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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-17
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (2018): 723, doi:10.3390/ijerph15040723.
    Description: There has been a massive increase in recent years of the use of lead (Pb) isotopes in attempts to better understand sources and pathways of Pb in the environment and in man or experimental animals. Unfortunately, there have been many cases where the quality of the isotopic data, especially that obtained by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS), are questionable, resulting in questionable identification of potential sources, which, in turn, impacts study interpretation and conclusions. We present several cases where the isotopic data have compromised interpretation because of the use of only the major isotopes 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, or their graphing in other combinations. We also present some examples comparing high precision data from thermal ionization (TIMS) or multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) to illustrate the deficiency in the Q-ICP-MS data. In addition, we present cases where Pb isotopic ratios measured on Q-ICP-MS are virtually impossible for terrestrial samples. We also evaluate the Pb isotopic data for rat studies, which had concluded that Pb isotopic fractionation occurs between different organs and suggest that this notion of biological fractionation of Pb as an explanation for isotopic differences is not valid. Overall, the brief review of these case studies shows that Q-ICP-MS as commonly practiced is not a suitable technique for precise and accurate Pb isotopic analysis in the environment and health fields
    Keywords: Lead isotopes ; ICP-MS ; TIMS ; MC-ICP-MS ; Environment ; Humans ; Rats ; Fractionation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gilbert, Natasha -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S56-7. doi: 10.1038/531S56a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981729" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Affect ; Health Behavior ; Humans ; Mental Health/*statistics & numerical data ; *Nature ; Parks, Recreational/*statistics & numerical data ; Urban Population
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Betsholtz, Christer -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):160-1. doi: 10.1038/nature16866. Epub 2016 Jan 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology at Uppsala University, and the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics at the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735011" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Endothelium, Vascular/*growth & development/*metabolism ; Female ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Humans ; Male
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Melott, Adrian L -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):40-1. doi: 10.1038/532040a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27078562" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Climate Change/history ; *Earth (Planet) ; Extinction, Biological ; Geologic Sediments/chemistry ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Iron Radioisotopes/*analysis/chemistry ; Stars, Celestial/*chemistry ; Time Factors
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Urnov, Fyodor -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):468-9. doi: 10.1038/529468a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sangamo BioSciences, Richmond, California 94804, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819037" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: CRISPR-Associated Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*physiology ; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/*genetics ; Endonucleases/*metabolism ; *Genetic Engineering ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Humans
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: RNA polymerase (Pol) II produces messenger RNA during transcription of protein-coding genes in all eukaryotic cells. The Pol II structure is known at high resolution from X-ray crystallography for two yeast species. Structural studies of mammalian Pol II, however, remain limited to low-resolution electron microscopy analysis of human Pol II and its complexes with various proteins. Here we report the 3.4 A resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of mammalian Pol II in the form of a transcribing complex comprising DNA template and RNA transcript. We use bovine Pol II, which is identical to the human enzyme except for seven amino-acid residues. The obtained atomic model closely resembles its yeast counterpart, but also reveals unknown features. Binding of nucleic acids to the polymerase involves 'induced fit' of the mobile Pol II clamp and active centre region. DNA downstream of the transcription bubble contacts a conserved 'TPSA motif' in the jaw domain of the Pol II subunit RPB5, an interaction that is apparently already established during transcription initiation. Upstream DNA emanates from the active centre cleft at an angle of approximately 105 degrees with respect to downstream DNA. This position of upstream DNA allows for binding of the general transcription elongation factor DSIF (SPT4-SPT5) that we localize over the active centre cleft in a conserved position on the clamp domain of Pol II. Our results define the structure of mammalian Pol II in its functional state, indicate that previous crystallographic analysis of yeast Pol II is relevant for understanding gene transcription in all eukaryotes, and provide a starting point for a mechanistic analysis of human transcription.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bernecky, Carrie -- Herzog, Franz -- Baumeister, Wolfgang -- Plitzko, Jurgen M -- Cramer, Patrick -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):551-4. doi: 10.1038/nature16482. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Biology, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. ; Gene Center Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 25, 81377 Munich, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Molecular Structural Biology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789250" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Animals ; Catalytic Domain ; Cattle ; *Cryoelectron Microscopy ; DNA/genetics/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Nucleic Acids/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; RNA Polymerase II/chemistry/*metabolism/*ultrastructure ; RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis/genetics/ultrastructure ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology ; Templates, Genetic ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: Sulawesi is the largest and oldest island within Wallacea, a vast zone of oceanic islands separating continental Asia from the Pleistocene landmass of Australia and Papua (Sahul). By one million years ago an unknown hominin lineage had colonized Flores immediately to the south, and by about 50 thousand years ago, modern humans (Homo sapiens) had crossed to Sahul. On the basis of position, oceanic currents and biogeographical context, Sulawesi probably played a pivotal part in these dispersals. Uranium-series dating of speleothem deposits associated with rock art in the limestone karst region of Maros in southwest Sulawesi has revealed that humans were living on the island at least 40 thousand years ago (ref. 5). Here we report new excavations at Talepu in the Walanae Basin northeast of Maros, where in situ stone artefacts associated with fossil remains of megafauna (Bubalus sp., Stegodon and Celebochoerus) have been recovered from stratified deposits that accumulated from before 200 thousand years ago until about 100 thousand years ago. Our findings suggest that Sulawesi, like Flores, was host to a long-established population of archaic hominins, the ancestral origins and taxonomic status of which remain elusive.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉van den Bergh, Gerrit D -- Li, Bo -- Brumm, Adam -- Grun, Rainer -- Yurnaldi, Dida -- Moore, Mark W -- Kurniawan, Iwan -- Setiawan, Ruly -- Aziz, Fachroel -- Roberts, Richard G -- Suyono -- Storey, Michael -- Setiabudi, Erick -- Morwood, Michael J -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):208-11. doi: 10.1038/nature16448.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth &Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; Naturalis Biodiversity Center, 2333 CR Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Research Centre for Human Evolution, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia. ; School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; Geology Museum Bandung, Geological Agency, Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia. ; Archaeology, School of Humanities, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2350, Australia. ; Quadlab, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 13 DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762458" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Fossils ; History, Ancient ; *Hominidae ; Human Migration/history ; Humans ; Indonesia ; Tool Use Behavior
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bolkan, Scott -- Gordon, Joshua A -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):45-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17311. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007842" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*physiopathology/*psychology ; Female ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/*deficiency/*genetics ; Thalamic Nuclei/*physiopathology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tracy, Cameron L -- Dustin, Megan K -- Ewing, Rodney C -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):149-51. doi: 10.1038/529149a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, California, USA. ; Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, California, USA. ; Frank Stanton professor in nuclear security at the Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, California, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762442" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Humans ; New Mexico ; Plutonium/adverse effects ; *Policy Making ; Radioactive Hazard Release/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data ; *Radioactive Waste/adverse effects ; Risk Assessment ; *Safety/statistics & numerical data
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  • 10
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grayson, Michelle -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S1. doi: 10.1038/531S1a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934517" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Asthma/drug therapy ; Cognition/*physiology ; Cognition Disorders/prevention & control/therapy ; Humans ; Interpersonal Relations ; Meta-Analysis as Topic ; Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The energetic burden of continuously concentrating solutes against gradients along the tubule may render the kidney especially vulnerable to ischaemia. Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 3% of all hospitalized patients. Here we show that the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator, PGC1alpha, is a pivotal determinant of renal recovery from injury by regulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. Following renal ischaemia, Pgc1alpha(-/-) (also known as Ppargc1a(-/-)) mice develop local deficiency of the NAD precursor niacinamide (NAM, also known as nicotinamide), marked fat accumulation, and failure to re-establish normal function. Notably, exogenous NAM improves local NAD levels, fat accumulation, and renal function in post-ischaemic Pgc1alpha(-/-) mice. Inducible tubular transgenic mice (iNephPGC1alpha) recapitulate the effects of NAM supplementation, including more local NAD and less fat accumulation with better renal function after ischaemia. PGC1alpha coordinately upregulates the enzymes that synthesize NAD de novo from amino acids whereas PGC1alpha deficiency or AKI attenuates the de novo pathway. NAM enhances NAD via the enzyme NAMPT and augments production of the fat breakdown product beta-hydroxybutyrate, leading to increased production of prostaglandin PGE2 (ref. 5), a secreted autacoid that maintains renal function. NAM treatment reverses established ischaemic AKI and also prevented AKI in an unrelated toxic model. Inhibition of beta-hydroxybutyrate signalling or prostaglandin production similarly abolishes PGC1alpha-dependent renoprotection. Given the importance of mitochondrial health in ageing and the function of metabolically active organs, the results implicate NAM and NAD as key effectors for achieving PGC1alpha-dependent stress resistance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tran, Mei T -- Zsengeller, Zsuzsanna K -- Berg, Anders H -- Khankin, Eliyahu V -- Bhasin, Manoj K -- Kim, Wondong -- Clish, Clary B -- Stillman, Isaac E -- Karumanchi, S Ananth -- Rhee, Eugene P -- Parikh, Samir M -- K08-DK090142/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K08-DK101560/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30-DK079337/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK095072/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01-DK095072/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):528-32. doi: 10.1038/nature17184. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Nephrology and Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Center for Vascular Biology Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Division of Clinical Chemistry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Core, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Nephrology and Endocrine Divisions, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982719" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/metabolism ; Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy/*metabolism ; Adipose Tissue/drug effects/metabolism ; Amino Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; Cytokines/metabolism ; Dinoprostone/biosynthesis/metabolism ; Humans ; Ischemia/drug therapy/metabolism ; Kidney/drug effects/*metabolism/physiology/physiopathology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; NAD/*biosynthesis ; Niacinamide/deficiency/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Stress, Physiological ; Transcription Factors/deficiency/*metabolism
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: The meaning of language is represented in regions of the cerebral cortex collectively known as the 'semantic system'. However, little of the semantic system has been mapped comprehensively, and the semantic selectivity of most regions is unknown. Here we systematically map semantic selectivity across the cortex using voxel-wise modelling of functional MRI (fMRI) data collected while subjects listened to hours of narrative stories. We show that the semantic system is organized into intricate patterns that seem to be consistent across individuals. We then use a novel generative model to create a detailed semantic atlas. Our results suggest that most areas within the semantic system represent information about specific semantic domains, or groups of related concepts, and our atlas shows which domains are represented in each area. This study demonstrates that data-driven methods--commonplace in studies of human neuroanatomy and functional connectivity--provide a powerful and efficient means for mapping functional representations in the brain.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4852309/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4852309/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huth, Alexander G -- de Heer, Wendy A -- Griffiths, Thomas L -- Theunissen, Frederic E -- Gallant, Jack L -- EY019684/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY019684/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):453-8. doi: 10.1038/nature17637.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121839" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Auditory Perception ; *Brain Mapping ; Cerebral Cortex/*anatomy & histology/*physiology ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Narration ; Principal Component Analysis ; Reproducibility of Results ; *Semantics ; *Speech
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  • 13
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Owens, Brian -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S71-2. doi: 10.1038/533S71a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167398" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Academies and Institutes/economics ; *Access to Information ; Animals ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; Drug Industry/economics/methods ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Mice ; Neurosciences/economics/manpower/*methods/organization & administration ; Patents as Topic ; Public Sector/economics ; Public-Private Sector Partnerships ; Quebec
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: Bacteria express many small RNAs for which the regulatory roles in pathogenesis have remained poorly understood due to a paucity of robust phenotypes in standard virulence assays. Here we use a generic 'dual RNA-seq' approach to profile RNA expression simultaneously in pathogen and host during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection and reveal the molecular impact of bacterial riboregulators. We identify a PhoP-activated small RNA, PinT, which upon bacterial internalization temporally controls the expression of both invasion-associated effectors and virulence genes required for intracellular survival. This riboregulatory activity causes pervasive changes in coding and noncoding transcripts of the host. Interspecies correlation analysis links PinT to host cell JAK-STAT signalling, and we identify infection-specific alterations in multiple long noncoding RNAs. Our study provides a paradigm for a sensitive RNA-based analysis of intracellular bacterial pathogens and their hosts without physical separation, as well as a new discovery route for hidden functions of pathogen genes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Westermann, Alexander J -- Forstner, Konrad U -- Amman, Fabian -- Barquist, Lars -- Chao, Yanjie -- Schulte, Leon N -- Muller, Lydia -- Reinhardt, Richard -- Stadler, Peter F -- Vogel, Jorg -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):496-501. doi: 10.1038/nature16547. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Wurzburg, RNA Biology Group, Institute for Molecular Infection Biology, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2/D15, D-97080 Wurzburg, Germany. ; University of Wurzburg, Core Unit Systems Medicine, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2/D15, D-97080 Wurzburg, Germany. ; University of Leipzig, Department of Computer Science and Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics, Hartelstrasse 16-18, D-04107 Leipzig, Germany. ; University of Vienna, Theoretical Biochemistry Group, Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Wahringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. ; Max Planck Genome Centre Cologne, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl-von-Linne-Weg 10, D-50829 Cologne, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Rd, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501, USA. ; Research Centre for Infectious Diseases (ZINF), University of Wurzburg, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Proteins/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genes, Bacterial/genetics ; HeLa Cells ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/*genetics ; Humans ; Janus Kinases/metabolism ; Mice ; Microbial Viability/genetics ; RNA, Bacterial/*genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated/*genetics/metabolism ; STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Salmonella typhimurium/cytology/*genetics/pathogenicity ; Signal Transduction/genetics ; Transcriptome/genetics ; Virulence/genetics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The eye is a complex organ with highly specialized constituent tissues derived from different primordial cell lineages. The retina, for example, develops from neuroectoderm via the optic vesicle, the corneal epithelium is descended from surface ectoderm, while the iris and collagen-rich stroma of the cornea have a neural crest origin. Recent work with pluripotent stem cells in culture has revealed a previously under-appreciated level of intrinsic cellular self-organization, with a focus on the retina and retinal cells. Moreover, we and others have demonstrated the in vitro induction of a corneal epithelial cell phenotype from pluripotent stem cells. These studies, however, have a single, tissue-specific focus and fail to reflect the complexity of whole eye development. Here we demonstrate the generation from human induced pluripotent stem cells of a self-formed ectodermal autonomous multi-zone (SEAM) of ocular cells. In some respects the concentric SEAM mimics whole-eye development because cell location within different zones is indicative of lineage, spanning the ocular surface ectoderm, lens, neuro-retina, and retinal pigment epithelium. It thus represents a promising resource for new and ongoing studies of ocular morphogenesis. The approach also has translational potential and to illustrate this we show that cells isolated from the ocular surface ectodermal zone of the SEAM can be sorted and expanded ex vivo to form a corneal epithelium that recovers function in an experimentally induced animal model of corneal blindness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hayashi, Ryuhei -- Ishikawa, Yuki -- Sasamoto, Yuzuru -- Katori, Ryosuke -- Nomura, Naoki -- Ichikawa, Tatsuya -- Araki, Saori -- Soma, Takeshi -- Kawasaki, Satoshi -- Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi -- Quantock, Andrew J -- Tsujikawa, Motokazu -- Nishida, Kohji -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):376-80. doi: 10.1038/nature17000. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Stem Cells and Applied Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Laboratory of Extracellular Matrix Biochemistry, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Structural Biophysics Group, School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958835" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Lineage ; Cornea/*cytology/*growth & development/physiology ; Corneal Transplantation ; Ectoderm/cytology ; Epithelial Cells/cytology ; Epithelium, Corneal/cytology ; Female ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology ; Lens, Crystalline/cytology ; Mice ; Morphogenesis ; Phenotype ; Rabbits ; *Recovery of Function ; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/cytology
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  • 16
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wald, Chelsea -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):S47. doi: 10.1038/533S47a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Austria ; Entrepreneurship/economics/organization & administration ; Humans ; Inventions/economics ; Inventors/economics/education/psychology ; Research/*economics/*organization & administration ; Research Personnel/economics/education/psychology ; *Technology Transfer ; Uncertainty
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Heuckeroth, Robert O -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):44-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16877. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute and the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863191" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Lineage ; *Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy ; Drug Discovery/*methods ; Enteric Nervous System/*pathology ; Female ; Hirschsprung Disease/*drug therapy/*pathology ; Humans ; Male ; Neurons/*pathology
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):138-9. doi: 10.1038/529138a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762436" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa, Western/epidemiology ; Animals ; Cats ; Chiroptera/*virology ; Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data/veterinary ; Dogs ; Ebolavirus/*isolation & purification ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*epidemiology/prevention & control/*veterinary/virology ; *Host Specificity ; Humans ; Livestock/virology ; Pets/virology ; Rodentia/virology ; Zoonoses/epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission/virology
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  • 19
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hodson, Richard -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S53. doi: 10.1038/533S53a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167389" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Azepines ; *Cooperative Behavior ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; *Drug Discovery ; Drug Industry ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Neglected Diseases ; *Open Access Publishing ; Triazoles ; Tropical Medicine
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  • 20
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hodson, Richard -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S49. doi: 10.1038/531S49a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981725" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cities ; Climate Change ; Communicable Diseases ; Floods ; Humans ; Mental Health ; Stress, Psychological ; *Urban Health ; Urban Population
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  • 21
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):10-1. doi: 10.1038/529010a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738575" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chad/epidemiology ; Disease Eradication ; Dog Diseases/*epidemiology/parasitology/prevention & control/*transmission ; Dogs ; Dracunculiasis/*epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission/*veterinary ; Dracunculus Nematode/*isolation & purification ; Drinking Water/parasitology/standards ; Humans ; Rivers/parasitology ; Zoonoses/*epidemiology/parasitology/prevention & control/*transmission
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  • 22
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holmes, David -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S54-5. doi: 10.1038/533S54a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167390" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Access to Information ; Biological Science Disciplines ; *Cooperative Behavior ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; Drug Discovery ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):18. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19270.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842037" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; Developmental Biology/ethics/legislation & jurisprudence/methods ; Embryo Research/ethics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Embryo, Mammalian/embryology/metabolism ; Genetic Engineering/ethics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Great Britain ; Humans ; Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/legislation & jurisprudence ; Research Personnel/*legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hollon, Nick G -- Phillips, Paul E M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):588-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17314. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry &Behavioral Sciences and the Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007851" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Decision Making ; Humans ; Male ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Nucleus Accumbens/*cytology/*metabolism ; Receptors, Dopamine D2/*metabolism ; *Risk Management
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  • 25
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hood, Bruce -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):438-40. doi: 10.1038/531438a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Bristol, UK, and founder of Speakezee.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27008953" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Child, Preschool ; *Consumer Behavior ; Efficiency, Organizational/trends ; Humans ; Object Attachment ; Ownership ; Recycling/*economics/*trends ; Self Concept ; Social Class
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: (beta-)Arrestins are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They bind to active, phosphorylated GPCRs and thereby shut off 'classical' signalling to G proteins, trigger internalization of GPCRs via interaction with the clathrin machinery and mediate signalling via 'non-classical' pathways. In addition to two visual arrestins that bind to rod and cone photoreceptors (termed arrestin1 and arrestin4), there are only two (non-visual) beta-arrestin proteins (beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2, also termed arrestin2 and arrestin3), which regulate hundreds of different (non-visual) GPCRs. Binding of these proteins to GPCRs usually requires the active form of the receptors plus their phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The binding of receptors or their carboxy terminus as well as certain truncations induce active conformations of (beta-)arrestins that have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography. Here we investigate both the interaction of beta-arrestin with GPCRs, and the beta-arrestin conformational changes in real time and in living human cells, using a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based beta-arrestin2 biosensors. We observe receptor-specific patterns of conformational changes in beta-arrestin2 that occur rapidly after the receptor-beta-arrestin2 interaction. After agonist removal, these changes persist for longer than the direct receptor interaction. Our data indicate a rapid, receptor-type-specific, two-step binding and activation process between GPCRs and beta-arrestins. They further indicate that beta-arrestins remain active after dissociation from receptors, allowing them to remain at the cell surface and presumably signal independently. Thus, GPCRs trigger a rapid, receptor-specific activation/deactivation cycle of beta-arrestins, which permits their active signalling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nuber, Susanne -- Zabel, Ulrike -- Lorenz, Kristina -- Nuber, Andreas -- Milligan, Graeme -- Tobin, Andrew B -- Lohse, Martin J -- Hoffmann, Carsten -- 1 R01 DA038882/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- BB/K019864/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):661-4. doi: 10.1038/nature17198. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Rudolf Virchow Center, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Molecular Pharmacology Group, Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. ; MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007855" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arrestins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Biosensing Techniques ; Cattle ; Cell Line ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cell Survival ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer ; Humans ; Kinetics ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Substrate Specificity ; Time Factors
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: The most recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, which was unprecedented in the number of cases and fatalities, geographic distribution, and number of nations affected, highlights the need for safe, effective, and readily available antiviral agents for treatment and prevention of acute Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) or sequelae. No antiviral therapeutics have yet received regulatory approval or demonstrated clinical efficacy. Here we report the discovery of a novel small molecule GS-5734, a monophosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine analogue, with antiviral activity against EBOV. GS-5734 exhibits antiviral activity against multiple variants of EBOV and other filoviruses in cell-based assays. The pharmacologically active nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) is efficiently formed in multiple human cell types incubated with GS-5734 in vitro, and the NTP acts as an alternative substrate and RNA-chain terminator in primer-extension assays using a surrogate respiratory syncytial virus RNA polymerase. Intravenous administration of GS-5734 to nonhuman primates resulted in persistent NTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (half-life, 14 h) and distribution to sanctuary sites for viral replication including testes, eyes, and brain. In a rhesus monkey model of EVD, once-daily intravenous administration of 10 mg kg(-1) GS-5734 for 12 days resulted in profound suppression of EBOV replication and protected 100% of EBOV-infected animals against lethal disease, ameliorating clinical disease signs and pathophysiological markers, even when treatments were initiated three days after virus exposure when systemic viral RNA was detected in two out of six treated animals. These results show the first substantive post-exposure protection by a small-molecule antiviral compound against EBOV in nonhuman primates. The broad-spectrum antiviral activity of GS-5734 in vitro against other pathogenic RNA viruses, including filoviruses, arenaviruses, and coronaviruses, suggests the potential for wider medical use. GS-5734 is amenable to large-scale manufacturing, and clinical studies investigating the drug safety and pharmacokinetics are ongoing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Warren, Travis K -- Jordan, Robert -- Lo, Michael K -- Ray, Adrian S -- Mackman, Richard L -- Soloveva, Veronica -- Siegel, Dustin -- Perron, Michel -- Bannister, Roy -- Hui, Hon C -- Larson, Nate -- Strickley, Robert -- Wells, Jay -- Stuthman, Kelly S -- Van Tongeren, Sean A -- Garza, Nicole L -- Donnelly, Ginger -- Shurtleff, Amy C -- Retterer, Cary J -- Gharaibeh, Dima -- Zamani, Rouzbeh -- Kenny, Tara -- Eaton, Brett P -- Grimes, Elizabeth -- Welch, Lisa S -- Gomba, Laura -- Wilhelmsen, Catherine L -- Nichols, Donald K -- Nuss, Jonathan E -- Nagle, Elyse R -- Kugelman, Jeffrey R -- Palacios, Gustavo -- Doerffler, Edward -- Neville, Sean -- Carra, Ernest -- Clarke, Michael O -- Zhang, Lijun -- Lew, Willard -- Ross, Bruce -- Wang, Queenie -- Chun, Kwon -- Wolfe, Lydia -- Babusis, Darius -- Park, Yeojin -- Stray, Kirsten M -- Trancheva, Iva -- Feng, Joy Y -- Barauskas, Ona -- Xu, Yili -- Wong, Pamela -- Braun, Molly R -- Flint, Mike -- McMullan, Laura K -- Chen, Shan-Shan -- Fearns, Rachel -- Swaminathan, Swami -- Mayers, Douglas L -- Spiropoulou, Christina F -- Lee, William A -- Nichol, Stuart T -- Cihlar, Tomas -- Bavari, Sina -- R01 AI113321/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI113321/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):381-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17180. Epub 2016 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Therapeutic Development Center, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; Gilead Sciences, Foster City, California 94404, USA. ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. ; Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934220" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alanine/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Ebolavirus/drug effects ; Female ; HeLa Cells ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*drug therapy/prevention & control ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/*virology ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Organ Specificity ; Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Ribonucleotides/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/*therapeutic use
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-04-05
    Description: Evidence for human sacrifice is found throughout the archaeological record of early civilizations, the ethnographic records of indigenous world cultures, and the texts of the most prolific contemporary religions. According to the social control hypothesis, human sacrifice legitimizes political authority and social class systems, functioning to stabilize such social stratification. Support for the social control hypothesis is largely limited to historical anecdotes of human sacrifice, where the causal claims have not been subject to rigorous quantitative cross-cultural tests. Here we test the social control hypothesis by applying Bayesian phylogenetic methods to a geographically and socially diverse sample of 93 traditional Austronesian cultures. We find strong support for models in which human sacrifice stabilizes social stratification once stratification has arisen, and promotes a shift to strictly inherited class systems. Whilst evolutionary theories of religion have focused on the functionality of prosocial and moral beliefs, our results reveal a darker link between religion and the evolution of modern hierarchical societies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Watts, Joseph -- Sheehan, Oliver -- Atkinson, Quentin D -- Bulbulia, Joseph -- Gray, Russell D -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):228-31. doi: 10.1038/nature17159. Epub 2016 Apr 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. ; Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07743, Germany. ; School of Art History, Classics and Religious Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6014, New Zealand. ; Research School of the Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra 2601, Australia. ; Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27042932" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bayes Theorem ; *Ceremonial Behavior ; *Cultural Evolution ; Humans ; Models, Theoretical ; Oceanic Ancestry Group/psychology ; Phylogeny ; Religion and Psychology ; *Social Class ; *Social Control, Formal
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):286. doi: 10.1038/531286a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Nucleus/genetics ; DNA/*analysis/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Humans ; Neanderthals/*genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time Factors
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are currently the leading candidates for virus-based gene therapies because of their broad tissue tropism, non-pathogenic nature and low immunogenicity. They have been successfully used in clinical trials to treat hereditary diseases such as haemophilia B (ref. 2), and have been approved for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Europe. Considerable efforts have been made to engineer AAV variants with novel and biomedically valuable cell tropisms to allow efficacious systemic administration, yet basic aspects of AAV cellular entry are still poorly understood. In particular, the protein receptor(s) required for AAV entry after cell attachment remains unknown. Here we use an unbiased genetic screen to identify proteins essential for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) infection in a haploid human cell line. The most significantly enriched gene of the screen encodes a previously uncharacterized type I transmembrane protein, KIAA0319L (denoted hereafter as AAV receptor (AAVR)). We characterize AAVR as a protein capable of rapid endocytosis from the plasma membrane and trafficking to the trans-Golgi network. We show that AAVR directly binds to AAV2 particles, and that anti-AAVR antibodies efficiently block AAV2 infection. Moreover, genetic ablation of AAVR renders a wide range of mammalian cell types highly resistant to AAV2 infection. Notably, AAVR serves as a critical host factor for all tested AAV serotypes. The importance of AAVR for in vivo gene delivery is further highlighted by the robust resistance of Aavr(-/-) (also known as Au040320(-/-) and Kiaa0319l(-/-)) mice to AAV infection. Collectively, our data indicate that AAVR is a universal receptor involved in AAV infection.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pillay, S -- Meyer, N L -- Puschnik, A S -- Davulcu, O -- Diep, J -- Ishikawa, Y -- Jae, L T -- Wosen, J E -- Nagamine, C M -- Chapman, M S -- Carette, J E -- DP2 AI104557/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM066875/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109662/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):108-12. doi: 10.1038/nature16465. Epub 2016 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Oregon Health &Science University, 3181 Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239-3098, USA. ; Shriners Hospital for Children, 3101 Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 287 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies/immunology/pharmacology ; Cell Line ; Dependovirus/classification/drug effects/*physiology ; Endocytosis/drug effects ; Female ; Gene Deletion ; Genetic Therapy/methods ; Host Specificity ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Parvoviridae Infections/*metabolism/*virology ; Receptors, Cell Surface/antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; *Viral Tropism/drug effects ; Virus Internalization/drug effects ; trans-Golgi Network/drug effects
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yamada, Tadataka -- Ogawa, V Ayano -- Freire, Maria -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):29-31. doi: 10.1038/533029a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Global Health Risk Framework Commission, and venture partner at Frazier Healthcare Partners, Seattle, Washington, USA. ; Global Health Risk Framework Commission at the US National Academy of Medicine, Washington DC, USA. ; Global Health Risk Framework Commission, and president and executive director of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147017" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Communicable Diseases, Emerging/economics/epidemiology/mortality/prevention & ; control ; Disaster Planning/*economics/trends ; Disease Outbreaks/*economics/prevention & control ; Global Health/economics/trends ; *Health Expenditures ; Humans ; Infection/*economics/*epidemiology/mortality ; International Cooperation ; Pandemics/economics/prevention & control ; Public Policy ; Public-Private Sector Partnerships/economics ; Security Measures/*economics/trends ; Zika Virus
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: The palaeobiological record of 12 million to 7 million years ago (Ma) is crucial to the elucidation of African ape and human origins, but few fossil assemblages of this period have been reported from sub-Saharan Africa. Since the 1970s, the Chorora Formation, Ethiopia, has been widely considered to contain ~10.5 million year (Myr) old mammalian fossils. More recently, Chororapithecus abyssinicus, a probable primitive member of the gorilla clade, was discovered from the formation. Here we report new field observations and geochemical, magnetostratigraphic and radioisotopic results that securely place the Chorora Formation sediments to between ~9 and ~7 Ma. The C. abyssinicus fossils are ~8.0 Myr old, forming a revised age constraint of the human-gorilla split. Other Chorora fossils range in age from ~8.5 to 7 Ma and comprise the first sub-Saharan mammalian assemblage that spans this period. These fossils suggest indigenous African evolution of multiple mammalian lineages/groups between 10 and 7 Ma, including a possible ancestral-descendent relationship between the ~9.8 Myr old Nakalipithecus nakayamai and C. abyssinicus. The new chronology and fossils suggest that faunal provinciality between eastern Africa and Eurasia had intensified by ~9 Ma, with decreased faunal interchange thereafter. The Chorora evidence supports the hypothesis of in situ African evolution of the Gorilla-Pan-human clade, and is concordant with the deeper divergence estimates of humans and great apes based on lower mutation rates of ~0.5 x 10(-9) per site per year (refs 13 - 15).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Katoh, Shigehiro -- Beyene, Yonas -- Itaya, Tetsumaru -- Hyodo, Hironobu -- Hyodo, Masayuki -- Yagi, Koshi -- Gouzu, Chitaro -- WoldeGabriel, Giday -- Hart, William K -- Ambrose, Stanley H -- Nakaya, Hideo -- Bernor, Raymond L -- Boisserie, Jean-Renaud -- Bibi, Faysal -- Saegusa, Haruo -- Sasaki, Tomohiko -- Sano, Katsuhiro -- Asfaw, Berhane -- Suwa, Gen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):215-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16510.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Natural History, Hyogo Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Sanda 669-1546, Japan. ; Association for Conservation of Culture Awassa, PO Box 6686, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; Centre francais des etudes ethiopiennes (CFEE), USR CNRS 3137, French Ministry for Foreign Affairs, PO Box 5554, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005, Japan. ; Research Center for Inland Seas, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. ; Hiruzen Institute for Geology and Chronology, Okayama 703-8252, Japan. ; EES-14/MS D462, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA. ; Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, 133 Culler Hall, Oxford, Ohio 45056, USA. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan. ; Department of Anatomy, Howard University, Washington DC 20059, USA. ; Institut de Paleoprimatologie, Paleontologie Humaine : Evolution et Paleoenvironnements (IPHEP), UMR CNRS 7262, Universite de Poitiers, 86022 Poitiers, France. ; Museum fur Naturkunde - Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany. ; Institute of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Hyogo, Sanda 669-1546, Japan. ; The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. ; Rift Valley Research Service, PO Box 5717, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ethiopia ; *Fossils ; Geologic Sediments/chemistry ; *Gorilla gorilla/genetics ; Humans ; Mutation Rate ; *Phylogeny ; *Radiometric Dating ; Time Factors
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qiu, Jane -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):428-31. doi: 10.1038/532428a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Altitude ; Disasters/*prevention & control/*statistics & numerical data ; Earthquakes/mortality/*statistics & numerical data ; *Forecasting ; Humans ; Landslides/mortality/*statistics & numerical data ; Nepal ; Rain
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):437. doi: 10.1038/529437a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819006" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Artificial Intelligence ; Games, Recreational ; Humans ; *Intuition ; Neural Networks (Computer) ; *Software
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  • 35
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉King, Anthony -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S18-9. doi: 10.1038/531S18a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934522" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/metabolism ; Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; Bullying ; DNA Methylation ; Depression/complications/prevention & control/therapy ; Emotional Adjustment ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; Female ; Hippocampus/metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone/metabolism ; Maternal Behavior ; Memory/physiology ; Mice ; Models, Animal ; Oxytocin/metabolism ; Pregnancy ; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/genetics ; Psychological Trauma/complications/genetics/metabolism ; Rats ; *Resilience, Psychological ; Social Isolation/psychology ; Stress, Psychological/complications/genetics/metabolism/therapy
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  • 36
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):438. doi: 10.1038/529438a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819008" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Anxiety ; Humans ; Professional Competence ; Research Personnel/*psychology ; *Self Concept ; Syndrome ; Wit and Humor as Topic
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: Since the origins of agriculture, the scale of human cooperation and societal complexity has dramatically expanded. This fact challenges standard evolutionary explanations of prosociality because well-studied mechanisms of cooperation based on genetic relatedness, reciprocity and partner choice falter as people increasingly engage in fleeting transactions with genetically unrelated strangers in large anonymous groups. To explain this rapid expansion of prosociality, researchers have proposed several mechanisms. Here we focus on one key hypothesis: cognitive representations of gods as increasingly knowledgeable and punitive, and who sanction violators of interpersonal social norms, foster and sustain the expansion of cooperation, trust and fairness towards co-religionist strangers. We tested this hypothesis using extensive ethnographic interviews and two behavioural games designed to measure impartial rule-following among people (n = 591, observations = 35,400) from eight diverse communities from around the world: (1) inland Tanna, Vanuatu; (2) coastal Tanna, Vanuatu; (3) Yasawa, Fiji; (4) Lovu, Fiji; (5) Pesqueiro, Brazil; (6) Pointe aux Piments, Mauritius; (7) the Tyva Republic (Siberia), Russia; and (8) Hadzaland, Tanzania. Participants reported adherence to a wide array of world religious traditions including Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as notably diverse local traditions, including animism and ancestor worship. Holding a range of relevant variables constant, the higher participants rated their moralistic gods as punitive and knowledgeable about human thoughts and actions, the more coins they allocated to geographically distant co-religionist strangers relative to both themselves and local co-religionists. Our results support the hypothesis that beliefs in moralistic, punitive and knowing gods increase impartial behaviour towards distant co-religionists, and therefore can contribute to the expansion of prosociality.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Purzycki, Benjamin Grant -- Apicella, Coren -- Atkinson, Quentin D -- Cohen, Emma -- McNamara, Rita Anne -- Willard, Aiyana K -- Xygalatas, Dimitris -- Norenzayan, Ara -- Henrich, Joseph -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):327-30. doi: 10.1038/nature16980. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Human Evolution, Cognition, and Culture, University of British Columbia, 1871 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z2, Canada. ; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Solomon Laboratories, 3720 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6241, USA. ; Department of Psychology, University of Auckland, Human Sciences Building, 10 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. ; Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany. ; Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford, 64 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6PN, UK. ; Wadham College, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PN, UK. ; Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada. ; Culture, and Development Laboratory, Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station #A8000, Austin, Texas 78712-0187, USA. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, 354 Mansfield Road, Unit 1176, Storrs, Connecticut 06029, USA. ; Interacting Minds Centre, Aarhus University, Jens Chr. Skous Vej 4, building 1483, DK-8000, Aarhus, Denmark. ; LEVYNA, Masaryk University, Brno 60200, Czech Republic. ; Department of Economics, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada. ; Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863190" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Altruism ; *Cooperative Behavior ; Ethnic Groups/psychology ; Female ; Games, Experimental ; Humans ; Internationality ; *Interpersonal Relations ; Interviews as Topic ; Logistic Models ; Male ; *Morals ; Odds Ratio ; Punishment/*psychology ; Random Allocation ; *Religion and Psychology ; Trust
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Umbilical cord blood-derived haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are essential for many life-saving regenerative therapies. However, despite their advantages for transplantation, their clinical use is restricted because HSCs in cord blood are found only in small numbers. Small molecules that enhance haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in culture have been identified, but in many cases their mechanisms of action or the nature of the pathways they impinge on are poorly understood. A greater understanding of the molecular circuitry that underpins the self-renewal of human HSCs will facilitate the development of targeted strategies that expand HSCs for regenerative therapies. Whereas transcription factor networks have been shown to influence the self-renewal and lineage decisions of human HSCs, the post-transcriptional mechanisms that guide HSC fate have not been closely investigated. Here we show that overexpression of the RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) induces multiple pro-self-renewal phenotypes, including a 17-fold increase in short-term repopulating cells and a net 23-fold ex vivo expansion of long-term repopulating HSCs. By performing a global analysis of MSI2-RNA interactions, we show that MSI2 directly attenuates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling through post-transcriptional downregulation of canonical AHR pathway components in cord blood HSPCs. Our study gives mechanistic insight into RNA networks controlled by RNA-binding proteins that underlie self-renewal and provides evidence that manipulating such networks ex vivo can enhance the regenerative potential of human HSCs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880456/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880456/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rentas, Stefan -- Holzapfel, Nicholas T -- Belew, Muluken S -- Pratt, Gabriel A -- Voisin, Veronique -- Wilhelm, Brian T -- Bader, Gary D -- Yeo, Gene W -- Hope, Kristin J -- HG004659/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MOP-126030/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- NS075449/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):508-11. doi: 10.1038/nature17665.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Bioinformatics Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. ; Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore and Molecular Engineering Laboratory, A*STAR, Singapore 138632, Singapore.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121842" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Count ; *Cell Self Renewal/genetics ; Down-Regulation/genetics ; Female ; Fetal Blood/cytology ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Protein Binding ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/genetics
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reardon, Sara -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):294-5. doi: 10.1038/532294a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27111612" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Laboratory/*immunology ; Animals, Wild/*immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology/immunology ; Communicable Diseases/immunology ; Gene-Environment Interaction ; Germ-Free Life ; *Housing, Animal ; Humans ; Hygiene Hypothesis ; Hypersensitivity/immunology ; Immunologic Memory/immunology ; Infant, Newborn ; Mice/*immunology ; Mice, Inbred Strains ; Neoplasms/immunology ; Pets/*immunology
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):129. doi: 10.1038/530129a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863943" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brazil/epidemiology ; Databases, Factual/utilization ; Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data ; Evidence-Based Medicine ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Microcephaly/*epidemiology/etiology/virology ; *Open Access Publishing ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time Factors ; World Health Organization ; *Zika Virus/genetics/pathogenicity ; Zika Virus Infection/*epidemiology/virology
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-03-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cyranoski, David -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):424-5. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19590.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27008970" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain Mapping/trends ; China ; Conservation of Natural Resources/trends ; Environmental Pollution/prevention & control ; Humans ; Neurosciences/trends ; Oceanography/trends ; Science/*trends ; Stem Cell Research
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  • 42
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sarewitz, Daniel -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):147. doi: 10.1038/533147a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172010" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Bibliometrics ; *Efficiency ; Humans ; Periodicals as Topic/standards/statistics & numerical data ; Publishing/*statistics & numerical data ; Quality Control ; Research Personnel/*standards ; Research Report/*standards
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    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):282. doi: 10.1038/532282b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27111603" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Computers ; Humans ; *Knowledge ; *Politics ; *Public Policy ; Quantum Theory ; *Science/education
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reardon, Sara -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):560. doi: 10.1038/531560a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029280" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adolescent Behavior/*drug effects/physiology/*psychology ; Child ; *Clinical Trials as Topic/economics ; Decision Making ; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/agonists ; Humans ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economics ; Puberty/*drug effects/*physiology/psychology ; Time Factors ; Transgender Persons/*psychology ; Treatment Outcome ; United States
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  • 45
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    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reardon, Sara -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):160-3. doi: 10.1038/531160a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961640" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acclimatization/genetics/physiology ; African Swine Fever/immunology/virology ; Animal Culling/methods ; Animals ; Animals, Wild/genetics ; Bees/genetics/parasitology/physiology ; Breeding ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; Carps/anatomy & histology/genetics ; Cattle/genetics/immunology/physiology ; Chick Embryo/immunology ; Chickens/genetics ; Conservation of Natural Resources/methods ; Culicidae/genetics/parasitology ; Disease Models, Animal ; Disease Vectors ; Egg Hypersensitivity/prevention & control ; Elephants/genetics/physiology ; Extinction, Biological ; Female ; Food, Genetically Modified ; Genetic Engineering/*methods/trends ; Humans ; Infertility, Female/genetics ; Lyme Disease/prevention & control/transmission ; Macaca/genetics ; Malaria/prevention & control/transmission ; Mammoths/genetics/physiology ; Pets/anatomy & histology/genetics ; Rett Syndrome/genetics/physiopathology/psychology ; Salmon/genetics/growth & development ; Schistosomiasis/prevention & control/transmission ; Swine ; Swine, Miniature/anatomy & histology/genetics/immunology/virology
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    Publication Date: 2016-05-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Savage, Neil -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):S10-2. doi: 10.1038/533S10a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144602" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Science Disciplines/economics ; Entrepreneurship/*economics/*organization & administration/statistics & numerical ; data/trends ; Europe ; Humans ; Inventions/economics/statistics & numerical data ; Investments/economics ; Laboratories/economics/organization & administration ; Licensure/economics ; Marketing/economics ; Patents as Topic ; Private Sector/economics/organization & administration/statistics & numerical ; data/trends ; Research/*economics/organization & administration ; Technology Transfer ; United States ; Universities/economics/organization & administration ; Vaccines/economics
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  • 47