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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (3,404)
  • Humans  (2,769)
  • 1995-1999  (4,546)
  • 1950-1954  (1,627)
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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balter, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1799.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874628" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines ; *Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy ; Administrative Personnel ; Anti-HIV Agents ; France ; Government Agencies/organization & administration ; History, 20th Century ; Humans ; *Research
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barinaga, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1794-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use ; Cognition/drug effects/physiology ; Epilepsy/drug therapy ; Humans ; KCNQ2 Potassium Channel ; KCNQ3 Potassium Channel ; Neurons/*physiology ; Potassium/metabolism ; Potassium Channels/*chemistry/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated ; Sympathetic Nervous System/cytology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2168.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890820" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Asthma/*immunology/physiopathology ; Bronchoconstriction ; Eosinophils/immunology ; Goblet Cells/immunology ; Humans ; Interleukin-13/pharmacology/*physiology ; Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit ; Interleukin-4/pharmacology/physiology ; Lung/immunology/physiopathology ; Mice ; Receptors, Interleukin/metabolism ; Receptors, Interleukin-13 ; Receptors, Interleukin-4/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Th2 Cells/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1797,1799.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874627" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/drug effects ; Brain/metabolism ; Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy ; Conditioning (Psychology)/drug effects ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Humans ; Nicotine/pharmacology ; Papio ; *Smoking Cessation ; Tobacco Use Disorder/*drug therapy/metabolism ; Vigabatrin ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sikorski, R -- Peters, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2213.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890829" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Brain Tissue Transplantation ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line ; Cell Movement ; Cerebellum/cytology ; Cerebral Ventricles/cytology/embryology ; *Fetal Tissue Transplantation ; Humans ; Mice ; Neuroglia/cytology ; Neurons/cytology ; *Stem Cell Transplantation ; Stem Cells/cytology/enzymology ; beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Spear, P G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1999-2000.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. p-spear@nwu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874652" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Adhesion ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Dystroglycans ; Humans ; Laminin/metabolism ; Lassa Fever/*virology ; Lassa virus/*metabolism ; Leprosy/*microbiology ; Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/metabolism ; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Mycobacterium leprae/*metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Schwann Cells/microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1972-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874643" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/cytology/*genetics/physiology ; Cell Lineage ; Chromosome Mapping ; DNA, Helminth/chemistry/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genes, Helminth ; Genetic Techniques ; *Genome ; Humans ; Mutation ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 24;285(5436):2042.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10523192" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Calcineurin/metabolism ; *Calcineurin Inhibitors ; Cells, Cultured ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Immunosuppressive Agents/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; NFATC Transcription Factors ; *Nuclear Proteins ; Peptide Library ; Peptides/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; T-Lymphocytes/*drug effects/immunology ; Transcription Factors/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-08-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Amado, R G -- Chen, I S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 30;285(5428):674-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA School of Medicine and UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. ramado@ucla.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10454923" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; *Gene Transfer Techniques ; Genes, Viral ; *Genetic Therapy ; *Genetic Vectors ; HIV/*genetics/physiology ; HIV Infections/therapy/virology ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology/physiology ; Humans ; Lentivirus/*genetics/physiology ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Plasmids ; Recombination, Genetic ; Retinitis Pigmentosa/therapy ; Transfection ; Virus Replication
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1999-12-22
    Description: In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (E-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species including mosquitoes and two fatal human cases, revealed that West Nile (WN) virus circulated in natural transmission cycles and was responsible for the human disease. Antigenic mapping with E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and E-glycoprotein phylogenetic analysis confirmed these viruses as WN. This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lanciotti, R S -- Roehrig, J T -- Deubel, V -- Smith, J -- Parker, M -- Steele, K -- Crise, B -- Volpe, K E -- Crabtree, M B -- Scherret, J H -- Hall, R A -- MacKenzie, J S -- Cropp, C B -- Panigrahy, B -- Ostlund, E -- Schmitt, B -- Malkinson, M -- Banet, C -- Weissman, J -- Komar, N -- Savage, H M -- Stone, W -- McNamara, T -- Gubler, D J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 17;286(5448):2333-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA. rsl2@cdc.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600742" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/immunology ; Base Sequence ; Bird Diseases/epidemiology/virology ; Birds/virology ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese/classification/genetics ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect ; Genome, Viral ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; New England/epidemiology ; New York City/epidemiology ; Phylogeny ; Songbirds/virology ; Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; West Nile Fever/*epidemiology/veterinary/*virology ; West Nile virus/*classification/*genetics/immunology/isolation & purification
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 1999-12-11
    Description: The multisubunit transcription factor IID (TFIID) is an essential component of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II machinery that works in concert with TFIIA (IIA) and TFIIB (IIB) to assemble initiation complexes at core eukaryotic promoters. Here the structures of human TFIID and the TFIID-IIA-IIB complex that were obtained by electron microscopy and image analysis to 35 angstrom resolution are presented. TFIID is a trilobed, horseshoe-shaped structure, with TFIIA and TFIIB bound on opposite lobes and flanking a central cavity. Antibody studies locate the TATA-binding protein (TBP) between TFIIA and TFIIB at the top of the cavity that most likely encompasses the TATA DNA binding region of the supramolecular complex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Andel, F 3rd -- Ladurner, A G -- Inouye, C -- Tjian, R -- Nogales, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 10;286(5447):2153-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Life Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10591646" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; DNA/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; Microscopy, Electron ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Protein Conformation ; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; TATA-Box Binding Protein ; Transcription Factor TFIIA ; Transcription Factor TFIIB ; Transcription Factor TFIID ; Transcription Factors/*chemistry/metabolism ; Transcription Factors, TFII/*chemistry/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, R F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 23;284(5414):578-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10328734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Electric Stimulation ; Electrodes ; Electrodes, Implanted ; *Electronics ; Electrophysiology ; Humans ; Nerve Net/*physiology ; Nervous System Diseases/*therapy ; Neurons/*physiology ; Rats ; Silicon ; *Transistors, Electronic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wetzel, D L -- LeVine, S M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 20;285(5431):1224-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Microbeam Molecular Spectroscopy Lab, Kansas State University, Manhatten, KS 66506, USA. dwetzel@ksu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484732" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biochemistry/*methods ; Biological Science Disciplines/*methods ; Forensic Medicine ; Humans ; Specimen Handling ; *Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation/methods ; Spectrum Analysis, Raman
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-03-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Whitacre, C C -- Reingold, S C -- O'Looney, P A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 26;283(5406):1277-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. whitacre.3@osu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10084932" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Formation ; *Autoimmune Diseases/genetics/immunology/therapy ; *Autoimmunity ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/immunology ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Gonadal Steroid Hormones/physiology ; Hormones/physiology ; Humans ; Immunity, Cellular ; Male ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Complications/immunology ; *Sex Characteristics ; Th1 Cells/immunology ; Th2 Cells/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 4;284(5420):1600-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10383332" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ADAM Proteins ; Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents ; Antirheumatic Agents ; Arthritis/*drug therapy ; Binding Sites ; Cloning, Molecular ; Enzyme Precursors/chemistry/metabolism ; Gelatinases/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 ; Metalloendopeptidases/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Neoplasms/*drug therapy ; Procollagen N-Endopeptidase ; Protease Inhibitors/*pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Secondary
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, R F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 9;284(5412):243-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10232968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biocompatible Materials ; *Biomedical Engineering ; Brain/*drug effects/metabolism ; Caffeine/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*pharmacology ; Catalysis ; Genetic Engineering ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Humans ; Polycarboxylate Cement/chemical synthesis ; Polymers/chemical synthesis ; Rats ; Substance-Related Disorders/*etiology
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, R F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 2;284(5411):33-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10215526" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology ; Calcium/metabolism ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Cardiac Output, Low/*physiopathology ; Chronic Disease ; *Computer Simulation ; Heart/*physiopathology ; Humans ; *Models, Cardiovascular ; *Myocardial Contraction ; Potassium/metabolism ; Potassium Channels/metabolism
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: Models for replication and transcription often display polymerases that track like locomotives along their DNA templates. However, recent evidence supports an alternative model in which DNA and RNA polymerases are immobilized by attachment to larger structures, where they reel in their templates and extrude newly made nucleic acids. These polymerases do not act independently; they are concentrated in discrete "factories," where they work together on many different templates. Evidence for models involving tracking and immobile polymerases is reviewed.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cook, P R -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 11;284(5421):1790-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK. Peter.Cook@Path.OX.AC.UK〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10364545" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *DNA Replication ; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/*metabolism ; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/*metabolism ; Humans ; Models, Genetic ; Replication Origin ; Templates, Genetic ; *Transcription, Genetic
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cooke, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 14;284(5417):1125-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10366345" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Energy Intake ; *Energy Metabolism ; Humans ; *Movement ; *Weight Gain
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-02-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 5;283(5403):777.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10049117" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cultural Characteristics ; *Family ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; *Marriage ; *Paternal Behavior ; Paternity ; *Sexual Behavior
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 1999-07-27
    Description: Candida glabrata is an important fungal pathogen of humans that is responsible for about 15 percent of mucosal and systemic candidiasis. Candida glabrata adhered avidly to human epithelial cells in culture. By means of a genetic approach and a strategy allowing parallel screening of mutants, it was possible to clone a lectin from a Candida species. Deletion of this adhesin reduced adherence of C. glabrata to human epithelial cells by 95 percent. The adhesin, encoded by the EPA1 gene, is likely a glucan-cross-linked cell-wall protein and binds to host-cell carbohydrate, specifically recognizing asialo-lactosyl-containing carbohydrates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cormack, B P -- Ghori, N -- Falkow, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 23;285(5427):578-82.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Fairchild D039, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5124, USA. bcormack@jhmi.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10417386" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Candida/*genetics/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/microbiology ; Carbohydrates/pharmacology ; Cell Adhesion ; Cloning, Molecular ; Epithelial Cells/*microbiology ; Female ; *Fungal Proteins ; Genes, Fungal ; Humans ; Lectins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; Ligands ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred DBA ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Mutation ; Plasmids ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Transformation, Genetic ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; Virulence/genetics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 1999-09-25
    Description: The flow of information from calcium-mobilizing receptors to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent genes is critically dependent on interaction between the phosphatase calcineurin and the transcription factor NFAT. A high-affinity calcineurin-binding peptide was selected from combinatorial peptide libraries based on the calcineurin docking motif of NFAT. This peptide potently inhibited NFAT activation and NFAT-dependent expression of endogenous cytokine genes in T cells, without affecting the expression of other cytokines that require calcineurin but not NFAT. Substitution of the optimized peptide sequence into the natural calcineurin docking site increased the calcineurin responsiveness of NFAT. Compounds that interfere selectively with the calcineurin-NFAT interaction without affecting calcineurin phosphatase activity may be useful as therapeutic agents that are less toxic than current drugs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Aramburu, J -- Yaffe, M B -- Lopez-Rodriguez, C -- Cantley, L C -- Hogan, P G -- Rao, A -- R01 AI 40127/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056203/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL 03601/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R43 AI 43726/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 24;285(5436):2129-33.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10497131" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Calcineurin/*metabolism ; Calcineurin Inhibitors ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cyclosporine/pharmacology ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, Reporter ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Immunosuppressive Agents/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Jurkat Cells ; Molecular Sequence Data ; NFATC Transcription Factors ; *Nuclear Proteins ; Oligopeptides/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Peptide Library ; Peptides/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Phosphorylation ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes/*drug effects/immunology ; Transcription Factors/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; Transfection
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-21
    Description: Bacteria that attach to surfaces aggregate in a hydrated polymeric matrix of their own synthesis to form biofilms. Formation of these sessile communities and their inherent resistance to antimicrobial agents are at the root of many persistent and chronic bacterial infections. Studies of biofilms have revealed differentiated, structured groups of cells with community properties. Recent advances in our understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of bacterial community behavior point to therapeutic targets that may provide a means for the control of biofilm infections.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Costerton, J W -- Stewart, P S -- Greenberg, E P -- GM59026/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 21;284(5418):1318-22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10334980" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use ; Bacterial Infections/*microbiology ; *Biofilms/drug effects/growth & development ; Cystic Fibrosis/microbiology ; Drug Resistance, Microbial ; Equipment Contamination ; Genes, Bacterial ; Humans ; Lung/microbiology ; Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy/microbiology ; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics/physiology
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 1999-10-26
    Description: The transferrin receptor (TfR) undergoes multiple rounds of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and reemergence at the cell surface, importing iron-loaded transferrin (Tf) and recycling apotransferrin after discharge of iron in the endosome. The crystal structure of the dimeric ectodomain of the human TfR, determined here to 3.2 angstroms resolution, reveals a three-domain subunit. One domain closely resembles carboxy- and aminopeptidases, and features of membrane glutamate carboxypeptidase can be deduced from the TfR structure. A model is proposed for Tf binding to the receptor.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lawrence, C M -- Ray, S -- Babyonyshev, M -- Galluser, R -- Borhani, D W -- Harrison, S C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 22;286(5440):779-82.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Children's Hospital Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10531064" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; CHO Cells ; Carboxypeptidases/chemistry ; Cell Membrane/chemistry ; Conserved Sequence ; Cricetinae ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dimerization ; Ferric Compounds/metabolism ; Glycosylation ; Humans ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Transferrin/*chemistry/metabolism ; Transferrin/metabolism
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-07-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Arctander, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 25;284(5423):2090-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10409064" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA, Mitochondrial/*genetics ; Female ; Haplotypes ; Humans ; Male ; Phylogeny ; *Recombination, Genetic
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 13;285(5430):999.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10475850" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biotechnology/history ; Genetics, Medical/history ; Genome, Human ; History, 20th Century ; Humans ; United States
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 1999-05-21
    Description: Isolated for the first time in 1982 from human gastric biopsy, Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. A pathogenicity island acquired by horizontal transfer, coding for a type IV secretion system, is a major determinant of virulence. The infection is now treated with antibiotics, and vaccines are in preparation. The geographic distribution suggests coevolution of man and Helicobacter pylori.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Covacci, A -- Telford, J L -- Del Giudice, G -- Parsonnet, J -- Rappuoli, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 21;284(5418):1328-33.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉IRIS, Chiron SpA, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10334982" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Bacterial Vaccines ; Biological Evolution ; Child ; Genetic Variation ; Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology/*microbiology/prevention & ; control/transmission ; Helicobacter pylori/*genetics/immunology/*pathogenicity ; Humans ; Peptic Ulcer/microbiology ; Stomach/*microbiology ; Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology ; Virulence
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  • 28
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-02-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Haraldsdottir, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jan 22;283(5401):487.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9988648" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bioethics ; Databases, Factual/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Genetic Privacy ; *Genetic Research ; Humans ; Iceland ; Medical Records Systems, Computerized/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Patient Advocacy
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-07-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Normile, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 9;285(5425):183.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10428710" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Academies and Institutes ; Biological Science Disciplines/economics ; *Biotechnology/economics ; Budgets ; Drug Industry ; Financing, Government ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; *Genetics, Medical/economics ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Japan ; Polymorphism, Genetic
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 1999-06-18
    Description: In metazoans, two distinct spliceosomes catalyzing pre-messenger RNA splicing have been identified. Here, the human U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP), a subunit of the minor (U12-dependent) spliceosome, was isolated. Twenty U11/U12 proteins were identified, including subsets unique to the minor spliceosome or common to both spliceosomes. Common proteins include four U2 snRNP polypeptides that constitute the essential splicing factor SF3b. A 35-kilodalton U11-associated protein homologous to the U1 snRNP 70K protein was also identified. These data provide fundamental information about proteins of the minor spliceosome and shed light on its evolutionary relationship to the major spliceosome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Will, C L -- Schneider, C -- Reed, R -- Luhrmann, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 18;284(5422):2003-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut fur Molekularbiologie und Tumorforschung, Philipps-Universitat, 35037 Marburg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10373121" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Chromatography, Affinity ; Evolution, Molecular ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Introns ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Molecular Weight ; RNA Splicing ; Ribonucleoprotein, U1 Small Nuclear/*analysis/isolation & purification ; Ribonucleoprotein, U2 Small Nuclear/*analysis/isolation & purification ; Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear/*analysis/isolation & purification ; Spliceosomes/*chemistry
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Normile, D -- Pennisi, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 24;285(5436):2038-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10523188" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22/*genetics ; Contig Mapping ; *Human Genome Project ; Humans ; International Cooperation ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA
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  • 32
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harlan, R E -- Garcia, M M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 14;284(5417):1124-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10366343" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Caffeine/*pharmacology ; Caudate Nucleus/blood supply/*drug effects/metabolism ; Cerebrovascular Circulation/drug effects ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genes, fos ; Humans ; Putamen/blood supply/*drug effects/metabolism ; Substance-Related Disorders/*etiology
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  • 33
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nossal, G J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 23;284(5414):587.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10328735" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Developing Countries ; *Drug Industry ; Foundations ; *Global Health ; Humans ; *Immunization Programs/economics ; *United Nations ; World Health Organization
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-05
    Description: The papillomavirus E2 protein regulates viral transcription and DNA replication through interactions with cellular and viral proteins. The amino-terminal activation domain, which represents a protein class whose structural themes are poorly understood, contains key residues that mediate these functional contacts. The crystal structure of a protease-resistant core of the human papillomavirus type 18 E2 activation domain reveals a novel fold creating a cashew-shaped form with a glutamine-rich alpha helix packed against a beta-sheet framework. The protein surface shows extensive overlap of determinants for replication and transcription. The structure broadens the concept of activators to include proteins with potentially malleable, but certainly ordered, structures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harris, S F -- Botchan, M R -- CA30490/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA42414/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 4;284(5420):1673-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3204, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10356398" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Crystallization ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; DNA Replication ; Evolution, Molecular ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oncogene Proteins, Viral/*chemistry/physiology ; Papillomaviridae/*chemistry/physiology ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Trans-Activators/*chemistry/physiology ; Virus Replication
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Av-Gay, Y -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 4;284(5420):1621.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10383337" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacteria/*genetics/pathogenicity ; *Biotechnology ; *Containment of Biohazards ; Ecosystem ; *Genetic Engineering ; Guidelines as Topic ; Humans ; United States ; Viruses/*genetics/pathogenicity
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 1999-10-03
    Description: Precursors of alpha-defensin peptides require activation for bactericidal activity. In mouse small intestine, matrilysin colocalized with alpha-defensins (cryptdins) in Paneth cell granules, and in vitro it cleaved the pro segment from cryptdin precursors. Matrilysin-deficient (MAT-/-) mice lacked mature cryptdins and accumulated precursor molecules. Intestinal peptide preparations from MAT-/- mice had decreased antimicrobial activity. Orally administered bacteria survived in greater numbers and were more virulent in MAT-/- mice than in MAT+/+ mice. Thus, matrilysin functions in intestinal mucosal defense by regulating the activity of defensins, which may be a common role for this metalloproteinase in its numerous epithelial sites of expression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wilson, C L -- Ouellette, A J -- Satchell, D P -- Ayabe, T -- Lopez-Boado, Y S -- Stratman, J L -- Hultgren, S J -- Matrisian, L M -- Parks, W C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 1;286(5437):113-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Pulmonary Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. wilson_c@kids.wustl.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10506557" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Catalysis ; Cytoplasmic Granules/enzymology ; Escherichia coli/growth & development ; Escherichia coli Infections/immunology/microbiology ; Female ; Humans ; *Immunity, Innate ; *Immunity, Mucosal ; Intestinal Mucosa/enzymology/immunology/microbiology ; Intestine, Small/enzymology/*immunology/microbiology ; Male ; Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 ; Metalloendopeptidases/genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Paneth Cells/enzymology ; Protein Precursors/genetics/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Salmonella typhimurium/growth & development/pathogenicity ; Tissue Extracts/pharmacology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-02-05
    Description: Traditionally, the interest of population and evolutionary biologists in infectious diseases has been almost exclusively in their role as agents of natural selection in higher organisms. Recently, this interest has expanded to include the genetic structure and evolution of microparasite populations, the mechanisms of pathogenesis and the immune response, and the population biology, ecology, and evolutionary consequences of medical and public health interventions. This article describes recent work in these areas, emphasizing the ways in which quantitative, population-biological approaches have been contributing to the understanding of infectious disease and the design and evaluation of interventions for their treatment and prevention.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Levin, B R -- Lipsitch, M -- Bonhoeffer, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 5;283(5403):806-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Emory University, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9933155" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Physiological Phenomena ; *Biological Evolution ; Drug Resistance, Microbial ; Humans ; Infection/immunology/*microbiology ; Molecular Epidemiology ; Parasites/genetics/physiology ; Parasitic Diseases/immunology/*parasitology ; Population Dynamics ; Vaccination ; Virus Physiological Phenomena
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-16
    Description: Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in DNA sequence. Epigenetic phenomena have major economic and medical relevance, and several, such as imprinting and paramutation, violate Mendelian principles. Recent discoveries link the recognition of nucleic acid sequence homology to the targeting of DNA methylation, chromosome remodeling, and RNA turnover. Although epigenetic mechanisms help to protect cells from parasitic elements, this defense can complicate the genetic manipulation of plants and animals. Essential for normal development, epigenetic controls become misdirected in cancer cells and other human disease syndromes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wolffe, A P -- Matzke, M A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 15;286(5439):481-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Molecular Embryology, National Institute of Child Heath and Human Development, NIH, Building 18T, Room 106, Bethesda, MD 20892-5431, USA. awlme@helix.nih.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10521337" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; DNA Methylation ; Evolution, Molecular ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; *Gene Silencing ; Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics ; Genome ; Humans ; Neoplasms/genetics ; RNA/genetics/metabolism ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-07-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wong, V -- Goodenough, D A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 2;285(5424):62.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10428705" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Calcium Channels/metabolism ; Cell Membrane/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Claudins ; Cloning, Molecular ; Humans ; Ion Channels ; Ion Transport ; Kidney Diseases/genetics/*metabolism ; Kidney Tubules/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Lipid Bilayers/metabolism ; Magnesium/blood/*metabolism ; Magnesium Deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Mutation ; Tight Junctions/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-02
    Description: A general problem in biology is how to incorporate information about evolutionary history and adaptation into taxonomy. The problem is exemplified in attempts to define our own genus, Homo. Here conventional criteria for allocating fossil species to Homo are reviewed and are found to be either inappropriate or inoperable. We present a revised definition, based on verifiable criteria, for Homo and conclude that two species, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, do not belong in the genus. The earliest taxon to satisfy the criteria is Homo ergaster, or early African Homo erectus, which currently appears in the fossil record at about 1.9 million years ago.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wood, B -- Collard, M -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 2;284(5411):65-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anthropology, George Washington University, 2110 G Street NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA. bwood@gwu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10102822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Body Constitution ; Brain/anatomy & histology ; *Fossils ; Hominidae/anatomy & histology/*classification ; Humans ; Jaw/anatomy & histology ; Locomotion ; Phylogeny ; Terminology as Topic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 41
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-02-05
    Description: Costimulation of both the CD3 and CD28 receptors is essential for T cell activation. Induction of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase-7 (PDE7) was found to be a consequence of such costimulation. Increased PDE7 in T cells correlated with decreased cAMP, increased interleukin-2 expression, and increased proliferation. Selectively reducing PDE7 expression with a PDE7 antisense oligonucleotide inhibited T cell proliferation; inhibition was reversed by blocking the cAMP signaling pathways that operate through cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Thus, PDE7 induction and consequent suppression of PKA activity is required for T cell activation, and inhibition of PDE7 could be an approach to treating T cell-dependent disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, L -- Yee, C -- Beavo, J A -- DK21723/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 5;283(5403):848-51.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology and Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Box 357280, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9933169" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases/*biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism ; Antibodies ; Antigens, CD28/immunology/*physiology ; Antigens, CD3/immunology/*physiology ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/enzymology/immunology ; Cells, Cultured ; Cyclic AMP/metabolism ; Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 7 ; Enzyme Induction ; Humans ; Interleukin-2/biosynthesis ; Isoenzymes/*biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism ; *Lymphocyte Activation ; Oligonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction ; T-Lymphocytes/*enzymology/*immunology/metabolism ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 42
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-11-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Daniel, T M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 8;286(5438):239.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10577189" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bronchiectasis/history ; Depressive Disorder/*history/pathology ; *Famous Persons ; Fingers/*pathology ; History, 19th Century ; Humans ; Literature, Modern/*history ; Male ; Medicine in Art ; Paintings ; Tuberculosis/*history/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 43
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bagla, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Mar 12;283(5408):1614-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10189310" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Academies and Institutes ; *Economics, Pharmaceutical ; *Ethnic Groups ; Humans ; India ; Medicine, Ayurvedic ; Plant Extracts/*economics ; *Plants, Medicinal
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 1999-09-18
    Description: Antithrombin, a member of the serpin family, functions as an inhibitor of thrombin and other enzymes. Cleavage of the carboxyl-terminal loop of antithrombin induces a conformational change in the molecule. Here it is shown that the cleaved conformation of antithrombin has potent antiangiogenic and antitumor activity in mouse models. The latent form of intact antithrombin, which is similar in conformation to the cleaved molecule, also inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. These data provide further evidence that the clotting and fibrinolytic pathways are directly involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Reilly, M S -- Pirie-Shepherd, S -- Lane, W S -- Folkman, J -- P01-CA45548/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA64481/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 17;285(5435):1926-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital, Departments of Surgery and Cellular Biology, Harvard Microchemistry Facility, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. oreilly@hub.tch.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10489375" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry/isolation & purification/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Antithrombins/chemistry/isolation & purification/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Carcinoma, Small Cell/blood supply/drug therapy ; Cell Line ; Culture Media, Conditioned ; Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/blood supply/drug therapy ; Mice ; Mice, SCID ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Neovascularization, Pathologic/*drug therapy ; Peptide Fragments/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 45
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-12-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lietman, T -- Blower, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 12;286(5443):1300-1; author reply 1301.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10610535" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibiotics, Antitubercular/*therapeutic use ; BCG Vaccine/*immunology ; Humans ; Immunization Programs ; Tuberculosis/*drug therapy/*prevention & control
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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