Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
---Reactions of diaryl thioketones with diazomethane at room temperature afford 4,4,5,5-tetraaryl-1,3-dithiolanes; the scope of this surprising 2:1 interaction has been studied for decades (Schönberg Reaction). The clue to the mechanism was our observation that the stoichiometry is 1:1 at -78 °C, and 2,5-dihydro-2,2-diaryl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles are formed as primary [2+3] cycloadducts. They lose N2 at -45 °C in first-order reactions generating diaryl thioketone S-methylides which can be intercepted by thioketones (→1,3-dithiolanes), multiple CC bonds, or acids HX. In the absence of trapping reagents, the elusive intermediates either dimerize furnishing 2,2,3,3-tetraaryl-1,4-dithianes or give rise to 2,2-diarylthiiranes by electrocyclization. Beyond thiobenzophenone and diazomethane, our main model reaction, the studies involve fluorene-9-thione, 4,4-dimethoxy- and 4,4-dichlorothiobenzophenone. The ring of 2,5-dihydro-2,2-diphenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (8) is opened by LDA at -78 °C and derivatives of anion 12 are obtained. - In summa: The Schönberg reaction consists of two 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, linked by a 1,3-dipolar cycloreversion.
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