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  • 1
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: There is a strong gap in school enrollment rates between young girls with and without children in Uruguay. This paper aims to explain if this gap responds to a cause-effect relationship, identifying the impact of becoming a teen mother on the educational outcomes of young girls. Our identification strategy takes advantage of a reform in Uruguay allowing voluntary termination of pregnancy since December 2012. This reform made Uruguay the only Latin-American country - except from Cuba, Guyana and Mexico City - where abortion on demand is legal. However, the supply of legal abortion services faced several drawbacks in some geographical areas where a high share of gynecologists refused to induce abortions, since the law protects the right to exercise 'conscientious objection' with respect to abortion. Thus, the supply of abortion services varied substantially across departments. Differences in the timing and degree of implementation provide a source of identification for estimating the causal effect of teenage fertility on education using an Instrumental Variables approach. Local abortion rates - carried out under the new legal framework - are used to instrument teenage fertility rates. This is the first study to have official information on the number of legally terminated pregnancies in Uruguay since abortion reform in 2012. Results suggest that access to legal abortion reduced teenage fertility. We provide an exogenous instrument for teenage fertility - legal abortion rates - and this is one of the main contributions of the paper. Second-stage results indicate the causal effect of teenage fertility on educational attainment is null for the group of compliers. This suggests that poor educational performance of teenage mothers cannot be attributed to early motherhood per se, but to pre-existing disadvantages.
    Keywords: I21 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Teenage fertility ; Abortion ; Education ; Instrumental Variables ; Latin America ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Keywords: I21 ; C02 ; ddc:330 ; education economics ; higher education ; qualitative comparative analysis ; European higher education area
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: This work has as main objective to determine the effect country, type of institution (its ownership, public or private) and their resources on educational outcomes for students of Latin-American education system from PISA 2009. The results obtained by applying a multilevel analysis reveal that differences in academic performance in favor of private schools are explained by the type of school providing empirical support for the hypothesis Coleman-Hoffer. The environment features student and school resources also have strong explanatory power. Regarding the former, native students in nuclear families with higher socioeconomic status and household resources get higher yields than other categories. This is especially significant in pointing out some aspects that the education system should take into account when ensuring equal educational opportunities. Regarding the latter, the size of the school, the classroom environment and the resources available in the centers have a strong influence on academic performance.
    Keywords: H52 ; I21 ; I28 ; C38 ; ddc:330 ; Latin America ; socioeconomic status ; peer effect ; ownership ; PISA 2009
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Este estudio analiza los desafíos que confronta el sistema educativo boliviano, que son necesarios abordar para que el país pueda reducir las brechas existentes en relación a los demás países de la región, que han alcanzado un mayor desarrollo y bienestar. Bolivia presenta brechas significativas en cuanto al nivel educativo alcanzado por la población, a la cobertura y calidad del sistema educativo, a los recursos que asigna en Estado a la educación, en términos de recursos humanos, físicos y gasto público. También se presentan brechas internas en el acceso a la educación a nivel regional y de género. La bonanza económica que ha disfrutado el país en los últimos años ha aumentado los recursos que se asignan al sector y mejorar algunos indicadores. Sin embargo, el sistema educativo Boliviano todavía presenta retos significativos que debe enfrentarlos en el futuro para que el sistema educativo permita en forma efectiva, mejorar el nivel de vida de la población.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación Bolivia ; Bildungswesen ; Bildungsstatistik ; Bildungspolitik ; Entwicklungspolitik ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: En este trabajo se documenta y analiza la segregación escolar entre alumnos de distintos estratos socioeconómicos que asisten a escuelas públicas y privadas en América Latina. El trabajo contribuye con evidencia empírica a la medición de este fenómeno desde principios de los noventa hasta la actualidad. Los resultados sugieren que en promedio el grado de segregación escolar público-privado en América Latina habría aumentado en las últimas dos décadas.
    Keywords: D63 ; I21 ; Z13 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: The present paper estimates the effect over participation outcomes of the new reform to the pension system made in Chile in 2008, using a difference in difference matching estimation. The main results found that the treated group shows a higher withdrawal from the labor market and that they worked an average of 8 percentage points (pp) fewer months than the control group in 2009. The treated group also contributed 18 pp fewer months than the control group, and they have, on average, 6 pp more months in inactive status. Looking at the difference in per capita income, the treated group has an average of US$34 more per month than the control group in 2009.
    Keywords: J38 ; I21 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; scholarships ; upper secondary education ; propensity score matching ; Differential impacts ; EU-SILC-06
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El trabajo lleva a cabo un análisis empírico del nivel y evolución de la segregación escolar socioeconómica entre escuelas públicas y privadas en Argentina entre 1992 y 2010. Con ese fin se proponen dos nuevas metodologías: las curvas de segregación percentílicas y la utilización de micro descomposiciones. Los resultados obtenidos son alarmantes: la segregación se incrementó entre 30% y 100% dependiendo del índice y el nivel educativo analizado. Este aumento guarda una estrecha relación con los cambios en las características de las familias de los alumnos que asisten al nivel primario, no así en el nivel secundario.
    Keywords: D63 ; I21 ; Z13 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: The design of qualifications around professional profiles and steering teaching towards the acquisition of competences are 2 major challenges targeted by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This study analyses the importance given by teachers to knowledge of a second language in Business Organisation matters in Business Management and Administration (BMA) and Engineering studies in the European context. As its basis, the study takes answers from teaching staff in 20 European countries given in an online survey. The results lead to the conclusion that mastery of a second language is a specific competence considered by teachers to be crucial for the training of university BMA and Engineering students, although Spain is behind other countries in the region with regard to how the importance of a second language is perceived as a curricular and professional competence.
    Keywords: I21 ; I23 ; M10 ; ddc:330 ; European Higher Education Area ; Competence-based teaching ; Linguistic competence ; Curriculum ; Language learning
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: This paper provides original empirical evidence on the evolution of education inequality for all Latin American countries over the decades of 1990 and 2000. The analysis covers a wide range of issues on differences in educational outcomes and opportunities across the population, including inequality in years of education, gaps in school enrollment, wage skill differentials and public social expenditure. The evidence indicates a significant difference between the 1990s and the 2000s in terms of both the assessment of the equity of the education expansion and its impact on the income distribution. In particular, the changes in the 2000s seem to have had a full equalizing impact on earnings given the more pro-poor pattern of the education upgrading and a more stable or even increasing relative demand for low skill labor.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungsinvestition ; Liquiditätsbeschränkung ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: The paper provides a review of laws and other actions that have been undertaken in recent years in Argentina to improve education. Review is focused on the Province of Tucumán, where he studied education policy and some of their results. It analyzes the contents of the Federal Education Law No. 24,195, the Education Funding Law No. 26,075 and the National Education Law No. 26,206. Important laws of recent educational history and have proven to have power. It is emphasized that the Federal Law (1993) and National Law (2006) set extensions in the compulsory years of education reaching more people. Aimed at boosting both equity and quality in education. While the Finance Act (late 2005) was a powerful tool that served to increase resources for education, science and technology. Increases would be shared between the provinces and the nation. The study noted that over the years 90 and since 2003, after overcoming the strong socio-economic crisis facing Argentina in the provinces and the nation the authorities reacted to the state of education, making significant efforts to try to improve, that is of quality and compliance with the number of days of scheduled classes, which incorporate more of children and youth and lower age at school. And it is proposed to introduce new technologies. That in Tucumán, as in the other provinces, even serving more number of students, investment in education has grown in real terms, showing a considerable increase in spending per pupil in real wages of teachers.
    Keywords: H52 ; I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Bildungspolitik ; Bildungsinvestition ; Argentinien ; Tucumán (Provinz)
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
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    Ciudad de México: Banco de México
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: This paper estimates private returns to education in Mexico by means of the Mincer model. The natural ability bias that the literature reports in this type of estimations is tried to be solved using the control function method. Through this method some variables relevant to wage determination are included in the model, such as natural ability index, mother's education, household infrastructure, height and health. Results suggest that the returns to education by year of schooling in Mexico are between 8.2% and 8.4 %. On the other hand, results by level of education suggest that more education is associated with higher returns. The highest return to education in both absolute and relative terms is provided by Postgraduate education followed by Graduate education. In general, results suggest that there is a convex relationship between education level and wage.
    Keywords: I21 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; private returns to education ; natural ability bias ; natural ability index ; mother's education ; Mexico ; Bildungsertrag ; Frauenbildung ; Mütter ; Bildungsverhalten ; Mexiko
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper contributes with evidence about the ex – post impact to the program of conditional cash transfer program Bono Juancito Pinto in public schools in Bolivia. In order to correctly identify the potential beneficiaries and avoid problems of endogeneity and selection bias, we evaluate the effect of the announcement of the bonus on enrollment and child labor through a quasi experiment using data from household surveys. By estimating bivariate probit models is that the announcement of this bond, in general, has had no effect in terms of enrollment, with only disaggregated effects for young children. At the same time, there were no significant effects on child labor, both results do not change when replicating the analysis by income quintiles, although there are differences in the case of rural areas. These results close a gap in the literature regarding the evaluation of the Bono and make possible discussions in pursuit of better targeting.
    Keywords: I21 ; I38 ; J13 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; Conditional transfers ; Child Labour ; Economics of Education
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El presente documento busca de manera indicativa explicitar algunos elementos conceptuales y prácticos para construir el problema acerca del tema, pues la diversidad de ángulos desde donde se lo aborda da la impresión de que el problema mismo no está conceptualizado de manera homogénea. En ese sentido, la reflexión y el análisis se apoya en una revisión sucinta del pasado y se centra en una descripción comparativa entre la ley 1565, la nueva Constitución Política del Estado plurinacional y de la ley 070 Avelino Siñani y Elizardo Pérez.
    Keywords: I21 ; P36 ; H75 ; ddc:330 ; Depression ; Europe ; Cross-national analysis ; Children ; Multilevel model ; Probit model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: En este trabajo se documenta y analiza la segregación escolar entre alumnos de distintos estratos socioeconómicos que asisten a escuelas públicas y privadas en Argentina. El trabajo contribuye con evidencia empírica a la medición de este fenómeno desde 1986 hasta la actualidad, incluyendo proyecciones hasta 2014. Para ello se utiliza información de todas las grandes encuestas de hogares realizadas en el país. Los resultados sugieren que el grado de segregación escolar habría aumentado sustancialmente desde mediados de los 1980s hasta la actualidad y es probable que continúe aumentando en los primeros años de los 2010s.
    Description: This paper studies school segregation among students from different socioeconomic strata attending public and private schools in Argentina. The study contributes with empirical evidence to the measurement of this phenomenon from 1986 to the present, including projections to 2014. To this end, all major household surveys conducted in the country are used. The results suggest that the degree of school segregation has increased substantially since the mid-1980s to the present and is likely to continue rising in the early years of the 2010s.
    Keywords: D63 ; I21 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; segregación ; educación ; Argentina ; desigualdad
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 15
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: En este trabajo se analizan los cambios en la desigualdad producidos durante el período 1998-2005. Se presenta un conjunto de resultados que pueden contribuir a entender mejor los cambios en la desigualdad. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la desigualdad distributiva observada entre ambos años esconde importantes cambios distributivos que en el análisis distributivo no se observaban. Los retornos a la educación ha jugado un papel importante en el aumento de los factores inobservables y los mayores niveles de empleo parecen haberla reducido.
    Description: This paper analyses the changes in inequality occurred during the period 1998 - 2005. A set of results are presented in order to contribute to a better understanding of the changes in inequality. The obtained results show that important distributive effects were hidden by the apparent observed distribution stability between both years. The returns to education have played an important role in the rise in inequality while the rise in the unobservable factors and the higher levels of employment seem to have reduced it.
    Keywords: C14 ; C15 ; C24 ; D31 ; I21 ; I32 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: In the period 2000 - 2006, municipal or public schools reduced its enrollment in 186,000 students (13%) in Chile. Meanwhile, privately subsidized schools, receiving the same type of funding, increased their enrollment in 386,000 students (38%). In this paper we distinguish demand factors, associated with parents' decisions, and supply factors, those associated with owners' decisions, to explain the change in the education structure en Chile. We found evidence that the asymmetry in the institutional constraints explain only part of the evolution. Other factors, associated with municipal decisions, which in turn are explained by the asymmetric financing of different schools, explain the main part of the change.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; public education ; descentralization
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 17
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Las regiones argentinas presentan diferencias en su estructura poblacional y también en la forma en que retribuyen a los distintos factores. Este trabajo estudia cómo esas diferencias afectan la distribución del ingreso y la pobreza, aplicando técnicas de microdescomposición. La utilización de dichas técnicas permite cuantificar la contribución de cada uno de los determinantes de los ingresos, a tales diferencias. Los resultados de este trabajo sugieren una fuerte heterogeneidad entre las regiones, encontrándose las causas de las diferentes tasas de pobreza y desigualdad, principalmente en los retornos a la educación, la brecha salarial entre hombres y mujeres y a los distintos niveles de empleo.
    Keywords: C14 ; C15 ; C24 ; D31 ; I21 ; I32 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Distribución ; pobreza ; descomposiciones ; educación ; ingresos ; desempleo ; Argentina.
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 18
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El estudio analiza y evalúa la situación actual de la educación inicial, primaria y secundaria bajo la actual estructura del sector público y la participación ciudadana, especialmente enfatizando la gestión educativa y el financiamiento de la educación, esto con el propósito de elaborar lineamientos para la profundización de la descentralización educativa. El proceso de descentralización educativa fue lento por la falta de experiencia y capacidad técnica y organizativa de las unidades y direcciones del Ministerio de Educación, Prefecturas y Municipios. Los resultados muestran que la gestión educativa se caracterizó por la reorientación de las funciones técnicas y administrativas, que fueron lentos debido a falta de un marco legal para reorganizar el marco institucional. Además, que los beneficios fueron positivos sólo cuando existan equipos de gestión que promueven la articulación de los actores involucrados, junta escolares, escuela, distrito escolar y municipio. En cuanto al financiamiento, el gasto del gobierno central está promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal distributiva; en cambio, el gasto de los municipios está limitando el logro de dicha equidad. La distribución del gasto centralizado con criterios de localización geográfica de la unidad educativa está ocasionando desequilibrios verticales. El estudio propone lineamientos de descentralización que consideran tres niveles en la provisión de servicio educativo para garantizar un equilibrio entre los criterios de eficiencia, equidad e igualdad de oportunidades.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Descentralización ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 19
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El Programa Reforma Educativa ha contribuido a que el Sistema Educativo Boliviano consiguiera pasar de la perspectiva de la administración a la de la gestión. Bajo esta nueva visión, la gestión educativa depende de los actores involucrados, como padres de familia, maestros, autoridades municipales, entre otros, que tienen la responsabilidad de conducir, planificar y ejecutar un plan educativo. En ese sentido, con la finalidad de contar con una evaluación parcial de impacto de esta nueva modalidad de administración, el objetivo del estudio es evaluar la gestión educativa y analizar sus impactos en dos resultados educativos: acceso a la educación pública primaria y factores asociados al rendimiento escolar.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Reforma educativa ; Educación ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 20
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Las reformas educativas de los noventas cambiaron los mecanismos de asignación del gasto educativo en América Latina. Sin embargo, estas reformas no fueron seguidas por estudios que examinen los resultados sobre equidad. La ausencia de análisis sobre equidad en el financiamiento educativo está obstaculizando el diseño de políticas públicas que permitan mejorar la asignación de estos recursos. En el caso de Bolivia, si bien el Programa de Reforma Educativa y la Estrategia Boliviana de Reducción de la Pobreza han declarado dedicar una partida presupuestaria significativa a la educación escolar, pareciera que estos recursos no llegaron a la población objetivo. En ese sentido, el fin del estudio es analizar la asignación del gasto educativo escolar público entre municipios a través de distintos conceptos de equidad y, a partir de ello, se pretende generar criterios de asignación que permitan disminuir las inequidades actualmente existentes. El estudio evalúa la equidad horizontal, equidad vertical e igualdad de oportunidades. Los resultados señalan que los componentes del gasto educativo que controla el gobierno central están promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal; en cambio, aquellas variables que controlan los municipios la están limitando. Los criterios de asignación basados en localización geográfica y pobreza están promoviendo la equidad vertical, pero no coinciden con las necesidades educativas. Finalmente, los resultados muestran que no existe igualdad de oportunidades; sin embargo, el gasto descentralizado influye positivamente al rendimiento académico, en especial en los grupos de estudiantes indígenas y niñas. Los resultados del estudio sugieren que es necesaria una redistribución del gasto centralizado en base a criterios de necesidades educativas y rendimiento académico. Además, es necesario incrementar y focalizar el gasto descentralizado con el objetivo de reducir las influencias negativas de la familia, como la pobreza y los niveles bajos de educación de los padres.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Gasto educativo ; Equidad ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 21
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: En este trabajo se investiga la incidencia del trabajo del estudiante en su desempeño académico. Para analizar la relación entre el tiempo dedicado al trabajo y el desempeño académico de los alumnos se utilizan datos del Primer Censo de estudiantes de universidades nacionales de 1994. Los resultados compatibilizan con los argumentos contrapuestos sobre esta relación. Por un lado, si se postula un modelo lineal, se encuentra que las horas trabajadas inciden negativamente sobre el rendimiento. Por otro lado, en una especificación no lineal, las horas trabajadas se asocian en forma positiva y decreciente. En otros términos, para un nivel moderado de horas trabajadas, la incidencia puede ser positiva. Si se consideran sólo los alumnos con trabajos vinculados a la carrera, también se encuentra una relación no lineal, donde la relación positiva se evidencia para un mayor nivel de horas trabajadas. En contraste, si se analiza sólo el grupo con trabajos no vinculados, la relación resulta negativa, cualquiera sea el nivel de horas trabajadas. La investigación provee fundamentos empíricos a la legislación universitaria sobre pasantías acerca de las condiciones del trabajo del estudiante que preserven su desempeño académico.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; trabajo del estudiante ; rendimiento académico ; horas trabajadas
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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