ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (14,408)
Collection
Keywords
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2009-11-23
    Description: Opinions conflict over the role of surface gravity in shaping impact craters on Mercury. One view holds that the effects of g are evident in measurable aspects of crater form; other investigators find little or no evidence for g's geomorphic importance. Ambiguity in the role of g and other variables in cratering on Mercury stems largely from uncertainty in identifying major geomorphic contrasts and the crater sizes at which they occur. One of these, depth/diameter (d/D), undergoes a major change at the transition from simple (bowl shaped) to complex (peaks and terraces) crater interiors. Four least-squares d/D fits for fresh craters on Mercury were attemped. The results are inconsistent. The d/D data that should resolve previous shortcomings is presented. The revised d/D distributions for simple and complex craters, which intersect at a diameter of about 5 km, support the initial thesis that g substantially influences the form of Mercury's craters.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Washington Rept. of Planetary Geol. Program, 1983; p 104-106
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Estimates of the mass of dust suspended in the Martian atmosphere are derived from global and regional 9-micrometer opacity maps produced from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data. During the peak of the 1977b storm, a total dust mass of approximately 4.3 x 10(exp 14) g was suspended, equivalent to 4.3 x 10(exp -4) g/sq cm, or a layer 1.4 micrometers thick. During a local dust storm near Solis Planum at L(sub s) 227 deg, approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 13) g of dust were lofted, equal to about a 6-micrometer layer in that vicinity.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E4; p. 7509-7512
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The earliest evolution of the Moon likely included the formation of a magma ocean and the subsequent development of anorthositic flotation cumulates. This primary anorthositic crust was then intruded by mafic magmas which crystallized to form the lunar highlands magnesian suite. The present study is a compilation of petrologic, mineral-chemical, and geochemical information on all pristine magnesian-suite plutonic rocks and the interpretation of this data in light of 18 'new' samples. Of these 18 clasts taken from Apollo 14 breccias, 12 are probably pristine and include four dunites, two norites, four troctolites, and two anorthosites. Radiogenic isotopic whole rock data also are reported for one of the 'probably pristine' anorthositic troctolites, sample 14303,347. The relatively low Rb content and high Sm and Nd abundances of 14303,347 suggest that this cumulate rock was derived from a parental magma which had these chemical characteristics. Trace element, isotopic, and mineral-chemical data are used to interpret the total highlands magnesian suite as crustal precipitates of a primitive KREEP (possessing a K-, rare earth element (REE)-, and P-enriched chemical signature) basalt magma. This KREEP basalt was created by the mixing of ascending ultramafic melts from the lunar interior with urKREEP (the late, K-, REE-, and P-enriched residuum of the lunar magma ocean). A few samples of the magnesian suite with extremely elevated large-ion lithophile elements (5-10x other magnesian-suite rocks) cannot be explained by this model or any other model of autometasomatism, equilibrium crystallization, or 'local melt-pocket equilibrium' without recourse to an extremely large-ion lithophile element-enriched parent liquid. It is difficult to generate parental liquids which are 2-4 x higher in the REE than average lunar KREEP, unless the liquids are the basic complement of a liquid-liquid pair, i.e., the so-called 'REEP-fraction,' from the silicate liquid immiscibility of urKREEP. Scarce age information on lunar rocks suggests that magnesian-suite magmatism was initiated at progressively more recent time from the northeast to the southwest on the lunar nearside from 4.45 to 4.25 Ga.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; E5; p. 9365-9388
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The 3.0-micrometers water of hydration absorption feature observed in the IR photometry of many low-albedo and some medium-albedo asteroids strongly correlates with the 0.7-micrometers Fe(+2) to Fe(+3) oxidized iron absorption feature observed in narrowband spectrophotometry of these asteroids. Using this relationship, an empirical algorithm for predicting the presence of water of hydration in the surface material of a Solar System body using photometry obtained through the Eight-Color Asteroid Survey nu (0.550 micrometers), w (0.701 micrometers), and x (0.853 micrometers) filters was developed and applied to the ECAS photometry of asteroids and outer planet satellites. The percentage of objects in low-albedo, outer main-belt asteroid classes that test positively for water of hydration increases from P to B to C to G class and correlates linearly with the increasing mean albedos of those objects testing positively. The medium-albedo M-class asteroids do not test positively in large number using this algorithm. Aqueously altered asteroids dominate the Solar System population between heliocentric distances of 2.6 to 3.5 AU, bracketing the Solar System region where the aqueous alteration mechanism operated most strongly. One jovian satellite, J VI Himalia, and one saturnian satellite. Phoebe, tested positively for water of hydration, supporting the hypothesis that these may be captured C-class asteroids from a postaccretional dispersion. The proposed testing technique could be applied to an Earth-based survey of asteroids or a space-probe study of an asteroid's surface characteristic in order to identify a potential water source.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 111; 2; p. 456-467
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Launch mechanisms for lunar and martian meteorites have been investigated, by integrating physical modeling constraints, geochemical cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) constraints, and petrologic constraints. The potential source region for lunar meteorites is remarkably small compared to the final crater volume. CRE constraints indicate that most launches start at depths of less than or equal to 3.2 m, and cratering theory implies derivation of suitably accelerated objects from a subvolume with diameter only about 0.3 x the final crater diameter. The shallow depth provenance is probably related to shock-wave interference, enhanced by the lunar regolith's extremely low compressional wave velocity. CRE constraints alone imply that four to five separate launch events are represented among the eight well-studied lunar meteorites. Most of the lunar meteorites are regolith breccias, which tend to show only limited compositional diversity within any kilometer-scale region of the Moon. Several others are polymict breccias, which also show relatively subdued compositional diversity, compared to igneous rocks. The observed diversity among these samples in terms of abundances of mare basalt and KREEP, and in Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio, implies that among eight well-studied lunar meteorites only two potential source craters pairings are plausible: between Asuka-881757 + Y-793169 (most probable) and between Y-793274 + EET875721. Altogether, these eight lunar meteorites apparently represent at least six separate source craters, including three in the past 10(exp 5) years and five in the past 10(exp 6) years. CRE constraints imply that SNC meteorites are launched from systematically greater than lunar meteorites. SNCs are also systematically bigger, and all nine well-studied SNCs are uncommonly young (by martian standards) mafic igneous rocks. Comparison between Viking and Apollo results reveals that rocks the size of common meteorites are remarkably scarce in the martian regolith, probably due to pervasive weathering. A plausible explanation for these trends is that most old, small, and shallow rocks on Mars have been weakened by a two-stage process of brecciation followed by pervasive weathering, to the point where they seldom survive the stresses of spallation off the planet. The scarcity of source-crater pairing among the lunar meteorites implies that these objects can be launched from craters much smaller than previously estimated and tends to support the suggestion of Rabinowitz (1993) that present-day cratering rates for the Earth-Moon region may be higher than previously estimated.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 111; 2; p. 338-363
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We examine the effects of the loss of Mars atmospheric constituents by solar-wind-induced sputtering and by photochemical escape during the past 3.8 billion years. Sputtering is capable of efficiently removing species from the upper atmosphere, including the light noble gases; nitrogen and oxygen are removed by photochemical processes as well. Due to diffusive separation (by mass) above the homopause, removal from the top of the atmosphere will fractionate the isotopes of each species, with the lighter mass being preferentially lost. For carbon and oxygen, this allows us to determine the size of nonatmospheric reservoirs which mix with the atmosphere; these reservoirs can be CO2 adsorbed in the regolith and H2O in the polar ice caps. We have constructed both simple analytical models and time-dependent models of the loss of volatiles from and supply to the martian atmosphere. Both argon and neon require continued replenishment from outgassing over geologic time. For argon, sputtering loss explains the fractionation of (Ar-36)/(Ar-38) without requiring a distinct epoch of hydrodynamic escape (although fractionation of Xe isotopes still requires very early hydrodynamic loss). For neon, the current (Ne-22)/(Ne-20) ratio represents a balance between loss to space and continued resupply from the interior; the similarity of the ratio to the terrestrial value is coincidental. For nitrogen, the loss by both sputtering and photochemical escape would produce a fractionation of (N-15)/(N-14) larger than observed; an early, thicker carbon dioxide atmosphere could mitigate the nitrogen loss and produce the observed fractionation, as could continued outgassing of juvenile nitorgen. Based on the isotopic constraints, the total amount of carbon dioxide lost over geologic time is probably on the order of tens of millibars rather than a substantial fraction of a bar. The total loss from solar-wind-induced sputtering and photochemical escape, therefore, does not seem able to explain the loss of a putative thick, early atmosphere withput requiring formation of extensive surface carbonate deposits or other nonatmospheric reservoirs for CO2.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 111; 2; p. 271-288
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The infrared transmission spectra and photochemical behavior of various organic compounds isolated in solid N2 ices, appropriate for applications to Triton ad Pluto, are presented. It is shown that excess absorption in the surface spectra of Triton and Pluto, i.e., absorption not explained by present models incorporating molecules already identified on these bodies (N2, CH4, CO, and CO2), that starts near 4450/cm (2.25 microns) and extends to lower frequencies, may be due to alkanes (C(n)H(2n+2)) and related molecules frozen in the nitrogen. Branched and linear alkanes may be responsible. Experiments in which the photochemstry of N2: CH4 and N2: CH4: CO ices was explored demonsrtrate that the surface ices of Triton and Pluto may contain a wide variety of additional species containing H, C, O, and N. Of these, the reactive molecule diazomethane, CH2N2, is particularly important since it may be largely responsible for the synthesis of larger alkanes from CH4 and other small alkanes. Diazomethane would also be expected to drive chemical reactions involving organics in the surface ices of Triton and Pluto toward saturation, i.e., to reduce multiple CC bonds. The positions and intrinsic strengths (A values) of many of the infrared absorption bands of N2 matrix-isolated molecules of relevance to Triton and Pluto have also been determined. These can be used to aid in their search and to place constraints on their abundances.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 111; 1; p. 151-173
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: High spatial resolution maps illustrating variations in spectral reflectance 400/560 nm ratio values have been generated for the following mare regions: (1) the border between southern Mare Serenitatis and northern Mare Tranquillitatis (including the MS-2 standard area and Apollo 17 landing site), (2) central Mare Tranquillitatis, (3) Oceanus Procellarum near Seleucus, and (4) southern Oceanus Procellarum and Flamsteed. We have also obtained 320-1000 nm reflectance spectra of several sites relative to MS-2 to facilitate scaling of the images and provide additional information on surface composition. Inferred TiO2 abundances for these mare regions have been determined using an empirical calibration which relates the weight percent TiO2 in mature mare regolith to the observed 400/560 nm ratio. Mare areas with high TiO2 abundances are probably rich in ilmenite (FeTiO3) a potential lunar resource. The highest potential TiO2 concentrations we have identified in the nearside maria occur in central Mare Tranquillitatis. Inferred TiO2 contents for these areas are greater than 9 wt% and are spatially consistent with the highest-TiO2 regions mapped previously at lower spatial resolution. We note that the morphology of surface units with high 400/560 nm ratio values increases in complexity at higher spatial resolutions. Comparisons have been made with previously published geologic maps, Lunar Orbiter IV, and ground-based images, and some possible morphologic correlatins have been found between our mapped 400/560 nm ratio values and volcanic landforms such as lava flows, mare domes, and collapse pits.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; E3; p. 5,601-5,619
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A search through cycle 1, 2, and 3 Magellan radar data covering 98% of the surface of Venus revealed very few dunes. Only two possible dune fields and several areas that may contain microdunes smaller than the resolution of the images (75 m) were identified. The Aglaonice dune field was identified in the cycle 1 images by the specular returns characteristic of dune faces oriented perpendicular to the radar illumination. Cycle 1 and 2 data of the Fortuna-Meshkenet dune field indicate that there has been no noticeable movement of the dunes over an 8-month period. The dunes, which are oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the radar illumination, appear to be dark features on a brighter substrate. Bright and dark patches that were visible in either cycle 1 or 2 data, but not both, allowed identification of several regions in the southern part of Venus that may contain microdunes. The microdunes are associated with several parabolic crater deposits in the region and are probably similar to those formed in wind tunnel experiments under Venus-like conditions. Bragg scattering and/or subpixel relfections from the near-normal face on asymmetric microdunes may account for these bright and dark patches. Look-angle effects and the lack of sufficient sand-size particles seem to be most likely reasons so few dunes were identified in Magellan data. Insufficient wind speeds, thinness of sand cover, and difficulty in identifying isolated dunes may also be contributors to the scarcity of dunes.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 112; 1; p. 282-295
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    facet.materialart.
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Magellan spehrical harmonic gravity and topography models are used to estimate lithospheric properties at Alta Regio, Venus, a proposed hotspot with dynamic support from mantle plume(s). Global spherical harmonic and local representations of the gravity field share common properties in the Atla region interms of their spectral behavior over a wavelength band from approximately 2100 to approximately 700 km. The estimated free-air admittance spectrum displays a rather featureless long-wavelength portion followed by a sharp rise at wavelengths shorter than about 1000 km. This sharp rise requires significant flexural support of short-wavelength structures. The Bouguer coherence also displays a sharp drop in this wavelength band, indicating a finite flexural rigidity of the lithosphere. A simple model for lithospheric loading from above and below is introduced (D. W. Forsyth, 1985) with four parameters: f, the ratio of bottom loading to top loading; z(sub m), crustal thickness; z(sub l) depth to bottom loading source; and T(sub e) elastic lithosphere thickness. A dual-mode compensation model is introduced in which the shorter wavelengths (lambda approximately less than 1000 km) might be explained best by a predominance of top loading by the large shield volcanoes Maat Mons, Ozza Mons, and Sapas Mons, and the longer wavelengths (lambda approximately greater than 1500 km) might be explained best by a deep depth of compensation, possibly representing bottom loading by a dynamic source. A Monte Carlo inversion technique is introduced to thoroughly search out the four-space of the model parameters and to examine parameter correlation in the solutions. Venus either is a considerabe deficient in heat sources relative to Earth, or the thermal lithosphere is overthickened in response to an earlier episode of significant heat loss from the planet.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 112; 1; p. 147-170
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...