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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (83,670)
  • Humans  (26,746)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-04-17
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (2018): 723, doi:10.3390/ijerph15040723.
    Description: There has been a massive increase in recent years of the use of lead (Pb) isotopes in attempts to better understand sources and pathways of Pb in the environment and in man or experimental animals. Unfortunately, there have been many cases where the quality of the isotopic data, especially that obtained by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS), are questionable, resulting in questionable identification of potential sources, which, in turn, impacts study interpretation and conclusions. We present several cases where the isotopic data have compromised interpretation because of the use of only the major isotopes 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, or their graphing in other combinations. We also present some examples comparing high precision data from thermal ionization (TIMS) or multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) to illustrate the deficiency in the Q-ICP-MS data. In addition, we present cases where Pb isotopic ratios measured on Q-ICP-MS are virtually impossible for terrestrial samples. We also evaluate the Pb isotopic data for rat studies, which had concluded that Pb isotopic fractionation occurs between different organs and suggest that this notion of biological fractionation of Pb as an explanation for isotopic differences is not valid. Overall, the brief review of these case studies shows that Q-ICP-MS as commonly practiced is not a suitable technique for precise and accurate Pb isotopic analysis in the environment and health fields
    Keywords: Lead isotopes ; ICP-MS ; TIMS ; MC-ICP-MS ; Environment ; Humans ; Rats ; Fractionation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-02-10
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: Polynitrogens have the potential for ultrahigh-performing explosives or propellants because singly or doubly bonded polynitrogens can decompose to triply bonded dinitrogen (N2) with an extraordinarily large energy release. The large energy content and relatively low activation energy toward decomposition makes the synthesis of a stable polynitrogen allotrope an extraordinary challenge. Many elements exist in different forms (allotropes)—for example, carbon can exist as graphite, diamond, buckyballs, or graphene. However, no stable neutral allotropes are known for nitrogen, and only two stable homonuclear polynitrogen ions had been isolated until now—namely, the N3− anion (1) and the N5+ cation (2). On page 374 of this issue, Zhang et al. (3) report the synthesis and characterization of the first stable salt of the cyclo-N5− anion, only the third stable homonuclear polynitrogen ion ever isolated. Author: Karl O. Christe
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gura, Trisha -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1139-40. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1139.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785450" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biotechnology/trends ; DNA/*genetics ; Drug Discovery/*methods ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/*methods ; Drug Industry/trends ; Humans ; *Small Molecule Libraries
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kupferschmidt, Kai -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1143. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1143.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965608" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acinetobacter/*growth & development ; Animals ; *Death ; Humans ; Mice ; Moraxellaceae/*growth & development ; Rhizobiaceae/*growth & development ; Time Factors
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid. In humans and pigs lacking CFTR, unchecked H(+) secretion by the nongastric H(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATP12A) acidified airway surface liquid, which impaired airway host defenses. In contrast, mouse airways expressed little ATP12A and secreted minimal H(+); consequently, airway surface liquid in CF and non-CF mice had similar pH. Inhibiting ATP12A reversed host defense abnormalities in human and pig airways. Conversely, expressing ATP12A in CF mouse airways acidified airway surface liquid, impaired defenses, and increased airway bacteria. These findings help explain why CF mice are protected from infection and nominate ATP12A as a potential therapeutic target for CF.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shah, Viral S -- Meyerholz, David K -- Tang, Xiao Xiao -- Reznikov, Leah -- Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud -- Ernst, Sarah E -- Karp, Philip H -- Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L -- Heilmann, Kristopher P -- Leidinger, Mariah R -- Allen, Patrick D -- Zabner, Joseph -- McCray, Paul B Jr -- Ostedgaard, Lynda S -- Stoltz, David A -- Randak, Christoph O -- Welsh, Michael J -- 5T32GM007337/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- DK054759/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30 HL123239/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- F30HL123239/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL091842/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL117744/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL51670/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08HL097071/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):503-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5589.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Pappajohn Biomedical Institute, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Pappajohn Biomedical Institute, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Pappajohn Biomedical Institute, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823428" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; Bicarbonates/metabolism ; Cystic Fibrosis/*metabolism/*microbiology ; H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPase/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Lung/*metabolism/*microbiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred CFTR/genetics/metabolism ; Mice, Transgenic ; Swine
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cohen, Jon -- Enserink, Martin -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):12-3. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6268.12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa, Western/epidemiology ; Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Cytosine/analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use ; Ebola Vaccines/therapeutic use ; Ebolavirus/drug effects ; *Epidemics ; Global Health ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*drug therapy/*epidemiology ; Humans ; Organophosphonates/therapeutic use ; World Health Organization
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: Mota and Herculano-Houzel (Reports, 3 July 2015, p. 74) assign power functions to neuroanatomical data and present a model to account for evolutionary patterns of cortical folding in the mammalian brain. We detail how the model assumptions are in conflict with experimental and observational work and show that the model itself does not accurately fit the data.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lewitus, Eric -- Kelava, Iva -- Kalinka, Alex T -- Tomancak, Pavel -- Huttner, Wieland B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):825. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2029.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut de Biologie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France. lewitus@biologie.ens.fr huttner@mpi-cbg.de. ; MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. ; Institute of Population Genetics, Vetmeduni, Vienna, Austria. ; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany. lewitus@biologie.ens.fr huttner@mpi-cbg.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912886" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cerebral Cortex ; Humans ; Lissencephaly/*pathology ; Neurons/*cytology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: Voltage-gated CaV1.2 channels (L-type calcium channel alpha1C subunits) are critical mediators of transcription-dependent neural plasticity. Whether these channels signal via the influx of calcium ion (Ca(2+)), voltage-dependent conformational change (VDeltaC), or a combination of the two has thus far been equivocal. We fused CaV1.2 to a ligand-gated Ca(2+)-permeable channel, enabling independent control of localized Ca(2+) and VDeltaC signals. This revealed an unexpected dual requirement: Ca(2+) must first mobilize actin-bound Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, freeing it for subsequent VDeltaC-mediated accumulation. Neither signal alone sufficed to activate transcription. Signal order was crucial: Efficiency peaked when Ca(2+) preceded VDeltaC by 10 to 20 seconds. CaV1.2 VDeltaC synergistically augmented signaling by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. Furthermore, VDeltaC mistuning correlated with autistic symptoms in Timothy syndrome. Thus, nonionic VDeltaC signaling is vital to the function of CaV1.2 in synaptic and neuropsychiatric processes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Boxing -- Tadross, Michael R -- Tsien, Richard W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):863-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3647.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience and Physiology and New York University Neuroscience Institute, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Beckman Center, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA. tadrossm@janelia.hhmi.org. ; Department of Neuroscience and Physiology and New York University Neuroscience Institute, New York, NY 10016, USA. Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Beckman Center, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912895" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autistic Disorder/genetics/metabolism ; Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology ; Calcium Channels, L-Type/chemistry/*metabolism ; *Calcium Signaling ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/*metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; HEK293 Cells ; Hippocampus/cytology ; Humans ; Long QT Syndrome/genetics/metabolism ; Neuronal Plasticity/*genetics ; Neurons/drug effects/*metabolism ; Nimodipine/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation/drug effects ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism ; Synapses/metabolism ; Syndactyly/genetics/metabolism
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are often characterized as remedies to educational disparities related to social class. Using data from 68 MOOCs offered by Harvard and MIT between 2012 and 2014, we found that course participants from the United States tended to live in more-affluent and better-educated neighborhoods than the average U.S. resident. Among those who did register for courses, students with greater socioeconomic resources were more likely to earn a certificate. Furthermore, these differences in MOOC access and completion were larger for adolescents and young adults, the traditional ages where people find on-ramps into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) coursework and careers. Our findings raise concerns that MOOCs and similar approaches to online learning can exacerbate rather than reduce disparities in educational outcomes related to socioeconomic status.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hansen, John D -- Reich, Justin -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1245-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3782. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. john_hansen@mail.harvard.edu. ; Office of Digital Learning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785488" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Career Choice ; Certification/*methods ; Education, Distance/*methods ; Engineering/education ; Humans ; Internet ; Learning ; Mathematics/education ; *Online Systems ; Science/education ; *Social Class ; Students ; Technology/education ; United States ; Young Adult
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It serves both as a critical coenzyme for enzymes that fuel reduction-oxidation reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another, and as a cosubstrate for other enzymes such as the sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases. Cellular NAD(+) concentrations change during aging, and modulation of NAD(+) usage or production can prolong both health span and life span. Here we review factors that regulate NAD(+) and discuss how supplementation with NAD(+) precursors may represent a new therapeutic opportunity for aging and its associated disorders, particularly neurodegenerative diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Verdin, Eric -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1208-13. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4854.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gladstone Institutes, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785480" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/drug effects/genetics/*metabolism ; Biosynthetic Pathways ; DNA Damage ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism ; Fatty Liver/metabolism ; Humans ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; NAD/*metabolism ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy/*metabolism ; Obesity/metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism ; Sirtuins/metabolism
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Scheid, Johannes F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1175. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7133.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA. fscheid@partners.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785466" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics/immunology/isolation & purification ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics/*immunology/isolation & purification ; B-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Cell Separation/methods ; HIV Antibodies/genetics/*immunology/isolation & purification ; HIV Infections/*blood ; Humans ; Immunologic Memory ; Mice ; env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/*immunology
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Congenital heart disease (CHD) patients have an increased prevalence of extracardiac congenital anomalies (CAs) and risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs). Exome sequencing of 1213 CHD parent-offspring trios identified an excess of protein-damaging de novo mutations, especially in genes highly expressed in the developing heart and brain. These mutations accounted for 20% of patients with CHD, NDD, and CA but only 2% of patients with isolated CHD. Mutations altered genes involved in morphogenesis, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation, including multiple mutations in RBFOX2, a regulator of mRNA splicing. Genes mutated in other cohorts examined for NDD were enriched in CHD cases, particularly those with coexisting NDD. These findings reveal shared genetic contributions to CHD, NDD, and CA and provide opportunities for improved prognostic assessment and early therapeutic intervention in CHD patients.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Homsy, Jason -- Zaidi, Samir -- Shen, Yufeng -- Ware, James S -- Samocha, Kaitlin E -- Karczewski, Konrad J -- DePalma, Steven R -- McKean, David -- Wakimoto, Hiroko -- Gorham, Josh -- Jin, Sheng Chih -- Deanfield, John -- Giardini, Alessandro -- Porter, George A Jr -- Kim, Richard -- Bilguvar, Kaya -- Lopez-Giraldez, Francesc -- Tikhonova, Irina -- Mane, Shrikant -- Romano-Adesman, Angela -- Qi, Hongjian -- Vardarajan, Badri -- Ma, Lijiang -- Daly, Mark -- Roberts, Amy E -- Russell, Mark W -- Mital, Seema -- Newburger, Jane W -- Gaynor, J William -- Breitbart, Roger E -- Iossifov, Ivan -- Ronemus, Michael -- Sanders, Stephan J -- Kaltman, Jonathan R -- Seidman, Jonathan G -- Brueckner, Martina -- Gelb, Bruce D -- Goldmuntz, Elizabeth -- Lifton, Richard P -- Seidman, Christine E -- Chung, Wendy K -- T32 HL007208/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- Department of Health/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1262-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9396.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Departments of Systems Biology and Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. NIHR Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit at Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation and Trust and Imperial College London, London, UK. National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Cardiology, University College London and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK. ; Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, The School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA. ; Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY, USA. ; Departments of Systems Biology and Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, USA. ; Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. ; Heart Development and Structural Diseases Branch, Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, NHLBI/NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Mindich Child Health and Development Institute and Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Department of Pediatrics, The Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Division of Cardiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. Cardiovascular Division, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu. ; Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. bruce.gelb@mssm.edu goldmuntz@email.chop.edu martina.brueckner@yale.edu richard.lifton@yale.edu cseidman@genetics.med.harvard.edu wkc15@cumc.columbia.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785492" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brain/abnormalities/metabolism ; Child ; Congenital Abnormalities/genetics ; Exome/genetics ; Heart Defects, Congenital/*diagnosis/*genetics ; Humans ; Mutation ; Nervous System Malformations/*genetics ; Neurogenesis/*genetics ; Prognosis ; RNA Splicing/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; Repressor Proteins/genetics ; Transcription, Genetic
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hurtley, Stella -- Roberts, Leslie -- Ray, L Bryan -- Purnell, Beverly A -- Ash, Caroline -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1180-1. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1180.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785472" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*genetics ; Animals ; Health ; Humans ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; Stem Cells/physiology ; Telomere/*genetics ; *Telomere Homeostasis
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: The potential for the gut microbiota to affect health has a particular relevance for older individuals. This is because the microbiota may modulate aging-related changes in innate immunity, sarcopaenia, and cognitive function, all of which are elements of frailty. Both cell culture-dependent and -independent studies show that the gut microbiota of older people differs from that of younger adults. There is no chronological threshold or age at which the composition of the microbiota suddenly alters; rather, changes occur gradually with time. Our detailed analyses have separated the microbiota into groups associated with age, long-term residential care, habitual diet, and degree of retention of a core microbiome. We are beginning to understand how these groups change with aging and how they relate to clinical phenotypes. These data provide a framework for analyzing microbiota-health associations, distinguishing correlation from causation, identifying microbiota interaction with physiological aging processes, and developing microbiota-based health surveillance for older adults.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Toole, Paul W -- Jeffery, Ian B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1214-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aac8469.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Microbiology and APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork T12 Y337, Ireland. pwotoole@ucc.ie. ; School of Microbiology and APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork T12 Y337, Ireland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785481" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; *Aging ; Food Habits ; Frail Elderly ; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome ; Health ; Humans
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 +/- 979 km(3)/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 +/- 979 km(3)/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jaramillo, Fernando -- Destouni, Georgia -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1248-51. doi: 10.1126/science.aad1010.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Goteborg, Sweden. fernando.jaramillo@natgeo.su.se. ; Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785489" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Agricultural Irrigation ; Climate Change ; *Drinking ; *Fresh Water ; Humans ; Plant Transpiration ; Water Supply/*standards
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cohen, Jon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1186-7. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1186.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785474" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Caloric Restriction ; Death ; Humans ; Hydra/genetics/physiology ; Longevity/genetics/*physiology ; Mice ; Mutation ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics/physiology
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Greenbaum, Dov -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1176. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1176-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Zvi Meitar Institute for Legal Implications of Emerging Technologies, Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya Israel and Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 10463, USA. dov.greenbaum@yale.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785467" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Clothing ; Humans ; *Military Personnel ; *Robotics ; Walking/*physiology
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Telomeres are the protective end-complexes at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere attrition can lead to potentially maladaptive cellular changes, block cell division, and interfere with tissue replenishment. Recent advances in the understanding of human disease processes have clarified the roles of telomere biology, especially in diseases of human aging and in some aging-related processes. Greater overall telomere attrition predicts mortality and aging-related diseases in inherited telomere syndrome patients, and also in general human cohorts. However, genetically caused variations in telomere maintenance either raise or lower risks and progression of cancers, in a highly cancer type-specific fashion. Telomere maintenance is determined by genetic factors and is also cumulatively shaped by nongenetic influences throughout human life; both can interact. These and other recent findings highlight both causal and potentiating roles for telomere attrition in human diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Blackburn, Elizabeth H -- Epel, Elissa S -- Lin, Jue -- CA096840/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM026259/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1193-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3389.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. elizabeth.blackburn@ucsf.edu. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785477" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*genetics ; Cell Division/genetics ; Disease/*genetics ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Humans ; Life Style ; Neoplasms/genetics ; Stress, Physiological ; Telomerase/metabolism ; Telomere/chemistry/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Telomere Homeostasis/*genetics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Escobar, Herton -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1138-9. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1138. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785449" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arsenic/analysis ; Brazil ; Copper/analysis ; *Disasters ; *Environmental Restoration and Remediation ; Food Chain ; Humans ; Mercury/analysis ; Metals, Heavy/*analysis ; Rivers ; Sewage/*analysis ; Structure Collapse ; *Tsunamis
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: Translated regions distinct from annotated coding sequences have emerged as essential elements of the proteome. This includes upstream open reading frames (uORFs) present in mRNAs controlled by the integrated stress response (ISR) that show "privileged" translation despite inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 2-guanosine triphosphate-initiator methionyl transfer RNA (eIF2.GTP.Met-tRNA(i )(Met)). We developed tracing translation by T cells to directly measure the translation products of uORFs during the ISR. We identified signature translation events from uORFs in the 5' untranslated region of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) mRNA (also called heat shock 70-kilodalton protein 5 mRNA) that were not initiated at the start codon AUG. BiP expression during the ISR required both the alternative initiation factor eIF2A and non-AUG-initiated uORFs. We propose that persistent uORF translation, for a variety of chaperones, shelters select mRNAs from the ISR, while simultaneously generating peptides that could serve as major histocompatibility complex class I ligands, marking cells for recognition by the adaptive immune system.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Starck, Shelley R -- Tsai, Jordan C -- Chen, Keling -- Shodiya, Michael -- Wang, Lei -- Yahiro, Kinnosuke -- Martins-Green, Manuela -- Shastri, Nilabh -- Walter, Peter -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):aad3867. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3867.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. shelley@walterlab.ucsf.edu nshastri@berkeley.edu peter@walterlab.ucsf.edu. ; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. ; Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. ; Departments of Molecular Infectiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan. ; Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. shelley@walterlab.ucsf.edu nshastri@berkeley.edu peter@walterlab.ucsf.edu. ; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. shelley@walterlab.ucsf.edu nshastri@berkeley.edu peter@walterlab.ucsf.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823435" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 5' Untranslated Regions/*genetics ; Cell Tracking ; Codon, Initiator/genetics ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism ; Heat-Shock Proteins/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Humans ; Open Reading Frames/genetics ; Protein Biosynthesis/*genetics ; RNA, Messenger/*genetics ; Stress, Physiological/*genetics ; T-Lymphocytes/metabolism/microbiology/physiology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Couzin-Frankel, Jennifer -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 15;352(6283):286. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6283.286.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27081052" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Clinical Trials as Topic ; Female ; Fetal Growth Retardation/*therapy ; Gene Transfer Techniques ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Humans ; Placenta ; Pregnancy ; Uterine Artery ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/*genetics
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  • 24
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Couzin-Frankel, Jennifer -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 15;352(6283):284-7. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6283.284.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27081051" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Clinical Trials as Topic ; Female ; Fetal Diseases/*prevention & control ; Humans ; Osteogenesis Imperfecta/*prevention & control ; Pregnancy ; *Stem Cell Transplantation ; *Stem Cells
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Currie, Janet -- Grenfell, Bryan -- Farrar, Jeremy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):815-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8521.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. jcurrie@princeton.edu. ; Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. ; Wellcome Trust, 215 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912880" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Communicable Disease Control/*methods/*organization & administration ; Delivery of Health Care ; Disease Reservoirs ; Epidemics/*prevention & control ; *Global Health ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology/prevention & control ; Humans ; International Cooperation ; Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology/prevention & control ; Zoonoses/prevention & control/transmission
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ma, Eric H -- Jones, Russell G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):670-1. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1929.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Goodman Cancer Research Centre, Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 1A3, Canada. Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6, Canada. ; Goodman Cancer Research Centre, Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 1A3, Canada. Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6, Canada. russell.jones@mcgill.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912848" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Humans ; Mitochondria/*metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/*metabolism ; Purines/*biosynthesis/*metabolism ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism ; Tetrahydrofolates/*metabolism
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-04-09
    Description: Activation of various cell surface receptors triggers the reorganization of downstream signaling molecules into micrometer- or submicrometer-sized clusters. However, the functional consequences of such clustering have been unclear. We biochemically reconstituted a 12-component signaling pathway on model membranes, beginning with T cell receptor (TCR) activation and ending with actin assembly. When TCR phosphorylation was triggered, downstream signaling proteins spontaneously separated into liquid-like clusters that promoted signaling outputs both in vitro and in human Jurkat T cells. Reconstituted clusters were enriched in kinases but excluded phosphatases and enhanced actin filament assembly by recruiting and organizing actin regulators. These results demonstrate that protein phase separation can create a distinct physical and biochemical compartment that facilitates signaling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Su, Xiaolei -- Ditlev, Jonathon A -- Hui, Enfu -- Xing, Wenmin -- Banjade, Sudeep -- Okrut, Julia -- King, David S -- Taunton, Jack -- Rosen, Michael K -- Vale, Ronald D -- 5-F32-DK101188/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F32 DK101188/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056322/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM56322/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):595-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9964. Epub 2016 Apr 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Summer Institute, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Summer Institute, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. Department of Biophysics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; HHMI Mass Spectrometry Laboratory and Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Summer Institute, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. Department of Biophysics and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ron.vale@ucsf.edu michael.rosen@utsouthwestern.edu. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Summer Institute, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ron.vale@ucsf.edu michael.rosen@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27056844" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actins/*metabolism ; Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/*metabolism ; Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching ; Humans ; Jurkat Cells ; Membrane Proteins/*metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases ; Phosphorylation ; Polymerization ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/*agonists ; Signal Transduction ; T-Lymphocytes/*metabolism
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Systemic inflammation, which results from the massive release of proinflammatory molecules into the circulatory system, is a major risk factor for severe illness, but the precise mechanisms underlying its control are not fully understood. We observed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), through its receptor EP4, is down-regulated in human systemic inflammatory disease. Mice with reduced PGE2 synthesis develop systemic inflammation, associated with translocation of gut bacteria, which can be prevented by treatment with EP4 agonists. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that PGE2-EP4 signaling acts directly on type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), promoting their homeostasis and driving them to produce interleukin-22 (IL-22). Disruption of the ILC-IL-22 axis impairs PGE2-mediated inhibition of systemic inflammation. Hence, the ILC-IL-22 axis is essential in protecting against gut barrier dysfunction, enabling PGE2-EP4 signaling to impede systemic inflammation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4841390/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4841390/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Duffin, Rodger -- O'Connor, Richard A -- Crittenden, Siobhan -- Forster, Thorsten -- Yu, Cunjing -- Zheng, Xiaozhong -- Smyth, Danielle -- Robb, Calum T -- Rossi, Fiona -- Skouras, Christos -- Tang, Shaohui -- Richards, James -- Pellicoro, Antonella -- Weller, Richard B -- Breyer, Richard M -- Mole, Damian J -- Iredale, John P -- Anderton, Stephen M -- Narumiya, Shuh -- Maizels, Rick M -- Ghazal, Peter -- Howie, Sarah E -- Rossi, Adriano G -- Yao, Chengcan -- 106122/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- BB/K091121/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- DK37097/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1333-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9903.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK. ; Division of Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Infectious Diseases, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK. ; Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. ; MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4UU, UK. ; Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China. ; Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Health Authority, Nashville, TN 37212, USA. Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. ; Center for Innovation in Immunoregulative Technology and Therapeutics (AK Project), Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 102-0075, Japan. ; Division of Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Infectious Diseases, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK. Centre for Synthetic and Systems Biology (SynthSys), The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JD, UK. ; Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK. chengcan.yao@ed.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Infections/genetics/immunology ; Dinoprostone/*immunology ; Gene Expression ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate ; Inflammation/drug therapy/*immunology/microbiology ; Interleukins/*immunology ; Intestines/*immunology/microbiology ; Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Mice ; Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP4 Subtype/antagonists & ; inhibitors/genetics/*immunology ; Signal Transduction
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: As tumors grow, they acquire mutations, some of which create neoantigens that influence the response of patients to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We explored the impact of neoantigen intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) on antitumor immunity. Through integrated analysis of ITH and neoantigen burden, we demonstrate a relationship between clonal neoantigen burden and overall survival in primary lung adenocarcinomas. CD8(+)tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reactive to clonal neoantigens were identified in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and expressed high levels of PD-1. Sensitivity to PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade in patients with advanced NSCLC and melanoma was enhanced in tumors enriched for clonal neoantigens. T cells recognizing clonal neoantigens were detectable in patients with durable clinical benefit. Cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced subclonal neoantigens, contributing to an increased mutational load, were enriched in certain poor responders. These data suggest that neoantigen heterogeneity may influence immune surveillance and support therapeutic developments targeting clonal neoantigens.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McGranahan, Nicholas -- Furness, Andrew J S -- Rosenthal, Rachel -- Ramskov, Sofie -- Lyngaa, Rikke -- Saini, Sunil Kumar -- Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam -- Wilson, Gareth A -- Birkbak, Nicolai J -- Hiley, Crispin T -- Watkins, Thomas B K -- Shafi, Seema -- Murugaesu, Nirupa -- Mitter, Richard -- Akarca, Ayse U -- Linares, Joseph -- Marafioti, Teresa -- Henry, Jake Y -- Van Allen, Eliezer M -- Miao, Diana -- Schilling, Bastian -- Schadendorf, Dirk -- Garraway, Levi A -- Makarov, Vladimir -- Rizvi, Naiyer A -- Snyder, Alexandra -- Hellmann, Matthew D -- Merghoub, Taha -- Wolchok, Jedd D -- Shukla, Sachet A -- Wu, Catherine J -- Peggs, Karl S -- Chan, Timothy A -- Hadrup, Sine R -- Quezada, Sergio A -- Swanton, Charles -- 12100/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 1R01CA155010-02/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 1R01CA182461-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 1R01CA184922-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1463-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1490. Epub 2016 Mar 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. Centre for Mathematics and Physics in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology (CoMPLEX), University College London (UCL), London WC1E 6BT, UK. Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Cancer Immunology Unit, UCL Cancer Institute, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Section for Immunology and Vaccinology, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 1970 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. ; The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. ; Cancer Immunology Unit, UCL Cancer Institute, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Department of Cellular Pathology, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Center for Cancer Precision Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany. German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), 69121 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Hematology/Oncology Division, 177 Fort Washington Avenue, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Ludwig Collaborative Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. Ludwig Collaborative Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Internal Medicine, Brigham and Woman's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Cancer Immunology Unit, UCL Cancer Institute, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK. s.quezada@ucl.ac.uk charles.swanton@crick.ac.uk. ; The Francis Crick Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, UCL Cancer Institute, London WC1E 6BT, UK. s.quezada@ucl.ac.uk charles.swanton@crick.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940869" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy/genetics/*immunology ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics/*immunology ; Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; CTLA-4 Antigen/immunology ; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics/immunology ; Cell Cycle Checkpoints/immunology ; Female ; Humans ; *Immunologic Surveillance ; Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics/*immunology ; Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology ; Male ; Melanoma/immunology ; Middle Aged ; Mutation ; Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology ; Skin Neoplasms/immunology
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 5-Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is a key enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway. The MTAP gene is frequently deleted in human cancers because of its chromosomal proximity to the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A. By interrogating data from a large-scale short hairpin RNA-mediated screen across 390 cancer cell line models, we found that the viability of MTAP-deficient cancer cells is impaired by depletion of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5. MTAP-deleted cells accumulate the metabolite methylthioadenosine (MTA), which we found to inhibit PRMT5 methyltransferase activity. Deletion of MTAP in MTAP-proficient cells rendered them sensitive to PRMT5 depletion. Conversely, reconstitution of MTAP in an MTAP-deficient cell line rescued PRMT5 dependence. Thus, MTA accumulation in MTAP-deleted cancers creates a hypomorphic PRMT5 state that is selectively sensitized toward further PRMT5 inhibition. Inhibitors of PRMT5 that leverage this dysregulated metabolic state merit further investigation as a potential therapy for MTAP/CDKN2A-deleted tumors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mavrakis, Konstantinos J -- McDonald, E Robert 3rd -- Schlabach, Michael R -- Billy, Eric -- Hoffman, Gregory R -- deWeck, Antoine -- Ruddy, David A -- Venkatesan, Kavitha -- Yu, Jianjun -- McAllister, Gregg -- Stump, Mark -- deBeaumont, Rosalie -- Ho, Samuel -- Yue, Yingzi -- Liu, Yue -- Yan-Neale, Yan -- Yang, Guizhi -- Lin, Fallon -- Yin, Hong -- Gao, Hui -- Kipp, D Randal -- Zhao, Songping -- McNamara, Joshua T -- Sprague, Elizabeth R -- Zheng, Bing -- Lin, Ying -- Cho, Young Shin -- Gu, Justin -- Crawford, Kenneth -- Ciccone, David -- Vitari, Alberto C -- Lai, Albert -- Capka, Vladimir -- Hurov, Kristen -- Porter, Jeffery A -- Tallarico, John -- Mickanin, Craig -- Lees, Emma -- Pagliarini, Raymond -- Keen, Nicholas -- Schmelzle, Tobias -- Hofmann, Francesco -- Stegmeier, Frank -- Sellers, William R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1208-13. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5944. Epub 2016 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel CH-4002, Switzerland. ; Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA. ; China Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. william.sellers@novartis.com fstegmeier@ksqtx.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912361" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Survival ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16/genetics/*metabolism ; Deoxyadenosines/metabolism ; Gene Deletion ; Humans ; Methionine/*metabolism ; Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics/*metabolism ; Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases/genetics/*metabolism ; Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase/genetics/*metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering/genetics ; Thionucleosides/metabolism
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4838154/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4838154/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dove, Edward S -- Townend, David -- Meslin, Eric M -- Bobrow, Martin -- Littler, Katherine -- Nicol, Dianne -- de Vries, Jantina -- Junker, Anne -- Garattini, Chiara -- Bovenberg, Jasper -- Shabani, Mahsa -- Levesque, Emmanuelle -- Knoppers, Bartha M -- 099313/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 103360/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1399-400. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5269.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉J. Kenyon Mason Institute for Medicine, Life Sciences and the Law, School of Law, University of Edinburgh, UK. edward.dove@ed.ac.uk. ; Department of Health, Ethics & Society, CAPHRI Research School, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. ; Indiana University Center for Bioethics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. ; Honorary Faculty, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge, UK. ; Wellcome Trust, London, UK. ; Centre for Law and Genetics, Faculty of Law, University of Tasmania, Australia. ; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa. ; Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ; Intel Corporation, Health and Life Sciences, London, UK. ; Legal Pathways, Aerdenhout, The Netherlands. ; Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. ; Centre of Genomics and Policy, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013718" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomedical Research/*ethics ; Datasets as Topic/ethics ; Ethical Review/*standards ; Genetics, Medical ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Information Dissemination/*ethics ; Internationality ; Neoplasms
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA-linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood. We found that the energy-sensing adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is genetically required for cells to undergo rapid mitochondrial fragmentation after treatment with ETC inhibitors. Moreover, direct pharmacological activation of AMPK was sufficient to rapidly promote mitochondrial fragmentation even in the absence of mitochondrial stress. A screen for substrates of AMPK identified mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), a mitochondrial outer-membrane receptor for DRP1, the cytoplasmic guanosine triphosphatase that catalyzes mitochondrial fission. Nonphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic alleles of the AMPK sites in MFF revealed that it is a key effector of AMPK-mediated mitochondrial fission.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Toyama, Erin Quan -- Herzig, Sebastien -- Courchet, Julien -- Lewis, Tommy L Jr -- Loson, Oliver C -- Hellberg, Kristina -- Young, Nathan P -- Chen, Hsiuchen -- Polleux, Franck -- Chan, David C -- Shaw, Reuben J -- K99 NS091526/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- K99NS091526/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA120964/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014195/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA172229/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01DK080425/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01GM062967/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM110039/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01NS089456/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):275-81. doi: 10.1126/science.aab4138.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute and Kavli Institute for Brain Science, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. shaw@salk.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816379" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cytoplasm/enzymology ; Dactinomycin/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology ; *Energy Metabolism ; Enzyme Activation ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Mitochondria/drug effects/enzymology/*physiology ; *Mitochondrial Dynamics ; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Rotenone/pharmacology ; *Stress, Physiological
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  • 33
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McNutt, Marcia -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):641. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf4014. Epub 2016 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Marcia McNutt Editor-in-Chief Science Journals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912832" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Corrosion ; Federal Government ; Humans ; Michigan ; *Public Health ; Safety/*economics ; Trust ; United States ; United States Environmental Protection Agency ; Water Supply/*economics
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body's defense mechanisms.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Elbarbary, Reyad A -- Lucas, Bronwyn A -- Maquat, Lynne E -- P30 AR061307/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM074593/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):aac7247. doi: 10.1126/science.aac7247. Epub 2016 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. Center for RNA Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. Center for RNA Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. Department of Oncology, Wilmot Cancer Institute, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. lynne_maquat@urmc.rochester.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912865" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromatin/ultrastructure ; Disease/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics/*physiology ; Mice ; Protein Biosynthesis ; RNA Precursors/metabolism ; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional ; RNA Stability ; RNA, Messenger/metabolism ; Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics/*physiology ; Transcription, Genetic
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fahlgren, Noah -- Bart, Rebecca -- Herrera-Estrella, Luis -- Rellan-Alvarez, Ruben -- Chitwood, Daniel H -- Dinneny, Jose R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):824. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6275.824-a. Epub 2016 Feb 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO 63132, USA. ; Nacional de Genomica para la Biodiversidad, Irapuato, 36821, Mexico. ; Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO 63132, USA. jdinneny@carnegiescience.edu dchitwood@danforthcenter.org. ; Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. jdinneny@carnegiescience.edu dchitwood@danforthcenter.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912883" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: China ; Food, Genetically Modified/*adverse effects ; Genetic Engineering/*utilization ; Health ; Humans ; Plants, Genetically Modified/*adverse effects/genetics ; United States ; Zea mays/genetics
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Therapeutic advances in oncology have not fully translated to the treatment of metastatic disease, which remains largely incurable. Metastatic subclones can emerge both early and late in the life of the primary tumor. A better understanding of the genetic evolution of metastatic disease has the potential to reveal differences in the therapeutic vulnerabilities of primary and metastatic tumors, shed light on the temporal patterns of and routes to metastatic colonization, and provide insight into the biology of the metastatic process. Here we review recent comparative studies of primary and metastatic tumors, including data suggesting that macroevolutionary shifts (the onset of chromosomal instability) contribute to the evolution of metastatic disease. We also discuss the practical challenges associated with these studies and how they might be overcome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Turajlic, Samra -- Swanton, Charles -- C50947/A18176/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Department of Health/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):169-75. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf2784.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Francis Crick Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY2, UK. Renal and Skin Units, The Royal Marsden Hospital, London SW3 6JJ, UK. ; The Francis Crick Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY2, UK. University College London Hospitals and Cancer Institute, Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, Huntley Street, London WC1, UK. charles.swanton@crick.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124450" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Clone Cells/pathology ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genetic Variation ; Humans ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*genetics/*pathology ; Neoplasms/classification/genetics/pathology ; Phylogeny
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  • 37
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tuting, Thomas -- de Visser, Karin E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):145-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf7300.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany. ; Division of Immunology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands. k.d.visser@nki.nl.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124439" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bystander Effect ; Humans ; Immunotherapy/methods ; Leukocyte Count ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Neoplasm Metastasis/*immunology/*therapy ; Neoplasms, Experimental/immunology/pathology/therapy ; Neutrophils/*immunology/*pathology
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Underwood, Emily -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):212-3. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6270.212.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816355" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Advertising as Topic/legislation & jurisprudence ; Brain/*physiology ; Cognition ; Humans ; *Learning ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Neurosciences/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Simulation Training/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Software/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Video Games/*legislation & jurisprudence
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Underwood, Emily -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):116-9. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6269.116.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744391" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibodies/*therapeutic use ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; *Cortical Spreading Depression/drug effects/immunology/physiology ; Drug Design ; Drug Industry ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Migraine Disorders/*immunology/physiopathology/*therapy ; Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/*antagonists & inhibitors/immunology ; Sex Ratio
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Waqas, Ahmed -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1358. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6279.1358.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ahmed Waqas is in the final year of his Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree at the CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry in Pakistan. Send your story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989255" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Career Choice ; Humans ; Mental Health ; *Mentors ; Neurosurgery/education ; Pakistan ; Psychiatry/*education ; Students, Medical/*psychology
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3222 British adults of Pakistani heritage with high parental relatedness, discovering 1111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer homozygous knockout genotypes than we expected, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent loss-of-function (LOF) variants per adult. When genetic data were linked to the individuals' lifelong health records, we observed no significant relationship between gene knockouts and clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this data set, we identified a healthy PRDM9-knockout mother and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child, and control individuals. Our results show that meiotic recombination sites are localized away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform on essential genetic loci and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Narasimhan, Vagheesh M -- Hunt, Karen A -- Mason, Dan -- Baker, Christopher L -- Karczewski, Konrad J -- Barnes, Michael R -- Barnett, Anthony H -- Bates, Chris -- Bellary, Srikanth -- Bockett, Nicholas A -- Giorda, Kristina -- Griffiths, Christopher J -- Hemingway, Harry -- Jia, Zhilong -- Kelly, M Ann -- Khawaja, Hajrah A -- Lek, Monkol -- McCarthy, Shane -- McEachan, Rosie -- O'Donnell-Luria, Anne -- Paigen, Kenneth -- Parisinos, Constantinos A -- Sheridan, Eamonn -- Southgate, Laura -- Tee, Louise -- Thomas, Mark -- Xue, Yali -- Schnall-Levin, Michael -- Petkov, Petko M -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- Maher, Eamonn R -- Trembath, Richard C -- MacArthur, Daniel G -- Wright, John -- Durbin, Richard -- van Heel, David A -- GM 099640/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MR/M009017/1/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 GM104371/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM104371/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- WT098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT099769/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT101597/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT102627/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- Arthritis Research UK/United Kingdom -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Department of Health/United Kingdom -- Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):474-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aac8624. Epub 2016 Mar 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK. ; Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Teaching Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Bradford BD9 6RJ, UK. ; Center for Genome Dynamics, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK. ; Diabetes and Endocrine Centre, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham B9 5SS, UK. ; TPP, Mill House, Troy Road, Leeds LS18 5TN, UK. ; Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK. ; 10X Genomics, 7068 Koll Center Parkway, Suite 415, Pleasanton, CA 94566, USA. ; Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, London NW1 2DA, UK. Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London NW1 2DA, UK. ; School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. ; Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Box 238, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK. Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. rd@sanger.ac.uk d.vanheel@qmul.ac.uk. ; Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK. rd@sanger.ac.uk d.vanheel@qmul.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26940866" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Consanguinity ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Drug Prescriptions ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Fertility ; Gene Knockout Techniques ; Genes, Lethal ; Genetic Loci ; Genome, Human ; Great Britain ; *Health ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/*genetics ; Homologous Recombination ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Male ; Mothers ; Pakistan/ethnology ; Phenotype
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Muscle contraction depends on release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and reuptake by the Ca(2+)adenosine triphosphatase SERCA. We discovered a putative muscle-specific long noncoding RNA that encodes a peptide of 34 amino acids and that we named dwarf open reading frame (DWORF). DWORF localizes to the SR membrane, where it enhances SERCA activity by displacing the SERCA inhibitors, phospholamban, sarcolipin, and myoregulin. In mice, overexpression of DWORF in cardiomyocytes increases peak Ca(2+) transient amplitude and SR Ca(2+) load while reducing the time constant of cytosolic Ca(2+) decay during each cycle of contraction-relaxation. Conversely, slow skeletal muscle lacking DWORF exhibits delayed Ca(2+) clearance and relaxation and reduced SERCA activity. DWORF is the only endogenous peptide known to activate the SERCA pump by physical interaction and provides a means for enhancing muscle contractility.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Benjamin R -- Makarewich, Catherine A -- Anderson, Douglas M -- Winders, Benjamin R -- Troupes, Constantine D -- Wu, Fenfen -- Reese, Austin L -- McAnally, John R -- Chen, Xiongwen -- Kavalali, Ege T -- Cannon, Stephen C -- Houser, Steven R -- Bassel-Duby, Rhonda -- Olson, Eric N -- AR-063182/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- DK-099653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30AR 067094/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- HL-077439,/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-093039/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-111665/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR063182/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01-HL-100401/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):271-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4076.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Physiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. Department of Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. ; Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. eric.olson@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816378" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Muscle Contraction ; Muscle Proteins/metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal/*metabolism ; Myocardial Contraction ; Myocytes, Cardiac/*metabolism ; Peptides/genetics/*metabolism ; Proteolipids/metabolism ; RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics/metabolism ; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism ; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: The general view that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has recently been challenged. In organisms lacking adaptive immunity, as well as in mammals, the innate immune system can mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed "trained immunity" or "innate immune memory." Trained immunity is orchestrated by epigenetic reprogramming, broadly defined as sustained changes in gene expression and cell physiology that do not involve permanent genetic changes such as mutations and recombination, which are essential for adaptive immunity. The discovery of trained immunity may open the door for novel vaccine approaches, new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immune deficiency states, and modulation of exaggerated inflammation in autoinflammatory diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Netea, Mihai G -- Joosten, Leo A B -- Latz, Eicke -- Mills, Kingston H G -- Natoli, Gioacchino -- Stunnenberg, Hendrik G -- O'Neill, Luke A J -- Xavier, Ramnik J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):aaf1098. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1098. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands. mihai.netea@radboudumc.nl. ; Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands. ; Institute of Innate Immunity, Bonn University, Bonn, Germany. Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany. ; School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. ; Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Faculties of Science and Medicine, Radboud Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands. ; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Center for Computational and Integrative Biology and Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102489" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; DNA Methylation ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/genetics/*immunology ; Immunologic Memory/genetics/*immunology ; Infection/*immunology ; Inflammation/immunology ; Invertebrates/immunology ; Plants/immunology ; Transcription, Genetic ; Vaccination ; Vaccines/*immunology
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the noncoding region of the C9orf72 gene are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. Decreased expression of C9orf72 is seen in expansion carriers, suggesting that loss of function may play a role in disease. We found that two independent mouse lines lacking the C9orf72 ortholog (3110043O21Rik) in all tissues developed normally and aged without motor neuron disease. Instead, C9orf72 null mice developed progressive splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy with accumulation of engorged macrophage-like cells. C9orf72 expression was highest in myeloid cells, and the loss of C9orf72 led to lysosomal accumulation and altered immune responses in macrophages and microglia, with age-related neuroinflammation similar to C9orf72 ALS but not sporadic ALS human patient tissue. Thus, C9orf72 is required for the normal function of myeloid cells, and altered microglial function may contribute to neurodegeneration in C9orf72 expansion carriers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Rourke, J G -- Bogdanik, L -- Yanez, A -- Lall, D -- Wolf, A J -- Muhammad, A K M G -- Ho, R -- Carmona, S -- Vit, J P -- Zarrow, J -- Kim, K J -- Bell, S -- Harms, M B -- Miller, T M -- Dangler, C A -- Underhill, D M -- Goodridge, H S -- Lutz, C M -- Baloh, R H -- GM085796/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- NS069669/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS078398/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS087351/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- UL1TR000124/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1324-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1064.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA. ; Division of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. ; Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. Department of Neurology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989253" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/immunology ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics/*immunology ; Animals ; Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics/*immunology ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/genetics/*physiology ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; Lymphatic Diseases/genetics/immunology ; Macrophages/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Microglia/*immunology ; Myeloid Cells/*immunology ; Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Rats ; Splenomegaly/genetics/immunology
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  • 45
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ordman, Roc -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):886. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6275.886.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Roc Ordman is a professor emeritus of chemistry and biochemistry at Beloit College in Wisconsin. For more on life and careers, visit sciencecareers.org. Send your story to SciCareerEditor@aaas.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912897" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Biochemistry/*education ; *Career Mobility ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Faculty ; Financing, Organized ; Humans