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  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (3,213)
  • 1980-1984  (3,213)
  • 1925-1929
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century; p 69
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  • 2
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century; p 48
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  • 3
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century; p 1
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Observed optical and infrared properties of Saturn's E-ring are explained in terms of Mie scattering by a narrow distribution of ice spheres with an effective diameter of 2 to 2.5 microns, and an effective variance of 0.1 to 0.15. The spherical shape of the ring particles and their narrow size distribution imply that they had a molten origin, followed by quick freezing. Continued replenishment of the E-ring by volcanic eruptions on Enceladus seems plausible. The vertical structure of the E-ring consists of many layers. The stratification of the particles may be due to electrostatic levitation, similar to that experienced by particles in the spokes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: CNES Planetary Rings; p 607-613
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The dynamics of micron and submicron sized dust grains moving under the combined influence of planetary gravitation and the electromagnetic forces within the corotating regions of planetary magnetospheres are discussed. Magnetogravitational capture of charged grains in planetary rings is outlined. The adiabatic motion of charged dust is reviewed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: CNES Planetary Rings; p 631-643
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The orbital parameters of Saturn's F-ring and the shepherding satellites were estimated from Voyager images. The method, results and associated uncertainties are described. Braids were observed in a few frames near shepherd satellite conjunctions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: CNES Planetary Rings; p 459-460
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  • 7
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Collisions within planetary ring systems, especially Saturn's, are discussed. The particles may have coherent icy cores and less coherent granular or frosty surface layers, consistent with thermal eclipse observations. Collisions do not cause catastrophic fragmentation of the particles, although minor surface erosion and reaccretion is possible. Evolution by collisional fragmentation is thus not as important as in the asteroid belt. Models suggest that the fractional number of projectile masses dislodged when solid (or solid-core) projectiles strike solid ice or granular surface layers does not exceed the order of 10 to the minus 7th to minus 9th power. Even at this rate, the half life of ring particles would be less than the age of the solar system in crowded ring regions unless there was very efficient reaccretion. A plausible ring particle model involves solid ice cores with granular surface layers that exchange material by slow erosion and efficient reaccretion; the granular layers protect the cores from rapid erosion.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: PSI-CONTRIB-186 , CNES Planetary Rings; p 407-422
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Voyager 2 photopolarimeter stellar occultation data on Saturn C ring are discussed. The overall shape is much like the W-shape of other Saturnian rings and the Uranian epsilon ring. The inner structure is quite complex and it is not possible to locate the region of the weaker 1980S27 resonance. There appear to be pseudoperiodic structures, with very pronounced variations in optical depth. Possibly two isolated resonances in close proximity can develop a gravitational interaction that leads to wave patterns imposed upon the intervening ring material. The strength of the variations noted in optical depth between 90140 and 90175 km is too large to be an artifact. It could be temporal, however.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: CNES Planetary Rings; p 251-258
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  • 9
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Stellar occultation data on the Uranian rings are summarized. Spatial resolution is 0.1 km, for positions of ring segments, 4 km for structural details. The system consists of 9 narrow rings with average geometric albedo of 0.02. The data are well fitted by a kinematic model that describes the rings as ellipses, inclined to the equatorial plane of Uranus and precess due to harmonic terms in the Uranian potential fields. The main characteristics of the Uranian ring system that need a confirmed theoretical explanation are: narrow rings; sharp edges; uniform orbital precession; origin of the eccentricities and inclinations; the structure of the epsilon ring; the structure of the eta ring; and the origin of the ring system.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: CNES Planetary Rings; p 155-164
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  • 10
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: High resolution radio data of Saturn were obtained at 1.3, 2, 6, and 21 cm, at different inclination angles of the ring plane. Results on optical depth measurements in the rings are described. There is no wavelength dependence in the optical depth of the rings between 1.3 and 6 cm. This indicates that there are not many small particles (sizes of a few centimeters) in the B-ring, which ring is responsible for most of the observed obscuration. This result agrees with the Voyager radio occultation experiment.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: CNES Planetary Rings; p 71-74
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  • 11
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The center-of-disk reflectivity of Jupiter in the wavelength range from 1500 A to 3000 A was computed from 31 low dispersion IUE spectra taken during solar maximum in 1979/80. The spectra were normalized to a reflectivity scale with the improved solar spectrum of July, 1980. Consideration of wavelength shifts between different IUE spectra and within the solar spectrum improved the apparent noise, especially longward of 2000 A. Six out of seven ammonia bands between 1900 A and 2200 A were detected. A vertically inhomogeneous radiative transfer program is used to compute model reflectivities for various stratospheric compositions. In addition to ammonia, the abundance of acetylene is also well determined because these molecules show narrow absorption bands in the ultraviolet. The abundances of the other molecules in the models (C3H4, C2H4, C4H2, C2H6, C3H6) are very uncertain and therefore are quoted only as upper limits. The best model fit is consistent with infrared observations by Voyager IRIS.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Future of Ultraviolet Astronomy Based on Six Years of IUE Res.; p 129-132
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Orientale impact occurred in rugged highlands on the southwestern limb of the Moon and was the last of the major basin-forming events. Valuable insight concerning lateral and vertical changes in the composition of the lunar crust can be provided by studies of material exposed by lunar impact basins. These impacts have excavated material from a variety of depths and deposited this ejecta in a systematic manner. In order to investigate the composition of materials exposed on the interior of Orientale basin, near-infrared reflectance spectra were collected for units within the Cordillera ring.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Experimental problems associated with metallic solid/metallic liquid partitioning investigations are evaluated. Of particular concern is the discrepancy of partition coefficient results obtained from experiments which were static (constant temperature for the duration of the experiment) and those which were dynamic (where an experimental charge is slowly drawn from the furnace).
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The partitioning behavior of Pb in the three-phase system metal-troilite-sulfide liquid was investigated. Microscopic examination and electron microprobe analysis of a polished section showed three phases--Fe metal, troilite and an Fe-S-Pb-O metallic liquid. The Pb concentration of the metallic liquid was 1.4 wt.%; the Pb contents of both the troilite and the Fe metal were below the detection limit of the electron probe. To better define the Pb concentrations of the solid phases, the same sample was analyzed for Pb and Fe using the M.I.T., Harvard and Brown ion microprobe. Even at this level of precision, some conclusions and speculations are possible: (1) The D(Pb) (troilite/metallic liquid) is low (.01 to .001) and, contrary to expectation, troilite, like metal, excludes Pb very effectively during the crystallization of metallic liquids; (2) Pb in iron meteorites is conceivably concentrated in trace phases which are less susceptible to contamination than metal and troilite; and (3) taken at face value D(Pb)(metal/troilite) is 0.1, but given the Pb and Fe ion yields from simple endmember phases (Fe, FeS, Pb, PbS), this D is more likely to be 0.05 to 0.03.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) of samples from the Santa Catharina iron meteorite shows the presence of the ordered iron-nickel phase with 50% Ni, tetrataenite, and of the paramagnetic iron-nickel phase with 25% Ni. The FeNi phase with 50% Ni amounts to 70% of the iron-nickel alloys. Futhermore, the CEM spectra show the presence of small peaks from one or more spinel compounds. These small peaks are more pronounced when regions near the rim of the samples are analyzed. The X-ray diffraction of different areas of the samples, both optically dark and optically light areas, shows the presence of a diffraction pattern from a single f.c.c. lattice with a lattice parameter of a=3.58A This means that the two different Fe-Ni phases seen in the CEMS analysis occupy the same lattice. The X-ray photographs also show the presence of super-structure reflections from the ordered FeNi phase, and that the orientation of the f.c.c. lattice is the same within the whole sample.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 16
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The lunar origin model considered involves processing of protolunar material through a circumterrestrial swarm of particles. Once such a swarm has formed, it can gain mass by capturing infalling planetesimals and ejecta from giant impacts on the Earth, although the angular momentum supply from these sources remains a problem. Examined is the first stage of formation of a geocentric swarm by capture of planetesimals from initialy heliocentric orbits. The only plausible capture mechanism that is not dependent on very low approach velocities is the mutual collision of planetesimals passing within Earth's sphere of influence. This capture scenario was tested directly by many body numerical integration of planetesimal orbits in near Earth space. Results agree that the systematic contribution of angular momentum is insufficient to maintain an orbiting swarm under heavy bombardment. Thus, a circumterrestrial swarm can be formed rather easily, but is hard to sustain because the mean net angular momentum of a many body swarm is small.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 54
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  • 17
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The explanation that lunar origin involved giant impacts remains attractive. Large planetesimals are consistent with current accretion models, and may have been widely scattered in the early solar system; their existence is a reasonable, assumption in Moon origin models. Isotopic data require the Moon's formation primarily from local material resembling Earth's upper mantle, not material from elsewhere in the solar system. Giant impacts are stochastic, class predictable events that would provide the required type of ejected Earth mantle material without requiring large moons to form near other planets (a problem with less stochastic processes). Such material may have mixed with incoming meteorites during lunar formation, affecting lunar chemistry.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 52
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: G. H. Darwin proposed that the primordial Earth may have rotated fast enough that the solar tidal period was nearly resonant with the fundamental free oscillation period of a fluid Earth and that a large and unstable tidal oscillation split off to become the moon. Jeffreys argumented that dissipation during resonance would be sufficient to prevent such an unstable oscillation greater than the tidal frequency (period - 2.68 hr). It is considered that solar tides have extracted angular momentum from the Earth-Moon system over 4.5 b.y. The correspondence of the primordial tidal and resonant frequencies is nearly exact. (The effect of central condensation of the proto earth is to increase both frequencies by a similar amount, though the resonance is not precisely known. This result, was unknown to Darwin or Jeffreys. The effects of resonance were evaluated. The resonance is likely to be too damped for fission. This argument is more general than Jeffreys', who considered friction between the oscillating mantle and a rigid core. It is argued that the fact that Q must be so great for fission that equilibrium can not be maintained; the fluid proto Earth passes so quickly through resonance that maximum amplitude is not reached. It is suggested that solar resonant tides acted as a brake on the spin of the primordial partially molten Earth. Certain proposed origins for the Moon do not necessarily involve addition of substantial amounts of angular momentum to the Earth-Moon system. The primordial Earth-Moon system may have had nearly the same angular momentum as it has today.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 34
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  • 19
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Moon's center of mass is displaced from its center of figure about 2 km in a roughly earthward direction. Most maria are on the side of the Moon which faces the Earth. It is assumed that the Moon was initially spherically symmetric. The emplacement of mare basalts transfers mass which produces most of the observed center of mass displacement toward the Earth. The cause of the asymmetric distribution of lunar maria was examined. The Moon is in a spin orbit coupled relationship with the Earth and the effect of the Earth's gravity on the Moon is asymmetric. The earth-facing side of the Moon is a gravitational favored location for the extrusion of mare basalt magma in the same way that the topographically lower floor of a large impact basin is a gravitationally favored location. This asymmetric effect increases inversely with the fourth power of the Earth Moon distance. The history of the Earth-Moon system includes: formation of the Moon by accretion processes in a heliocentric orbit ner that of the Earth; a gravitational encounter with the Earth about 4 billion years ago resulting in capture of the Moon into a geocentric orbit and heating of the Moon through dissipation of energy related to tides raised during close approaches to the Earth(5) to produce mare basalt magma; and evolution of the Moon's orbit to its present position, slowly at first to accommodate more than 500 million years during which magmas were extruded.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 32
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  • 20
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: While the oceans undoubtly contribute to energy dissipation, it seems implausible that such a small amount (0.02%) of the Earth's mass could play such a dominant role in lunar orbital evolution. An alternate hypothesis assumes that most of the dissipation is associated with solid-body tides. This mechanism is also capable of varying significantly over time for viscoelastic bodies. In such an analysis of orbital evolution, the bodies are modeled as incompressible, Kelvin-Voight solids. While this material is simplistic, it does provide an analytical characterization of solid-body dissipation and the resulting tidal moment. The orbital history of a two body system is traced back in time to develop constraints on the satellite's origin. These constraints suggest the Moon appeared in a significantly inclined orbit at a distance greater than ten Earth radii. This distance is outside of the Roche limit and would appear to alleviate some difficulties associated with capture hypotheses. Small eccentricity at close approach suggests an origin by accretion.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 30
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  • 21
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 25
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The existence of subaqueous unicellular algae and bacteria from the Precambrian period is evidenced by strongly abundant fossilized structures consisting of many layers of usually darker algae-bacterial growth alternating with layers of usually lighter sediment-precipitate. The earliest of these are dated to 3.5 billion years ago. A form of these stromatolites, Anabaria juvensis was analyzed and a sinusoidal columnar growth pattern was interpreted to be a response of stromatolite forming microbes to the changing inclination of the Sun over the seasons, with microbe growth rate positively related to solar intensity. Additional specimens are being used to develop a systematic methodology for extracting data evidencing Earth-Moon-Sun dynamics at the time of stromatolite formation. In particular, stromatolites span the time from 1 to 2 billion years ago, critical for several theories of lunar formation and/or Earth/Moon near encounter. Such cataclysmic events would influence stromatolite formation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 29
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: There are good reasons to believe that lunar volcanic glasses originated from a deep interior source. The presence of a thin layer of surface correlated elements on these glasses may indicate that the Moon has some reservoirs that are enriched in volatiles. Since the glasses themselves do not show similar enrichment, the source should be of limited extent. Three scenarios are advanced for the origin of these elements. The mechanism for lunar volcanism differs from the mechanism for volcanism on Earth since the former produces bubbling and the latter explosive fountaining. From the condensation behavior of the volatile compounds, which leads to heterogeneous condensation, it is concluded that comparing element ratios of surface correlated elements gives little sense. It seems as if the volatile reservoirs are of rather limited extent and that they do not enlarge the volatile content of the bulk Moon significantly.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 23
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  • 24
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Studies on meteor spectroscopy are reported. The following topics are discussed: photometric spectra of 17 meteors; the chemistry of cometary meteoroids; and current trends in meteor spectroscopy.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-170677 , NAS 1.26:170677
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Comprehensive information on the composition and dynamics of the varied planetary atmospheres is summarized. New observations resulted in new demands for supporting laboratory studies. Spectra observed from spacecraft used to interpret planetary atmospheric structure measurements, to aid in greenhouse and cloud physics calculations, and to plan future experiments are discussed. Current findings and new ideas of physicists, chemists, and planetry astronomers relating to the knowledge of the structure of things large and small, of planets and of molecules are summarized.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CP-2223-VOL-1 , NAS 1.55:2223-VOL-1
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: A design concept for a ground based astrometric telescope that could significantly increase the potential accuracy of astrometric observations is considered. The state of current techniques and instrumentation is examined in the context of detecting extrasolar planets. Emphasis is placed on the direct detection of extrasolar planets at either visual or infrared wavelengths. The design concept of the imaging stellar interferometer (ISI), developed under Project Orion, is described. The Orion ISI employs the state-of-the-art technology and is theoretically capable of attaining 0.00010 arc sec/yr accuracy in relative astrometric observations.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-SP-436 , LC-80-11728
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century; p 68
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century; p 25
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century; p 17
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  • 30
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Bases and Space Activities in the 21st Century; p 16
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  • 31
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus and Neptune, and Galileo with Jupiter are described. The opportunities and capabilities for ring studies are discussed. At Uranus, stellar occultation, radio occultation, solar occultation, and imaging studies are possible. At Neptune, only stellar occultations and imaging seem promising. The Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer and dust collector offer interesting possibilities for ring studies.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: CNES Planetary Rings; p 731-735
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  • 32
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A simplified model of radial diffusion in a planetary disk with a bimodal size distribution is presented. The large particle component excites the small particles' dispersion velocity via gravitational scattering. The resulting small particle viscous stress goes through a maximum near optical depth = sq root 3. Such a stress profile promotes the development of high and low optical depth zones. The resulting ringlet appearance is due primarily to the distribution of small particles, which produce most of the optical depth but may constitute only a minor portion of system mass.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: CNES Planetary Rings; p 439-445
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: During the Voyager 1 and 2 Saturn encounters the ultraviolet spectrometers observed 3 separate stellar occultations by Saturn's rings. The observations, which sampled the optical depth of the rings at resolutions from 3 to 6 km, were used to establish a highly accurate distance scale allowing the identification of numerous ring features associated with resonances due to exterior satellites. Three separate observations of an eccentric ringlet near the location of the Titan apsidal resonance are discussed along with other ringlet-resonance associations occurring in the C ring. Density waves occurring in the A and B rings are reviewed and the analysis of one of these features is discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: CNES Planetary Rings; p 265-277
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Observations of the 1966 edge-on presentation of Saturn's E-ring in the red spectral region are presented. Techniques to suppress the glare from the planet are described. The E-ring profile does not exhibit a maximum near the orbit of Enceladus in 1966. Historical comments concerning the E-ring are included to illustrate that important planetary work can be done by ground-based observations.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: CNES Planetary Rings; p 99-102
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The importance of ice sheet flow as part of the process of concentrating meteorites in Antarctica is discussed. Ford and Tabor were the first to surmise that some type of ice sheet transport of Antarctic meteorites was likely considering that the Thiel Mountains pallasite was found on glacier ice without evidence of impact. It was found that meteorites were carried by the ice to regions of high ablation where they were periodically uncovered. Three models of concentration have been proposed to explain the phenomena of meteorite accumulations on blue ice fields. Model 1, is a general picture relating meteorite fall and accumulation to the entire Antarctic continent. Model 2 is based upon the petrographic examination of an 8m ice core from the Allan Hills Icefield and suggests a local origin of ice from the catchment basin. The third model is presented by Whillans and Cassidy who infer, by using conventional ice flow concepts, a path length as long as 1,000km from the sites of fall to recovery for Allan Hills specimens. Despite achievement of these working hypotheses, a number of questions must be resolved before a comprehensive model can be presented.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The comminution of planetary surfaces by exposure to continuous meteorite bombardment was simulated by impacting the same fragmental gabbro target 200 times. The role of comminution and in situ gardening of planetary regoliths was addressed. Mean grain size continuously decreased with increasing shot number. Initially it decreased linearly with accumulated energy, but at some stage comminution efficiency started to decrease gradually. Point counting techniques, aided by the electron microprobe for mineral identification, were performed on a number of comminution products. Bulk chemical analyses of specific grain size fractions were also carried out. The finest sizes ( 10 microns) display generally the strongest enrichment/depletion factors. Similar, if not exactly identical, trends are reported from lunar soils. It is, therefore, not necessarily correct to explain the chemical characteristics of various grain sizes via different admixtures of materials from distant source terrains. Differential comminution of local source rocks may be the dominating factor.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Poorly characterized phases (PCP's) constitute up to 30 volume percent of some CM carbonaceous chondrites, and are therefore an important key to an understanding of the physico-chemical conditions attending matrix evolution. An iron rich form of the terrestrial phase tochilinite was recently identified as a common type of PCP. Tochilinite has the general formula 6Fe(0.9)S.5(Mg,Fe)(OH)2 and consists of alternating machinawite (FeS) and brucite ((Mg,Fe)(OH)2) sheets, with iron vacancies in the sulfide sheets. In iron rich tochilinite, ferrous hydroxide, called amakinite, replaces brucite. If CM carbonaceous kchondrites have underdone hydrothermal alteration, iron rich tochilinite, at least, probably grew from aqueous solutions characterized by low FO2, high FS2, pH 10 to 12, and at a temperature at or below 170 C.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The effects of gravitational body force must be considered in the formation of extraterrestrial materials such as meteoritic chondrules and lunar glasses. Solidification experiments conducted in microgravity as well as g values greater than Earth's gravitational force have demonstrated that gravitational force can have profound and sometimes unexpected effects upon the way materials solidify and, therefore, upon their physical and mechanical properties. Solutal, thermal and sedimentation effects differ from those experienced on Earth. Because buoyancy forces are reduced, materials of different densities may remain in close proximity. The spherical morphology of chondrules and many lunar glasses may reflect the tendency for free floating liquids to form spherical droplets in a microgravity environment, a form which minimizes surface energy. Under these conditions, surface energy forces dominate gravity forces. The formation of two common chondrule textures, barred and radiating chondrules, can be explained using observations from glass science.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 39
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Two calcium titanium oxide spherules (CTS) and an iron chromium nickel oxide one (FCN) were obtained from a segment of ice core collected at Mizuho Station, East Antarctica. An anomalous REE abundance pattern enriched in Sm by a factor of about 10 relative to the typical pattern of terrestrial perovskites was found. Subsequently, more than forty spherules from ten other depth ranges of the ice core were analyzed: (1) both CTS and FCN occur in every depth range; (2) CTS, FCN, and other are in the ratio of about 2:21 among all the analyzed spherules; (3) all of CTS show the same chemical and mineralogical characteristics as those previously obtained; (4) CTS contains some amounts of Cr and Fe, and/or FCN contains Ca and Ti; and (5) two composite particles exist among all the spherules. It is implied that CTS and FCN had originated in a common natural material and from a common natural process.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A metallographic study was undertaken to seek support for the idea that Santa Catharina is really massive cloudy taenite. Available metal-rich nuggets of Santa Catharina appear to have been single crystals of taenite in the few centimeter size range, separated from each other by grain boundaries occupied by troilite and schreibersite. Metallographic and electron microprobe data allow one to postulate the following cooling and structural development history: (1) single crystal taenite formed at high temperature; (2) phosphate formed within the taenite and grain boundary schreibersite formed at interfaces with troilite or with other taenite crystals; (3) schreibersite began to precipitate within taenite at about 650 C; (4) at about 450 C the meteorite entered the three phase field at which point kamacite precipitated and started growing; and (5) kamacite/schreibersite interface measurements indicate that cooling continued down to about 350 C, with large Ni diffusion gradients developing within schreibersites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 41
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A quantitative model to estimate the degree of annealing of nuclear tracks in mineral grains subjected to a variable temperature history was proposed. This model is applied to study the track annealing records in different meteorites resulting from their atmospheric heating. Scale lengths were measured of complete and partial track annealing, delta X sub 1 and delta X sub 2, respectively. In mineral grain close to fusion crust in about a dozen meteorites. Values of delta X sub 1 and delta X sub 2 depend on extent and duration of heating during atmospheric transit and hence on meteorite entry parameters. To estimate track annealing, the temperature history during atmospheric heating at different distances from the crusted surface of the meteorite is obtained by solving heat conduction equation in conjunction with meteorite entry model, and use of the annealing model to evaluate the degree of annealing of tracks. It is shown that the measured values of delta X sub 1 and delta X sub 2 in three of the meteorites studied are consistent with values using preatmospheric mass, entry velocity and entry angle of these meteorites.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Chrondrule textural types were studied for size sorted chondrules from the ordinary chondrites Dhajala, Eston and Chainpur and the CM chondrite Murchison. Aliquot samples from size sorted Dhajala chondrules were studied for their oxygen isotopic composition and chondrules from Weston were studied for their precompaction irradiation records by nuclear track technique. Correlations between chondrule textural types and oxygen isotope or track data were identified. A distinct dependence of chondrule textural type on chondrule size was evident in the data for both Dhajala and Weston chondrules. No significant deviation was noticed in the abundance pattern of nonporphyritic chondrules within individual size fractions in the 200 to 800 micron size interval. Overabundance is found of nonporphyritic chondrules in the 100 to 200 micron size fraction of Murchison chondrules, the trend is not as distinct for Chainpur chondrules. Two hundred microns is suggested as the cutoff size below which radiative cooling is extremely efficient during the chondrule forming process. It is suggested that this offers a possibility for use of physical and chemical characteristics of small chondrules to constrain the temperature history during the chondrule formation process.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Geochemical evidence is discussed which advocates the theory that the Moon was formed by impact induced fission of the Earth. The Earth's mantle exhibits a number of geochemical peculiarities which make our planet a unique object in the solar system. Terrestrial basalts are compared with those from the Eucrite parent body and the Shergotty parent body. Also the Moon's composition is very close to the Earth's in all details except the lower FeO content which is explained. Evidence is discussed for the plausible physical process of formation of the Moon by impact induced fission. Also the theory that impact induced fission occurred at the moment at which accretion of the Earth was not totally complete is briefly discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 48
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  • 44
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The similarities in siderophile abundances strongly suggest that the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle after the Earth's core had formed. The energy required to remove material from the Earth's mantle and place it into geocentric orbit can be supplied most readily by impact processes during accretion of the Earth. Impacts of late-accreting, high-velocity planetismals would evaporate many times their masses of mantle material. These gases would be accompanied by a massive spray of shock-melted silicate droplets. It is suggested that the gases produced from such near-equatorial impacts were rapidly spun out into equatorial geocentric orbit. The evaporated material was selectively recondensed, and, accompanied by the shock melted, devolatilized silicate droplets, accreted to form a sediment ring of Earth-orbiting planetismals. This sediment ring also captured a significant proportion of Earth-bound planetismals. The Moon was formed by accretion from planetismals comprising the sediment ring.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 46
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Some classes of influential events in solar system history are class-predictable but not event-predictable. Theories of lunar origin should not ignore class-predictable stochastic events. Impacts and close encounters with large objects during planet formation are class-predictable. These stochastic events, such as large impacts that triggered ejection of Earth-mantle material into a circum-Earth cloud, should not be rejected as ad hoc. A way to deal with such events scientifically is to investigate their consequences; if it can be shown that they might produce the Moon, they become viable concepts in theories of lunar origin.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 39
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  • 46
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The dynamic problem of the tidal disruption of a rocky planetismal was solved by a direct integration of the fully three-dimensional, nonlinear equations of motion. The hypothesis that any object that passes within the Roche limit is disrupted was disproven. A time dependent solution was performed numerically, treating the planetismal as a fluid with a Murnaghan equation of state in the solid regions and zero pressure otherwise. Calculations show that a rocky body which passes by the Earth on a parabolic orbit with a perigee within the Roche limit is not tidally disrupted. Objects on hyperbolic orbits would experience even less tidal disruption. The results herein do not apply to bodies with very low viscosity. It is shown, however, that tidal disruption can be ruled out as a mechanism for reducing planetismal masses. Mechanisms for forming the Moon which rely upon tidal disruption are unlikely to be correct.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 37
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A theory for the formation of the Moon which involves the dynamic fission of a rapidly rotating protoplanet, which might then result in the formation of the Earth and the Moon is discussed. The fission hypothesis was originally based on analytic, linearized models of the growth of asymmetry in homogenous bodies. The fully nonlinear evolution of the dynamic instability in inviscid, compressible bodies was calculated by numerical techniques. It was found that the dynamic instability degenerates into the ejection of a ring of matter with a substantial fraction of the mass, leaving behind a central body with most of the mass. The linearized analytical approach and the numerical approach were used to show that dynamic fission probably does not occur in rocky protoplanets. The numerical calculations are performed with a fully three dimensional hydrodynamical code, which allows the nonlinear, time evolution of the instability to be followed. Sequences of uniformly rotating equilibria were constructed and are used as the initial models for the fission calculations. An initially imposed asymmetry consisting of a 10% binary perturbation in the density was found to disappear on the rotational period time scale. No dynamic instability occurred. This result are verified by including the velocity dissipation terms in the linearized analysis of the stability of a Maclaurin spheroid: the dynamic instability disappears when the simulated viscous dissipation terms are included. It is concluded that any rocky body, even with considerable partial melt or a molten core, should be stable to dynamic fission; any rotational instability that occurs can only result in equatorial mass loss.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 36
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The evolution of the Moon's orbit which is governed by tidal dissipation in the Earth while the evolution of its spin is controlled by its own internal dissipation is discussed. Lunar laser ranging data from August 1969 through May 1982 yields the values of both of these parameters. It is suggested that if the Moon was orbited the Earth since its formation, this must be an anomalously high value presumably due to changes in dissipation in the oceans due to continental drift. The explanation that the dissipation occurs at the interface between the mantle and a liquid core of shell is preferred.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 31
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  • 49
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Rb-Sr analyses of some lunar samples which indicate that the Moon is close to the age of primitive meteorites are only reliable to within about 100 m.y. A potentially more precise chronometer is the I-Pu-Xe system. I129 has a 17 m.y. halflife and decays to Xe129; Pu244, with an 82 m.y. halflife, produces Xe131 to Xe136 in fission. The I129/Pu244 ratio has a halflife of 21 m.y. Xenon retention for the Earth could have begun as late as the event that gave birth to the Moon. For the Moon, it is hard to imagine that xenon retention could have begun before re-accretion of the fissioned (and initially dispersed?) material, particularly if that material got hot enough to account for the depletion of the volatile elements. Thus, if fission model are correct, xenon retention in the Earth certainly began no later than in the Moon, and possibly began earlier. Therefore, the I-Pu-Xe system is only marginally consistent with a fission origin. If further study confirms that the I/U ratio of the Moon is .01 or less, or if gas-rich lunar highland breccias with higher ratios of I129 to Pu244 are found, it would be difficult to explain the results in an earth-fission model of lunar origin.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 24
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Supporting arguments for the lunar fusion hypothesis include the low density of the Moon corresponding to the density of the Earth's mantle and the low volatile content of the lunar rocks vs. those of terrestrial origin. Vapor pressures of the alkali elements and their oxides increase in the following order: Na, K, Rb and Cs. The Moon should, therefore, be more depleted in Cs relative to Rb, Rb relative to K, and K relative to Na than the Earth if the fission model is correct. Analyses of lunar mare basalts and terrestrial mid-ocean ridge and other young basalts indicate that this behavior is not observed. It is possible that monovalent alkali elements might be lost from silicate materials in a different order than that inferred from elemental and oxide vapor pressures, as a result of differences in the way they are bound in silicate materials. To test this hypothesis a series of experiments was conducted to investigate alkali loss at high temperatures. Analyses indicate that the behavior of volatiles dissolved in a silicate melt is similar to that inferred from elemental and oxide vapor pressures. It is concluded that alkali element ratios in the Earth and Moon are not readily interpreted in terms of the fission hypothesis.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 22
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Fra Mauro breccias at Apollo 14 contain distinctive suites of mare basalts and highland crustal rocks that contrast significantly with equivalent rocks from other Apollo sites. These contrasts imply lateral heterogeneity of the lunar crust and mantle on a regional scale. This heterogeneity may date back to the earliest stages of lunar accretion and differentiation. Current theories requiring a Moon-wide crust of Ferroan Anorthosite are based largely on samples from Apollo 16, where all but a few samples represent the FAN suite. However, at the nearside sites, FAN is either scarce (A-15) or virtually absent (A-12, A-14, A-17). It is suggested that the compositional variations could be accounted for by the acceleration of a large mass of material (e.g., 0.1 to 0.2 moon masses) late in the crystallization history of the magma ocean. Besides adding fresh, primordial material, this would remelt a large pocket of crust and mantle, thereby allowing a second distillation to occur in the resulting magma sea.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 21
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The FeO content of the Moon is substantially higher than the present FeO content of the Earth's mantle. If the Moon formed by fission from the Earth's mantle, then the conclusion that the Earth's mantle must have been much richer in FeO at the time of fission appears firm. If the Moon formed independently in geocentric orbit, then the FeO contents of the two bodies should be similar, because both would be accreting from the same source of silicate material. Therefore, Earth's mantle at the time of lunar formation probably had an FeO content quite similar to the present FeO content of the Moon. This conclusion, if valid, has profound implications in two areas: (1) the differentiation history of the Earth's mantle and core; and (2) the processes responsible for governing the bulk compositions of the terrestrial planets. If Earth had more FeO than previously thought, then the composition differences between Earth and Mars are less than previously believed. This suggests that condensation temperature and heliocentric distance may have been less important in governing planetary compositions and other mechanisms, including iron/silicate fractionation may have been more important. The implication of this model for the compositions of the Moon and the other terrestrial planets are discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 20
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  • 53
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Compositional data for nonmare (highlands) samples suggest that the Moon's mg ratio (MgO/FeO) is higher than general estimates. Geochemically representative highlands soils have mg ratios of 0.66 (Apollo 16), 0.69 (Luna 20) and 0.73 (ALHA81005). These soils are mixtures of unrelated pristine nonmare rocks, of which there are at least three groups: Mg-rich rocks, ferroan anorthosites, and KREEP. Other than Mg-rich rocks, virtually all pristine rocks have mg 0.65. Thus, assuming the mixing process that sampled Mg-rich materials was random, the average mg of Mg-rich parent magmas was probably at least 0.70. More direct evidence can be derived from the Mg-rich rocks themselves. Nine of them have bulk-rock mg 0.87. Two (15445 A and 67435 PST) contain Fo(92) olivine. Production of melts that crystallized Fo(92) olivine implies that the mg ratios of source regions in lunar mantle were commensurably high. A quantification of this constraint is developed assuming that the parent melts formed by equilibrium (batch) partial melting. Implications of the model are discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 19
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Regardless of the origin of the Moon, metal segregation must have occurred within the moon in order to account for its low siderophile element abundances relative to the Earth or chondrites. Germanium is a strongly siderophile element whose bulk distribution coefficient indicates that it is not fractionated during igneous processes on the Moon. The variability in absolute Ge abundances in mare basalts and pristine highland rocks, rather than elemental ratios, can be used to infer lunar mantle abundances and processes. Literature data have been compiled for Ge abundances in mare basalts and pristine highland rocks. For some landing sites, samples with 12 ppb Ge were considered to be extreme outliers and are not included. The Apollo 15 samples are enriched in Ge by a factor of 2.5 over the Apollo 12, 16 and 17 samples. Other siderophile element variations have been found in the Moon. Based on this data, best estimate of the average Ge abundance in the silicate portion of the Moon is 3.52 ppb. The Moon is depleted, relative to chondritic abundances, by a factor of 38,000 normalized to Si. Two possible explanations for the observed variations in Ge abundance in the Moon are: (1) more metal may have segregated from some regions of the Moon than from others; or Ge-bearing material may been been added later in the evolution of the Moon.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 16
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The earliest metal phases to crystallize from the least-fabricated low Ti mare basalts contain about 30% Ni and 2 to 7% of Co. Experimental investigations of partitioning of Ni and Co between primitive lunar basaltic magmas and metal phases are currently in progress. Preliminary results show that the metal phase crystallizing near the liquidus of Green Glass (185 ppm Ni, 70 ppm Co) would contain about 40% Ni and 2.3% Co. It seems, therefore, that if a lunar core does exist, as suggested by the results of (2), it is relatively rich in Ni (30-40%) and Co (2-7%). This composition presents a remarkable contrast to that of the Earth's core which is estimated to contain about 6% Ni and 0.3% Co. Explanations for the differing densities of Earth and Moon are imvestigated.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 14
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  • 56
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Two independent techniques used to infer the electrical conductivity of the interior of the Moon are discussed. The first is the measurement of an incident spectrum of electromagnetic waves in the solar wind near the Moon and the separate measurement of the incident plus reflected spectrum on the surface of the Moon. The second is the measurement of the distortion of the ambient magnetic field of the geomagnetic tail lobes by the conducting Moon. The size of the conducting region was found to be greater than 400 km in radius.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 7
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  • 57
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A 0.2 arc second phase shift in the 18.6 year forced precession of the lunar figure was inferred from analysis of lunar laser ranging data. The source of the phase shift is either viscous friction at a lunar core mantle boundary or solid friction caused by tidal flexing of the Moon by the Earth. Core mantle viscous coupling will explain the signature if the core radius R sub c approximately equals 330 km. On the other hand, solid friction can account for the signature only if the lunar solid friction 0 approximately equals 30 is abnormally small compared with that observed for, say, Mars (approximately equals 100 - 200). Although the inferred core radius is certainly within the limits imposed by the Apollo seismic experiment, it is significantly smaller than estimates of order 400-500 km from electromagnetic sounding. How accurate is the estimate of the R sub c derived from the phase shift? The effect of uncertainties in the frictional coupling mechanism, core density and ellipticity on the inferred core radius are discussed. The excitation of lunar free librations by core turbulence vis-a-vis other mechanisms (e.g., cometary or asteroidal impacts) and the influence of changes in lunar precession in the past on lunar dynamo generation are also examined.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 6
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The early fractionation of the Moon as a result of melting the outer layer of the Moon is discussed. This melting can be attributed to the accretional heating of the moon. Computations of the early thermal evolution of the Earth and Moon based on the assumption that these bodies accreted independently were carried out. The results are consistent with many observations. The concept of geochemical reservoirs was also applied to the Moon.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar Planetary Inst. Conf. on the Origin of the Moon; p 3
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: HIG-CONTRIB-1235-VOL-2 , Hawaii Univ. Contrib. of the Hawaii Inst. of Geophys., Vol. 2; 18 p
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  • 60
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: HIG-CONTRIB-1332-VOL-2 , Hawaii Univ. Contrib. of the Hawaii Inst. of Geophys., Vol. 2; 23 p
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The planetary atmospheres are investigated for their chemical composition. Hydrogen, methane, ethylene, acetylene, and ethane were studied. Various spectroscopic investigations were made.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CP-2223-VOL-2 , NAS 1.55:2223
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: It is thought likely that extension of civilization beyond earth may include a permanent settlement on the moon. An analysis of the American civilian space program shows that the required technology for establishing a base on the moon will exist before the end of this century. A manned lunar base is discussed in terms of three distinct functions. The first is related to the scientific investigation of the moon and the application of special properties of the moon to research problems. In connection with the second, attention is given to the development of the capability to utilize the materials of the moon for beneficial purposes throughout the earth-moon system. The last involves research and development leading to a self-sufficient and self-supporting lunar base.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: IAF PAPER 84-197
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The discovery of concentrations of meteorites in Antarctica by Japanese field parties in 1969, and subsequently by joint U.S.-Japanese and U.S. field parties since 1976 has provided a significant new resource for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system. The number of meteorites as well as the variety of meteorites has increased dramatically, and substantial amounts of data derived from their study has begun to appear in the scientific literature. The U.S. program of investigation has drawn on curatorial experience derived from the lunar program to: (1) develop specific collection and preliminary examination protocols; (2) provide documented samples for scientific investigations in response to specific requests; and (3) coordinate research by scientific consortia. The productivity of scientific research is significantly enhanced by these management approaches. Some of the results of the curatorial program for Antarctic meteorites carried out over the past three years are described.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: National Institute of Polar Research, Memoirs (ISSN 0386-0744); 20, D
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A detailed study of the magnetic field data from both Voyagers 1 and 2 has revealed several interesting properties of the near and distant Jovian magnetotail. During the first encounter, as Voyager 1 passed between 80 and 140 R sub J from Jupiter in the near tail, the spacecraft was almost entirely in the northerm lobe magnetic field. The frequency spectrum of magnetic fluctuation in this region cannot be characterized by a power law and does not appear to be turbulent. The distant tail spectra from Voyager 2 are compared with similar spectra obtained from Voyager 1 when it was in near radial alignment with Voyager 2. Although the gross properties of the tail and solar wind fields in most respects differ considerably, the shape and power levels of the spectra of the magnetic fluctuations are very similar, especially between .0001 and .001 Hz. At lower frequencies (.00001 to .0001 Hz) the spectra of magnetic helicity do differ.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:86159 , NASA-TM-86159
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Unlike Earth, long wavelength gravity anomalies and topography correlate well on Venus. Venus's admittance curve from spherical harmonic degree 2 to 18 is inconsistent with either Airy or Pratt isostasy, but is consistent with dynamic support from mantle convection. A model using whole mantle flow and a high viscosity near surface layer overlying a constant viscosity mantle reproduces this admittance curve. On Earth, the effective viscosity deduced from geoid modeling increases by a factor of 300 from the asthenosphere to the lower mantle. These viscosity estimates may be biased by the neglect of lateral variations in mantle viscosity associated with hot plumes and cold subducted slabs. The different effective viscosity profiles for Earth and Venus may reflect their convective styles, with tectonism and mantle heat transport dominated by hot plumes on Venus and by subducted slabs on Earth. Convection at degree 2 appears much stronger on Earth than on Venus. A degree 2 convective structure may be unstable on Venus, but may have been stabilized on Earth by the insulating effects of the Pangean supercontinental assemblage.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:176173 , NASA-CR-176173
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The morphological characteristics and evolutionary development of rock labyrinths on Earth (in sandstone, volcanics, and carbonates) are compared with those on Mars. On Earth rock labyrinths originate as parallel, an echelon, or intersecting narrow grabens, or develop where fault and joint networks are selectively eroded. Labyrinths frequently contain both downfaulted and erosional elements. Closed labyrinths contain depressions; open labyrinths do not, they are simple part of a fluvial network generally of low order. As closed labyrinths made up of intersecting grabens or made up of connected erosional depressions are extremely common on Mars, the research focussed on an understanding of these labyrinth types. Field investigations were carried out in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and in the Chirachahua Mountains of Arizona. Martian labyrinths were investigated using Viking orbiter images. In addition, research was undertaken on apparent thermokarst features in Lunae Planum and Chryse Planitia where closed depressions are numerous and resemble atlas topography.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:175511 , NASA-CR-175511
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Viking Lander 1 wind sensor data during the period between sols 45 and 375 were corrected. During this period, the heating element of the quadrant sensor which provided the primary signal used for determining wind direction had failed, but both hot film wind sensors were functioning normally. The wind speed and direction corrections are explained.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-174349 , NAS 1.26:174349
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The discovery circumstances are analyzed for all Earth-approaching asteroids detected in the last twenty-four years. In particular, topocentric angular velocities, opposition distance, geocentric and heliocentric distances, phase angle, and lunar phase at discover were calculated in an effort to separate any selection effects between chance and purposeful (i.e., as the result of a systematic search) discoveries. Another motivation was the possibility of discerning useful clues how to search more efficiently for such objects. There are 60 minor planets in the sample. The principal result is that the discovery of Earth-approaching asteroids is dominated by serendipity. Therefore, searching for them at the current relatively bright limits at less than a very high rate seems pointless.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:174327 , NASA-CR-174327
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A bow wave was previously observed in the solar wind upstream of each of the first six planets. The observed properties of these bow waves and the associated plasma flows are outlined, and those features identified that can be described by a continuum magnetohydrodynamic flow theory. An account of the fundamental concepts and current status of the magnetohydrodynamic and gas dynamic theories for solar wind flow past planetary bodies is provided. This includes a critical examination of: (1) the fundamental assumptions of the theories; (2) the various simplifying approximations introduced to obtain tractable mathematical problems; (3) the limitations they impose on the results; and (4) the relationship between the results of the simpler gas dynamic-frozen field theory and the more accurate but less completely worked out magnetohydrodynamic theory. Representative results of the various theories are presented and compared.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-174135 , NAS 1.26:174135
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Trajectory and mission requirement data are presented for Earth-Mars opposition class and conjunction class round trip stopover mission opportunities available during the time period year 2000 to year 2045. The opposition class mission employs the gravitational field of Venus to accelerate the space vehicle on either the outbound or inbound leg. The gravitational field of Venus was used to reduce the propulsion requirement associated with the opposition class mission. Representative space vehicle systems are sized to compare the initial mass required in low Earth orbit of one mission opportunity with another mission opportunity. The interplanetary space vehicle is made up of the spacecraft and the space vehicle acceleration system. The space vehicle acceleration system consists of three propulsion stages. The first propulsion stage performs the Earth escape maneuver; the second stage brakes the spacecraft and Earth braking stage into the Mars elliptical orbit and effects the escape maneuver from the Mars elliptical orbit. The third propulsion stage brakes the mission module into an elliptical orbit at Earth return. The interplanetary space vehicle was assumed to be assembled in and depart from the space station circular orbit.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-86477 , NAS 1.15:86477
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  • 71
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: High-temperature creep in orthoenstatite under conditions of controlled oxygen fugacity was studied. It was found that creep was conttrolled by the extremely thin layer of SiO2 which wetted the grain boundaries. Slight reduction of the (Mg, Fe)SiO3 enstatite during hot pressing produced microscopic particles of Fe and the thin film of intergranular SiO2. This result highlights another complication in determining the flow properties of iron bearing silicates which constitute the bulk of terrestrial planets and moons. The Phenomenon may be important in the ductile formation of any extraterrestrial body which is formed in a reducing environment. The rheology of dirty ice was studied. This involves micromechanical modeling of hardening phenomena due to contamination by a cosmic distribution of silicate particles. The larger particles are modeled by suspension theory. In order to handle the distribution of particles sizes, the hardening is readed as a critical phenomenon, and real space renormalization group techniques are used. Smaller particles interact directly with the dislocations. The particulate hardening effect was studied in metals. The magnitude of such hardening in ice and the defect chemistry of ice are studied to assess the effects of chemical contamination by methane, ammonia, or other likely contaminants.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: USC-TR-84-9 , NASA-CR-174024 , NAS 1.26:174024
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Progress is reported on a project to determine the properties and boundaries of high pressure phases of the H2-He-H2O-NH3-CH4 system that are needed to constrain theoretical models of the interiors of the major planets. This project is one of the first attempts to measure phase equilibria in binary fluid-solid systems in diamond anvil cells. Vibrational spectroscopy, direct visual observations, and X-ray diffraction crystallography of materials confined in externally heated cells are the primary experimental probes. Adiabats of these materials are also measured in order to constrain models of heat flow in these bodies and to detect phase transitions by thermal anomalies. Initial efforts involve the NH3-H2O binary. This system is especially relevant to models for surface reconstruction of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Thermal analysis experiments were completed for the P-X space, p4GPa:0 or = 0.50, near room temperature. The cryostat, sample handling equipment, and optics needed to extend the optical P-T-X work below room temperature was completed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-174032 , NAS 1.26:174032
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The extreme ultraviolet EUV emission produced by particle excitation of the hydrogen atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn is examined using model calculations to determine the nature of the energy deposition process and the effect of such processes on atmospheric structure. Tasks ranging from examination of phenomenologically related processes on Saturn and Titan to analysis of experimental laboratory data required to allow accurate modeling of emissions from hydrogenic atmospheres are investigated. An explanation of the hydrogen H Ly(alpha) bulge in Jupiter's emission from the equatorial region is presented. It is proposed that Saturn, rather then Titan is the major source of the extended hydrogen cloud. The atomic hydrogen detected at the rings of Saturn may originate predominantly from the same source. A cross calibration is obtained between the Pioneer 10 EUV photometer and the Voyager EUV spectrometers, thus providing a direct measure of the temporal morphology of Jupiter between a minimum and a maximum in solar activity. Atomic and molecular data required for the research program are analyzed. An extrapolation of conditions in the upper atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn produces a predicted condition at Uranus in terms of excitation and hydrogen escape rates that may be observed at Voyager-Uranus encounter.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173930 , NASA-CR-173930
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  • 74
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The 4.8 micron flux from the Galilean satellite Io was shown to fluctuate with an amplitude of approximately 10 percent on time scales of every 28 seconds, 40 minutes, night-to-night, and perhaps year-to-year. Such behavior was found to be the result of random fluctuations for which the mean square fluctuation varies inversely with frequency for constant bandwidth measurement. The theory developed for thermionic emission from barium oxide cathodes in vacuum tubes might be applicable to this situation. If so, the fluctuations in the flux from Io's volcanoes may be caused by diffusion of hot convective cells onto the surface of Io. Long term fluctuations may furnish a means by which the Io volcanism can shut down and conserve energy. Thus the discrepancy that exists between measurements of the current heat flow from Io and calculations of tidal dissipation may be resolved. Tests for rapid flickering at 10 microns showed no fluctuations greater than one percent. This agrees with the prediction of the flow model theory in which the 10 microns volcanic thermal emission arises from cooling of old flows.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-173447 , NAS 1.26:173447
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Images from three filters of the Voyager 1 wide angle camera are used to measure the continuum reflectivity and spectral gradient near 6000 A and the 6190 A band methane/continuum ratio for a variety of cloud features in Jupiter's atmosphere. The dark barge features in the North Equatorial Belt have anomalously strong positive continuum spectral gradients suggesting unique composition. Methane absorption is shown at unprecedented spatial scales for the Great Red Spot and its immediate environment, for a dark barge feature in the North Equatorial Belt, and for two hot spot and plume regions in the North Equatorial Belt. Methane absorption and five micrometer emission are correlated in the vicinity of the Great Red Spot but are anticorrelated in one of the plume hot spot regions. Methane absorption and simultaneous maps of five micrometer brightness temperature is quantitatively compared to realistic cloud structure models which include multiple scattering at five micrometer as well as in the visible. Variability in H2 quadrupole lines are also investigated.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173567 , NASA-CR-173567
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  • 76
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Four tests are examined: (1) investigation of volcanism on Io; Interim results of thermal and structural modeling of volcanism on Io are presented, (2) a study of the ancient heavily cratered regions on Ganymede, (3) a geologic comparison of the cratering record on Ganymede and Callisto, and (4) a geological and chemical investigation of internal resurfacing processes on the Saturnian satellites. Tasks 2, 3, and 4 utilize Voyager imaging data.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173497 , NASA-CR-173497
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Antarctic meteorites, achondrites, carbonaceous chondrites, ions, and stony-irons are classified.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-85559 , NAS 1.15:85559
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The low energy plasma electron environment within Saturn's magnetosphere was surveyed by the Plasma Science Experiment (PLS) during the Voyager encounters with Saturn. Over the full energy range of the PLS instrument (10 eV to 6 keV) the electron distribution functions are clearly non-Maxwellian in character; they are composed of a cold (thermal) component with Maxwellian shape and a hot (suprathermal) non-Maxwellian component. A large scale positive radial gradient in electron temperature is observed, increasing from less than 1 eV in the inner magnetosphere to as high as 800 eV in the outer magnetosphere. Three fundamentally different plasma regimes were identified from the measurements: (1) the hot outer magnetosphere, (2) the extended plasma sheet, and (3) the inner plasma torus.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-85086 , NAS 1.15:85086
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of an experimental comparison between palagonites and a smectite (montmorillonite) in the simulation of the Viking Biology Labeled Release (LR) experiment and conclusions regarding their suitability as MarSAMs are reproved. It was found that palagonites do not cause formate decomposition and C-14 release in their natural form or after acidification and thus cannot be a completely satisfactory analog to the Mars soil studied by Viking.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-84361 , A-9320 , NAS 1.15:84361
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  • 80
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The data collection and the interpretation with respect to the mineralogy of meteoritic and terrestrial samples are summarized. The key conclusion is that the Moon underwent a series of melting episodes with complex crystal-liquid differentiation. It was not possible to determine whether the Moon melted completely or only partially. The stage is now set for a systematical geochemical and geophysical survey of the Moon. Emphasis was moved to meteorites in order to sort out their interrelationships from the viewpoint of mineral chemistry. Several parent bodies are needed for the achondrites with different chemical properties. Exploration of Mars is required to test ideas based on the possible assignment of shergottites, nakhlites and chassignite to this planet. Early rocks on the Earth have properties consistent with a heavy bombardment and strong volcanic activity prior to 4 billion years ago.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-170345 , NAS 1.26:170345
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radicals and ions observed in comets result from photodissociation and photoionization of molecules. According to current models, a comet is composed chiefly of a large, solid nucelus of frozen gases (parent molecules) such as H2O, HCN, and NH3. It is believed comets were formed at the same time and in the same region of space as the major planets and that their chemical composition is the same as that of the early solar system. As the comet nears the Sun, the surface heats up, liberating the frozen gases as well as dust particles. Solar radiation photodissociates the parent molecules into fragments that are observed by resonance fluorescence. Both polyatomic molecules, present in the interstellar medium, and cometary radicals were observed. Using laboratory photo-dissociation data and computer models, astronomers are attempting to identify the parent molecules that account for all observed radicals and ions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:170215 , NASA-CR-170215
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ray tracing of the Jovian magnetosphere in the low frequency range (1+40 MHz) has resulted in a new understanding of the source mechanism for Io dependent decametric radiation (DAM). Our three dimensional ray tracing computer code has provided model DAM arcs at 10 deg. intervals of Io longitude source positions for the full 360 deg of Jovian system III longitude. In addition, particularly interesting arcs were singled out for detailed study and modelling. Dependent decametric radiation arcs are categorized according to curvature--the higher curvature arcs are apparently due to wave stimulation at a nonconstant wave normal angle, psi. The psi(f) relationship has a signature that is common to most of the higher curvature arcs. The low curvature arcs, on the other hand, are adequately modelled with a constant wave normal angle of close to 90 deg. These results imply that for higher curvature arcs observed for from Jupiter (to diminish spacecraft motion effects) the electrons providing the gyroemission are relativistically beamed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-170237 , JPL-9950-801 , NAS 1.26:170237
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  • 83
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Distinctions between cometary material and other extraterrestrial materials (meteorite suites and stratospherically-captured cosmic dust) are addressed. The technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for analysis of elemental composition is involved. Concomitant with these investigations, the problem of collecting representative samples of comet dust (for rendezvous missions) was solved, and several related techniques such as mineralogic analysis (X-ray diffraction), direct analysis of the nucleus without docking (electron macroprobe), dust flux rate measurement, and test sample preparation were evaluated. An explicit experiment concept based upon X-ray fluorescence analysis of biased and unbiased sample collections was scoped and proposed for a future rendezvous mission with a short-period comet.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-170159 , NAS 1.26:170159 , MCR-82-626
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The flux of energetic protons in Saturn's inner magnetosphere was observed in two channels from 48 to 63 and 63 to 160 MeV. Absorption features due to the G ring and the satellites Enceladus and Mimas were easily identifiable. The flux observed in the absorption slot of Mimas can be maintained by the decay of a cosmic ray albedo neutron flux of 0.007/sq cm/s/sr. This flux is entirely consistent with calculations of the neutron flux produced by galactic cosmic ray interactions with the rings of Saturn. The omnidirectional proton flux of 0.0082/sq cm/s at 2.734 R sub s requires a residence time of 30 years. Both the residence time and the energy spectrum are comparable to those found in the inner radiation belt of the Earth. The angular distribution is nearly isotropic in the Mimas slot and beyond 4R sub s. Otherwise the pitch angle distribution is pancake and is approximated by sin(n)theta with n in the range 2 to 7. This distribution is consistent with an isotropic neutron source in the ring plane.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:84938 , NASA-TM-84938
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  • 85
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Disk average brightness temperatures of Mercury were obtained using a 4.6 m radio telescopes. The data was searched for periodicities which correlate with phase angle, hermocentric longitude and beat frequencies produced by modulations of various celestial mechanical parameters. Spectral line observations were made of Venus with the NRAO 11 m radio telescope. The total CO content and the CO vertical profile, and their variability were observed. Large scale thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars were studied.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-169867 , NAS 1.26:169867
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  • 86
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The 3-D rotation-vibration band of carbon monoxide was identified in the near-infrared spectrum of Titan. A preliminary mixing ratio of CO/N2 = 0.00006 was determined. This result supports the probable detection of CO2 by Samuelson et al and strengthens possible analogies between the atmosphere of Titan and conditions on the primitive Earth.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:169540 , NASA-CR-169540
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  • 87
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Lunar nomenclature is cataloged. It includes letter designations for subsidiary craters, and uses a more familiar spelling from eight names. The listed features are divided into three main groups for cataloging purposes, namely: (1) craters, (2) noncrater features; and (3) minor and miscellaneous features.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.61:1097 , NASA-RP-1097
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