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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-17
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (2018): 723, doi:10.3390/ijerph15040723.
    Description: There has been a massive increase in recent years of the use of lead (Pb) isotopes in attempts to better understand sources and pathways of Pb in the environment and in man or experimental animals. Unfortunately, there have been many cases where the quality of the isotopic data, especially that obtained by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS), are questionable, resulting in questionable identification of potential sources, which, in turn, impacts study interpretation and conclusions. We present several cases where the isotopic data have compromised interpretation because of the use of only the major isotopes 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, or their graphing in other combinations. We also present some examples comparing high precision data from thermal ionization (TIMS) or multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) to illustrate the deficiency in the Q-ICP-MS data. In addition, we present cases where Pb isotopic ratios measured on Q-ICP-MS are virtually impossible for terrestrial samples. We also evaluate the Pb isotopic data for rat studies, which had concluded that Pb isotopic fractionation occurs between different organs and suggest that this notion of biological fractionation of Pb as an explanation for isotopic differences is not valid. Overall, the brief review of these case studies shows that Q-ICP-MS as commonly practiced is not a suitable technique for precise and accurate Pb isotopic analysis in the environment and health fields
    Keywords: Lead isotopes ; ICP-MS ; TIMS ; MC-ICP-MS ; Environment ; Humans ; Rats ; Fractionation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Haddad, Nick M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1166-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5072.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Applied Ecology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. nick_haddad@ncsu.ed.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785459" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brazil ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; Humans ; *Transportation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are often characterized as remedies to educational disparities related to social class. Using data from 68 MOOCs offered by Harvard and MIT between 2012 and 2014, we found that course participants from the United States tended to live in more-affluent and better-educated neighborhoods than the average U.S. resident. Among those who did register for courses, students with greater socioeconomic resources were more likely to earn a certificate. Furthermore, these differences in MOOC access and completion were larger for adolescents and young adults, the traditional ages where people find on-ramps into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) coursework and careers. Our findings raise concerns that MOOCs and similar approaches to online learning can exacerbate rather than reduce disparities in educational outcomes related to socioeconomic status.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hansen, John D -- Reich, Justin -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1245-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3782. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. john_hansen@mail.harvard.edu. ; Office of Digital Learning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785488" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Career Choice ; Certification/*methods ; Education, Distance/*methods ; Engineering/education ; Humans ; Internet ; Learning ; Mathematics/education ; *Online Systems ; Science/education ; *Social Class ; Students ; Technology/education ; United States ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Underwood, Emily -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1188-90. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1188.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785475" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/blood/genetics/*physiology ; Animals ; Biological Clocks/genetics/*physiology ; Biomarkers/blood/metabolism ; DNA/genetics ; DNA Methylation ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Humans ; Mice ; Rats ; Telomere Homeostasis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Congenital heart disease (CHD) patients have an increased prevalence of extracardiac congenital anomalies (CAs) and risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs). Exome sequencing of 1213 CHD parent-offspring trios identified an excess of protein-damaging de novo mutations, especially in genes highly expressed in the developing heart and brain. These mutations accounted for 20% of patients with CHD, NDD, and CA but only 2% of patients with isolated CHD. Mutations altered genes involved in morphogenesis, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation, including multiple mutations in RBFOX2, a regulator of mRNA splicing. Genes mutated in other cohorts examined for NDD were enriched in CHD cases, particularly those with coexisting NDD. These findings reveal shared genetic contributions to CHD, NDD, and CA and provide opportunities for improved prognostic assessment and early therapeutic intervention in CHD patients.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Homsy, Jason -- Zaidi, Samir -- Shen, Yufeng -- Ware, James S -- Samocha, Kaitlin E -- Karczewski, Konrad J -- DePalma, Steven R -- McKean, David -- Wakimoto, Hiroko -- Gorham, Josh -- Jin, Sheng Chih -- Deanfield, John -- Giardini, Alessandro -- Porter, George A Jr -- Kim, Richard -- Bilguvar, Kaya -- Lopez-Giraldez, Francesc -- Tikhonova, Irina -- Mane, Shrikant -- Romano-Adesman, Angela -- Qi, Hongjian -- Vardarajan, Badri -- Ma, Lijiang -- Daly, Mark -- Roberts, Amy E -- Russell, Mark W -- Mital, Seema -- Newburger, Jane W -- Gaynor, J William -- Breitbart, Roger E -- Iossifov, Ivan -- Ronemus, Michael -- Sanders, Stephan J -- Kaltman, Jonathan R -- Seidman, Jonathan G -- Brueckner, Martina -- Gelb, Bruce D -- Goldmuntz, Elizabeth -- Lifton, Richard P -- Seidman, Christine E -- Chung, Wendy K -- T32 HL007208/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- Department of Health/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1262-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9396.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Departments of Systems Biology and Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit at Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation and Trust and Imperial College London, London, UK. National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Cardiology, University College London and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK. ; Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, The School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA. ; Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY, USA. ; Departments of Systems Biology and Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA. ; Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. ; Heart Development and Structural Diseases Branch, Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, NHLBI/NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Mindich Child Health and Development Institute and Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Department of Pediatrics, The Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Division of Cardiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. Cardiovascular Division, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785492" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brain/abnormalities/metabolism ; Child ; Congenital Abnormalities/genetics ; Exome/genetics ; Heart Defects, Congenital/*diagnosis/*genetics ; Humans ; Mutation ; Nervous System Malformations/*genetics ; Neurogenesis/*genetics ; Prognosis ; RNA Splicing/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Repressor Proteins/genetics ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Amigo, Ignacio -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1286. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1286.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ignacio Amigo is a postdoctoral researcher in the biochemistry department of the Chemistry Institute at the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Send your story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785493" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Humans ; Molecular Biology ; Parenting/*psychology ; *Paternal Behavior
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cohen, Jon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1186-7. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1186.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785474" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Caloric Restriction ; Death ; Humans ; Hydra/genetics/physiology ; Longevity/genetics/*physiology ; Mice ; Mutation ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Greenbaum, Dov -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1176. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1176-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Zvi Meitar Institute for Legal Implications of Emerging Technologies, Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya Israel and Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 10463, USA. dov.greenbaum@yale.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785467" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Clothing ; Humans ; *Military Personnel ; *Robotics ; Walking/*physiology
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kupferschmidt, Kai -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1143. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1143.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965608" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acinetobacter/*growth & development ; Animals ; *Death ; Humans ; Mice ; Moraxellaceae/*growth & development ; Rhizobiaceae/*growth & development ; Time Factors
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Servick, Kelly -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1130-2. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1130.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965601" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bites and Stings ; Criminal Law/*statistics & numerical data ; Dermatoglyphics ; Firearms ; Forensic Sciences/legislation & jurisprudence/*statistics & numerical data/trends ; Humans ; Wounds, Gunshot
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-02-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Claiborne, Anne B -- English, Rebecca A -- Kahn, Jeffrey P -- 10002265/PHS HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):668-70. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3091. Epub 2016 Feb 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Medicine, U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, DC 20001, USA. aclaiborne@nas.edu. ; Institute of Medicine, U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, DC 20001, USA. ; Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842937" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Nucleus/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Ethics, Medical ; *Government Regulation ; Humans ; Mitochondrial Diseases/genetics/*prevention & control ; Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy/*ethics/*standards ; *Oocytes ; United States ; United States Food and Drug Administration ; *Zygote
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mervis, Jeffrey -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):10-1. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6268.10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉With reporting from Science's news staff.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721980" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomedical Research/*economics ; Budgets ; Humans ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/*economics ; *Research Support as Topic ; United States ; United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration/economics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Michelucci, Pietro -- Dickinson, Janis L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):32-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6499.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Human Computation Institute, Fairfax, VA 22032, USA. pem@humancomputation.org. ; Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721991" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Computers ; Humans ; *Problem Solving ; Task Performance and Analysis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Midorikawa, Sanae -- Suzuki, Satoru -- Ohtsuru, Akira -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 May 6;352(6286):666-7. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6286.666-c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Radiation Medical Science Center, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan. Department of Radiation Health Management, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan. hana@fmu.ac.jp. ; Radiation Medical Science Center, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan. Department of Thyroid and Endocrinology, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan. ; Radiation Medical Science Center, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan. Department of Radiation Health Management, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27151857" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced/*epidemiology ; *Disasters ; *Epidemics ; Female ; *Fukushima Nuclear Accident ; Humans ; Radiation Exposure/*adverse effects ; Thyroid Gland/*abnormalities/*pathology ; Thyroid Neoplasms/*epidemiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-02-27
    Description: Ebola virus causes hemorrhagic fever with a high case fatality rate for which there is no approved therapy. Two human monoclonal antibodies, mAb100 and mAb114, in combination, protect nonhuman primates against all signs of Ebola virus disease, including viremia. Here, we demonstrate that mAb100 recognizes the base of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) trimer, occludes access to the cathepsin-cleavage loop, and prevents the proteolytic cleavage of GP that is required for virus entry. We show that mAb114 interacts with the glycan cap and inner chalice of GP, remains associated after proteolytic removal of the glycan cap, and inhibits binding of cleaved GP to its receptor. These results define the basis of neutralization for two protective antibodies and may facilitate development of therapies and vaccines.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Misasi, John -- Gilman, Morgan S A -- Kanekiyo, Masaru -- Gui, Miao -- Cagigi, Alberto -- Mulangu, Sabue -- Corti, Davide -- Ledgerwood, Julie E -- Lanzavecchia, Antonio -- Cunningham, James -- Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean Jacques -- Baxa, Ulrich -- Graham, Barney S -- Xiang, Ye -- Sullivan, Nancy J -- McLellan, Jason S -- 5K08AI079381/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN261200800001E/PHS HHS/ -- T32GM008704/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1343-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6117. Epub 2016 Feb 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Centre for Infectious Diseases Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; National Institute for Biomedical Research, National Laboratory of Public Health, Kinshasa B.P. 1197, Democratic Republic of the Congo. ; Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. ; Centre for Infectious Diseases Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China. njsull@mail.nih.gov yxiang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. njsull@mail.nih.gov yxiang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917592" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibodies, Monoclonal/*chemistry/immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*chemistry/immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/*chemistry/immunology ; Cathepsins/chemistry ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Ebolavirus/*immunology ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology/*prevention & control ; Humans ; Protein Conformation ; Proteolysis ; Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry/*immunology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, Gretchen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1377-8. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6280.1377.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013706" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brazil/epidemiology ; Genome, Viral ; Humans ; *Sports ; *Travel ; Zika Virus/*genetics ; Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology/*transmission/*virology
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, Gretchen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):110-1. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6269.110.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744386" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brazil/epidemiology ; Communicable Diseases, Emerging/*epidemiology/*virology ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Female ; Fetal Blood/virology ; Flavivirus/isolation & purification/physiology ; Flavivirus Infections/diagnosis/*epidemiology ; Humans ; Infant ; Infant, Newborn ; Microcephaly/diagnosis/*epidemiology/*virology ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/*virology ; Virus Activation
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Miyazaki, Makoto -- Tanigawa, Koichi -- Murakami, Michio -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 May 6;352(6286):666. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6286.666-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Radiation Health Management, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan. ; Fukushima Global Medical Science Center, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan. tanigawa@fmu.ac.jp. ; Department of Risk Communication, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27151856" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced/*epidemiology ; *Disasters ; *Epidemics ; Female ; *Fukushima Nuclear Accident ; Humans ; Radiation Exposure/*adverse effects ; Thyroid Gland/*abnormalities/*pathology ; Thyroid Neoplasms/*epidemiology
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Underwood, Emily -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):397. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6284.397.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102458" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brain/*physiology ; Cadaver ; Humans ; Neurosciences/*trends ; *Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: Microbial colonization of mucosal tissues during infancy plays an instrumental role in the development and education of the host mammalian immune system. These early-life events can have long-standing consequences: facilitating tolerance to environmental exposures or contributing to the development of disease in later life, including inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, and asthma. Recent studies have begun to define a critical period during early development in which disruption of optimal host-commensal interactions can lead to persistent and in some cases irreversible defects in the development and training of specific immune subsets. Here, we discuss the role of early-life education of the immune system during this "window of opportunity," when microbial colonization has a potentially critical impact on human health and disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gensollen, Thomas -- Iyer, Shankar S -- Kasper, Dennis L -- Blumberg, Richard S -- DK0034854/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK44319/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI090102/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):539-44. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9378.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. rblumberg@partners.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126036" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Asthma/immunology/microbiology ; Humans ; Hypersensitivity/immunology/microbiology ; Immune System/*immunology ; Immune Tolerance ; Infant, Newborn ; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology/microbiology ; Intestinal Mucosa/*immunology/*microbiology ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology ; Symbiosis ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
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  • 21
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wade, Lizzie -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1141-3. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1141.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Crime ; *Fires ; *Forensic Sciences ; Humans ; Mexico ; Students ; Waste Disposal Facilities
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, Gretchen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1123-4. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1123.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965596" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brain/*abnormalities/*virology ; Female ; Humans ; Infant ; Microcephaly/*virology ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/*virology ; World Health Organization ; *Zika Virus ; Zika Virus Infection/*complications
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wade, Lizzie -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):507. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6285.507.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126019" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Career Mobility ; Genomics/education/*organization & administration ; Human Genome Project/economics/*organization & administration ; Humans ; Mexico ; Sequence Analysis, DNA/economics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: De Lussanet claims that our model that accounts for the degree of folding of the cerebral cortex based on the product of cortical surface area and the square root of cortical thickness is better reduced to the product of gray-matter proportion and folding index. Lewitus et al., in turn, claim that the assumptions of our model are in conflict with experimental data; that the model does not accurately fit the data; and that the ancestral mammalian brain was gyrencephalic. Here, we show that both claims are inappropriate.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mota, Bruno -- Herculano-Houzel, Suzana -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):826. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2346.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. ; Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. suzanahh@gmail.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912888" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cerebral Cortex ; Humans ; Lissencephaly/*pathology ; Neurons/*cytology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, Ann -- Culotta, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):503-4. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6285.503.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126016" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anthropology ; Congresses as Topic ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Research Personnel ; Sexual Harassment/*prevention & control
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Muscle contraction depends on release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and reuptake by the Ca(2+)adenosine triphosphatase SERCA. We discovered a putative muscle-specific long noncoding RNA that encodes a peptide of 34 amino acids and that we named dwarf open reading frame (DWORF). DWORF localizes to the SR membrane, where it enhances SERCA activity by displacing the SERCA inhibitors, phospholamban, sarcolipin, and myoregulin. In mice, overexpression of DWORF in cardiomyocytes increases peak Ca(2+) transient amplitude and SR Ca(2+) load while reducing the time constant of cytosolic Ca(2+) decay during each cycle of contraction-relaxation. Conversely, slow skeletal muscle lacking DWORF exhibits delayed Ca(2+) clearance and relaxation and reduced SERCA activity. DWORF is the only endogenous peptide known to activate the SERCA pump by physical interaction and provides a means for enhancing muscle contractility.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Benjamin R -- Makarewich, Catherine A -- Anderson, Douglas M -- Winders, Benjamin R -- Troupes, Constantine D -- Wu, Fenfen -- Reese, Austin L -- McAnally, John R -- Chen, Xiongwen -- Kavalali, Ege T -- Cannon, Stephen C -- Houser, Steven R -- Bassel-Duby, Rhonda -- Olson, Eric N -- AR-063182/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- DK-099653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30AR 067094/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- HL-077439,/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-093039/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-111665/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR063182/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01-HL-100401/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):271-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4076.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Physiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. Department of Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. ; Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. eric.olson@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816378" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Muscle Contraction ; Muscle Proteins/metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal/*metabolism ; Myocardial Contraction ; Myocytes, Cardiac/*metabolism ; Peptides/genetics/*metabolism ; Proteolipids/metabolism ; RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics/metabolism ; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism ; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: To investigate gene specificity at the level of translation in both the human genome and viruses, we devised a high-throughput bicistronic assay to quantify cap-independent translation. We uncovered thousands of novel cap-independent translation sequences, and we provide insights on the landscape of translational regulation in both humans and viruses. We find extensive translational elements in the 3' untranslated region of human transcripts and the polyprotein region of uncapped RNA viruses. Through the characterization of regulatory elements underlying cap-independent translation activity, we identify potential mechanisms of secondary structure, short sequence motif, and base pairing with the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Furthermore, we systematically map the 18S rRNA regions for which reverse complementarity enhances translation. Thus, we make available insights into the mechanisms of translational control in humans and viruses.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira -- Elias-Kirma, Shani -- Nir, Ronit -- Gritsenko, Alexey A -- Stern-Ginossar, Noam -- Yakhini, Zohar -- Weinberger, Adina -- Segal, Eran -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270). pii: aad4939. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4939. Epub 2016 Jan 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. ; The Delft Bioinformatics Laboratory, Department of Intelligent Systems, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands. Platform Green Synthetic Biology, Delft, Netherlands. Kluyver Centre for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation, Delft, Netherlands. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. ; Department of Computer Science, Technion, Haifa, Israel. Agilent Laboratories, Tel-Aviv, Israel. ; Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. eran.segal@weizmann.ac.il.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816383" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3' Untranslated Regions/genetics ; 5' Untranslated Regions/genetics ; Base Pairing ; Gene Expression Regulation, Viral ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genome, Viral/*genetics ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods ; Humans ; Internal Ribosome Entry Sites/genetics ; Mutagenesis ; Oligonucleotides/chemistry/genetics ; Protein Biosynthesis/*genetics ; RNA Caps/*genetics ; RNA Viruses/genetics ; RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods ; Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C levels but, paradoxically, increased atherosclerosis. The impact of SR-BI on HDL metabolism and CHD risk in humans remains unclear. Through targeted sequencing of coding regions of lipid-modifying genes in 328 individuals with extremely high plasma HDL-C levels, we identified a homozygote for a loss-of-function variant, in which leucine replaces proline 376 (P376L), in SCARB1, the gene encoding SR-BI. The P376L variant impairs posttranslational processing of SR-BI and abrogates selective HDL cholesterol uptake in transfected cells, in hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from the homozygous subject, and in mice. Large population-based studies revealed that subjects who are heterozygous carriers of the P376L variant have significantly increased levels of plasma HDL-C. P376L carriers have a profound HDL-related phenotype and an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio = 1.79, which is statistically significant).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zanoni, Paolo -- Khetarpal, Sumeet A -- Larach, Daniel B -- Hancock-Cerutti, William F -- Millar, John S -- Cuchel, Marina -- DerOhannessian, Stephanie -- Kontush, Anatol -- Surendran, Praveen -- Saleheen, Danish -- Trompet, Stella -- Jukema, J Wouter -- De Craen, Anton -- Deloukas, Panos -- Sattar, Naveed -- Ford, Ian -- Packard, Chris -- Majumder, Abdullah al Shafi -- Alam, Dewan S -- Di Angelantonio, Emanuele -- Abecasis, Goncalo -- Chowdhury, Rajiv -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Nordestgaard, Borge G -- Nielsen, Sune F -- Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne -- Schmidt, Ruth Frikke -- Kuulasmaa, Kari -- Liu, Dajiang J -- Perola, Markus -- Blankenberg, Stefan -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Mannisto, Satu -- Amouyel, Philippe -- Arveiler, Dominique -- Ferrieres, Jean -- Muller-Nurasyid, Martina -- Ferrario, Marco -- Kee, Frank -- Willer, Cristen J -- Samani, Nilesh -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Butterworth, Adam S -- Howson, Joanna M M -- Peloso, Gina M -- Stitziel, Nathan O -- Danesh, John -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- Rader, Daniel J -- CHD Exome+ Consortium -- CARDIoGRAM Exome Consortium -- Global Lipids Genetics Consortium -- R01 DK089256/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL117078/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- TL1 RR024133/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- TL1R000138/PHS HHS/ -- TL1RR024133/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1166-71. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3517.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Genetics and Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Departments of Genetics and Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. INSERM UMR 1166 ICAN, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Hopital de la Pitie, Paris, France. ; INSERM UMR 1166 ICAN, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Hopital de la Pitie, Paris, France. ; Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ; Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Centre for Non-Communicable Diseases, Karachi, Pakistan. ; Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. ; Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht, Netherlands. ; Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. ; Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation, Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. ; Robertson Center for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. ; Glasgow Clinical Research Facility, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK. ; National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. ; International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. ; Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Institute for Integrative and Experimental Genomics, University of Lubeck, Lubeck 23562, Germany. ; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark. ; Copenhagen University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. ; Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. Institute of Molecular Medicine FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. ; Department of Epidemiology, Toulouse University-CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France. ; Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany. Department of Medicine I, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany. ; Research Centre in Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. ; UKCRC Centre of Excellence for Public Health, Queens University, Belfast, Northern Ireland. ; Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, Department of Human Genetics, and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hotel, Leicester, UK. ; Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany. ; Broad Institute and Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Genetics, and the McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. ; Departments of Genetics and Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. rader@mail.med.upenn.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965621" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Cholesterol, HDL/*blood ; Coronary Disease/*blood/*genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Female ; Genetic Variation ; Heterozygote ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Leucine/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Proline/genetics ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Risk ; Scavenger Receptors, Class B/*genetics/metabolism
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    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):433. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6272.433.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823406" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anaerobiosis/genetics/physiology ; Animals ; Anoxia/*physiopathology ; Fundulidae/genetics/*physiology ; Humans ; MicroRNAs/genetics/metabolism ; Oxygen/*metabolism ; Stroke/*physiopathology ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism
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    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):394-5. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6284.394. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102455" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Foundations ; Genes ; Genetic Research/*economics ; Great Britain ; Humans ; *Research Support as Topic ; *Selection, Genetic ; Sweden ; United States
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):800-1. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6275.800. Epub 2016 Feb 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912872" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA/*chemistry/genetics ; Genome, Viral/genetics ; Genomics ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis ; Humans ; *Nanopores ; *Nanotechnology ; Sequence Analysis, DNA/*instrumentation ; Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):802. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6275.802.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912873" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Child Development ; Child, Preschool ; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome ; Germ-Free Life ; Growth Disorders/*microbiology/*therapy ; Humans ; Infant ; Malnutrition/*therapy ; Mice ; Muscle Development ; Osteogenesis ; Translational Medical Research
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Azevedo-Santos, Valter M -- Vitule, Jean R S -- Garcia-Berthou, Emili -- Pelicice, Fernando M -- Simberloff, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):675. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6274.675. Epub 2016 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu," SP, 18618-970, Brazil. valter.ecologia@gmail.com. ; Laboratorio de Ecologia e Conservacao (LEC), Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR, 81531-970, Brazil. ; Institute of Aquatic Ecology, University of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. ; Nucleo de Estudos Ambientais, Universidade Federal de Tocantins, Porto Nacional, TO, 77500-000, Brazil. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912851" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/growth & development/*virology ; Animals ; Biodiversity ; Brazil ; Chikungunya virus ; Dengue Virus ; Humans ; *Introduced Species ; Larva ; Mosquito Control/*methods ; *Poecilia ; Zika Virus
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hedley, Paula L -- Christiansen, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):456. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6272.456-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, 2300, Copenhagen, Denmark. phy@ssi.dk. ; Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, 2300, Copenhagen, Denmark. Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1165, Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823416" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Databases, Nucleic Acid ; Death ; Denmark ; *Genomics ; Humans ; Population/*genetics ; Population Groups/*genetics ; *Registries ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ball, Steven G -- Bhattacharya, Debashish -- Weber, Andreas P M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):659-60. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8864.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Universite de Lille CNRS, UMR 8576-UGSF-Unite de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F 59000 Lille, France. ; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. debash.bhattacharya@gmail.com. ; Institute for Plant Biochemistry, Center of Excellence on Plant Sciences, Heinrich-Heine-University, Universitatsstrasse 1, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912842" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alphaproteobacteria/*genetics/pathogenicity ; Animals ; Archaea/metabolism ; *Biological Evolution ; Endocytosis ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Eukaryota/genetics ; *Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Humans ; Mitochondria/*genetics ; Plastids/*genetics ; Rickettsia/genetics/pathogenicity ; Symbiosis/*genetics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: Influenza A virus (IAV) causes up to half a million deaths worldwide annually, 90% of which occur in older adults. We show that IAV-infected monocytes from older humans have impaired antiviral interferon production but retain intact inflammasome responses. To understand the in vivo consequence, we used mice expressing a functional Mx gene encoding a major interferon-induced effector against IAV in humans. In Mx1-intact mice with weakened resistance due to deficiencies in Mavs and Tlr7, we found an elevated respiratory bacterial burden. Notably, mortality in the absence of Mavs and Tlr7 was independent of viral load or MyD88-dependent signaling but dependent on bacterial burden, caspase-1/11, and neutrophil-dependent tissue damage. Therefore, in the context of weakened antiviral resistance, vulnerability to IAV disease is a function of caspase-dependent pathology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pillai, Padmini S -- Molony, Ryan D -- Martinod, Kimberly -- Dong, Huiping -- Pang, Iris K -- Tal, Michal C -- Solis, Angel G -- Bielecki, Piotr -- Mohanty, Subhasis -- Trentalange, Mark -- Homer, Robert J -- Flavell, Richard A -- Wagner, Denisa D -- Montgomery, Ruth R -- Shaw, Albert C -- Staeheli, Peter -- Iwasaki, Akiko -- 5T32HL066987-13/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- AI062428/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI064705/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI081884/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F31 AG039163/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272201100019C/PHS HHS/ -- K24 AG02489/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- K24 AG042489/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01 AI500031/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AG21342/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01HL102101/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL125501/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007019-36/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007019-38/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI055403/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):463-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3926.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Institute of Virology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 11, 79104 Freiburg, Germany. ; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. akiko.iwasaki@yale.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102485" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics/metabolism ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Bacterial Infections/etiology/*immunology ; Caspase 1/metabolism ; Caspases/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/genetics/*immunology ; Influenza A virus/*immunology ; Influenza, Human/complications/*immunology ; Interferon-beta/immunology ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Monocytes/immunology ; Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Neutrophils/immunology ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*immunology ; Respiratory Tract Infections/*immunology/microbiology ; Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics/metabolism ; Viral Load ; Young Adult
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), which are central mediators of rapid neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity, predominantly exist as heteromers of the subunits GluA1 to GluA4. Here we report the first AMPAR heteromer structures, which deviate substantially from existing GluA2 homomer structures. Crystal structures of the GluA2/3 and GluA2/4 N-terminal domains reveal a novel compact conformation with an alternating arrangement of the four subunits around a central axis. This organization is confirmed by cysteine cross-linking in full-length receptors, and it permitted us to determine the structure of an intact GluA2/3 receptor by cryogenic electron microscopy. Two models in the ligand-free state, at resolutions of 8.25 and 10.3 angstroms, exhibit substantial vertical compression and close associations between domain layers, reminiscent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Model 1 resembles a resting state and model 2 a desensitized state, thus providing snapshots of gating transitions in the nominal absence of ligand. Our data reveal organizational features of heteromeric AMPARs and provide a framework to decipher AMPAR architecture and signaling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4852135/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4852135/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Herguedas, Beatriz -- Garcia-Nafria, Javier -- Cais, Ondrej -- Fernandez-Leiro, Rafael -- Krieger, James -- Ho, Hinze -- Greger, Ingo H -- MC_U105174197/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):aad3873. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3873. Epub 2016 Mar 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Neurobiology Division, Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK. ; Structural Studies Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966189" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brain/metabolism ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; *Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, AMPA/*chemistry/ultrastructure
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balter, Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):652-5, 657. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6274.652. Epub 2016 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912840" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anthropology ; Faculty ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Museums ; New York City ; Paleontology ; Sex Offenses/*psychology ; Sexual Harassment/*psychology ; Students/psychology ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Women/*psychology
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hicks, Christina C -- Levine, Arielle -- Agrawal, Arun -- Basurto, Xavier -- Breslow, Sara J -- Carothers, Courtney -- Charnley, Susan -- Coulthard, Sarah -- Dolsak, Nives -- Donatuto, Jamie -- Garcia-Quijano, Carlos -- Mascia, Michael B -- Norman, Karma -- Poe, Melissa R -- Satterfield, Terre -- St Martin, Kevin -- Levin, Phillip S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):38-40. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4977.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, CA, USA. Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia. Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, UK. christina.hicks@lancaster.ac.uk. ; Geography, San Diego State University, CA, USA. ; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Michigan, USA. ; Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, NC, USA. ; Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, WA, USA. ; School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, USA. ; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, USA. ; Northumbria University, UK. ; School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington, USA. ; Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, WA, USA. ; Anthropology and Marine Affairs, University of Rhode Island, USA. ; Moore Center for Science, Conservation International, VA, USA. ; Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, WA, USA. Washington Sea Grant, University of Washington, USA. ; The Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Canada. ; Department of Geography, Rutgers University, NJ, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034361" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Ecosystem ; Forecasting ; Health ; Humans ; Quality of Life ; *Social Values ; *Value of Life
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: p97 is a hexameric AAA+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that is an attractive target for cancer drug development. We report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound, full-length, hexameric wild-type p97 in the presence and absence of an allosteric inhibitor at resolutions of 2.3 and 2.4 angstroms, respectively. We also report cryo-EM structures (at resolutions of ~3.3, 3.2, and 3.3 angstroms, respectively) for three distinct, coexisting functional states of p97 with occupancies of zero, one, or two molecules of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPgammaS) per protomer. A large corkscrew-like change in molecular architecture, coupled with upward displacement of the N-terminal domain, is observed only when ATPgammaS is bound to both the D1 and D2 domains of the protomer. These cryo-EM structures establish the sequence of nucleotide-driven structural changes in p97 at atomic resolution. They also enable elucidation of the binding mode of an allosteric small-molecule inhibitor to p97 and illustrate how inhibitor binding at the interface between the D1 and D2 domains prevents propagation of the conformational changes necessary for p97 function.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banerjee, Soojay -- Bartesaghi, Alberto -- Merk, Alan -- Rao, Prashant -- Bulfer, Stacie L -- Yan, Yongzhao -- Green, Neal -- Mroczkowski, Barbara -- Neitz, R Jeffrey -- Wipf, Peter -- Falconieri, Veronica -- Deshaies, Raymond J -- Milne, Jacqueline L S -- Huryn, Donna -- Arkin, Michelle -- Subramaniam, Sriram -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):871-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7974. Epub 2016 Jan 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Small Molecule Discovery Center, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. ; University of Pittsburgh Chemical Diversity Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. ; Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick, MD 21702, USA. ; Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Division of Biology and Biological Engineering and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91107, USA. ; Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ss1@nih.gov.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26822609" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Diphosphate/chemistry ; Adenosine Triphosphatases/*antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry ; Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives/chemistry ; Allosteric Regulation ; Binding Sites ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Enzyme Inhibitors ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Nuclear Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It serves both as a critical coenzyme for enzymes that fuel reduction-oxidation reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another, and as a cosubstrate for other enzymes such as the sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases. Cellular NAD(+) concentrations change during aging, and modulation of NAD(+) usage or production can prolong both health span and life span. Here we review factors that regulate NAD(+) and discuss how supplementation with NAD(+) precursors may represent a new therapeutic opportunity for aging and its associated disorders, particularly neurodegenerative diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Verdin, Eric -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1208-13. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4854.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gladstone Institutes, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785480" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/drug effects/genetics/*metabolism ; Biosynthetic Pathways ; DNA Damage ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism ; Fatty Liver/metabolism ; Humans ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; NAD/*metabolism ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy/*metabolism ; Obesity/metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism ; Sirtuins/metabolism
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hurtley, Stella -- Roberts, Leslie -- Ray, L Bryan -- Purnell, Beverly A -- Ash, Caroline -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1180-1. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1180.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785472" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*genetics ; Animals ; Health ; Humans ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; Stem Cells/physiology ; Telomere/*genetics ; *Telomere Homeostasis
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ford, Adam T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1175. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7134.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Biology at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. adamford@uoguelph.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785465" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Animals, Wild ; Antelopes ; *Dogs ; Endangered Species ; *Food Chain ; *Grassland ; *Herbivory ; Humans ; Plants
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Akiyama, Hiroko -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1135. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9386.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Hiroko Akiyama is a professor at the Institute of Gerontology at the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyoku, Tokyo, Japan. akiyama@iog.u-tokyo.ac.jp.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785447" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Female ; Humans ; Japan ; *Longevity ; Retirement ; Social Security
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Age is the greatest risk factor for nearly every major cause of mortality in developed nations. Despite this, most biomedical research focuses on individual disease processes without much consideration for the relationships between aging and disease. Recent discoveries in the field of geroscience, which aims to explain biological mechanisms of aging, have provided insights into molecular processes that underlie biological aging and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to delay aging and promote healthy longevity. Here we describe some of these advances, along with efforts to move geroscience from the bench to the clinic. We also propose that greater emphasis should be placed on research into basic aging processes, because interventions that slow aging will have a greater effect on quality of life compared with disease-specific approaches.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaeberlein, Matt -- Rabinovitch, Peter S -- Martin, George M -- P30AG013280/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1191-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3267.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. kaeber@uw.edu. ; Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785476" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Aging ; Animals ; Diet ; Exercise ; Geriatrics/*trends ; *Health ; Humans ; Mortality ; Preventive Medicine/*trends ; Risk Factors ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors ; Translational Medical Research/trends
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grimm, David -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1182-5. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1182.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785473" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Animals ; Body Weight ; Cats ; Dogs ; Humans ; *Longevity ; Pets/*physiology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 47
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Young, Ry -- Gill, Jason J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1163-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6791.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Phage Technology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. ryland@tamu.edu jason.gill@tamu.edu. ; Center for Phage Technology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. ryland@tamu.edu jason.gill@tamu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785457" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Bacteriocins ; Biological Therapy/*methods ; Burns/microbiology/therapy ; *Caudovirales ; Drug Resistance, Bacterial ; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/*therapy ; Humans
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