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  • 1
    ISSN: 0168-1591
    Keywords: Fear ; Handling ; Humans ; Poultry ; Productivity
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 1 (1980), S. 55-57 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: ACTH ; Aging ; Attention ; Cognition ; Humans ; MSH ; Peptide ; Visual retention
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 5 (1984), S. 319-323 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Blood flow ; Circulation ; Electromagnetic flowmetry ; Humans ; VIP
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 10 (1989), S. 489-492 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Angiotensin II ; Blood ; Humans ; Radioimmunoassay ; Rats ; [des-Leu^1^0]-angiotensin I
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Autocrine feedback mechanism ; Cholecystokinin ; Feeding ; Humans ; Radioimmunoassay
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Peptides 4 (1983), S. 451-455 
    ISSN: 0196-9781
    Keywords: Biliary system ; Cat ; Guinea-pig ; Humans ; Mucosa ; Rabbit ; Radioimmunoassay ; Respiratory system ; Skin ; Substance P ; Sympathetic nervous system ; Urinary system
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0921-8734
    Keywords: Aging ; Humans ; Ionizing radiation ; Single cell electrophoresis
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0921-8734
    Keywords: Ageing ; Humans ; Skin cells ; Telomeres
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Thermal Biology 5 (1980), S. 249-251 
    ISSN: 0306-4565
    Keywords: Humans ; exercise ; hyperthermia ; oesophageal temperature
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: Work of breathing ; Inspiratory pressure-time integral ; Respiratory modeling ; Dogs ; Humans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract We hypothesized that the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system should have significant implications for the energetically optimal frequency of breathing, in view of the fact that these properties cause marked dependencies of overall system resistance and elastance on frequency. To test our hypothesis we simulated two models of canine and human respiratory system mechanics during sinusoidal breathing and calculated the inspiratory work ( $$\dot W$$ ) and pressure-time integral (PTI) per minute under both resting and exercise conditions. The two models were a two-compartment viscoelastic model and a single-compartment model. Requiring minute alveolar ventilation to be fixed, we found that both models predicted almost identical optimum breathing frequencies. The calculated PTI was very insensitive to increases in breathing frequency above the optimal frequencies, while $$\dot W$$ was found to increase slowly with frequency above its optimum. In contrast, both $$\dot W$$ and PTI increased sharply as frequency decreased below their respective optima. A sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions were very insensitive to the elastance and resistance values chosen to characterize tissue viscoelasticity. We conclude that the $$\dot W$$ criterion for choosing the frequency of breathing is compatible with observations in nature, whereas the optimal frequency predictions of the PTI are rather too high. Both criteria allow for a fairly wide margin of choice in frequency above the optimum values without incurring excessive additional energy expenditure. Furthermore, contrary to our expectations, the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system tissues do not pose a noticeable problem to the respiratory controller in terms of energy expenditure.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 10 (1991), S. 177-184 
    ISSN: 0891-5849
    Keywords: Free radicals ; Humans ; Noninvasive analytical techniques ; Oxidative stress status
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0027-5107
    Keywords: Cotinine ; Genetic monitoring ; Hprt mutation ; Humans ; Lymphocytes ; Pregnancy ; Smoking ; Tobacco
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular evolution 33 (1991), S. 442-449 
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Humans ; Mouse ; Rat ; Codon usage ; Mutation bias ; Selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A new statistical test has been developed to detect selection on silent sites. This test compares the codon usage within a gene and thus does not require knowledge of which genes are under the greatest selection, that there exist common trends in codon usage across genes, or that genes have the same mutation pattern. It also controls for mutational biases that might be introduced by the adjacent bases. The test was applied to 62 mammalian sequences, the significant codon usage biases were detected in all three species examined (humans, rats, and mice). However, these biases appear not to be the consequence of selection, but of the first base pair in the codon influencing the mutation pattern at the third position.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Genome composition ; Coding sequences ; Isochores ; Humans ; Murids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The compositional distributions of coding sequences and DNA molecules (in the 50-100-kb range) are remarkably narrower in murids (rat and mouse) compared to humans (as well as to all other mammals explored so far). In murids, both distributions begin at higher and end at lower GC values. A comparison of homologous coding sequences from murids and humans revealed that their different compositional distributions are due to differences in GC levels in all three codon positions, particularly of genes located at both ends of the distribution. In turn, these differences are responsible for differences in both codon usage and amino acids. When GC levels at first+second codon positions and third codon positions, respectively, of murid genes are plotted against corresponding GC levels of homologous human genes, linear relationships (with very high correlation coefficients and slopes of about 0.78 and 0.60, respectively) are found. This indicates a conservation of the order of GC levels in homologous genes from humans and murids. (The same comparison for mouse and rat genes indicates a conservation of GC levels of homologous genes.) A similar linear relationship was observed when plotting GC levels of corresponding DNA fractions (as obtained by density gradient centrifugation in the presence of a sequence-specific ligand) from mouse and human. These findings indicate that orderly compositional changes affecting not only coding sequences but also noncoding sequences took place since the divergence of murids. Such directional fixations of mutations point to the existence of selective pressures affecting the genome as a whole.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Humans ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Nuclear polymorphisms ; Heteroplasmy ; Genetic differentiation ; Sickle cell ; Rain forest refuges
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The identification of genetically coherent populations is essential for understanding human evolution. Among the culturally uniform ethnic groups of west Africa, there are two geographically distinct populations with high frequencies of sickle-cell hemoglobin (HbS). Although the HbS mutation in each group is found on distinguishable chromosomes 11, these populations have been assumed to be parts of a single population. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in these populations demonstrated that the two populations identified by alternative chromosomes 11 bearing HbS have distinct distributions of mitochondrial genotypes, i.e., they are maternally separate. These studies also showed that, contrary to expectation, the mtDNA of some individuals is heteroplasmic. For nuclear loci, a comparison of the frequency of alternative alleles established that these populations are genetically distinct. Both the mitochondrial and nuclear data indicate that these populations have been separate for approximately 50,000 years. Although HbS in the two populations is usually attributed to recent, independent mutations, the duration of the separation and the observed geographic distribution of the population allow for the possibility of an ancient origin of HbS. Assuming an ancient mutation and considering the known biogeography, we suggest that HbS protected selected populations from malaria in rain forest refuges during the most recent ice age.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Alu source genes ; Humans ; Gorillas ; Retrotransposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A member of the young PV Alu sub-family is detected in chimpanzee DNA showing that the PV subfamily is not specific to human DNA. This particular Alu is absent from the orthologous loci in both human and gorilla DNAs, indicating that PV subfamily members transposed within the chimpanzee lineage following the divergence of chimpanzee from both gorilla and human. These findings and previous reports describing the transpositional activity of other Alu sequences within the human, gorilla, and chimpanzee lineages provide phylogenetic evidence for the existence of multiple Alu source genes. Sequences surrounding this particular Alu resemble known transcriptional control elements associated with RNA polymerase III, suggesting a mechanism by which cis-acting elements might be acquired upon retrotransposition.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Keywords: Briths ; Humans ; Solar wind ; Geomagnetism ; Melatonin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Data obtained from the literature on the annual pattern of human conceptions and plasma melatonin at high latitudes indicated that simple annual rhythms do not exist. Instead, prominent semiannual rhythms are found, with equinoctial troughs and solsticial peaks. A prominent semiannual environmental event is the magnetic disturbance induced by the solar wind. The semiannual magnetic disturbances are worldwide, but most pronounced in the auroral zones where the corpuscular radiation enters the atmosphere. Magnetic indices that predominantly reflect these events were obtained from the literature and correlated with the melatonin and conception data. Significant and inverse correlations were found for Inuit conceptions and the melatonin data. The correlations obtained for 48 contiguous states of the United States indicated that only the extreme northern states exhibited this relationship. These data were compared with a previous correlational study in the United States which established that sunshine was correlated with conceptions in the middle latitude and southern states. An hypothesis of dual control by electromagnetic and magnetic energies is proposed: melatonin is a progonadal hormone in humans controlled by both factors, depending on their relative strength. Other studies are reviewed regarding the possible factors involved in determining the annual pattern of human conceptions. Demographic studies of geographic variation in temporal patterns of conceptions, with particular regard to variations of the magnetic fields on the earth's surface, may provide some insight into the efficacy of these different factors.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0165-7992
    Keywords: Cytochrome P-450 ; Dogs ; Humans ; Monkeys ; P-448-H ; Rats
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0168-1591
    Keywords: Cats ; Foraging ; Humans ; Livestock ; Predators ; Vampire bats
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Ethology and Sociobiology 6 (1985), S. 183-187 
    ISSN: 0162-3095
    Keywords: Assortative mating ; Genetic similarity ; Heritability ; Humans ; Kin recognition
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Ethology and Sociobiology 8 (1987), S. 215-220 
    ISSN: 0162-3095
    Keywords: Humans ; Paternity confidence ; Relatedness
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 124 (1993), S. 73-77 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Assessment ; Cancer ; Humans ; Hydrazines ; Mushroom
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This assessment focuses on the concentrations of some chemicals present in theAgaricus bisporus mushroom, the cancer-inducing doses of these chemicals or mushroom used in the animal experiments, the total amounts of these chemicals or mushroom needed to induce cancer in these mice, and the estimated total amounts of these chemicals or mushroom needed to induce cancer in humans. By adding the estimated amounts of chemicals needed to induce cancer and by comparing it with the amount of raw mushroom needed to induce the same effect, it becomes obvious that we have accounted for less than 2% of the carcinogenic components of theAgaricus bisporus mushroom. Since some unavailable data handicapped this assessment, it should be regarded as tentative and subject to further adjustment.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Skeletal muscles ; Ultrastructure ; Exercise ; Glycogen ; Humans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Distribution of glycogen particles in semithin and ultrathin sections of biopsy samples from human muscles subjected to either short- or long-term running were investigated using PAS and Periodic Acid-ThioSemiCarbazide-Silver Proteinate (PA-TSC-SP) staining methods. Glycogen particles were predominantly found immediately under the sarcolemma or aligned along the myofibrillar Iband. After long-term exhaustive exercise type-1 fibers with a few or no glycogen particles in the core of the fibers were frequently observed. The subsarcolemmal glycogen stores of these “depleted” type-1 fibers were about three times as large as after exhaustive short-time exercise. Another indication of utilization of subsarcolemmal glycogen stores during anaerobic exercise was that many particles displayed a pale, rudimentary shape. This observation suggests fragmental metabolization of glycogen. Thus, depending on type of exercise and type of fiber differential and sequential glycogen utilization patterns can be observed.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1435-9456
    Keywords: Key words Shape from shading ; Visual search ; Texture segregation ; Chimpanzees ; Humans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The perception of shape from shading was tested in two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and five humans (Homo sapiens), using visual search tasks. Subjects were required to select and touch an odd item (target) from among uniform distractors. Humans found the target faster when shading was vertical than when it was horizontal, consistent with results of previous research. Both chimpanzees showed the opposite pattern: they found the target faster when shading was horizontal. The same difference in response was found in texture segregation tasks. This difference between the species could not be explained by head rotation or head shift parallel to the surface of the monitor. Furthermore, when the shaded shape was changed from a circle to a square, or the shading type was changed from gradual to stepwise, the difference in performance between vertical and horizontal shading disappeared in chimpanzees, but persisted in humans. These results suggest that chimpanzees process shading information in a different way from humans.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: The primary objective of this publication is to share with a wider audience the valuable information and extensive dialogue that took place amongst over 140 individuals who attended the second in a series of planned workshops on the science and management of coastal landforms in Massachusetts. This workshop took place at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on January 24, 2001. The individuals who attended this workshop are actively engaged in planning, managing, regulating, engineering, educating, and studying coastal landforms and their beneficial functions. This workshop titled, Can Humans & Coastal Landforms Co-exist?’, was a natural follow-up to a previous workshop, Coastal Landform Management in Massachusetts, held at WHOI October 9-10, 1997 (proceedings published as WHOI Technical Report #WHOI-98-16). The workshop had a very practical, applied focus, providing state-of-the-art scientific understanding of coastal landform function, case history management and regulation of human activities proposed on coastal landforms, a multi-faceted mock conservation commission hearing presented by practicing technical consultants and attorneys that involved all attendees acting as regulators in breakout sessions, and, at the conclusion of the workshop, an open discussion on all issues related to the science and management of coastal landforms, including future research needs.
    Description: Funding for these proceedings was provided by WHOI Sea Grant and the NOAA National Sea Grant College Program Office, Department of Commerce, under NOAA Grant No. M10-2, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Sea Grant Project No. NA86R60075.
    Keywords: Coastal ; Landforms ; Humans
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
    Format: 1574993 bytes
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-04-17
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (2018): 723, doi:10.3390/ijerph15040723.
    Description: There has been a massive increase in recent years of the use of lead (Pb) isotopes in attempts to better understand sources and pathways of Pb in the environment and in man or experimental animals. Unfortunately, there have been many cases where the quality of the isotopic data, especially that obtained by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS), are questionable, resulting in questionable identification of potential sources, which, in turn, impacts study interpretation and conclusions. We present several cases where the isotopic data have compromised interpretation because of the use of only the major isotopes 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, or their graphing in other combinations. We also present some examples comparing high precision data from thermal ionization (TIMS) or multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) to illustrate the deficiency in the Q-ICP-MS data. In addition, we present cases where Pb isotopic ratios measured on Q-ICP-MS are virtually impossible for terrestrial samples. We also evaluate the Pb isotopic data for rat studies, which had concluded that Pb isotopic fractionation occurs between different organs and suggest that this notion of biological fractionation of Pb as an explanation for isotopic differences is not valid. Overall, the brief review of these case studies shows that Q-ICP-MS as commonly practiced is not a suitable technique for precise and accurate Pb isotopic analysis in the environment and health fields
    Keywords: Lead isotopes ; ICP-MS ; TIMS ; MC-ICP-MS ; Environment ; Humans ; Rats ; Fractionation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 1997-01-03
    Description: The oriented peptide library technique was used to investigate the peptide-binding specificities of nine PDZ domains. Each PDZ domain selected peptides with hydrophobic residues at the carboxyl terminus. Individual PDZ domains selected unique optimal motifs defined primarily by the carboxyl terminal three to seven residues of the peptides. One family of PDZ domains, including those of the Discs Large protein, selected peptides with the consensus motif Glu-(Ser/Thr)-Xxx-(Val/Ile) (where Xxx represents any amino acid) at the carboxyl terminus. In contrast, another family of PDZ domains, including those of LIN-2, p55, and Tiam-1, selected peptides with hydrophobic or aromatic side chains at the carboxyl terminal three residues. On the basis of crystal structures of the PSD-95-3 PDZ domain, the specificities observed with the peptide library can be rationalized.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Songyang, Z -- Fanning, A S -- Fu, C -- Xu, J -- Marfatia, S M -- Chishti, A H -- Crompton, A -- Chan, A C -- Anderson, J M -- Cantley, L C -- CA66263/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK34989/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056203/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jan 3;275(5296):73-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Signal Transduction, Beth Israel Hospital, and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8974395" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors ; Guanylate Kinase ; Helminth Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Kinesin/chemistry/metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Myosins/chemistry/metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase/chemistry/metabolism ; Peptide Library ; Peptides/chemistry/*metabolism ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/chemistry/metabolism ; Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 28
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sparks, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jul 25;277(5325):459-60.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9254411" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alanine/metabolism ; Animals ; Brain/*metabolism ; Cerebrovascular Circulation ; Cytosol/metabolism ; *Glycolysis ; Humans ; Lactic Acid/metabolism ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Oxygen Consumption ; Pyruvic Acid/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 1998-01-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brousset, P -- Meggetto, F -- Attal, M -- Delsol, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Dec 12;278(5345):1972; author reply 1972-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9417645" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibodies, Viral/blood ; Bone Marrow/*virology ; DNA, Viral/analysis ; Herpesviridae Infections/*complications/virology ; Herpesvirus 8, Human/genetics/immunology/*isolation & purification ; Humans ; Lymphoma/virology ; Multiple Myeloma/immunology/*virology ; Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 30
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-05-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Larrick, J W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 May 9;276(5314):881-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9163030" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Humans ; *Mental Healing ; *Psychophysiology ; Religion and Medicine
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 31
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1998-02-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Oct 24;278(5338):568.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9381161" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bioethics ; Confidentiality ; Databases, Nucleic Acid ; Ethical Review ; Genetic Research ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Human ; Human Genome Project ; Humans ; *Internationality ; *National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.) ; Risk Assessment ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 32
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-09-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Sep 5;277(5331):1439.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9304214" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; Estrogen Antagonists/metabolism/pharmacology ; Estrogen Receptor alpha ; Estrogen Receptor beta ; Estrogens/metabolism/pharmacology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, Reporter ; Humans ; Ligands ; Receptors, Estrogen/genetics/*physiology ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 33
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-07-04
    Description: Hepatocyte nuclear factors 1 and 4 (HNF-1 and HNF-4) are liver-enriched transcription factors that function in the regulation of several liver-specific genes. HNF-1 activates genes containing promoters with HNF-1 binding sites. However, this factor negatively regulates its own expression and that of other HNF-4-dependent genes that lack HNF-1 binding sites in their promoter region. This repression is exerted by a direct interaction of HNF-1 with AF2, the main activation domain of HNF-4. The dual functions of gene activation and repression suggest that HNF-1 is a global regulator of the transcriptional network involved in the maintenance of hepatocyte-specific phenotype.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ktistaki, E -- Talianidis, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jul 4;277(5322):109-12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Post Office Box 1527, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete, Greece.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9204893" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors ; Binding Sites ; COS Cells ; *DNA-Binding Proteins ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 ; Humans ; Liver/cytology/*metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Phosphoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/*genetics/*metabolism ; Transcriptional Activation ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-08-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Aug 1;277(5326):635-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9254427" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cannibalism/*history ; Europe ; *Fossils ; History, Ancient ; *Hominidae ; Humans ; Indians, North American/*history ; Southwestern United States
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  • 35
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-08-29
    Description: The SGS1 gene of yeast encodes a DNA helicase with homology to the human WRN gene. Mutations in WRN result in Werner's syndrome, a disease with symptoms resembling premature aging. Mutation of SGS1 is shown to cause premature aging in yeast mother cells on the basis of a shortened life-span and the aging-induced phenotypes of sterility and redistribution of the Sir3 silencing protein from telomeres to the nucleolus. Further, in old sgs1 cells the nucleolus is enlarged and fragmented-changes that also occur in old wild-type cells. These findings suggest a conserved mechanism of cellular aging that may be related to nucleolar structure.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sinclair, D A -- Mills, K -- Guarente, L -- AG11119/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Aug 29;277(5330):1313-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9271578" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Cell Aging ; Cell Division ; Cell Nucleolus/chemistry/metabolism/*ultrastructure ; DNA Helicases/*genetics/physiology ; Exodeoxyribonucleases ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect ; Fungal Proteins/analysis ; Genes, Fungal ; Humans ; Mutation ; Phenotype ; RecQ Helicases ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*cytology/*genetics/physiology/ultrastructure ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins ; *Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Trans-Activators/analysis ; Werner Syndrome/genetics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-05-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 May 30;276(5317):1331-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9190675" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Facial Bones ; *Fossils ; *Hominidae/classification ; Humans ; Male ; Spain
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 1998-01-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Parravicini, C -- Lauri, E -- Baldini, L -- Neri, A -- Poli, F -- Sirchia, G -- Moroni, M -- Galli, M -- Corbellino, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Dec 12;278(5345):1969-70; author reply 1972-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9417642" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Antibodies, Viral/*blood ; Bone Marrow Cells/*virology ; DNA, Viral/analysis ; Female ; Herpesviridae Infections/*complications/virology ; Herpesvirus 8, Human/genetics/immunology/*isolation & purification ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Multiple Myeloma/*virology ; Polymerase Chain Reaction
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 1997-08-01
    Description: In the early months of life, infants acquire information about the phonetic properties of their native language simply by listening to adults speak. The acoustic properties of phonetic units in language input to young infants in the United States, Russia, and Sweden were examined. In all three countries, mothers addressing their infants produced acoustically more extreme vowels than they did when addressing adults, resulting in a "stretching" of vowel space. The findings show that language input to infants provides exceptionally well-specified information about the linguistic units that form the building blocks for words.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kuhl, P K -- Andruski, J E -- Chistovich, I A -- Chistovich, L A -- Kozhevnikova, E V -- Ryskina, V L -- Stolyarova, E I -- Sundberg, U -- Lacerda, F -- DC 00520/DC/NIDCD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Aug 1;277(5326):684-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Box 357920, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9235890" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Female ; Humans ; Infant ; *Language Development ; Mothers ; *Phonetics ; Russia ; Speech Acoustics ; *Speech Perception ; Sweden ; United States
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-05-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 May 9;276(5314):896-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9163034" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Evolution ; *Body Constitution ; Body Weight ; Brain/*anatomy & histology ; Female ; Femur Head/*anatomy & histology ; *Fossils ; Hominidae/*anatomy & histology ; Humans ; Male
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 1997-09-20
    Description: Classical late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease whose defective gene has remained elusive. A molecular basis for LINCL was determined with an approach applicable to other lysosomal storage diseases. When the mannose 6-phosphate modification of newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes was used as an affinity marker, a single protein was identified that is absent in LINCL. Sequence comparisons suggest that this protein is a pepstatin-insensitive lysosomal peptidase, and a corresponding enzymatic activity was deficient in LINCL autopsy specimens. Mutations in the gene encoding this protein were identified in LINCL patients but not in normal controls.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sleat, D E -- Donnelly, R J -- Lackland, H -- Liu, C G -- Sohar, I -- Pullarkat, R K -- Lobel, P -- DK45992/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- NS30147/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Sep 19;277(5333):1802-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9295267" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Aminopeptidases ; Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 ; Codon ; Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases ; Endopeptidases ; Female ; Glycosylation ; Humans ; Isoelectric Point ; Lysosomes/*enzymology ; Male ; Mannosephosphates/analysis ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Molecular Weight ; *Mutation ; Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses/enzymology/*genetics ; Pepstatins/pharmacology ; Peptide Hydrolases/*chemistry/deficiency/*genetics ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Serine Proteases
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  • 41
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-01-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jan 10;275(5297):155-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8999545" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Acetyltransferases/*metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism ; Cell Nucleus/*enzymology ; DNA/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Histone Acetyltransferases ; Histones/*metabolism ; Humans ; Nuclear Proteins/metabolism ; Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 6, Group A, Member 1 ; Nucleosomes/metabolism ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism ; *Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins ; *TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors ; *Transcription Factor TFIID ; Transcription Factors ; *Transcription, Genetic ; p300-CBP Transcription Factors
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 1997-05-09
    Description: In lymphoid tissue, where human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is produced and stored, three-drug treatment with viral protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors markedly reduced viral burden. This was shown by in situ hybridization and computerized quantitative analysis of serial tonsil biopsies from previously untreated adults. The frequency of productive mononuclear cells (MNCs) initially diminished with a half-life of about 1 day. Surprisingly, the amount of HIV-1 RNA in virus trapped on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) decreased almost as quickly. After 24 weeks, MNCs with very few copies of HIV-1 RNA per cell were still detectable, as was proviral DNA; however, the amount of FDC-associated virus decreased by 〉/=3.4 log units. Thus, 6 months of potent therapy controlled active replication and cleared 〉99.9 percent of virus from the secondary lymphoid tissue reservoir.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cavert, W -- Notermans, D W -- Staskus, K -- Wietgrefe, S W -- Zupancic, M -- Gebhard, K -- Henry, K -- Zhang, Z Q -- Mills, R -- McDade, H -- Schuwirth, C M -- Goudsmit, J -- Danner, S A -- Haase, A T -- AI 25017/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI 28246/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 May 9;276(5314):960-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9139661" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Anti-HIV Agents/*therapeutic use ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology ; DNA, Viral/analysis ; Dendritic Cells/cytology/*virology ; Drug Therapy, Combination ; HIV Infections/*drug therapy/virology ; HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use ; HIV-1/*drug effects/isolation & purification/physiology ; Humans ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; In Situ Hybridization ; Kinetics ; Lamivudine/therapeutic use ; Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology/*virology ; Macrophages/virology ; Palatine Tonsil/*virology ; Proviruses/genetics ; RNA, Viral/analysis ; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use ; Ritonavir/therapeutic use ; Viral Load ; Virus Replication/drug effects ; Zidovudine/therapeutic use
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 1997-12-31
    Description: Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) enhance transcription of specific genes in response to cytokines and growth factors. STAT1 is also required for efficient constitutive expression of the caspases Ice, Cpp32, and Ich-1 in human fibroblasts. As a consequence, STAT1-null cells are resistant to apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Reintroduction of STAT1alpha restored both TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis and the expression of Ice, Cpp32, and Ich-1. Variant STAT1 proteins carrying point mutations that inactivate domains required for STAT dimer formation nevertheless restored protease expression and sensitivity to apoptosis, indicating that the functions of STAT1 required for these activities are different from those that mediate induced gene expression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kumar, A -- Commane, M -- Flickinger, T W -- Horvath, C M -- Stark, G R -- P01 CA62220/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Nov 28;278(5343):1630-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9374464" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Apoptosis ; Caspase 1 ; Caspase 2 ; Caspase 3 ; *Caspases ; Cell Line ; Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics/*metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Dactinomycin/pharmacology ; Dimerization ; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ; Humans ; Interferon-gamma/pharmacology ; Phosphorylation ; Point Mutation ; Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; STAT1 Transcription Factor ; Signal Transduction ; Trans-Activators/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Transfection ; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/*pharmacology
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  • 44
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-04-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Apr 4;276(5309):32.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9122704" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Bone and Bones/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; *Fossils ; Hand/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; Hominidae/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; Humans ; Metacarpus/anatomy & histology ; Thumb/*anatomy & histology/physiology
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 1997-11-05
    Description: To create mice expressing exclusively human sickle hemoglobin (HbS), transgenic mice expressing human alpha-, gamma-, and betaS-globin were generated and bred with knockout mice that had deletions of the murine alpha- and beta-globin genes. These sickle cell mice have the major features (irreversibly sickled red cells, anemia, multiorgan pathology) found in humans with sickle cell disease and, as such, represent a useful in vivo system to accelerate the development of improved therapies for this common genetic disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Paszty, C -- Brion, C M -- Manci, E -- Witkowska, H E -- Stevens, M E -- Mohandas, N -- Rubin, E M -- HL20985/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL31579/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HB-07086/HB/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Oct 31;278(5339):876-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Human Genome Center and Department of Subcellular Structure, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road (MS 74-157), University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. c_paszty@csa2.lbl.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9346488" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anemia, Sickle Cell/*genetics/pathology ; Animals ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; Globins/genetics ; Hemoglobin, Sickle/genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Mice, Transgenic
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  • 46
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-04-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- Culotta, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Apr 18;276(5311):355-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9139356" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Animals ; *Fossils ; *Hominidae/anatomy & histology ; Humans ; Uganda
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 1997-08-15
    Description: The critical role of chemokine receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) in human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection and pathogenesis prompted a search for polymorphisms in other chemokine receptor genes that mediate HIV-1 disease progression. A mutation (CCR2-64I) within the first transmembrane region of the CCR2 chemokine and HIV-1 receptor gene is described that occurred at an allele frequency of 10 to 15 percent among Caucasians and African Americans. Genetic association analysis of five acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cohorts (3003 patients) revealed that although CCR2-64I exerts no influence on the incidence of HIV-1 infection, HIV-1-infected individuals carrying the CCR2-64I allele progressed to AIDS 2 to 4 years later than individuals homozygous for the common allele. Because CCR2-64I occurs invariably on a CCR5-+-bearing chromosomal haplotype, the independent effects of CCR5-Delta32 (which also delays AIDS onset) and CCR2-64I were determined. An estimated 38 to 45 percent of AIDS patients whose disease progresses rapidly (less than 3 years until onset of AIDS symptoms after HIV-1 exposure) can be attributed to their CCR2-+/+ or CCR5-+/+ genotype, whereas the survival of 28 to 29 percent of long-term survivors, who avoid AIDS for 16 years or more, can be explained by a mutant genotype for CCR2 or CCR5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Smith, M W -- Dean, M -- Carrington, M -- Winkler, C -- Huttley, G A -- Lomb, D A -- Goedert, J J -- O'Brien, T R -- Jacobson, L P -- Kaslow, R -- Buchbinder, S -- Vittinghoff, E -- Vlahov, D -- Hoots, K -- Hilgartner, M W -- O'Brien, S J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Aug 15;277(5328):959-65.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Science Applications International Corp. Frederick, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9252328" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*genetics/immunology/mortality/virology ; African Continental Ancestry Group ; Cohort Studies ; Disease Progression ; European Continental Ancestry Group ; Genotype ; HIV Infections/*genetics/immunology/mortality/virology ; *Hiv-1 ; Haplotypes ; Heterozygote ; Humans ; *Mutation ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length ; Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational ; Proportional Hazards Models ; Receptors, CCR2 ; Receptors, CCR5 ; *Receptors, Chemokine ; Receptors, Cytokine/*genetics ; Receptors, HIV/*genetics ; Survival Analysis
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  • 48
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-03-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Peifer, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Mar 21;275(5307):1752-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280, USA. peifer@unc.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9122680" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein ; Animals ; Apoptosis ; Cell Division ; Cell Movement ; Colon/cytology/metabolism ; Colonic Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genes, APC ; Humans ; Insect Proteins/metabolism ; Intestinal Mucosa/cytology/metabolism ; Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1 ; Melanoma/*genetics/metabolism ; Mutation ; *Oncogenes ; *Repressor Proteins ; Signal Transduction ; *Trans-Activators ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; beta Catenin
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  • 49
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-11-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Glanz, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Sep 19;277(5333):1758-60.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9324762" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/physiology/*physiopathology ; Epilepsy/*physiopathology/therapy ; Humans ; *Models, Neurological ; Nerve Net/physiology/physiopathology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Neurons, Afferent/physiology ; *Nonlinear Dynamics ; Proprioception
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 1997-02-14
    Description: The mechanisms responsible for thyrocyte destruction in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are poorly understood. Thyrocytes from HT glands, but not from nonautoimmune thyroids, expressed Fas. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), abundantly produced in HT glands, induced Fas expression in normal thyrocytes, and cross-linking of Fas resulted in massive thyrocyte apoptosis. The ligand for Fas (FasL) was shown to be constitutively expressed both in normal and HT thyrocytes and was able to kill Fas-sensitive targets. Exposure to IL-1beta induced thyrocyte apoptosis, which was prevented by antibodies that block Fas, suggesting that IL-1beta-induced Fas expression serves as a limiting factor for thyrocyte destruction. Thus, Fas-FasL interactions among HT thyrocytes may contribute to clinical hypothyroidism.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Giordano, C -- Stassi, G -- De Maria, R -- Todaro, M -- Richiusa, P -- Papoff, G -- Ruberti, G -- Bagnasco, M -- Testi, R -- Galluzzo, A -- A.066/Telethon/Italy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Feb 14;275(5302):960-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Immunology, Endocrinology Section, Institute of Clinica Medica, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9020075" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology ; Antigens, CD95/biosynthesis/immunology/*metabolism ; *Apoptosis ; Cells, Cultured ; Cytokines/pharmacology ; Fas Ligand Protein ; Humans ; Immunoenzyme Techniques ; Interleukin-1/pharmacology ; Membrane Glycoproteins/biosynthesis/*metabolism ; Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology ; Thyroid Gland/*metabolism/pathology ; Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/*etiology/metabolism/pathology ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 51
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-06-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Breckenridge, A -- Kitchen, V -- Darbyshire, J H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jun 6;276(5318):1481-2; author reply 1443-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9190678" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anti-HIV Agents/*therapeutic use ; *Clinical Trials as Topic ; Drug Resistance, Microbial ; Drug Therapy, Combination ; HIV/drug effects ; HIV Infections/*drug therapy ; Humans ; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 1997-01-24
    Description: The morphology of axon terminals changes with differentiation into mature synapses. A molecule that might regulate this process was identified by a screen of Drosophila mutants for abnormal motor activities. The still life (sif) gene encodes a protein homologous to guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which convert Rho-like guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) from a guanosine diphosphate-bound inactive state to a guanosine triphosphate-bound active state. The SIF proteins are found adjacent to the plasma membrane of synaptic terminals. Expression of a truncated SIF protein resulted in defects in neuronal morphology and induced membrane ruffling with altered actin localization in human KB cells. Thus, SIF proteins may regulate synaptic differentiation through the organization of the actin cytoskeleton by activating Rho-like GTPases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sone, M -- Hoshino, M -- Suzuki, E -- Kuroda, S -- Kaibuchi, K -- Nakagoshi, H -- Saigo, K -- Nabeshima, Y -- Hama, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jan 24;275(5299):543-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Neuroscience (NIN), National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8999801" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actins/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Axons/physiology ; Cell Membrane/ultrastructure ; Cytoskeleton/physiology/ultrastructure ; DNA, Complementary/genetics ; Drosophila/embryology/genetics/*metabolism ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism ; GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Gene Expression ; Genes, Insect ; *Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization ; KB Cells ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Movement ;