, and a shock wave that is entirely propagated within a terrestrial planet is considered.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 7-8
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 3-4
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Interest in Mangala Valles remains high within the planetary science community. This is justified because the survey mission images provide us with nearly complete coverage of the system at high resolution. Upcoming high resolution topography from the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter will enable the application of flood discharge models with an unprecedented level of detail. Previous work on the Mangala Valles problem has relied on the available low resolution topography. This has limited the ability of workers to constrain discharge calculations to only within several-order-of-magnitude estimates. Local determinations of channel depths via shadow length measurements and photoclinometric profiling are much more accurate, but can only be applied to steep slopes (and/or low sun elevations) in the case of shadow measurements, or across relatively short distances (to avoid changes in albedo along asymmetric photoclinometric profiles). We are taking stereo parallax measurements from medium resolution Viking Orbiter images, which provide a valuable intermediate check of the topography between those measurements made thus far and the upcoming Mars Observer data. The images used are from orbits 034A and 637A, and cover Mangala Valles from the source graben in Memnonia Fossae to the beginning of the bifurcated reach (at 9.5 deg lat., 151.5 deg lon.). These images are about 300 m/pixel and 250 m/pixel, respectively. Both sets of images were orthographically projected to 250 m/pixel. The separation angle between left-right pairs is approximately 52 degrees. This results in a vertical accuracy on the order of plus or minus 260 m. Though this is still somewhat coarse, the channel relief is clearly resolved. Preliminary profiles across Mangala Valles and the large topographic ridge to the east are shown on the following page. An east-west regional tilt that resulted from slight scaling differences in the digital data has been 'removed' by visually estimating a regional datum on the stereo pairs. North-south variations in scale have not yet been adjusted for, so the zero datum for each profile was simply taken to be the high water line of the channel itself. Our depth measurement for the source breach of about 750 m agrees reasonably well with values of 700-1000 m determined from shadow measurements.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1117-1118
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Two structural arguments support the premise that Miranda has reoriented with respect to Uranus over its geologic history. Orientations of major extensional and compressional features are consistent with a major satellite reorientation similar to that previously suggested based on cratering asymmetry. Furthermore, structures within Elsinore Corona provide supporting evidence that this reorientation took place about a paleo-pole located near (-75 deg, 80 deg), suggesting a second minor reorientation of Miranda.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1111-1112
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A survey of approximately 90 percent of the surface of Venus using Magellan data has been carried out to locate all radial fracture systems and to assess their association with other features such as volcanic edifices and coronae. Squyres et al. and Stofan et al. have discussed the association of radial fracture features in relation to coronae features, our approach was to assess the associations of all of the fracture systems. These fracture systems have two broad types of form - some fracture systems are associated with updomed topography, radiate from a point and have relatively uniform fracture lengths while others have a wider range of fracture lengths and radiate from the outer edge of a central caldera. Squyres et al. and Stofan et al. have interpreted both types of feature as reflecting tectonic fracturing resulting from uplift of the surface as a mantle plume impinges upon the crust. While it is true that a number of features are related to uplift and that such uplift will induce stresses consistent with radial fracturing, we explore the possibility that these fractures are not exclusively of tectonic origin. Purely tectonic fracturing will tend to generate a few main fractures/faults along which most of the stresses due to uplift will be accommodated leading to the triple-junction form common for terrestrial updoming. Though this type of feature is observed on Venus (e.g., feature located at 34S86), the majority of radial fracture systems display much more intensive fracturing than this through a full 360 degrees; this is difficult to explain by purely tectonic processes. The association of many of the fractures with radial lava flows leads us to interpret these fractures as reflecting dike emplacement: the form of the fractures being consistent with primarily vertical propagation from the head of a mantle plume. In the case of the second type of fracture system (those radiating from a central caldera), an even stronger case can be made that the fractures are not of tectonic origin. These features are not as commonly associated with updoming of the surface and where they are, the fractures extend out well beyond the edge of the topographic rise - an observation which is not consistent with the fractures being of tectonic uplift origin. Furthermore the fractures have a distribution of lengths (many short, fewer long) which is characteristic of dike swarms, and show direct associations with calderas and lava flows consistent with a volcanic origin. In addition, the longest fractures have a radial pattern only close to the center of the system but bend with distance to align themselves with the regional stress field - this behavior is very difficult to explain on purely tectonic grounds but is a pattern commonly seen for terrestrial dikes. For these reasons, we argue that many, if not the majority, of radial fracture systems found on Venus are the surface reflection of dike swarms, those associated with positive topography reflecting vertical emplacement and those radiating from calderas reflecting lateral propagation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1113-1114
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Large scale impacts are a key aspect of the accretion and growth of the planets, the evolution of their atmospheres, and the viability of their life forms. We have performed an extensive series of numerical calculations that examined the mechanics of impacts over a broad range of conditions and are now extending these to account for the effects of the planetary atmosphere. We have examined the effects of large scale impacts in which the trapping and compression of an atmosphere during impact is a significant factor in the transfer of energy to the atmosphere. The various energy transfer regimes and where conventional drag and trapping and subsequent compression of atmosphere between the bolide and planetary surface are significant are shown.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1101-1102
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Small anomalies in the isotopic abundance of Nd-142 have been measured for two A17 high-Ti basalts, ilmenite basalt 12056, olivine-pigeonite basalt 12039, feldspathic basalt 12038, and two KREEP basalts. These anomalies correlate with Sm-147/Nd-144 for the basalt source regions as calculated from initial Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios in the basalts, and are interpreted to be from decay of Sm-146 (t sub 1/2 = 103 Ma) in distinct lunar mantle reservoirs. A three-stage model for evolution of Nd-143/Nd-144 and Nd-142/Nd-144 yields reservoir Sm-147/Nd-144 ratios which, with the Nd-142/Nd-144 ratios in the basalts, form a 'mantle isochron' giving a lunar mantle formation interval of 94+2230 Ma (2c(rho)). Calculated reservoir Sm/Nd ratios are in the range expected from some earlier models of basalt petrogenesis. The isochron value of Nd-142/Nd-144 at Sm-147/Nd-144 sub CHUR = 0.1967 is within error limits of the average Nd-142/Nd-144 measured for an L6 chondrite, an H5 chondrite, and the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite. Evolution of Nd-143 and Nd-142 for high-Ti basalt 70135 was modeled precisely, starting from chondritic relative REE and Nd-isotopic abundances and using the initial (Sm-146/Sm-144) sub 0 ratio inferred from a previous study of angrite LEW86010 as the initial solar system value of this parameter. We infer that the initial Sm/Nd ratio in precursor lunar materials was very nearly chondritic (within approximately 8 percent) prior to lunar differentiation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1095-1096
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The chemical compositions of microscopic glasses produced during meteoroid impacts on the lunar surface provide information regarding the various fractionation processes which accompany these events. To learn more about these fractionation processes, we studied the compositions of submicrometer glass spheres from two Apollo 17 sampling sites using electron microscopy. The majority of the analyzed glasses show evidence for varying degrees of impact induced chemical fractionation. Among these are HASP glasses (High-Al, Si-Poor) which are believed to represent the refractory residuum left after the loss of volatile elements (e.g. Si, Fe, N) from the precursor material. In addition to HASP-type glasses, we also observed a group of VRAP glasses (volatile-rich, Al-poor) that represent condensates of vaporized volatile constituents and are complementary to the HASP compositions. High-Ti glasses were also found during the course of the study, and are documented here for the first time.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1093-1094
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In situ determination of mineral compositions using microbeam techniques can characterize magma compositions through mineral-melt partitioning, and be used to investigate fine-grained or rare phases which cannot be extracted for analysis. Abundances of Fe, Mn, Sr, Ga, Zr, Y, Nb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Se, and Sb were determined for various mineral phases in a small number of lunar highlands rocks using the PIXE proton microprobe. Sr/Ga ratios of plagioclase and Mn/Zn ratios of mafic silicates show that the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-suite cumulates are depleted in volatile lithophile elements to about the same degree compared with chondrites and the Earth. This links the entire lunar crust to common processes or source compositions. In contrast, secondary sulfides in Descartes breccia clasts are enriched in chalcophile elements such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb, and represent a potential resource in the lunar highlands.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1091-1092
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Noritic anorthosite clasts from breccia 67016 have bulk compositions similar to that of the upper crust of the Moon and petrogenetic affinities with pristine ferroan anorthosites. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of mineral separates from one of these clasts suggest very old (greater than or = 4.4 Ga) ages, but interpretation of these data is complicated by the multi-stage history of the clasts which involved magmatic crystallization, brecciation, subsolidus recrystallization, and sulfide metasomatism. These clasts record some of the earliest events on the Moon, including early crust formation, accretionary bombardment, and degassing of the lunar interior. Modal analyses of these clasts show they are now composed of about 70 percent plagioclase, 28 percent pyroxene, 2 percent troilite, and minor amounts of ilmenite and chromite. No metallic iron, phosphates, or other trace phases were observed. Olivine is very rare, occurring only as relicts within secondary troilite+pyroxene intergrowths which may reflect reaction of olivine with sulfurous vapors. PIXE proton microprobe analyses of the sulfides show that the metasomatism was accompanied by enrichments of Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb. The clasts have been only mildly shocked since the observed texture was established. Major and minor element mineral compositions are very homogeneous and strikingly similar to those of pristine ferroan anorthosites. Pyroxene compositions indicate equilibration temperatures of 850-900 C. Except for the sulfide and chalcophile element metasomatism, these clasts appear to be essentially monomict and probably represent a noritic member of the ferroan anorthosite suite. Their low Ni contents and Ni/Co ratios are consistent with the interpretation of these clasts as igneous rocks which have escaped mixing with meteoritic material.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1089-1090
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The geologic maps of C1-15N283 and C1-00N283 sheets were produced (preliminary versions) with Magellan SAR images. This work was undertaken as a part of Russia's contribution into C1 geologic mapping efforts. The scale of the original maps is 1:8,000,000, and the maps are reproduced here at a reduced size.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1081-1082
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Conventional explanation of a lack of impact craters with diameters greater than 300 km on Venus is that they formed during the intense bombardment era and had lunar-like morphology, but they are not preserved now because of rapid viscous relaxation of their topograpy and/or high endogenous reworking of surface. Other explanation invokes failure to recognize these larger craters because of their non-lunar-like morphology from the moment of formation, since larger gravity of Venus relatively to the Moon results in that largest craters on Venus may form within the mass of shock melted material while comparably sized lunar craters would be still almost 'dry'. To test this hypothesis, morphologies and rim-crest diameters of the largest peak-ring and Orientale-type basins and all larger impact features on Moon, Mercury, Mars, and Venus were compiled and compared to rim crest diameters of model craters with different melt volume/transient-cavity volume ratios. Results show that the final diameters of model craters formed at depth of melting about twice of transient cavity depth correspond to changeover from a planet-similar morphology of all the smaller basins on any terrestrial planet to a planet-specific morphology of all the larger basins on the Moon, Mercury, and Mars. On Venus, these largest impact features are not found and instead, a Venus-specific morphology of the largest concentric coronae appears in this size range. The coronae were suggested to form over sites of mantle upwelling and modified by subsequent volcanism and gravitational relaxation. The results here suggest that mantle upwelling - the first and necessary step of the corona formation models - may be induced by impact event (as a result of transient cavity collapse) and operated under cover of hot, slowly cooled impact melt in the areas of thinned crust and/or thermally active regions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1083-1084
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Northern part of Atla Regio within the frame of C1-formate Magellan photo map 15N197 was mapped geologically at scale 1:8,000,000. This is a part of Russia's contribution into C1 geologic mapping efforts. The map is reproduced here being reduced about twice. The map shows that the Northern Atla area is predominantly a volcanic plain with numerous volcanic features: shield volcanoes, domes and hills with various morphology, corona-like constructions, radar bright and dark spots often with flow-like outlines. Relatively small areas of tessera occurred in the area are mainly semi-flooded with the plain material. Tesserae are considered to be the oldest terrains within the map sheet. There are many lineated terrains in the region. They are interpreted as the old, almost-buried tesserae (those with crossed lineaments) or partly buried ridge belts (those with parallel lineaments). These lineated terrains have an intermediate age between the young volcanic plains and the old tessera areas. Two prominent high volcanic shields are located within the region - Ozza Mons and Sapas Mona. The most prominent structure in Northern Atla is Ganis Chasma rift. The rift cuts volcanic plain and is considered to be under formation during approximately the same time with Ozza Mons shield. Ganis Chasma rift valley is highly fractured and bounded with fault scarps. Rift shoulder uplifts are typical for Ganis Chasma. There are few relatively young volcanic features inside the rift valley. The analysis of fracturing and rift valley geometry shows the rift originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extention followed by the crustal subsidence. The age sequence summary for the main terrain types in the region is (from older to younger ones): tesserae; lineated terrains with crossed lineaments; lineated terrains with parallel lineaments; volcanic plains; and prominent volcanic shields and Ganis Chasma rift valley. The geologic structure of Atla Regio as it appeared now with the Magellan high resolution images is very close to that of Beta Regio. Such conclusion coincide with the earlier ones based on the coarser data.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1077-1078
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: We have evaluated siderophile element depletion models for the Moon in light of our improved statistical treatment of siderophile element abundance data and new information on the physics of core formation. If core formation occurred in the Moon at the large degrees of partial melting necessary for metal segregation, according to recent estimates, then a significant inconsistency (not seen in the eucrite parent body) exists in the depletion of the incompatible siderophile elements Mo, W, and P, compared to other siderophile elements in the Moon. The siderophile data, with the exception of Mo, are most consistent with terrestrial initial siderophile abundances and segregation of a very small core in the Moon. Our improved abundance estimates and possible explanations for these discrepancies are discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1071-1072
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  • 67
    facet.materialart.
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Viking life sciences experimental packages detected extraordinary chemical activity in the martian soil, probably the result of soil-surface chemistry. At least one very strong oxidant may exist in the martian soil. The electrochemical nature of the martian soil has figured prominently in discussions of future life sciences research on Mars. Putative oxidants in the martian soil may be responsible for the destruction of organic material to considerable depth, precluding the recovery of reducing material that may be relic of early biological forms. Also, there have been serious expressions of concern regarding the effect that soil oxidants may have on human health and safety. The concern here has centered on the possible irritation of the respiratory system due to dust carried into the martian habitat through the air locks.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 41-42
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The SNC meteorites are known to contain trace quantities of a variety of secondary minerals such as carbonates, sulfates, and aluminosilicates. Since these constituents are thought to be mostly preterrestrial in origin, their study has the potential to provide rigorous constraints on the nature of martian weathering processes. However, this line of investigation is potentially complicated by the presence within the meteorite samples of any additional weathering products produced by terrestrial processes. Examination of such terrestrial components is important since weathering processes that affect meteorite samples following their fall to Earth might have some bearing on the nature of analogous processes at the surface of Mars. It is obviously necessary to try and distinguish which secondary components in SNC meteorites are terrestrial in origin from those that are preterrestrial. Herein consideration is made of the stable isotopic compositions of weathering products in two SNC meteorites: EET A79001 (a sample collected from Antarctica) and Nakhla (a fall from Egypt, 1911).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 39-41
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Lafayette, one of the SNC (martian) meteorites, contains preterrestrial alteration materials rich in smectite and ferric oxides. The compositions and textures of the veinlets suggest that they were formed in episodic alteration events by waters that contained a relatively small load of dissolved salts. The Lafayette achondrite, one of the nakhlites of probable martian origin, is an igneous rock consisting mostly of augite and olivine, with interstitial feldspar, sulfides (pyrite), high-Si glass, and other phases. Like Nakhla itself, Lafayette contains veinlets of hydrous alteration materials. We studied thin sections of sample ME2116 (Field Museum, Chicago), using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 37-39
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: It has been proposed that the smaller features of martian spur and gully slope morphology, located along the upper walls of Valles Marineris, are avalanche chutes. A three-dimensional stability back-analysis technique was developed and applied to these small avalanche chutes, yielding average values of cohesion and angle of internal friction for the mobile layer materials on these slopes at the time of each slope failure. Generally, the analysis showed that at the time of each slope failure material strengths had been reduced to those of moderately cohesive debris down through depths of tens of meters. These results have implications and possible constraints for the nature and rate of martian weathering processes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 36-37
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: If Mars had an early dense CO2 atmosphere (greater than 1 bar), then the transition to the present low pressure (7 mbar) may require carbonate formation without liquid water (e.g., although the early greenhouse has been questioned on the basis that modeled CO2 condensation prevents buildup of such a pressure). Our experiments have focused on the kinetics of such 'dry' reactions. Booth and Kieffer suggested rates consistent with removal of greater than 1 bar of CO2 over geologic time, but their results were questionable since their reactions did not proceed beyond one monolayer of carbonate formed on powdered silicate under martian conditions. Theoretical considerations implied that if nonporous rinds formed, then the rate of carbonate formation would be limited by diffusion, not reaction. Therefore, our experiments optimize reaction conditions to test for continued carbonate production, as well as to verify previous conclusions for initial growth of carbonate.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 34-36
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  • 72
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In Mars' distant past, carbon dioxide and water may have been plentiful. Values of total outgassed CO2 from several to about 10 bar are consistent with present knowledge, and this amount of CO2 implies an amount of water outgassed equal to an equivalent depth of 500 to 1000 m. It is quite reasonable, therefore, to envision an early Mars in which there was a body or bodies of liquid water, perhaps in the northern plains, and a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Under such conditions, the pH of the water will be low, due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the water to form carbonic acid. This acidic water is capable of weathering the available rock quite intensely, particularly because this rock is likely to be heavily fractured (from meteorite bombardment) or even consist of fine particles (such as pyroclastic deposits). As time goes on, however, the carbon dioxide atmosphere will rapidly pass through the ocean to form carbonate deposits. As the density of the atmosphere decreases, so will the flux of carbonic acid into the ocean. Without this input of carbonic acid, the effect of the dissolved weathering products will be to increase the pH of the water. The ocean will then become alkaline. To study this process, I have developed a geochemical cycle model for the atmosphere-hydrosphere-regolith system of Mars. The treatment of geochemical cycles as complex kinetic chemical reactions has been undertaken for terrestrial systems in recent years with much success. This method is capable of elegantly handling the interactions between the simultaneous chemical reactions needed to understand such a system.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 33-34
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The globally distributed bright soils on Mars represent products of chemical alteration of primary igneous materials. As such, understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of these soils provides clues about the nature of the parent materials and the type, duration, and extent of the chemical weathering environments on Mars. Such clues are key in developing an understanding of the interior and surficial processes that have operated throughout Mars' history to yield the surface as it is currently observed. The generally homogeneous nature of these soils is illustrated by a variety of observational data. These data include (1) direct determination of elemental abundances by the X-ray fluorescence instruments on both Viking Landers, (2) Earth-based telescopic observations, and (3) space-based observations. Based on their spectral properties in the visible and near-infrared, terrestrial palagonitic soils have been suggested as analogs for the bright regions on Mars. Palagonites represent the weathering products of basaltic glass and as such are composed of a variety of minerals/materials. In order to gain an understanding regarding the chemical, mineralogical, and spectral properties of a broad suite of palagonites, several samples were collected from the eastern and central regions of the island of Hawaii.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 32-33
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: This is one in a series of reports summarizing our chemical modeling studies of water-rock-gas interactions at the martian surface through time. The purpose of these studies is to place constraints on possible mineralogies formed at the martian surface and to model the geochemical implications of martian surficial processes proposed by previous researchers. Plumlee and Ridley summarize geochemical processes that may have occurred as a result of inferred volcano- and impact-driven hydrothermal activity on Mars. DeBraal et al. model the geochemical aspects of water-rock interactions and water evaporation near 0 C, as a prelude to future calculations that will model sub-0 C brine-rock-clathrate interactions under the current martian climate. In this report, we discuss reaction path calculations that model chemical processes that may have occurred at the martian surface in a postulated early, warm, wet climate. We assume a temperature of 25 C in all our calculations. Processes we model here include (1) the reaction of rainwater under various ambient CO2 and O2 pressures with basaltic rocks at the martian surface, (2) the formation of acid rain by volcanic gases such as HCl and SO2, (3) the reactions of acid rain with basaltic surficial materials, and (4) evaporation of waters resulting from rainwater-basalt interactions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 31-32
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Although initially formulated as biology experiments, most of the results produced by the Viking Labeled Release (LR), Gas Exchange (GEX), and Pyrolytic Release (PR) experiments have been reproduced by chemical means. The experiments do not need more study as 'biological' phenomena, but they do deserve much more careful consideration from a chemical viewpoint. They are the only 'wet-chemical' experiments that scientists have performed on another planet, but they have not found very general use as sources of scientific information. There is a large set of potentially useful chemical observations, e.g., the three resolvable and precisely measured kinetic components of the release of C-14-labeled gases, the thermal sensitivity and magnitudes of the oxidation reaction(s) of the LR experiments, the kinetics and magnitude of the O2 and CO2 release of the GEX experiments, the thermal sensitivity of the GEX results, the differences between the thermal sensitivity of the GEX and the thermal sensitivity of the LR responses, and the kinetics and magnitudes of the LR successive injection reabsorption effect. It should be possible to test many chemical aspects of hypothetical martian phenomena in experiments using the biology experimental configurations and derive much valuable information by comparisons with the Viking observations.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 30-31
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Because of the power of remote sensing reflectance spectroscopy in determining mineralogy, it has been used as the major method of identifying a possible mineral analogue of the martian surface. A summary of proposed martian surface compositions from reflectance spectroscopy before 1979 was presented by Singer et al. Since that time, iron-rich montmorillonite clay, nanocrystalline or nanophase hematite, and palagonite have been suggested as Mars soil analogue materials. Palagonite in petrological terms is best described as an amorphous, hydrated, ferric iron, silica gel. Montmorillonite is a member of the smectite clay group, and its structure is characterized by an octahedral sheet in coordination with two tetrahedral sheets in which oxygen atoms are shared. The crystal unity of montmorillonite is well defined in contrast to palagonite where it is considered amorphous or poorly crystalline at best. Because of the absence of the diagnostic strong 2.2-micron reflectance band characteristic of clays in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum of Mars and palagonite and based upon a consideration of wide wavelength coverage (0.3-50 microns), Roush et al. concluded that palagonite is a more likely Mars surface analogue. In spite of the spectral agreement of palagonite and the Mars reflectance spectrum in the 2.2-micron region, palagonite shows poor correspondence with the results of the Viking LR experiment. In contrast, iron-rich montmorillonite clays show relatively good agreement with the results of the Viking LR experiment. This spectral study was undertaken to evaluate the spectral properties of mixtures of palagonite and Mars analogue iron-rich montmorillonite clay (16-18 wt. percent Fe as Fe2O3) as a Mars surface mineralogical model. Mixtures of minerals as Mars surface analogue materials have been studied before, but the mixtures were restricted to crystalline clays and iron oxides.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 29-30
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Much of the surface of Mars, including volcanic and cratered terrains, probably experienced alteration and degassing processes. These processes may have depleted or enriched many important elements in surface materials, including bedrock, dust, and soils. The composition of the martian soil may represent the best estimate, for some elements, of the average composition of the martian crust, similar to the composition of loess created by glacial action on the Earth. The martian soil may represent the only convenient, globally or regionally averaged sample of the martian crust. In order to understand the composition of the source material for the soil, however, we need to understand the contributions of volcanic vs. impact sources for this material and the chemical fractionations involved in its production. The processes to be addressed include degassing of volcanic deposits, as observed in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes at Katmai, Alaska, and degassing of meltbearing impact ejecta as inferred for suevite ejecta sheets at the Ries Crater, and alteration or palagonitization of volcanic deposits, as documented for volcanos in British Columbia and many other volcanic terrains, and impact crater deposits. The process of palagonitization has been the subject of several studies with reference to Mars, and palagonite is a good analogue for the spectroscopic properties of the martian dust. The role of impact in cratering has not been as well studied, although other researchers have established that both degassing and alteration are common features of impact crater deposits. Other relevant sources of experimental data include the extensive literature on the corrosion of nuclear waste glass and leaching of shocked materials.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., MSATT Workshop on Chemical Weathering on Mars; p 27-29
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Today's advanced sensor capabilities provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration that mesh well with the science requirements for a sophisticated integration of several types of remotely acquired information. Science priorities for the 1990's include an evaluation of the global composition and structure of the primordial lunar crust in order to model its origin and evolution, using the Moon as a natural laboratory to study the impact process and time-cumulative events at 1 AU, and, ultimately, constraining the origin of the Moon and its relation to Earth.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 226
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The interaction between wind and desert surfaces has important implications for sediment transport on Earth, Mars, and Venus, and for understanding the relationship between radar backscatter and aerodynamic roughness. Here, researchers report results from measurements of atmospheric boundary layer profiles, assessment of radar backscatter at P, L, and C wavelengths, and surface roughness in Death Valley, the Mojave Desert, and Lunar Lake, NV, and discuss the implications for aeolian process. The sites include playas, gravel and sand regs, alluvial fans, and lava flows. Boundary layer wind profiles were measured using anemometers at heights of 0.75, 1.25, 2.07, 3.44, 5.72, and 9.5 m; temperature sensors at heights of 1.3 and 9.6 m; and wind vanes at 9.7 and 1.5 m. Microtopographic measurements were made using a template and a laser-photo device to obtain RMS height. This study demonstrates that radar backscatter coefficients obtained from airborne and perhaps orbiting instruments could permit the derivation of aerodynamic roughness values for large areas. Such values, when combined with wind frequency data, could enable assessment of aeolian processes on a regional scale.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 198
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  • 80
    facet.materialart.
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The solid state greenhouse models were constrained for water ice surfaces using thermal eclipse data. As a result, it was determined that at depths of 3 cm or more Europa can have about a 30 K temperature enhancement over the diurnal mean surface temperature of about 97 K at the equator. It was also determined that the unusual shape of Europa's thermal flux curves during eclipses can be explained by the solid state greenhouse effect. The solid state greenhouse models were applied to the problem of the origin and energy sources of Triton's geyser-like plumes. Two classes of models are examined which may explain the driving energy for Triton's plumes. Triton's internal heatflow is recognized as a major contributor to its global energy balance. Internal heat flow from radioactive decay in Triton's interior along with absorbed thermal energy from Neptune total 5 to 20 pct. of the insolation absorbed by Triton, thus comprising a significant fraction of Triton's surface energy balance.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 15-16
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Data was compiled on H2O, CO2, S, and SO2 and it was analyzed by various techniques to prepare phase diagrams relevant to conditions on the Earth, Io, Mars, and other planets. The use of Cray models for volcanic eruptions was examined. Attempts are being made to develop equations of state of the compounds listed above to be compatible with the Cray code so that they can be called as subroutines for the volcanic models. This is a major project, as the current code uses only the equation of state for a perfect gas, and requires that the atmosphere be the same composition as the volcanic gas. The analysis of the thermodynamic data is time consuming, and was complicated by changes from a VAX/VMS system to Macintosh's, Crays using CTSS, Crays using Unicos, and Sun workstations.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 32
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The hypothesis is tested that the lithospheric shortening expressed by the ridge belts is the result of convective downwelling beneath the lowland planitia. Dynamical models are developed for the interaction of mantle convection with the crust and the models are compared to the characteristics of the ridge belts in Lavinia Planitia. The models support the hypothesis that convective stresses can produce the broad topographic depression of lowlands on Venus and can lead to the formation of ridge belts on either side of the topographic low.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 7-9
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A comprehensive review is made of the thermal chemical evolution of the moon and the terrestrial planets. New results are presented which were obtained for Venus by the Magellan Mission the efforts were concentrated on this planet. Alternative models were examined for the thermal structure of the lithosphere of Venus. The statistical distribution was studied of the locations of the coronae on Venus. Models were examined for the patterns of faulting around the coronae on Venus. A series was considered of viscous models for the development and relaxation of elevation anomalies on Venus. And rates were studied of solidification of volcanic flows on Venus. Both radiative and convective heat transfer were considered.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 5-6
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  • 84
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Ultrahigh pressure experiments are currently focused on revealing processes occurring deep inside planets. This is in addition to the traditional emphasis on the constitution of planetary interiors, such as the identification of the high pressure perovskite phase of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 as the predominant mineral inside the Earth, and probably Venus. For example, experiments show that the mechanism of geochemical differentiation, separation of partial melts, differs fundamentally in the lower mantles of Earth and Venus than at near surface conditions. In addition to structural transformations, changes in chemical bonding caused by pressure can also be significant for planetary interiors. Measurements of AC and DC electrical conductivity can be obtained at ultrahigh pressures and temperatures, to greater than 80 GPa and 3000 K simultaneously, using the laser heated diamond cell. Anhydrous lower mantle assemblages (perovskite + or - oxide phases) exhibit an electrical conductivity that depends strongly on Fe content. Contrary to traditional assumptions, temperature affects the conductivity of lower mantle assemblages relatively little. The Earth's deep focus seismicity can be explained by the recycling of water into the mantle.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Washington, Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990; p 3-4
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  • 85
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Mafic igneous bedrock is inferred for Mars, based on spectrophotometric evidence for pyroxene (principally in optically dark areas of the globe) and the pyroxenite-peridotite petrology of shergottite nakhlite chassignite (SNC) meteorites. Visible and infrared spectra of reddish-brown surface fines (which dominate Martian bright areas) indicate ferric iron and compare favorably (though not uniquely) with spectra of palagonitic soils. Laboratory studies of SNC's and Viking Lander results support a model for Martian soil based on chemical weathering of mafic rocks to produce layer structured silicates (clay minerals), salts, and iron oxides.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Johnson Space Center, Program and Abstracts for Clay Minerals Society 28th Annual Meeting; p 10
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