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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-9456
    Keywords: Key words Shape from shading ; Visual search ; Texture segregation ; Chimpanzees ; Humans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The perception of shape from shading was tested in two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and five humans (Homo sapiens), using visual search tasks. Subjects were required to select and touch an odd item (target) from among uniform distractors. Humans found the target faster when shading was vertical than when it was horizontal, consistent with results of previous research. Both chimpanzees showed the opposite pattern: they found the target faster when shading was horizontal. The same difference in response was found in texture segregation tasks. This difference between the species could not be explained by head rotation or head shift parallel to the surface of the monitor. Furthermore, when the shaded shape was changed from a circle to a square, or the shading type was changed from gradual to stepwise, the difference in performance between vertical and horizontal shading disappeared in chimpanzees, but persisted in humans. These results suggest that chimpanzees process shading information in a different way from humans.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Genome composition ; Coding sequences ; Isochores ; Humans ; Murids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The compositional distributions of coding sequences and DNA molecules (in the 50-100-kb range) are remarkably narrower in murids (rat and mouse) compared to humans (as well as to all other mammals explored so far). In murids, both distributions begin at higher and end at lower GC values. A comparison of homologous coding sequences from murids and humans revealed that their different compositional distributions are due to differences in GC levels in all three codon positions, particularly of genes located at both ends of the distribution. In turn, these differences are responsible for differences in both codon usage and amino acids. When GC levels at first+second codon positions and third codon positions, respectively, of murid genes are plotted against corresponding GC levels of homologous human genes, linear relationships (with very high correlation coefficients and slopes of about 0.78 and 0.60, respectively) are found. This indicates a conservation of the order of GC levels in homologous genes from humans and murids. (The same comparison for mouse and rat genes indicates a conservation of GC levels of homologous genes.) A similar linear relationship was observed when plotting GC levels of corresponding DNA fractions (as obtained by density gradient centrifugation in the presence of a sequence-specific ligand) from mouse and human. These findings indicate that orderly compositional changes affecting not only coding sequences but also noncoding sequences took place since the divergence of murids. Such directional fixations of mutations point to the existence of selective pressures affecting the genome as a whole.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Alu source genes ; Humans ; Gorillas ; Retrotransposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A member of the young PV Alu sub-family is detected in chimpanzee DNA showing that the PV subfamily is not specific to human DNA. This particular Alu is absent from the orthologous loci in both human and gorilla DNAs, indicating that PV subfamily members transposed within the chimpanzee lineage following the divergence of chimpanzee from both gorilla and human. These findings and previous reports describing the transpositional activity of other Alu sequences within the human, gorilla, and chimpanzee lineages provide phylogenetic evidence for the existence of multiple Alu source genes. Sequences surrounding this particular Alu resemble known transcriptional control elements associated with RNA polymerase III, suggesting a mechanism by which cis-acting elements might be acquired upon retrotransposition.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Humans ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Nuclear polymorphisms ; Heteroplasmy ; Genetic differentiation ; Sickle cell ; Rain forest refuges
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The identification of genetically coherent populations is essential for understanding human evolution. Among the culturally uniform ethnic groups of west Africa, there are two geographically distinct populations with high frequencies of sickle-cell hemoglobin (HbS). Although the HbS mutation in each group is found on distinguishable chromosomes 11, these populations have been assumed to be parts of a single population. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in these populations demonstrated that the two populations identified by alternative chromosomes 11 bearing HbS have distinct distributions of mitochondrial genotypes, i.e., they are maternally separate. These studies also showed that, contrary to expectation, the mtDNA of some individuals is heteroplasmic. For nuclear loci, a comparison of the frequency of alternative alleles established that these populations are genetically distinct. Both the mitochondrial and nuclear data indicate that these populations have been separate for approximately 50,000 years. Although HbS in the two populations is usually attributed to recent, independent mutations, the duration of the separation and the observed geographic distribution of the population allow for the possibility of an ancient origin of HbS. Assuming an ancient mutation and considering the known biogeography, we suggest that HbS protected selected populations from malaria in rain forest refuges during the most recent ice age.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular evolution 33 (1991), S. 442-449 
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Humans ; Mouse ; Rat ; Codon usage ; Mutation bias ; Selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A new statistical test has been developed to detect selection on silent sites. This test compares the codon usage within a gene and thus does not require knowledge of which genes are under the greatest selection, that there exist common trends in codon usage across genes, or that genes have the same mutation pattern. It also controls for mutational biases that might be introduced by the adjacent bases. The test was applied to 62 mammalian sequences, the significant codon usage biases were detected in all three species examined (humans, rats, and mice). However, these biases appear not to be the consequence of selection, but of the first base pair in the codon influencing the mutation pattern at the third position.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 10 (1991), S. 177-184 
    ISSN: 0891-5849
    Keywords: Free radicals ; Humans ; Noninvasive analytical techniques ; Oxidative stress status
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Keywords: Briths ; Humans ; Solar wind ; Geomagnetism ; Melatonin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Data obtained from the literature on the annual pattern of human conceptions and plasma melatonin at high latitudes indicated that simple annual rhythms do not exist. Instead, prominent semiannual rhythms are found, with equinoctial troughs and solsticial peaks. A prominent semiannual environmental event is the magnetic disturbance induced by the solar wind. The semiannual magnetic disturbances are worldwide, but most pronounced in the auroral zones where the corpuscular radiation enters the atmosphere. Magnetic indices that predominantly reflect these events were obtained from the literature and correlated with the melatonin and conception data. Significant and inverse correlations were found for Inuit conceptions and the melatonin data. The correlations obtained for 48 contiguous states of the United States indicated that only the extreme northern states exhibited this relationship. These data were compared with a previous correlational study in the United States which established that sunshine was correlated with conceptions in the middle latitude and southern states. An hypothesis of dual control by electromagnetic and magnetic energies is proposed: melatonin is a progonadal hormone in humans controlled by both factors, depending on their relative strength. Other studies are reviewed regarding the possible factors involved in determining the annual pattern of human conceptions. Demographic studies of geographic variation in temporal patterns of conceptions, with particular regard to variations of the magnetic fields on the earth's surface, may provide some insight into the efficacy of these different factors.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Skeletal muscles ; Ultrastructure ; Exercise ; Glycogen ; Humans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Distribution of glycogen particles in semithin and ultrathin sections of biopsy samples from human muscles subjected to either short- or long-term running were investigated using PAS and Periodic Acid-ThioSemiCarbazide-Silver Proteinate (PA-TSC-SP) staining methods. Glycogen particles were predominantly found immediately under the sarcolemma or aligned along the myofibrillar Iband. After long-term exhaustive exercise type-1 fibers with a few or no glycogen particles in the core of the fibers were frequently observed. The subsarcolemmal glycogen stores of these “depleted” type-1 fibers were about three times as large as after exhaustive short-time exercise. Another indication of utilization of subsarcolemmal glycogen stores during anaerobic exercise was that many particles displayed a pale, rudimentary shape. This observation suggests fragmental metabolization of glycogen. Thus, depending on type of exercise and type of fiber differential and sequential glycogen utilization patterns can be observed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: Work of breathing ; Inspiratory pressure-time integral ; Respiratory modeling ; Dogs ; Humans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract We hypothesized that the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system should have significant implications for the energetically optimal frequency of breathing, in view of the fact that these properties cause marked dependencies of overall system resistance and elastance on frequency. To test our hypothesis we simulated two models of canine and human respiratory system mechanics during sinusoidal breathing and calculated the inspiratory work ( $$\dot W$$ ) and pressure-time integral (PTI) per minute under both resting and exercise conditions. The two models were a two-compartment viscoelastic model and a single-compartment model. Requiring minute alveolar ventilation to be fixed, we found that both models predicted almost identical optimum breathing frequencies. The calculated PTI was very insensitive to increases in breathing frequency above the optimal frequencies, while $$\dot W$$ was found to increase slowly with frequency above its optimum. In contrast, both $$\dot W$$ and PTI increased sharply as frequency decreased below their respective optima. A sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions were very insensitive to the elastance and resistance values chosen to characterize tissue viscoelasticity. We conclude that the $$\dot W$$ criterion for choosing the frequency of breathing is compatible with observations in nature, whereas the optimal frequency predictions of the PTI are rather too high. Both criteria allow for a fairly wide margin of choice in frequency above the optimum values without incurring excessive additional energy expenditure. Furthermore, contrary to our expectations, the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system tissues do not pose a noticeable problem to the respiratory controller in terms of energy expenditure.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 124 (1993), S. 73-77 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Assessment ; Cancer ; Humans ; Hydrazines ; Mushroom
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This assessment focuses on the concentrations of some chemicals present in theAgaricus bisporus mushroom, the cancer-inducing doses of these chemicals or mushroom used in the animal experiments, the total amounts of these chemicals or mushroom needed to induce cancer in these mice, and the estimated total amounts of these chemicals or mushroom needed to induce cancer in humans. By adding the estimated amounts of chemicals needed to induce cancer and by comparing it with the amount of raw mushroom needed to induce the same effect, it becomes obvious that we have accounted for less than 2% of the carcinogenic components of theAgaricus bisporus mushroom. Since some unavailable data handicapped this assessment, it should be regarded as tentative and subject to further adjustment.
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-04-17
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (2018): 723, doi:10.3390/ijerph15040723.
    Description: There has been a massive increase in recent years of the use of lead (Pb) isotopes in attempts to better understand sources and pathways of Pb in the environment and in man or experimental animals. Unfortunately, there have been many cases where the quality of the isotopic data, especially that obtained by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS), are questionable, resulting in questionable identification of potential sources, which, in turn, impacts study interpretation and conclusions. We present several cases where the isotopic data have compromised interpretation because of the use of only the major isotopes 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, or their graphing in other combinations. We also present some examples comparing high precision data from thermal ionization (TIMS) or multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) to illustrate the deficiency in the Q-ICP-MS data. In addition, we present cases where Pb isotopic ratios measured on Q-ICP-MS are virtually impossible for terrestrial samples. We also evaluate the Pb isotopic data for rat studies, which had concluded that Pb isotopic fractionation occurs between different organs and suggest that this notion of biological fractionation of Pb as an explanation for isotopic differences is not valid. Overall, the brief review of these case studies shows that Q-ICP-MS as commonly practiced is not a suitable technique for precise and accurate Pb isotopic analysis in the environment and health fields
    Keywords: Lead isotopes ; ICP-MS ; TIMS ; MC-ICP-MS ; Environment ; Humans ; Rats ; Fractionation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: The primary objective of this publication is to share with a wider audience the valuable information and extensive dialogue that took place amongst over 140 individuals who attended the second in a series of planned workshops on the science and management of coastal landforms in Massachusetts. This workshop took place at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on January 24, 2001. The individuals who attended this workshop are actively engaged in planning, managing, regulating, engineering, educating, and studying coastal landforms and their beneficial functions. This workshop titled, Can Humans & Coastal Landforms Co-exist?’, was a natural follow-up to a previous workshop, Coastal Landform Management in Massachusetts, held at WHOI October 9-10, 1997 (proceedings published as WHOI Technical Report #WHOI-98-16). The workshop had a very practical, applied focus, providing state-of-the-art scientific understanding of coastal landform function, case history management and regulation of human activities proposed on coastal landforms, a multi-faceted mock conservation commission hearing presented by practicing technical consultants and attorneys that involved all attendees acting as regulators in breakout sessions, and, at the conclusion of the workshop, an open discussion on all issues related to the science and management of coastal landforms, including future research needs.
    Description: Funding for these proceedings was provided by WHOI Sea Grant and the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program Office, Department of Commerce, under NOAA Grant No. M10-2, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Sea Grant Project No. NA86R60075.
    Keywords: Coastal ; Landforms ; Humans
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
    Format: 1574993 bytes
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Thermal Biology 5 (1980), S. 249-251 
    ISSN: 0306-4565
    Keywords: Humans ; exercise ; hyperthermia ; oesophageal temperature
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0027-5107
    Keywords: Cotinine ; Genetic monitoring ; Hprt mutation ; Humans ; Lymphocytes ; Pregnancy ; Smoking ; Tobacco
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Autocrine feedback mechanism ; Cholecystokinin ; Feeding ; Humans ; Radioimmunoassay
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0168-1591
    Keywords: Fear ; Handling ; Humans ; Poultry ; Productivity
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0168-1591
    Keywords: Cats ; Foraging ; Humans ; Livestock ; Predators ; Vampire bats
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 1 (1980), S. 55-57 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: ACTH ; Aging ; Attention ; Cognition ; Humans ; MSH ; Peptide ; Visual retention
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 4 (1983), S. 451-455 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Biliary system ; Cat ; Guinea-pig ; Humans ; Mucosa ; Rabbit ; Radioimmunoassay ; Respiratory system ; Skin ; Substance P ; Sympathetic nervous system ; Urinary system
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 5 (1984), S. 319-323 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Blood flow ; Circulation ; Electromagnetic flowmetry ; Humans ; VIP
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 10 (1989), S. 489-492 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Angiotensin II ; Blood ; Humans ; Radioimmunoassay ; Rats ; [des-Leu^1^0]-angiotensin I
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0921-8734
    Keywords: Ageing ; Humans ; Skin cells ; Telomeres
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0921-8734
    Keywords: Aging ; Humans ; Ionizing radiation ; Single cell electrophoresis
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0165-7992
    Keywords: Cytochrome P-450 ; Dogs ; Humans ; Monkeys ; P-448-H ; Rats
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Ethology and Sociobiology 6 (1985), S. 183-187 
    ISSN: 0162-3095
    Keywords: Assortative mating ; Genetic similarity ; Heritability ; Humans ; Kin recognition
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Ethology and Sociobiology 8 (1987), S. 215-220 
    ISSN: 0162-3095
    Keywords: Humans ; Paternity confidence ; Relatedness
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 27
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moskvitch, Katia -- Susman, Edward -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 24;511(7510):391. doi: 10.1038/511391a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25056040" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy/epidemiology ; *Aircraft ; Anti-HIV Agents ; Australia ; Congresses as Topic ; *Death ; Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data ; Humans ; Netherlands ; *Research Personnel ; Ukraine
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 28
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abbott, Alison -- Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):153. doi: 10.1038/514153a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25297415" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Entorhinal Cortex/*cytology/physiology ; Hippocampus/*cytology/physiology ; Humans ; Models, Neurological ; *Nobel Prize ; Space Perception/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 29
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ledford, Heidi -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):182-4. doi: 10.1038/515182a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25391943" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Biomedical Research/economics/*statistics & numerical data/*trends ; Depression/*epidemiology/genetics/psychology/*therapy ; Depressive Disorder/epidemiology/genetics/psychology/therapy ; Disease Models, Animal ; Humans ; Mice ; *Neoplasms ; Neurosciences/*trends ; Stress, Psychological/epidemiology/etiology/therapy
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 30
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reardon, Sara -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 20;506(7488):284-6. doi: 10.1038/506284a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553224" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Capital Punishment/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Criminals/*legislation & jurisprudence/*psychology ; Florida ; Humans ; Intellectual Disability/*diagnosis/*psychology ; *Intelligence Tests ; Male
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 31
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Abbott, Alison -- Nosengo, Nicola -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):171. doi: 10.1038/515171a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25391936" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Disaster Planning/legislation & jurisprudence ; Disasters/prevention & control ; Earthquakes/*mortality ; Homicide/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Humans ; Italy ; Malpractice/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Research Personnel/*legislation & jurisprudence
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2014-11-21
    Description: The basic body plan and major physiological axes have been highly conserved during mammalian evolution, yet only a small fraction of the human genome sequence appears to be subject to evolutionary constraint. To quantify cis- versus trans-acting contributions to mammalian regulatory evolution, we performed genomic DNase I footprinting of the mouse genome across 25 cell and tissue types, collectively defining approximately 8.6 million transcription factor (TF) occupancy sites at nucleotide resolution. Here we show that mouse TF footprints conjointly encode a regulatory lexicon that is approximately 95% similar with that derived from human TF footprints. However, only approximately 20% of mouse TF footprints have human orthologues. Despite substantial turnover of the cis-regulatory landscape, nearly half of all pairwise regulatory interactions connecting mouse TF genes have been maintained in orthologous human cell types through evolutionary innovation of TF recognition sequences. Furthermore, the higher-level organization of mouse TF-to-TF connections into cellular network architectures is nearly identical with human. Our results indicate that evolutionary selection on mammalian gene regulation is targeted chiefly at the level of trans-regulatory circuitry, enabling and potentiating cis-regulatory plasticity.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405208/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405208/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stergachis, Andrew B -- Neph, Shane -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Haugen, Eric -- Reynolds, Alex P -- Zhang, Miaohua -- Byron, Rachel -- Canfield, Theresa -- Stelhing-Sun, Sandra -- Lee, Kristen -- Thurman, Robert E -- Vong, Shinny -- Bates, Daniel -- Neri, Fidencio -- Diegel, Morgan -- Giste, Erika -- Dunn, Douglas -- Vierstra, Jeff -- Hansen, R Scott -- Johnson, Audra K -- Sabo, Peter J -- Wilken, Matthew S -- Reh, Thomas A -- Treuting, Piper M -- Kaul, Rajinder -- Groudine, Mark -- Bender, M A -- Borenstein, Elhanan -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- FDK095678A/PHS HHS/ -- R01 EY021482/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK044746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37DK44746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005654/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2HG005654/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007266/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01ES01156/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG004592/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 20;515(7527):365-70. doi: 10.1038/nature13972.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA [2] Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA [2] Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98102, USA [3] Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409825" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; DNA Footprinting ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics ; Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics ; Humans ; Mammals/*genetics ; Mice ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/*genetics ; Transcription Factors/*genetics/*metabolism
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2014-08-01
    Description: The translational control of oncoprotein expression is implicated in many cancers. Here we report an eIF4A RNA helicase-dependent mechanism of translational control that contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the anticancer effects of silvestrol and related compounds. For example, eIF4A promotes T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia development in vivo and is required for leukaemia maintenance. Accordingly, inhibition of eIF4A with silvestrol has powerful therapeutic effects against murine and human leukaemic cells in vitro and in vivo. We use transcriptome-scale ribosome footprinting to identify the hallmarks of eIF4A-dependent transcripts. These include 5' untranslated region (UTR) sequences such as the 12-nucleotide guanine quartet (CGG)4 motif that can form RNA G-quadruplex structures. Notably, among the most eIF4A-dependent and silvestrol-sensitive transcripts are a number of oncogenes, superenhancer-associated transcription factors, and epigenetic regulators. Hence, the 5' UTRs of select cancer genes harbour a targetable requirement for the eIF4A RNA helicase.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4492470/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4492470/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wolfe, Andrew L -- Singh, Kamini -- Zhong, Yi -- Drewe, Philipp -- Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K -- Sanghvi, Viraj R -- Mavrakis, Konstantinos J -- Jiang, Man -- Roderick, Justine E -- Van der Meulen, Joni -- Schatz, Jonathan H -- Rodrigo, Christina M -- Zhao, Chunying -- Rondou, Pieter -- de Stanchina, Elisa -- Teruya-Feldstein, Julie -- Kelliher, Michelle A -- Speleman, Frank -- Porco, John A Jr -- Pelletier, Jerry -- Ratsch, Gunnar -- Wendel, Hans-Guido -- GM-067041/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM-073855/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MOP-10653/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA142798/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA142798-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 4;513(7516):65-70. doi: 10.1038/nature13485. Epub 2014 Jul 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, New York, New York 10065, USA [3]. ; 1] Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA [2]. ; Computational Biology Department, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Stem Cell Center and Developmental Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; 1] Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Novartis, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA (K.J.M.); The University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, Arizona 85719, USA (J.H.S.). ; Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605 USA. ; 1] Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. ; 1] Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA [3] Novartis, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA (K.J.M.); The University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, Arizona 85719, USA (J.H.S.). ; Department of Chemistry, Center for Chemical Methodology and Library Development, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. ; Molecular Pharmacology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, Canada [2] Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, Canada [3] The Rosalind and Morris Goodman Cancer Research Center, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25079319" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 5' Untranslated Regions/*genetics ; Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Base Sequence ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A/*metabolism ; Female ; *G-Quadruplexes ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nucleotide Motifs ; Oncogene Proteins/*biosynthesis/*genetics ; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug ; therapy/genetics/*metabolism ; *Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects ; Ribosomes/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/drug effects/genetics ; Triterpenes/pharmacology
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-11-22
    Description: Human body-surface epithelia coexist in close association with complex bacterial communities and are protected by a variety of antibacterial proteins. C-type lectins of the RegIII family are bactericidal proteins that limit direct contact between bacteria and the intestinal epithelium and thus promote tolerance to the intestinal microbiota. RegIII lectins recognize their bacterial targets by binding peptidoglycan carbohydrate, but the mechanism by which they kill bacteria is unknown. Here we elucidate the mechanistic basis for RegIII bactericidal activity. We show that human RegIIIalpha (also known as HIP/PAP) binds membrane phospholipids and kills bacteria by forming a hexameric membrane-permeabilizing oligomeric pore. We derive a three-dimensional model of the RegIIIalpha pore by docking the RegIIIalpha crystal structure into a cryo-electron microscopic map of the pore complex, and show that the model accords with experimentally determined properties of the pore. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits RegIIIalpha pore-forming activity, explaining why RegIIIalpha is bactericidal for Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Our findings identify C-type lectins as mediators of membrane attack in the mucosal immune system, and provide detailed insight into an antibacterial mechanism that promotes mutualism with the resident microbiota.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4160023/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4160023/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mukherjee, Sohini -- Zheng, Hui -- Derebe, Mehabaw G -- Callenberg, Keith M -- Partch, Carrie L -- Rollins, Darcy -- Propheter, Daniel C -- Rizo, Josep -- Grabe, Michael -- Jiang, Qiu-Xing -- Hooper, Lora V -- C06 RR30414/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- F32 DK100074/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM093271/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK070855/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS040944/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS40944/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM088745/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 2;505(7481):103-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12729. Epub 2013 Nov 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, and Joint Carnegie Mellon University-University of Pittsburgh PhD Program in Computational Biology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Department of Pharmacology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; 1] Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, and Joint Carnegie Mellon University-University of Pittsburgh PhD Program in Computational Biology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA [2] Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. ; 1] Department of Cell Biology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Immunology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA [2] The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA [3].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24256734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry/immunology/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Antigens, Neoplasm/chemistry/immunology/*metabolism ; Biomarkers, Tumor/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/immunology/*metabolism ; Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects/immunology/metabolism ; Humans ; Immunity, Mucosal/drug effects/immunology ; Intestines/*chemistry/immunology/microbiology ; Lectins, C-Type/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/immunology/*metabolism ; Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology ; Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects/immunology/metabolism ; Microbial Viability/drug effects ; Models, Molecular ; Peptidoglycan/metabolism ; Phospholipids/metabolism ; Porins/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/*metabolism ; Symbiosis
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2014-09-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Muller, Franz-Josef -- Loring, Jeanne F -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 25;513(7519):498-9. doi: 10.1038/513498a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Zentrum fur Integrative Psychiatrie Kiel, Universitatsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, 24105 Kiel, Germany. ; Department of Chemical Physiology, Center for Regenerative Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, California 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25254472" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Cell Differentiation/*genetics ; *Cell Engineering/methods ; Cellular Reprogramming/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Gene Expression Profiling/methods ; Gene Regulatory Networks/*genetics ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Regenerative Medicine ; Social Networking ; *Software ; Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism
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  • 36
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-10-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Check Hayden, Erika -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 30;514(7524):546. doi: 10.1038/514546a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25355339" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*drug effects ; Animals ; Clinical Trials as Topic/*veterinary ; Dogs/*physiology ; Female ; Humans ; Longevity/*drug effects ; Male ; Mice ; Models, Animal ; Pets/*physiology ; Pilot Projects ; Sirolimus/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*pharmacology
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2014-09-26
    Description: Retinoblastoma is a childhood retinal tumour that initiates in response to biallelic RB1 inactivation and loss of functional retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Although Rb has diverse tumour-suppressor functions and is inactivated in many cancers, germline RB1 mutations predispose to retinoblastoma far more strongly than to other malignancies. This tropism suggests that retinal cell-type-specific circuitry sensitizes to Rb loss, yet the nature of the circuitry and the cell type in which it operates have been unclear. Here we show that post-mitotic human cone precursors are uniquely sensitive to Rb depletion. Rb knockdown induced cone precursor proliferation in prospectively isolated populations and in intact retina. Proliferation followed the induction of E2F-regulated genes, and depended on factors having strong expression in maturing cone precursors and crucial roles in retinoblastoma cell proliferation, including MYCN and MDM2. Proliferation of Rb-depleted cones and retinoblastoma cells also depended on the Rb-related protein p107, SKP2, and a p27 downregulation associated with cone precursor maturation. Moreover, Rb-depleted cone precursors formed tumours in orthotopic xenografts with histological features and protein expression typical of human retinoblastoma. These findings provide a compelling molecular rationale for a cone precursor origin of retinoblastoma. More generally, they demonstrate that cell-type-specific circuitry can collaborate with an initiating oncogenic mutation to enable tumorigenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4232224/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4232224/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xu, Xiaoliang L -- Singh, Hardeep P -- Wang, Lu -- Qi, Dong-Lai -- Poulos, Bradford K -- Abramson, David H -- Jhanwar, Suresh C -- Cobrinik, David -- 1R01CA137124/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA137124/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 16;514(7522):385-8. doi: 10.1038/nature13813. Epub 2014 Sep 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA [2] Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA. ; 1] The Vision Center, Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA [2] The Saban Research Institute, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. ; Ophthalmic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA. ; 1] Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA [2] Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA. ; 1] The Vision Center, Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA [2] The Saban Research Institute, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA [3] USC Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 1450 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA [4] Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252974" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; E2F Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genes, Retinoblastoma/genetics ; Heterografts ; Humans ; Nuclear Proteins/metabolism ; Oncogene Proteins/metabolism ; Organ Specificity ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2/metabolism ; Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells/*metabolism/*pathology ; Retinoblastoma/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology ; Retinoblastoma Protein/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p107/metabolism ; Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130/deficiency/metabolism ; S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; Stem Cells/metabolism/pathology
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  • 38
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-10-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Check Hayden, Erika -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 16;514(7522):282. doi: 10.1038/514282a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25318499" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; *Databases, Genetic ; Disease/*genetics ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Genetics, Medical ; Humans ; Information Dissemination ; Phenotype ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2014-09-06
    Description: Post-transcriptional modification of RNA nucleosides occurs in all living organisms. Pseudouridine, the most abundant modified nucleoside in non-coding RNAs, enhances the function of transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA by stabilizing the RNA structure. Messenger RNAs were not known to contain pseudouridine, but artificial pseudouridylation dramatically affects mRNA function--it changes the genetic code by facilitating non-canonical base pairing in the ribosome decoding centre. However, without evidence of naturally occurring mRNA pseudouridylation, its physiological relevance was unclear. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of pseudouridylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human RNAs using Pseudo-seq, a genome-wide, single-nucleotide-resolution method for pseudouridine identification. Pseudo-seq accurately identifies known modification sites as well as many novel sites in non-coding RNAs, and reveals hundreds of pseudouridylated sites in mRNAs. Genetic analysis allowed us to assign most of the new modification sites to one of seven conserved pseudouridine synthases, Pus1-4, 6, 7 and 9. Notably, the majority of pseudouridines in mRNA are regulated in response to environmental signals, such as nutrient deprivation in yeast and serum starvation in human cells. These results suggest a mechanism for the rapid and regulated rewiring of the genetic code through inducible mRNA modifications. Our findings reveal unanticipated roles for pseudouridylation and provide a resource for identifying the targets of pseudouridine synthases implicated in human disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4224642/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4224642/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carlile, Thomas M -- Rojas-Duran, Maria F -- Zinshteyn, Boris -- Shin, Hakyung -- Bartoli, Kristen M -- Gilbert, Wendy V -- GM081399/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM094303/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R00 GM081399/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM094303/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM101316/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 6;515(7525):143-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13802. Epub 2014 Sep 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192136" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Composition ; Food Deprivation ; Genetic Code ; Genome/genetics ; Humans ; Intramolecular Transferases/metabolism ; Pseudouridine/*analysis/chemistry/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/*chemistry/metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated/chemistry ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/cytology/*genetics ; Sequence Analysis, RNA
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  • 40
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rivers, Caitlin -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 27;515(7528):492. doi: 10.1038/515492a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428492" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Disease Outbreaks/*statistics & numerical data ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*epidemiology/*transmission ; Humans ; *Models, Biological
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  • 41
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-10-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Check Hayden, Erika -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 30;514(7524):554-7. doi: 10.1038/514554a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25355344" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa, Western/epidemiology ; Animals ; Chiroptera/virology ; Disease Outbreaks/*statistics & numerical data ; Disease Reservoirs/*virology ; Ebolavirus/*isolation & purification/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Global Health ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*epidemiology/immunology/therapy/*virology ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate ; Primates/virology ; Survival Rate ; Swine/virology ; Virology
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carri, Maria Teresa -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 20;515(7527):343. doi: 10.1038/515343e.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409816" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/*economics ; Animals ; Biomedical Research/*economics ; Fund Raising/*methods ; Humans ; *Public Opinion
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  • 43
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Anthes, Emily -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):185-7. doi: 10.1038/515185a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25391944" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/physiology/physiopathology ; Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use ; Brain Mapping ; *Cognitive Therapy ; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) ; Depression/genetics/physiopathology/*psychology/*therapy ; Depressive Disorder/genetics/physiopathology/psychology/therapy ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Prefrontal Cortex/physiology/physiopathology ; Prognosis ; Treatment Outcome
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2014-04-18
    Description: Trisomy 21 is the most frequent genetic cause of cognitive impairment. To assess the perturbations of gene expression in trisomy 21, and to eliminate the noise of genomic variability, we studied the transcriptome of fetal fibroblasts from a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for trisomy 21. Here we show that the differential expression between the twins is organized in domains along all chromosomes that are either upregulated or downregulated. These gene expression dysregulation domains (GEDDs) can be defined by the expression level of their gene content, and are well conserved in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from the twins' fibroblasts. Comparison of the transcriptome of the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down's syndrome and normal littermate mouse fibroblasts also showed GEDDs along the mouse chromosomes that were syntenic in human. The GEDDs correlate with the lamina-associated (LADs) and replication domains of mammalian cells. The overall position of LADs was not altered in trisomic cells; however, the H3K4me3 profile of the trisomic fibroblasts was modified and accurately followed the GEDD pattern. These results indicate that the nuclear compartments of trisomic cells undergo modifications of the chromatin environment influencing the overall transcriptome, and that GEDDs may therefore contribute to some trisomy 21 phenotypes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Letourneau, Audrey -- Santoni, Federico A -- Bonilla, Ximena -- Sailani, M Reza -- Gonzalez, David -- Kind, Jop -- Chevalier, Claire -- Thurman, Robert -- Sandstrom, Richard S -- Hibaoui, Youssef -- Garieri, Marco -- Popadin, Konstantin -- Falconnet, Emilie -- Gagnebin, Maryline -- Gehrig, Corinne -- Vannier, Anne -- Guipponi, Michel -- Farinelli, Laurent -- Robyr, Daniel -- Migliavacca, Eugenia -- Borel, Christelle -- Deutsch, Samuel -- Feki, Anis -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- Herault, Yann -- van Steensel, Bas -- Guigo, Roderic -- Antonarakis, Stylianos E -- U54HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 17;508(7496):345-50. doi: 10.1038/nature13200.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, University Hospitals of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland [2]. ; Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, University Hospitals of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. ; Center for Genomic Regulation, University Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. ; Division of Gene Regulation, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ; AneuPath 21, Institut de Genetique Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Translational medicine and Neuroscience program, IGBMC, ICS, PHENOMIN, CNRS, INSERM, Universite de Strasbourg, UMR7104, UMR964, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch, France. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Stem Cell Research Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Geneva University Hospitals, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. ; FASTERIS SA, 1228 Plan-les-Ouates, Switzerland. ; 1] Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, University Hospitals of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland [2] Swiss Institute of Bioinfomatics, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. ; DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, University Hospitals of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland [2] iGE3 Institute of Genetics and Genomics of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24740065" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Chromatin/chemistry/metabolism ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21/genetics ; Chromosomes, Mammalian/genetics ; DNA Replication Timing ; Down Syndrome/*genetics/pathology ; Female ; Fetus/cytology ; Fibroblasts ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism ; Lysine/metabolism ; Male ; Methylation ; Mice ; Transcriptome/*genetics ; Twins, Monozygotic/genetics
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wood, Andrew R -- Tuke, Marcus A -- Nalls, Mike A -- Hernandez, Dena G -- Bandinelli, Stefania -- Singleton, Andrew B -- Melzer, David -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Weedon, Michael N -- G0500070/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 2;514(7520):E3-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13691.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK. ; Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute of Aging, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; 1] Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute of Aging, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA [2] Department of Molecular Neuroscience and Reta Lila Laboratories, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N IPJ, UK. ; 1] Tuscany Regional Health Agency, Florence, Italy, I.O.T. and Department of Medical and Surgical Critical Care, University of Florence, Florence, Italy [2] Geriatric Unit, Azienda Sanitaria di Firenze, Florence, Italy. ; Longitudinal Studies Section, Clinical Research Branch, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland 21225, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25279928" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Epistasis, Genetic/*genetics ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Transcription, Genetic/*genetics
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  • 46
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-03-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stohr, Klaus -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 6;507(7490):S20-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24611175" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Developed Countries/economics/statistics & numerical data ; Developing Countries/economics/statistics & numerical data ; Humans ; Influenza Vaccines/*supply & distribution ; Influenza, Human/*epidemiology/*prevention & control/virology ; Pandemics/*prevention & control/statistics & numerical data ; Time Factors ; World Health Organization
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  • 47
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-06-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ledford, Heidi -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 26;510(7506):454. doi: 10.1038/510454a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24965630" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Benzamides/therapeutic use ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; DNA Repair/genetics ; *Drug Approval ; Female ; Genes, BRCA1 ; Genes, BRCA2 ; Humans ; Indoles/therapeutic use ; Mice ; Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy/genetics ; *Phthalazines/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; *Piperazines/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors ; Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism ; Survival Analysis ; Treatment Outcome ; United States ; United States Food and Drug Administration/*legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 48
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-06-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hayden, Erika Check -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 12;510(7504):198. doi: 10.1038/510198a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24919902" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Databases, Genetic/standards ; *Genes, BRCA1 ; *Genes, BRCA2 ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genetic Testing ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination/legislation & jurisprudence ; Mutation/genetics ; Neoplasms/*genetics ; Patents as Topic/ethics/*legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 49
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Check Hayden, Erika -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 2;514(7520):15-6. doi: 10.1038/514015a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25279895" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Disease Outbreaks ; Fear ; Guinea/epidemiology ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*epidemiology/therapy ; Humans ; Liberia/epidemiology ; Malaria/*epidemiology/mortality/*prevention & control ; Mosquito Nets/supply & distribution ; Sierra Leone/epidemiology ; Treatment Refusal
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: The relationship between synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I ratio), two opposing forces in the mammalian cerebral cortex, affects many cortical functions such as feature selectivity and gain. Individual pyramidal cells show stable E/I ratios in time despite fluctuating cortical activity levels. This is because when excitation increases, inhibition increases proportionally through the increased recruitment of inhibitory neurons, a phenomenon referred to as excitation-inhibition balance. However, little is known about the distribution of E/I ratios across pyramidal cells. Through their highly divergent axons, inhibitory neurons indiscriminately contact most neighbouring pyramidal cells. Is inhibition homogeneously distributed or is it individually matched to the different amounts of excitation received by distinct pyramidal cells? Here we discover that pyramidal cells in layer 2/3 of mouse primary visual cortex each receive inhibition in a similar proportion to their excitation. As a consequence, E/I ratios are equalized across pyramidal cells. This matched inhibition is mediated by parvalbumin-expressing but not somatostatin-expressing inhibitory cells and results from the independent adjustment of synapses originating from individual parvalbumin-expressing cells targeting different pyramidal cells. Furthermore, this match is activity-dependent as it is disrupted by perturbing pyramidal cell activity. Thus, the equalization of E/I ratios across pyramidal cells reveals an unexpected degree of order in the spatial distribution of synaptic strengths and indicates that the relationship between the cortex's two opposing forces is stabilized not only in time but also in space.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4117808/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4117808/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xue, Mingshan -- Atallah, Bassam V -- Scanziani, Massimo -- P30 NS047101/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 31;511(7511):596-600. doi: 10.1038/nature13321. Epub 2014 Jun 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, Center for Neural Circuits and Behavior, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0634, USA [2] Department of Neuroscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0634, USA [3] Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA, and Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon 1400-038, Portugal. ; 1] Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, Center for Neural Circuits and Behavior, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0634, USA [2] Department of Neuroscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0634, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0634, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25043046" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Neural Inhibition/physiology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Pyramidal Cells/physiology ; Synapses/physiology ; Visual Cortex/*cytology/*physiology
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-09-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Check Hayden, Erika -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 25;513(7519):474-7. doi: 10.1038/513474a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25254458" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biomedical Research ; Chiroptera/virology ; Contact Tracing ; Ebolavirus/genetics/pathogenicity ; Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/statistics & numerical data ; Female ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis/*epidemiology/transmission/virology ; *Hospitals ; Humans ; *Lassa Fever/diagnosis/epidemiology ; Male ; Sierra Leone/epidemiology
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2014-02-21
    Description: Crohn's disease is a debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can involve the entire digestive tract. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding a missense variant in the autophagy gene ATG16L1 (rs2241880, Thr300Ala) is strongly associated with the incidence of Crohn's disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effect of ATG16L1 deletion or deficiency; however, the molecular consequences of the Thr300Ala (T300A) variant remains unknown. Here we show that amino acids 296-299 constitute a caspase cleavage motif in ATG16L1 and that the T300A variant (T316A in mice) significantly increases ATG16L1 sensitization to caspase-3-mediated processing. We observed that death-receptor activation or starvation-induced metabolic stress in human and murine macrophages increased degradation of the T300A or T316A variants of ATG16L1, respectively, resulting in diminished autophagy. Knock-in mice harbouring the T316A variant showed defective clearance of the ileal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica and an elevated inflammatory cytokine response. In turn, deletion of the caspase-3-encoding gene, Casp3, or elimination of the caspase cleavage site by site-directed mutagenesis rescued starvation-induced autophagy and pathogen clearance, respectively. These findings demonstrate that caspase 3 activation in the presence of a common risk allele leads to accelerated degradation of ATG16L1, placing cellular stress, apoptotic stimuli and impaired autophagy in a unified pathway that predisposes to Crohn's disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Murthy, Aditya -- Li, Yun -- Peng, Ivan -- Reichelt, Mike -- Katakam, Anand Kumar -- Noubade, Rajkumar -- Roose-Girma, Merone -- DeVoss, Jason -- Diehl, Lauri -- Graham, Robert R -- van Lookeren Campagne, Menno -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 27;506(7489):456-62. doi: 10.1038/nature13044. Epub 2014 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. ; ITGR Human Genetics, Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24553140" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Animals ; Autophagy/genetics ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Caspase 3/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Crohn Disease/*genetics/pathology ; Cytokines/immunology ; Enzyme Activation ; Female ; Food Deprivation ; Humans ; Macrophages/immunology/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics ; *Proteolysis ; Stress, Physiological ; Yersinia enterocolitica/immunology
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-08-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Check Hayden, Erika -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 28;512(7515):355-6. doi: 10.1038/512355a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25164728" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉