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  • GEOPHYSICS  (21,936)
  • 1
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    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: At the last International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Workshop it was decided that future editions of the model should include a representationof the aurroral oval boundaries. In this paper we review the different existing parameterizations of the auroral oval discussing their data base, boundary criteria, matematical formation, and overall usefulness for IRI. As a first candidate for incorporation into IRI we recomment the parameterization of the Feldstein ovals by Holzworth and Meng. Ways of implementing this model into IRI are discussed. We will also address adjustability with user-provided boundaries or boundary-related parameters, to better support strom-related studies.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 1; p. (1)13-(1)16
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Measurements by single-frequency satellite altimeter (Geosat, ERS-1) require a ionospheric correction to account for the signal time delay in the ionosphere. We propose using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) for the determination of this time delay. To investigate the effectiveness of an IRI correction, we have compared the IRI values with ionospheric corrections deduce from measurements by the dual-frequency Topex altimeter. By measuring at two frequencies, the Topex instrument can record (and thus eliminate) the ionospheric influence. We find that IRI agrees with the Topex data much better than the model that is currently used in Geosat data analysis. In particular the earlier model does not represent the equatorial double-peak (equator anomaly) clearly seen in the Topex data. Overall, the use of IRI results in a 30% improvement (over the older model) in the accuracy of ionospheric corrections computed for the first year of the Topex mission.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 2; p. 113-119
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  • 3
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    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: This paper was presented during the special session that was held at the 1993 International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Workshop in honor of Karl Rawer's 80th birthday. It retraces the steps that led from the start of the IRI project to the present edition of the model highlighting the important role that the honoree played in guiding IRI from infancy to maturity. All summary view graphs are reproduced at the end of the article.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 2; p. 7-10
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-03-30
    Description: An international conference on high-latitude ionospheric modeling produced 27 papers in the areas of ionospheric mapping, electron density and distribution, ion density and distribution, ionospheric storems, ionospheric composition, and ionospheric sounding techniques. Upgrades to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model were proposed in several papers.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 1
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-03-29
    Description: Papers from the conference are presented and cover the following topics: ion and electron beams; ionospheric modification; spacecraft interactions; chemical releases; and plasma waves. Auroras and plasma emissions are reported from electron beam injection experiments on the EXCEDE 3 rocket and APEX satellite respectively. The important parameters affecting the charging of spacecraft during the operation of electron guns is covered. The Active Magnetospheric Particle Acceleration Satellite (AMPAS) mission utilizing dual-payload tethered satellites and both up and downward directed electron beams is proposed to study the magnetosphere. Recent results and associated theories from the Sura, Arecibo and Troms ionospheric heating facitlites are presented. The effects of neutral gases on spacecraft charging are examined in a series of rocket flights. Many results from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite chemical release experiments are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 12
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-03-29
    Description: The main subject of the symposium was 'off-median phenomena'. The title denotes a range of problems that are rarely considered in 'pure science' studies of the ionosphere. The appearance of regular ionospheric variations is well known. Most of these depend on evident solar-geophysical influences like day and night, solar zenith angle, the seasons, geomagnetic control, solar activity, etc. Applicants and theoreticians as well used to work with monthly medians so that the in fact existing and quite important day-to-day variability is systematically overlooked. It is evident that a descriptive model like the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) would be inadequate if this variability were denied. Interesting contributions from the symposium on 'off-median phenomena' and the IRI are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 2
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  • 7
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    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: A data base comprised of all available ionosphere satellite ion composition measurements - the Goddard Comprehensive Ionosphere Data Base (GCID) - has been set upon optical disks for convenient merging and accessing of data from different satellites. This data has recentely been expanded to include all accessible satellite electron density and plasma temperature measurements. This paper demonstrates with a couple examples, the potential of GCID as an alternative to empirical models for undertanding ionsophere physics and chemistry. Through binning techniques GCID provdes a tool that complements and improves on the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI) in delineating the topology of high latitude ion composition. GCID provides at a glance a measure of the local statistical variabilty of the ion compostions that is not in empirical models such as IRI. Furthermusing the data to determine the spatial and geophysical parameter range over which the minor ion species are approximately in chemical equilibrium, the number of data points available for empirical ion composition models can be increased by using the statiscally more reliable neutral and electron empirical models to derive ions composition. Currently available empirical models are not capable of adequately defining the comples high latitude distribution - a measure of the variablity is needed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 1; p. (1)95-(1)104
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the largest enhancement of stratospheric aerosol loading ever observed by lidar over Hampton, Virginia. Low altitude layers (less than 20 km) were the first to arrive over Hampton in early August, the result of transport associated with a tropospheric anticyclonic cell over North America. The maximum peak scattering ratio, 34 at 22.4 km, and the maximum stratospheric integrated backscatter of 0.0053 sr(exp -1), both at 694 nm, observed since the eruption were measured on February 20, 1992. After decreasing during the spring and summer of 1992, the aerosol burden increased significantly during the winter of 1992-93, evidence of a poleward winter transport from the equatorial reservoir. Over the period from February 1992 to February 1994, the stratospheric aerosol loading decreased with an average 1/e decay time of 10.1 months. The vertical distribution, intensity, and transport of Pinatubo aerosols over this site are described and compared with similar measurements after El Chichon.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1101-1104
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Azimuthal asymmetries in the atmospheric refractive index can lead to errors in estimated vertical and horizontal station coordinates. Daily average gradient effects can be as large as 50 mm of delay at a 7 deg elevation. To model gradients, the constrained estimation of gradient paramters was added to the standard VLBI solution procedure. Here the analysis of two sets of data is summarized: the set of all geodetic VLBI experiments from 1990-1993 and a series of 12 state-of-the-art R&D experiments run on consecutive days in January 1994. In both cases, when the gradient parameters are estimated, the overall fit of the geodetic solution is improved at greater than the 99% confidence level. Repeatabilities of baseline lengths ranging up to 11,000 km are improved by 1 to 8 mm in a root-sum-square sense. This varies from about 20% to 40% of the total baseline length scatter without gradient modeling for the 1990-1993 series and 40% to 50% for the January series. Gradients estimated independently for each day as a piecewise linear function are mostly continuous from day to day within their formal uncertainties.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1041-1044
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper describes an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for choosing a new direction of a photon after a scattering interaction. The algorithm chooses a scattering angle by linear interpolation in a table of the inverse cumulative scattering probability. A Legendre expansion of the phase function makes it easy to apply Clenshaw's algorithm to build the interpolation table. The points in the table are close enough together that linear interpolation is accurate. With a table of 100,000 entries, we can keep the absolute and relative errors in matching the probability distribution below 10(exp -5).
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (ISSN 0022-4073); 53; 1; p. 23-38
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report multi-instrument observations during an isolated substorm on 17 October 1989. The European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar operated in the SP-UK-POLI mode measuring ionospheric convection at latitudes 71 deg Lambda - 78 deg Lambda. Sub-Auroral Magnetometer Network (SAMNET) and the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross provide information on the timing of substorm expansion phase onset and subsequent intensifications, as well as the location of the field aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the substorm current wedge. Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-8 (IMP-8) magnetic field data are also included. Evidence of a substorm growth phase is provided by the equatorward motion of a flow reversal boundary across the EISCAT radar field of view at 2130 MLT, following a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We infer that the polar cap expanded as a result of the addition of open magnetic flux in the tail lobes during this interval. The flow reversal boundary, which is a lower limit to the polar cap boundary, reached an invariant latitude equatorward of 71 deg Lambda by the time of the expansion phase onset. We conclude that the substorm onset region in the ionosphere, defined by the westward electrojet, mapped to a part of the tail radially earthward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux, the distant neutral line. Thus the substorm was not initiated at the distant neutral line, although there is evidence that it remained active during the expansion phase.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0992-7689); 13; 2; p. 147-158
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The effects on double-probe electric field measurements induced by electron density and temperature gradients are investigated. We show that on some occasions such gradients may lead to marked spurious electric fields if the probes are assumed to lie at the same probe potential with repect to the plasma. The use of a proper bias current will decrease the magnitude of such an error. When the probes are near the plasma potential, the magnitude of these error signals, delta Epsilon, can vary as delta Epsilon approx. T(sub e)(Delta n(sub e)/n(sub e)) + 0.5 Delta T(sub e), where T(sub e) is the electron temperature, Delta n(sub e)/ n(sub e) the relative electron density variation between the two sensors, and Delta T(sub e) the electron temperature difference between the two sensors. This not only implies that the error signals will increase linearly with the density variations but also that such signatures grow with Delta T(sub e) i.e., such effects are 10 times larger in a 10-eV plasma than in a 1-eV plasma. This type of error is independent of the probe separation distance provided the gradient scale length is much larger than the distance. The largest errors occur when the probes are near to the plasma potential. During the crossing of a small structure (e.g, a double layer) the error signal appears as a bipolar signature. Our analysis shows that errors in double-probe measurements caused by plasma gradients are not significant at large scale (much greater than 1 km) plasma boundaries, and may only be important in cases where small-scale (less than 1 km), internal gradient structures exist. Bias currents tailored for each plasma parameter regime (i.e., variable bias current) would improve the double-probe response to gradient effects considerably.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0992-7689); 13; 2; p. 130-146
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Radiation resulting from interaction between the effluent cloud of a space shuttle thruster and the ambient atmosphere was observed with a spectograph aboard the shutttle. The spectral measurements were made between 400 and 800 nm with a resolutoion of 3 nm. The primary emissions are identified as NO2, HNO, O(1)D, and O(1)S. These are the first observations od O(1)S emission in the shuttle plume. These data are compared with the previous measurements, and possible excitation mechanisms are discussed. The results are also compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of thruster plume-atmosphere interaction radiation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5819-5825
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: New investigations of the core ion motion within high-latitude topside ionosphere and near-Earth magnetosphere, using data from the Dynamics Explorer (DE) retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS), reveal the existence of significant regions of downward moving O(+). The occurences of downgoing versus upgoing O(+) are not clearly separable in terms of either polar zenith angle or Kp but are well distinquished by the direction of the z component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). On the average, down flow dominates when IMFB2 less than O, while upflow dominates for IMFB2 greater than 0. Combining cross-field convection velocities derived from an empirical convection electric field model with the observed parallel velocities yields a two dimensional ion velocity field. This velocity field is consistent with a senario which has O(+) of cusp/cleft and auroral zone origin concvecting into the polar cap and, because of the dominance of gravitational energy over the upward kinetic energy, falling back into the inonsphere. This provides additional confirmation of the results of studies of the cleft ion fountain. Estimates of the flux of O(+) in the upflowing and downflowing regions for Lambda greater than or equal to 60 deg give a total upflow of approximately 6 X 10(exp 25) ions/sec for IMFB2 greater than 0 and total upflow and downflow of approximately 4 X 10 (exp 25) ions/sec and 1 x 10(exp 25) ions/sec, respectively, for IMFB less than 0. In all cases the magnitude of the dayside outflow is consistent with previous work on upwelling ions. While the magnitudes vary for high and low Kp the ratios of upward to downward flow are roughly the same at approximately 1.7. The downflowing O(+) shows a correlation with the magnitude of the outflow of light ions in the same region but the cause and effect of this relationship is not distinquishable. hable.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5795-5800
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The relation between the solar wind input to the magetosphere, VB(sub South), and the auroral geomagnetic index AL is modeled with two linear moving-average filtering methods: linear prediction filters and a driven harmonic oscillator in the form of an electric circuit. Although the response of the three-parameter oscillator is simpler than the filter's, the methods yield similar linear timescales and values of the prediction-observation correlation and the prediction Chi(exp 2). Further the filter responses obtained by the two methods are similar in their long-term features. In these aspects the circuit model is equivalent to linear prediction filtering. This poses the question of uniqueness and proper interpretation of detailed features of the filters such as response peaks. Finally, the variation of timescales and filter responses with the AL activity level is discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5637-5641
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Empirical data-based models of the magnetosphereic magnetic field have been widely used during recent years. However, the existing models (Tsyganenko, 1987, 1989a) have three serious deficiencies: (1) an unstable de facto magnetopause, (2) a crude parametrization by the K(sub p) index, and (3) inaccuracies in the equatorial magnetotail B(sub z) values. This paper describes a new approach to the problem; the essential new features are (1) a realistic shape and size of the magnetopause, based on fits to a large number of observed crossing (allowing a parametrization by the solar wind pressure), (2) fully controlled shielding of the magnetic field produced by all magnetospheric current systems, (3) new flexible representations for the tail and ring currents, and (4) a new directional criterion for fitting the model field to spacecraft data, providing improved accuracy for field line mapping. Results are presented from initial efforts to create models assembled from these modules and calibrated against spacecraft data sets.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5599-5612
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The evolution of the volcanic debris plume originating from the June 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo has been monitored since its genesis using a ground-based backscatter lidar facility sited at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Both absolute and relative pre- and post-Pinatubo backscatter observations are in accord with Mie scattering projections based on measured aerosol particle size distributions reported in the literature. The post-Pinatubo column-integrated backscatter coefficient peaked approximately 400 days after the eruption, and the observed upper boundary of the aerosol column subsided at a rate of approximately 200 m/mon.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 7; p. 807-810
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Direct current (DC) electric field and ion density measurements near density depletion regions (that is, equatorial plasma bubbles) are used to estimate the vertical neutral wind speed. The measured zonal electric field in a series of density depletions crossed by the San Marco D satellite at 01.47-01.52 Universal Time (UT) on 25 October 1988, can be explained if a downward neutral wind of 15-30 m/s exists. Simultaneously, the F-region plasma was moving downward at a speed of 30-50 m/s. These events appear in the local time sector of 23.00-23.15 in which strong downward neutral winds may occur. Indeed, airglow measurements suggest that downward neutral velocities of 25-50 m/s are possible at time near midnight in the equatorial F-region.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 6; p. 645-651
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  • 19
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An overview of the observations of backstreaming electrons in the foreshock and the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain their properties will be presented. A primary characteristic of observed foreshock electrons is that their velocity distributions are spatially structured in a systematic way depending on distance from the magnetic field line which is tangent to the shock. There are two interrelated aspects to explaining the structure of velocity distributions in the foreshock, one involving the acceleration mechanism and the other, propagation from the source to the observing point. First, the source distribution of electrons energized by the shock must be determined along the shock surface. Proposed acceleration mechanisms include magnetic mirroring of incoming solar wind particles and mechanisms involving transmission of particles through the shock. Secondly, the kinematics of observable electrons streaming away from a curved shock with an initial parallel velocity and a downstream perpendicular velocity component due to the motional electric field must be determined. This is the context in which the observations and their explanations will be reviewed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 8-9; p. 9-27
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Measurements of superthermal electron fluxes in the solar wind indicate that field lines within coronal mass ejections, CMEs, near and beyond 1 AU are normally connected to the Sun at both ends. However, on occasion some field lines embedded deep within CMEs appear to be connected to the Sun at only one end. Here we propose an explanation for how such field lines arise in terms of 3-dimensional reconnection close to the Sun. Such reconnection also provides a natural explanation for the flux rope topology characteristic of many CMEs as well as the coronal loops formed during long-duration, solar X-ray events. Our consideration of the field topologies resulting from 3-dimensional reconnection indicates that field lines within and near CMEs may on occasion be connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 8; p. 869-872
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report here on a number of examples of anomalous enhancements of eastward electric fields near sunrise in the equatorial ionospheric F-region. These examples were selected from the data base of the equatorial satellite, San Marco D (1988), which measured ionospheric electric fields during a period of solar minimum. The eastward electric fields reported correspond to vertical plasma drifts. The examples studied here are similar in signature and polarity to the pre-reversal electric field enhancements seen near sunset from ground-based radar systems. The morphology of these sunrise events, which are observed on about 14% of the morning-side satellite passes, are studied as a function of local zonal velocity, magnetic activity, geographic longitude and altitude. The nine events studied occur at locations where the zonal plasma flow is generally measured to be eastward, but reducing as a function of local time and at satellite longitudes where the magnetic declination has the opposite polarity as the declination of the sunrise terminator.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 1; p. 19-24
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The subject of this paper is a self-consistent, magnetohydrodynamic numerical realization for the Earth's magnetosphere which is in a quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium for a due northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Although a few hours of steady northward IMF are required for this asymptotic state to be set up, it should still be of considerable theoretical interest because it constitutes a 'ground state' for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Moreover, particular features of this ground state magnetosphere should be observable even under less extreme solar wind conditions. Certain characteristics of this magnetosphere, namely, NBZ Birkeland currents, four-cell ionospheric convection, a relatively weak cross-polar potential, and a prominent flow boundary layer, are widely expected. Other characteristics, such as no open tail lobes, no Earth-connected magnetic flux beyond 155 R(sub E) downstream, magnetic merging in a closed topology at the cusps, and a 'tadpole' shaped magnetospheric boundary, might not be expected. In this paper, we will present the evidence for this unusual but interesting magnetospheric equilibrium. We will also discuss our present understanding of this singular state.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3623-3635
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A nonlinear filtering method is introduced for the study of the solar wind -- magnetosphere coupling and related to earlier linear techniques. The filters are derived from the magnetospheric state, a representation of the magnetospheric conditions in terms of a few global variables, here the auroral electrojet indices. The filters also couple to the input, a representation of the solar wind variables, here the rectified electric field. Filter-based iterative prediction of the indices has been obtained for up to 20 hours. The prediction is stable with respect to perturbations in the initial magnetospheric state; these decrease exponentially at the rate of 30/min. The performance of the method is examined for a wide range of parameters and is superior to that of other linear and nonlinear techniques. In the magnetospheric state representation the coupling is modeled as a small number of nonlinear equations under a time-dependent input.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3495-3512
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper focuses on the comparison of cloud amounts derived from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), Satellite-observed clouds, and Ground-based cloud observations. Unlike Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)-type comparisons it does not mix potential errors in the cloud amount with those in the radiation code embedded in the model. Long term cloud climatologies were used to compare global cloud amounts and regional seasonal cycles. The AGCM successfully reproduced the signatures of the warm pool and North Pacific seasonal cycle cloudiness but failed in the low stratus region off the coast of South America, a known problem for AGCMs. The data sets also reproduced the anomaly signature associated with El Nino in the warm pool region, but the model amounts were lower. Global results had a similar success rate, with the model generally producing lower total cloud compared to the satellite and in situ measurements. To compare cloud vertical distributions the cloud height may need to be validated using the corresponding radiation fields. Unfortunately there were also some large discrepancies between the two observed cloud data sets. While tremendously improved over the last decade the character of the observed cloud data sets, must be substantially enhanced before they will be useful in validating AGCMs by any but the crudest levels of comparison.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D1; p. 1367-1378
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D1; p. 1121-1135
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Movement of water as vapor in the atmosphere is a fundamental process in the Earth's hydrological cycle. Investigations of spatial and time scales of water vapor transport in the atmosphere are important areas of research. Water vapor transmits energy as a function of its abundance across the spectrum. This is shown in the 400- to 2500-nm spectral region where the transmission of the terrestrial atmosphere has been modeled using the MODTRAN radiative transfer code for a range of water vapor abundances. Based on these model results, spectra measured by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) have been used to investigate the movement of water vapor at 20-m spatial resolution over an 11-by-30-km area at approximately 15-minute time intervals (1.25 hours total). AVIRIS measures the upwelling spectral radiance from 400 to 2500 nm at 10-nm spectral intervals and collects images of 11-by-up-to-1000 km at 20-m spatial resolution. Data are collected at a rate of 1 km of flight line per 4.5 seconds. A set of five AVIRIS flight lines was acquired in rapid succession over Rogers Dry Lake, CA on May 18, 1993 at 18:59, 19:13, 19:29, 19:47, and 19:59 UTC. Rogers Dry lake is located 2 hours north of Los Angeles, CA at 34.84 degrees north latitude and 117.83 degrees west longitude in the Mojave Desert.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop; p 79-82
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The second pulsating aurora rocket (PULSAUR 2) rocket was launched into a pulsating aurora on 9 February 1994 and carried a broad range of instruments in order to perform a study of this type of aurora. The rocket measurements were complemented with a set of ground-based measurements. The particle measurements performed in the rocket are related to the ground-based optical measurements performed along the rocket trajectory. It is found that the high energy electrons are largely in phase with the measured luminosity. The EISCAT measurements carried out during the flight are reviewed. The PULSAUR 2 campaign is described. Results concerning the auroral conditions and the particle measurements are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: ESA, Proceedings of 12th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research; p 233-237
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: T-matrix computations of light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented nonspherical aerosols and Mie computations for equivalent spheres are compared. Findings show that even moderate nonsphericity results in suubstantial errors in the retrieved aerosol optical thickness if satellite reflectance measurements are analyzed using Mie theory. On the other hand, the use of Mie theory for nonspherical aerosols produces negligible errors in the computation of albedo and flux related quantities, provided that the aerosol size distribution and optical thickness are known beforehand. The first result can be explained by large nonspherical-spherical differences in scattering phase function, while the second result follows from small nonspherical-spherical differences in single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter. No cancellation of errors occurs if one consistently uses Mie theory in the retrieval algorithm and then in computing the albedo for the retrieved aerosol optical thickness.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1077-1080
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The impact of the extraterrestrial object that formed the Chicxulub crater in the northwestern Yucatan peninsula of Mexico is the leading suspect for the extinction of the dinosaurs. This article reports on a Planetary Society expedition to Albion Island in the Rio Hondo region of Belize to investigate evidence supporting the impact theory.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Planetary Report (ISSN 0736-3680); 15; 4; p. 10-14
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A large set of bow shock crossings (i.e., 1392) observed by 17 spacecraft has been used to explore the three-dimensional shape and location of the Earth's bow shock and its dependence on solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. This study investigates deviations from gas dynamic flow models associated with the magnetic terms in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Empirical models predicting the statistical position and shape of the bow shock for arbitrary values of the solar wind pressure, IMF, and Alfvenic Mach number (M(sub A)) have been derived. The resulting data set has been used to fit three-dimensional bow shock surfaces and to explore the variations in these surfaces with sonic (M(sub S)), Alfvenic (M(sub A)) and magnetosonic (M(sub MS)) Mach numbers. Analysis reveals that among the three Mach numbers, M(sub A) provides the best ordering of the least square bow shock curves. The subsolar shock is observed to move Earthward while the flanks flare outward in response to decreasing M(sub A); the net change represents a 6-10% effect. Variations due to changes in the IMF orientation were investigated by rotating the crossings into geocentric interplanetary medium coordinates. Past studies have suggested that the north-south extent of the bow shock surface exceeds the east-west dimension due to asymmetries in the fast mode Mach cone. This study confirms such a north-south versus east-west asymmetry and quantifies its variation with M(sub S), M(sub A), M(sub MS), and IMF orientation. A 2-7% effect is measured, with the asymmetry being more pronounced at low Mach numbers. Combining the bow shock models with the magnetopause model of Roelof and Sibeck (1993), variations in the magnetosheath thickness at different local times are explored. The ratio of the bow shock size to the magnetopause size at the subpolar point is found to be 1.46; at dawn and dusk, the ratios are found to be 1.89 and 1.93, respectively. The subsolar magnetosheath thickness is used to derive the polytropic index gamma according to the empirical relation of Spreiter et al. (1966). The resulting gamma = 2.3 suggests the empirical formula is inadequate to describe the MHD interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7907-7916
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have developed the numerical algorithm for the computation of transient viscoelastic responses in the time domain for a radially stratified Earth model. Stratifications in both the elastic parameters and the viscosity profile have been considered. The particular viscosity profile employed has a viscosity maximum with a constrast of O(100) in the mid lower mantle. The distribution of relaxation times reveals the presence of a continuous spectrum situated between O(100) and O(exp 4) years. The principal mode is embedded within this continuous spectrum. From this initial-value approach we have found that for the low degree harmonics the non-modal contributions are comparable to the modal contributions. For this viscosity model the differences between the time-domain and normal-mode results are found to decrease strongly with increasing angular order. These calculations also show that a time-dependent effective relaxation time can be defined, which can be bounded by the relaxation times of the principal modes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1285-1288
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Many problems in geophysical and astrophysical convection systems are characterized by fast rotation and spherical shell geometry. The combined effects of Coriolis forces and spherical shell geometry produce a unique spatial symmetry for the convection pattern in a rapidly rotating spherical shell. In this paper, we first discuss the general spatial symmetries for rotating spherical shell convection. A special model, a spherical shell heated from below, is then used to illustrate how and when the spatial symmetries are broken. Symmetry breaking occurs via a sequence of spatial transitions from the primary conducting state to the complex multiple-layered columnar structure. It is argued that, because of the dominant effects of rotation, the sequence of spatial transitions identified from this particular model is likely to be generally valid. Applications of the spatial symmetry breaking to planetary convection problems are also discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1265-1268
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Initial observations of a newly documented type of optical emission above thunderstorms are reported. 'Blue jets', or narrowly collimated beams of blue light that appear to propagate upwards from the tops of thunderstorms, were recorded on B/W and color video cameras for the first time during the Sprites94 aircraft campaign, June-July, 1994. The jets appear to propagate upward at speeds of about 100 km/s and reach terminal altitudes of 40-50 m. Fifty six examples were recorded during a 22 minute interval during a storm over Arkansas. We examine some possible mechanisms, but have no satisfactory theory of this phenomenon.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1209-1212
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: It is shown from flux transfer event (FTE) occurrence statistics, observed as a function of MLT by the ISEE satellites, that recent 2-dimensional analytic theories of the effects of pulsed Petschek reconnection predict FTEs to contribute between 50 and 200 kV to the total reconnection voltage when the magnetosheath field points southward. The upper limit (200 kV) allows the possibility that FTEs provide all the antisunward transport of open field lines into the tail lobe. This range is compared with the voltages associated with series of FTEs signatures, as inferred from ground-based observations, which are in the range 10-60 kV. We conclude that the contribution could sometimes be made by a series of single, large events; however, the voltage is often likely to be contributed by several FTEs at different MLT.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1185-1188
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have investigated the middle atmospheric response to the 27-day and 11-yr solar UV flux variations at low to middle latitudes using a two-dimensional photochemical model. The model reproduced most features of the observed 27-day sensitivity and phase lag of the profile ozone response in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere, with a maximum sensitivity of +0.51% per 1% change in 205 nm flux. The model also reproduced the observed transition to a negative phase lag above 2 mb, reflecting the increasing importance with height of the solar modulated HO(x) chemistry on the ozone response above 45 km. The model revealed the general anti-correlation of ozone and solar UV at 65-75 km, and simulated strong UV responses of water vapor and HO(x) species in the mesosphere. Consistent with previous 1D model studies, the observed upper mesospheric positive ozone response averaged over +/- 40 was simulated only when the model water vapor concentrations above 75 km were significantly reduced relative to current observations. In agreement with observations, the model computed a low to middle latitude total ozone phase lag of +3 days and a sensitivity of +0.077% per 1% change in 205 nm flux for the 27-day solar variation, and a total ozone sensitivity of +0.27% for the 11-yr solar cycle. This factor of 3 sensitivity difference is indicative of the photochemical time constant for ozone in the lower stratosphere which is comparable to the 27-day solar rotation period but is much shorter than the 11-yr solar cycle.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 4; p. 333-365
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The stability of collisionless tearing modes is examined in the presence of curvature drift resonances and the trapped particle effects. A kinetic description for both electrons and ions is employed to investigate the stability of a two-dimensional equilibrium model. The main features of the study are to treat the ion dynamics properly by incorporating effects associated with particle trajectories in the tail fields and to include the linear coupling of trapped particle modes. Generalized dispersion relations are derived in several parameter regimes by considering two important sublayers of the reconnecting region. For a typical choice of parameters appropriate to the current sheet region, we demonstrate that localized tearing modes driven by ion curvature drift resonance effects are excited in the current sheet region with growth time of the order of a few seconds. Also, we examine nonlocal characteristics of tearing modes driven by curvature effects and show that modes growing in a fraction of a second arise when mode widths are larger than the current sheet width. Further, we show that trapped particle effects, in an interesting frequency regime, significantly enhance the growth rate of the tearing mode. The relevance of this theory for substorm onset phase and other features of the substorms is briefly discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3563-3572
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, we reoccupied several leveling benchmarks on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska which had been surveyed by conventional leveling immediately following the March 27, 1964, Prince William Sound earthquake (M(sub w) = 9.3). By combining the two sets of measurements with a new, high-resolution model of the geoid in the region, we were able to determine the cumulative 1993-1964 postseismic vertical displacement. We find uplift at all of our benchmarks, relative to Seward, Alaska, a point that is stable according to tide gauge data. The maximum uplift of about 1 m occurs near the middle of the peninsula. The region of maximum uplift appears to be shifted northwest relative to the point of maximum coseismic subsidence. If we use tide gauge data at Nikishka and Seward to constrain the vertical motion, then the observed uplift has a trenchward tilt (down to the southeast) as well as an arching component. To explain the observations, we use creep-at-depth models. Most acceptable models require a fault slip of about 2.75 m, although this result is not unique. If the slip has been continuous since the 1964 earthquake, then the average slip rate is nearly 100 mm/yr, twice the plate convergence rate. Comparing the net uplift achieved in 29 years with that observed over 11 years in an adjacent region southeast of Anchorage, Alaska, we conclude that the rate of uplift is decreasing. A further decrease in the uplift rate is expected as the 29-year averaged displacement rate is about twice the plate convergence rate and therefore cannot be sustained over the entire earthquake cycle.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B2; p. 2031-2038
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver at Casa Diablo Hot Springs, Long Valley Caldera, California was installed in January, 1993, and has operated almost continuously since then. The data have been transmitted daily to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for routine analysis with data from the Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural sciences Network (FLINN) by the JPL FLINN analysis center. Results from these analyses have been used to interpret the on going deformation at Long Valley, with data excluded from periods when the antenna was covered under 2.5 meters of snow and from some periods when Anti Spoofing was enforced on the GPS signal. The remaining time series suggests that uplift of the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera during 1993 has been 2.5 +/- 1.1 cm/yr and horizontal motion has been 3.0 +/- 0.7 cm/yr at S53W in a no-net-rotation global reference frame, or 1.5 +/- 0.7 cm/yr at S14W relative to the Sierra Nevada block. These rates are consistent with uplift predicted from frequent horizontal strain measurements. Spectral analysis of the observations suggests that tidal forcing of the magma chamber is not a source of the variability in the 3 dimensional station location. These results suggest that remotely operated, continuously recording GPS receivers could prove to be a reliable tool for volcanic monitoring throughout the world.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geopysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 3; p. 195-198
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A comparison is made of the vertical distribution of high-level cloud tops derived from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements and from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for all Julys and Januarys in 1985 to 1990. The results suggest that ISCCP overestimates the pressure of high-level clouds by up to 50-150 mbar, particularly at low latitudes. This is caused by the frequent presence of clouds with diffuse tops (greater than 50% time when cloudy events are observed). The averaged vertical extent of the diffuse top is about 1.5 km. At midlatitudes where the SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressure agree best, clouds with distinct tops reach a maximum relative proportion of the total level cloud amount (about 30-40%), and diffuse-topped clouds are reduced to their minimum (30-40%). The ISCCP-defined cloud top pressure should be regarded not as the material physical height of the clouds but as the level which emits the same infrared radiance as observed. SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressures agree for clouds with distinct tops. There is also an indication that the cloud top pressures of optically thin clouds not overlying thicker clouds are poorly estimated by ISCCP at middle latitudes. The average vertical extent of these thin clouds is about 2.5 km.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D1; p. 1137-1147
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Particles leving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E x B drift. This effect which we refer to as 'centrifugal trapping' appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E x B drift speed) plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0992-7689); 13; 3; p. 242-246
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The high-speed correction factor to the O(+)-O collision frequency, resulting from drift velocities between ions and neutrals, is calculated by solving the integral expression in this factor both numerically and analytically. Although the analytic solution is valid for either small or large drift velocities between ions and neutrals, for temperatures of interest and all drift velocities considered, agreement is found between analytic and detailed numerical integration results within less than 1% error. Let T(sub r) designate the average of the ion and neutral temperatures in K, and u = nu(sub d)/alpha, where nu(sub d) is the relative drift velocity in cm/s, and alpha = 4.56 x 10(exp 3) square root of T(sub r) cm/s is the thermal velocity of the O(+)-O system. Then, as u ranges from 0 to 2, the correction factor multiplying the collision frequency increases monotonically from 1 to about 1.5. An interesting result emerging from this calculation is that the correction factor for temperatures of aeronomical interest is to a good approximation independent of the temperature, depending only on the scaled velocity u.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0992-7689); 13; 3; p. 253-255
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We examined 11 cases when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was intensely northward (greater than 10 nT) for long durations of time (greater than 3 hours), to quantitatively determine an uppler limit on the efficiency of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere. We have specifically selected these large B(sub N) events to minimize the effects of magnetic reconnection. Many of these cases occurred during intervals of high-speed streams associated with coronal mass ejections when viscous interaction effects might be at a maximum. It is found that the typical efficiency of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere is 1.0 x 10(exp -3) to 4.0 x 10(exp -3), 100 to 30 times less efficient than during periods of intense southward IMFs. Other energy sinks not included in these numbers are discussed. Estimates of their magnitudes are provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 6; p. 663-666
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The accuracy of Geosat satellite altimetry over the Greenland ice sheet is evaluated by comparing the measured heights to radar elevations from the airborne Greenland Aerogeophysics Project. At the center of the ice sheet where the ice surface is nearly level, surface comparisons show a fit at the 1 to 3 m level as expected, but even at moderately sloping ice regions (0.3 deg-0.6 deg), satellite altimetry mean errors in the range of 10 to 35 m are observed. These errors are found for slope-corrected and waveform-retracked data, so most previous accuracy estimates of current satellite altimetry ice sheet elevations in regions of slopping or undulating ice appear to be too optimistic.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; C2; p. 2687-2696
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Magnetic reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the geomagnetic field is thought to play a major role in the transfer of solar wind momentum and energy to the magnetosphere. As the angle between the IMF and the geomagnetic field is changed at the bow of the magnetosphere, the topological record of the location of the reconnection region should be recorded in the magnetosheath and on the magnetopause along the flanks of the tail, because the super fast flow freezes strong magnetic gradients formed in the bow reconnection regions into the plasma downstream. In this report, we present results from a three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), global numerical simulation code for the location of the separatrix between unconnected IMF magnetosheath field lines and reconnected field lines which penetrate the magnetopause and connect to the polar ionosphere. The angle between the IMF direction and the line where the separatrix crosses the magnetopause is shown to be a sensitive function of the IMF clock angle. We also explain how this behavior can be used to derive an approximate relation for the dependence of the cross-polar voltage on the IMF clock angle. We conclude with a note of caution concerning the importance of physical boundary conditions in magnetoplasma simulations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3613-3621
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Narrow enhancements of electron precipitation, with energy and flux well above typical values, have been observed with Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) in the cusp/cleft region. The electron flux in the energy range 0.2-1 keV was 2 orders of magnitude higher in these structures than in the magnetosheath and were seen in approximaetly 80% of DE 2 cusp crossings at ionospheric altitudes. Typically, there was more than one electron structure in each cusp crossing. The position of these structures showed a systematic variation: for poleward ion dispersion (energy decreases with increasing latitude), electron structures were seen more often on the equatorial boundary of the cusp, while for equatorward ion dispersion (energy decreases with decreasing latitude), electron structures were more often seen on the poleward boundary. This suggests that the electron structures are associated with newly reconnected field lines. The electron spectra suggest that field-aligned acceleration processes could produce the electron structures, first near the boundary of the cusp/cleft during the reconnection of field lines and then in the cusp/cleft during the motion of reconnected flux tubes through the polar ionosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A2; p. 1597-1610
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Enhancements in the fluxes of relativistic electrons trapped within the Earth's magnetosphere have been measured by the high-energy particle spectrometer, part of the particle environment monitor on the upper atmosphere research satellite (UARS). The largest increase in the electron fluxes with energies greater than 1 MeV observed on UARS from October 1991 through July 1994 was in early May 1992. The fluxes of trapped electrons in the drift loss cone and locally precipitating electrons showed differing buildup and decay rates as a function of invariant latitude. Increases of more than 2 orders of magnitude were observed in drift loss cone fluxes at magnetic latitudes of 40 deg-66 deg and in precipitating fluxes from 48 deg to 66 deg. The energy flux contained in the most intense local precipitation observed was approximately 0.1 erg/sq cm/s, entering the atmosphere and creating up to 1000 ion pairs/cu cm/s at 55-km altitude. The daily averaged energy flux from directly precipitating electrons with energies greater than 1 MeV deposited greater than 10(exp 20) erg/d worldwide into the atmosphere for the period May 12-21, 1992, producing greater than 10(exp 31) odd nitrogen molecules below 60-km altitude.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D1; p. 1027-1033
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Airborne Astronomy Symposium on the Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust, Volume 73; p 353-356
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The SBUV/2 instrument onboard the NOAA-11 satellite made daily solar spectral irradiance measurements in the wavelength region 160405 nm at 1.1 nm resolution between January 1989 and October 1994. These observations continued the uninterrupted series of solar measurements begun by the Nimbus-7 SBUV in 1978 and continued by NOAA-9 SBUV/2. While the measurements made by the SBUV-series instruments furnish an excellent data base for studies of solar UV variability, these instruments do not have an internal mew to evaluate and correct for long-term instrument sensitivity degradation, needed to evaluate solar cycle timescale irradiance change. During yearly Shuttle flights the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) also performs solar spectral irradiance measurements in the wavelength region 200 to 400 nm with an instrument that is calibrated preflight, inflight, and postflight. Comparisons between the simultaneous NOAA-11 SBUV/2 and SSBUV solar measurements are used to identify and correct long term sensitivity changes in the satellite instrument. The NOAA-11 data will then be used to evaluate long-term solar change. We present a progress report on the above process. At this preliminary stage uncertainties in the calibration transfer between SSBUV and NOAA-11 SBUV/2 are too large to accurately evaluate long-term solar change near the A1 edge, but solar rotational activity variations can be evaluated. We find that rotational activity declined from roughly 6% peak-to-peak (p-p) near the maximum of solar cycle 22 in 1989-1991 to approximately 3% p-p in mid 1992 and 2% p-p by mid 1994. Emphasizing rotational variations, comparisons between the 200 nm data and the NOAA-11 Mg II proxy index are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-200302 , NAS 1.26:200302 , NIPS-96-08169 , EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union Spring Meeting; 1995; United States
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Compton Observatory commonly encounters fluxes of energetic electrons which have been scattered from the inner radiation belt to the path of the satellite by resonant interactions with VLF waves from powerful man-made transmitters. The present investigation was motivated by the fact that in the Fall of 1993, the Gamma Ray Observatory was boosted from a 650 km altitude circular orbit to a 750 km altitude circular orbit. This was an opportunity, for the first time, to make observations at two different altitudes using the same instrument. We have examined DISCLA data from the Burst & Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) experiment from 1 Sep. 1993 to 29 Jan. 1994. During the period of study we identified 48 instances of the satellite encountering a cloud of energetic electrons which had been scattered by VLF transmitters. We find that boosting the altitude of the circular orbit from 650 km to 750 km increased the intensity of cyclotron resonance scattered electrons by a factor of two. To search for long term changes in the cyclotron resonance precipitation, we have compared the approx. 750 km altitude data from 106 days at the end of 1993 with data at the same altitudes and time of year in 1991. The cyclotron resonance events in 1991 were three times more frequent and 25% of those cases were more intense than any seen in the 1993 data. We attribute this difference to increased level of geomagnetic activity in 1991 near the Solar Maximum.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-189394 , NAS 1.26:189394 , LMSC-F254281-REV
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The primary objective of the three-day workshop on results from the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) five-year assimilation was to provide timely feedback from the data users concerning the strengths and weaknesses of version 1 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) assimilated products. A second objective was to assess user satisfaction with the current methods of data access and retrieval. There were a total of 49 presentations, with about half (23) of the presentations from scientists from outside of Goddard. The first two days were devoted to applications of data: studies of the energy diagnostics, precipitation and diabatic heating, hydrological modeling and moisture transport, cloud forcing and validation, various aspects of intraseasonal, seasonal, and interannual variability, ocean wind stress applications, and validation of surface fluxes. The last day included talks from the National Meteorological Center (NMC), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA), the United States Navy, and the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF).
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-104606-VOL-7 , NAS 1.15:104606-VOL-7 , REPT-95B00132 , 6-8 Mar. 1995; Greenbelt, MD; United States
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The major focus of the subject contract was on helping to resolve one of the more notable discrepancies still existing in the axial momentum budget of the solid Earth-atmosphere system, namely the disappearance of coherence between length-of-day (l.o.d.) and atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) at periods shorter than about a fortnight. Recognizing the importance of identifying the source of the high-frequency momentum budget anomaly, the scientific community organized two special measurement campaigns (SEARCH '92 and CONT '94) to obtain the best possible determinations of l.o.d. and AAM. An additional goal was to analyze newly developed estimates of the torques that transfer momentum between the atmosphere and its underlying surface to determine whether the ocean might be a reservoir of momentum on short time scales. Discrepancies between AAM and l.o.d. at sub-fortnightly periods have been attributed to either measurement errors in these quantities or the need to incorporate oceanic angular momentum into the planetary budget. Results from the SEARCH '92 and CONT '94 campaigns suggest that when special attention is paid to the quality of the measurements, better agreement between l.o.d. and AAM at high frequencies can be obtained. The mechanism most responsible for the high-frequency changes observed in AAM during these campaigns involves a direct coupling to the solid Earth, i.e, the mountain torque, thereby obviating a significant oceanic role.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199233 , NAS 1.26:199233
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Multi-instrument data sets from the ground and satellites at both low and high altitude have provided new results concerning substorm onset and its source region in the magnetosphere. Twenty-six out of 37 substorm onset events showed evidence of azimuthally spaced auroral forms (AAFs) prior to the explosive poleward motion associated with optical substorm onset. AAFs can span 8 hours of local time prior to onset and generally propagate eastward in the morning sector. Onset itself is, however, more localized spanning only about 1 hour local time. AAF onset occur during time periods when the solar wind pressure is relatively high. AAFs brighten in conjunction with substorm onset leading to the conclusion that they are a growth phase activity casually related to substorm onset. Precursor activity associated with these AAFs is also seen near geosynchronous orbit altitude and examples show the relationship between the various instrumental definitions of substorm onset. The implied mode number (30 to 135) derived from this work is inconsistent with cavity mode resonances but is consistent with a modified flute/ballooning instability which requires azimuthal pressure gradients. The extended source region and the distance to the open-closed field line region constrain reconnection theory and local mechanisms for substorm onset. It is demonstrated that multiple onset substorms can exist for which localized dipolarizations and the Pi 2 occur simultaneously with tail stretching existing elsewhere. These pseudobreakups can be initiated by auroral streamers which originate at the most poleward set of arc systems and drift to the more equatorward main UV oval. Observations are presented of these AAFs in conjunction with low- and high-altitutde particle and magnetic field data. These place the activations at the interface between dipolar and taillike field lines probably near the peak in the cross-tail current. These onsets are put in the context of a new scenario for substorm morphology which employs individual modules which operate independently or couple together. This allows particular substorm events to be more accurately described and investigated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7937-7969
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A statistical study has been made of the high-latitude impulsive events that were observed during the 1985-1986 South Pole Balloon Campaign. The events were selected by searching for unipolar pulses greater than or equal to 10 nT above background in the vertical component of the magnetic field on the ground and/or pedestal or 'W' shaped horizontal electric field perturbations greater than or equal to 10 mV/m in amplitude and accompanied by perturbations in the vertical electric field at balloon altitude. A main event list comprising 112 events was compiled from the 468 hours of data available. Three aspects of the events were examined: the solar wind conditions prior to the event, local time of observation, and intrinsic properties of the events. The local time distribution was obtained from the 112 entry main event list and was found to be nearly uniform across the dayside, with no midday gap. The event rate found using our low-amplitude selection criteria was 0.7 event/hr, comparable to expectations based on in situ studies of the magnetopause. A total of 42 events were found for which data were available from Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP) 8. Of these events, 12 occurred when the Z(sub GSM) component (B(sub Z)) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was northward and 30 occurred when B(sub Z) was southward or fluctuating. Only three of the B(sub Z) northward cases and only five of the B(sub Z) southward cases were preceded by pressure pulses greater than 0.4 nPa in amplitude. Ten of the events were studied in detail by means of a model-fitting method discussed elsewhere. This method infers values of several parameters, including the total current flowing in a coaxial or monopole system and a two-dimensional dipole system. The intrinsic properties of the events showed that only approximately 10% of the total current contributed to momentum transfer to the high-latitude ionosphere, that the direction of the motion depended more on local time of observation than IMF B(sub y), and that events were usually several hundred kilometers in size. The observed B(sub z) control found in the 42 event list and the prevalence of coaxial current dominated events are inconsistent with the predictions of the pressure pulse model.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7553-7566
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Impulsive ELF/VLF electric field bursts observed by the vector electric field instrument (VEFI) on the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite on almost every crossing of the geomagnetic equator in the evening hours are interpreted as originating in lightning discharges. These signals that peak in intensity near the magnetic equator are observed within 5-20 deg latitude of the geomagnetic equator at altitudes of 300-500 km with amplitudes of the order of approximately mV/m in the 512- or 1024-Hz frequency band of the VEFI instrument. Whistler-mode ELF/VLF wave propagation through a horizontally stratified ionosphere predicts strong attenuation of subionospheric signals reaching the equator at low altitudes. However, ray tracing analysis shows that the presence of the equatorial density anomaly, commonly observed in the upper ionosphere during evening hours, leads to the focusing of the wave energy from lightning near the geomagnetic equator at low altitudes, thus accounting for all observed aspects of the phenomenon. The observations presented here indicate that during certain hours in the evening, almost all the energy input from lightning discharges entering the ionosphere at less than 30 deg latitude remains confined to a small region (in altitude and latitude) near the geomagnetic equator. The net wideband electric field, extrapolated from the observed electric field values in the 512- to 1024-Hz band, can be approximately 10 mV/m or higher. These strong electric fields generated in the ionosphere by lightning at local evening times may be important for the equatorial electrodynamics of the ionosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7783-7790
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements spanning approximately 3 years have been used to determine velocities for 7 sites on the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates. The site velocities agree with both plate model predictions and other space geodetic techniques. We find no evidence for internal deformation of the interior of the Australian plate. Wellington, New Zealand, located in the Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, moves 20 +/- 5 mm/yr west-southwest relative to the Australian plate. Its velocity lies midway between the predicted velocities of the two plates. Relative Euler vectors for the Australia-Antarctica and Pacific-Antarctica plates agree within one standard deviation with the NUVEL-1A predictions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 1; p. 37-40
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Ions that are energized at quasi-parallel collisionless shocks and move back upstream generate low-frequency waves, largely on the fast/magnetosonic branch. At sufficient Mach number, the waves are convected back into the shock, lead to shock re-formation, and are mode-converted into downstream (magnetosheath) Alfvenic turbulence. Other waves are generated more locally at the interface of the incoming solar wind and the partially thermalized plasma. This paper reviews how recent simulation studies of collisionless shocks in conjunction with linear kinetic theory and proper wave diagnostics have aided in our understanding of the upstream and magnetosheath waves.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 9-Aug; p. 271-284
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We demonstrate connections between decadal and secular global climatic variations, and historical variations in the volume of the Great Salt Lake. The decadal variations correspond to a low-frequency shifting of storm tracks which influence winter precipitation and explain nearly 18% of the interannual and longer-term variance in the record of monthly volume change. The secular trend accounts for a more modest approximately 1.5% of the variance.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 8; p. 937-940
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The long-term time series of global ozone from the Nimbus-7 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet instrument (SBUV) (Nov. 1978-June 1990) are extended through June 1994 by using measurements from the NOAA-11 SBUV/2. The data sets are merged based upon comparisons during the 18-month overlap period in which both instruments were operational. During this period, the average offset between the two time series is less than 2% in total ozone, and less than 6% in Umkehr layers 1-10. A linear-regression trend model is applied to the extended time series to calculate updated trends as a function of latitude and altitude. Trends through June 1994 are 1.5-2% per decade less negative than through June 1990 in the tropical middle stratosphere (35-40 km) and in the upper stratosphere (45-50 km) at mid-latitudes. In the lower stratosphere, the trends are nearly 1.5% per decade more negative in the southern hemisphere tropical regions to 25 deg S, but remain relatively unchanged elsewhere. The seasonal structure of the total ozone trends is similar to past trend study results, but the magnitude of the seasonal trend can vary by 2% per decade depending on the length of the time series. Both Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) (through April 1993) and SBUV total ozone time series show small negative trends in the equatorial region, though they are not statistically at the 2-sigma level.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 8; p. 905-908
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The tail currents predicted by empirical magnetic field models and global MHD simulations are compared. It is shown that the near-Earth currents obtained from the MHD simulations are much weaker than the currents predicted by the Tsyganenko models, primarily because the ring current is not properly represented in the simulations. On the other hand, in the mid-tail and distant tail the lobe field strength predicted by the simulations is comparable to what is observed at about 50 R(sub E) distance, significantly larger than the very low lobe field values predicted by the Tsyganenko models at that distance. Ways to improve these complementary approaches to model the actual magnetospheric configuration are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 6; p. 675-678
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  • 60
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A new concept for an active experiments mission is presented: The Active Magnetospheric Particle Acceleration Satellite (AMPAS). It is proposed to fly a dual-payload tethered satellite to study three important areas of magnetopsheric physics: (1) electric and magnetic field structures of the Earth's magnetosphere, (2) electron beam-plasma interactions, and (3) far ultraviolet (FUV) signatures of energetic electron precipitation. The tethered system is to be flown in a gravity-gradient stabilized configuration with a 70 deg circular orbit at altitudes in the range 300-800 km. The upper payload will carry two electron beam accelerators (1-10 keV, 1 A) and a plasma contractor to electrically neutralize the payload, while the lower will carry a complement of optical imaging and plasma diagonstics instrumentation. Upward directed beams are injected to 'sound' electric and magnetic field structures, including parallel electric fields in the auroral region, while simultaneous optical instruments aimed downwards measure characteristics of reflected beam pulses precipitating into the upper atmosphere below the satellite. Downward directed beams, and simultaneous plasma wave, particle and optical measurements, are used for the investigation of beam-plasma interactions and electron precipitation studies. The payloads are to be connected by a 1-6 km long tether to be deployed in stages. The configuration of the beam source and the plasma and optical diagnostics on separate, tethered payloads allows the diagnostics to be performed outside of the disturbed region around the source payload, and plasma wave and particle observations of beam-plasma interactions to be performed at well-defined locations relative to the source.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 12; p. (12)3-(12)12
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: During the period July-August 1991, observations were made of Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) at 46.9 MHz and 224 MHz by the CUPRI and EISCAT radars, respectively, at two sites in northern Scandinavia. Those observations are compared here with observations of noctilucent clouds, nergetic particle precipitation and magnetic disturbances. The appearance and morphology of PMSE are found to be closely correlated at the two frequencies and the two sites, 200 km apart. No correlation is found between PMSE and noctilucent clouds or magnetic disturbance. No correlation is found between energetic particle precipitation and the appearance of PMSE at 46.9 MHz for the whole time period. At 224 MHz, there is no evidence for a correlation before the beginning of August and only one event suggesting a possible correlation after the beginning of August. A minimum in occurrence for PMSE is found between 16 and 21 UT (17-22 LST) which may be related to an expected minimum in background wind strength in that time interval.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 1; p. 35-44
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A new analytical radiative transfer model of a leaf canopy is developed that approximates multiple-scattering radiance by a four-stream formulation. The canopy model is coupled to a homogeneous atmospheric model as well as a non-Lambertian lower boundary soil surface. The same four-stream formulation is also used for the calculation of multiple scattering in the atmosphere. Comparisons of radiance derived from the four-stream model with those calculated by an iterative numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation show that the analytic model has a very high accuracy, even with a turbid atmosphere and a very dense canopy in which multiple scattering dominates. Because the coupling of canopy and atmospheric models fully accommodates anisotropic surface reflectance and atmospheric scattering and its effect on directional radiance, the model is especially useful for application to directional radiance and measurements obtained by remote sensing. Retrieval of biophysical parameters using this model is under investigation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D3; p. 5085-5094
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In this paper, the authors show how the variability of the water content in individual clouds, the complexity of individual cloud structure, and the lateral and vertical heterogeneity of the distribution of individual clouds can produce systematic effects in the inversion of intensity distributions and the inference of source functions and the vertical temperature profile. This is possibly very significant, even in simple applications of radiative transfer theory where multiple scattering is not very important, in light of the randomness in the water vapor content and geometry associated with the microphysics of clouds. A practical procedure is provided to quantify this effect and to obtain, in certain circumstances, an improved estimate of the vertical temperature profile.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 52; 4; p. 427-435
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Distribution functions of ions heated in quasi-perpendicular bow shocks have a large perpendicular temperature anisotropy that provides free energy for the growth of Alfven ion cyclotron (AIC) waves and mirror waves. Both types of waves have been observed in the Earth's magnetosheath downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. We use a two-dimensional hybrid simulations to give a self-consistent description of the evolution of the wave spectra downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Both mirror and AIC waves are identified in the simulated magnetosheath. They are generated at or near the shock front and convected away from it by the sheath plasma. Near the shock, the waves have a broad spectrum, but downstream of the shock, shorter-wavelength modes are heavily damped and only longer-wavelength modes persist. The characteristics of these surviving modes can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by linear kinetic theory appropriate for downstream conditions. We also follow the evolution of the ion distribution function. The shocked ions that provide the free energy for wave growth have a two-component distribution function. The halo is initially gyrophase-bunched and extremely anisotropic. Within a relatively short distance downstream of the shock (of the order of 10 ion inertial lengths), wave-particle interactions remove these features from the halo and reduce the anisotropy of the distribution to near-threshold levels for the mirror and AIC instabilities. A similar evolution has been observed for ions at the Earth's bow shock.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3427-3437
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The rapid formation of a new proton radiation belt at L approximately = 2.5 following the March 24, 1991 Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) observed at the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) satellite is modeled using a relativistic guiding center test particle code. The SSC is modeled by a bipolar electric field and associated compression and relaxation in the magnetic field, superimposed on a dipole magnetic field. The source population consists of both solar and trapped inner zone protons. The simulations show that while both populations contribute to drift echoes in the 20-80 MeV range, primary conditions is from the solar protons. Proton acceleration by the SSC differs from relativistic electron acceleration in that different source populations contribute and nonrelativistic conservation of the first adiabatic invariation leads to greater energization of protons for a given decrease in L. Model drift echoes and flux distribution in L at the time of injection compare well with CRRES observations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geopysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 3; p. 291-294
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The largest uncertainty in upwelling shortwave (SW) fluxes (approximately equal 10-15 W/m(exp 2), regional daily mean) is caused by uncertainties in land surface albedo, whereas the largest uncertainty in downwelling SW at the surface (approximately equal 5-10 W/m(exp 2), regional daily mean) is related to cloud detection errors. The uncertainty of upwelling longwave (LW) fluxes (approximately 10-20 W/m(exp 2), regional daily mean) depends on the accuracy of the surface temperature for the surface LW fluxes and the atmospheric temperature for the top of atmosphere LW fluxes. The dominant source of uncertainty is downwelling LW fluxes at the surface (approximately equal 10-15 W/m(exp 2)) is uncertainty in atmospheric temperature and, secondarily, atmospheric humidity; clouds play little role except in the polar regions. The uncertainties of the individual flux components and the total net fluxes are largest over land (15-20 W/m(exp 2)) because of uncertainties in surface albedo (especially its spectral dependence) and surface temperature and emissivity (including its spectral dependence). Clouds are the most important modulator of the SW fluxes, but over land areas, uncertainties in net SW at the surface depend almost as much on uncertainties in surface albedo. Although atmospheric and surface temperature variations cause larger LW flux variations, the most notable feature of the net LW fluxes is the changing relative importance of clouds and water vapor with latitude. Uncertainty in individual flux values is dominated by sampling effects because of large natrual variations, but uncertainty in monthly mean fluxes is dominated by bias errors in the input quantities.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D1; p. 1149-1165
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A 3-km-long gap in the dextral surficial rupture of the 1992 M(sub W) = 7.3 Landers earthquake occurs at the north end of a major fault stepover between the Johnson Valley and Homestead Valley faults. This gap is situated along a segment of the Landers rupture that has been modeled geophysically as having a deficit in average slip at depth. To better evaluate the nature of the slip gap, we document in detail the character and distribution of surficial rupture within it. Along the gap, is a northwest trending thrust fault rupture with an average of less than 1 m of northeast directed reverse-slip and nearly no oblique right slip. We interpret this rupture to be limited to the shallow crust of the northern end of the stepover and to have been the secondary result of dextral shear, rather than a mechanism of rigid-block slip-transfer from the Landers-Kickapoo fault. A zone of en echelon extensional ruptures also occurs along the slip gap, which we interpret as the secondary result of diffuse dextral shear that accommodated less than 0.5 m of west-northwest extension. These secondary ruptures represent a discontinuity in the surficial dextral ruptre of the Landers earthquake, which we propose resulted from the lack of a mature fault connection between the Johnson Valley and Homestead Valley faults. The rupture pattern of the slip gap implies a significant deficit in net surficial slip, which compares favorably with some geophysical models. Aspects of this rupture pattern also suggest a temporal sequence of rupture that compares favorably with geophysical interpretations of the dynamic rupture propagation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B1; p. 543-559
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This report covers the activities performed under NAS5-32572. The results of those activities are included in this Final Report. TIMED Science Objectives: (1) To determine the temperature, density, and wind structure of the MLTI (mixed layer thermal inertia), including the seasonal and latitudinal variations; and (2) To determine the relative importance of the various radiative, chemical, electrodynamical, and dynamical sources and sinks of energy for the thermal structure of the MLTI. GUVI Science Goals: (1) Determine the spatial and temporal variations of temperature and constituent densities in the lower thermosphere; and (2) Determine the importance of auroral energy sources and solar EUV (extreme ultraviolet) to the energy balance of the region.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-189430 , NAS 1.26:189430
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: As part of the SAMPIE (The Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment) program, the Langmuir probe (LP) was employed to measure plasma characteristics during the flight STS-62. The whole set of data could be divided into two parts: (1) low frequency sweeps to determine voltage-current characteristics and to find electron temperature and number density; (2) high frequency turbulence (HFT dwells) data caused by electromagnetic noise around the shuttle. The broadband noise was observed at frequencies 250-20,000 Hz. Measurements were performed in ram conditions; thus, it seems reasonable to believe that the influence of spacecraft operations on plasma parameters was minimized. The average spectrum of fluctuations is in agreement with theoretical predictions. According to purposes of SAMPIE, the samples of solar cells were placed in the cargo bay of the shuttle, and high negative bias voltages were applied to them to initiate arcing between these cells and surrounding plasma. The arcing onset was registered by special counters, and data were obtained that included the amplitudes of current, duration of each arc, and the number of arcs per one experiment. The LP data were analyzed for two different situations: with arcing and without arcing. Electrostatic noise spectra for both situations and theoretical explanation of the observed features are presented in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-106891 , E-9533 , NAS 1.15:106891 , Chapman Conference on Measurement Techniques for Space Plasma; 3-7 Apr. 1995; Santa Fe, NM; United States
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A brief description of the major activities pursued during the last year (March 1994 - February 1995) of this grant are: (1) the development of a 200 km to 1 Re, O(+) H(+) Model; (2) the extension of the E x B convection heating study to include centrifugal effects; (3) the study of electron precipitation effects; (4) the study of wave heating of O(+); and (5) the polar wind acceleration study. A list of both papers published and papers submitted, along with a proposal for next year's study and a copy of the published paper is included.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-197404 , NAS 1.26:197404
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A far-wing line shape theory based on the binary collision and quasistatic approximations that is applicable for both the low- and high-frequency wings of the vibration-rotational bands has been developed. This theory has been applied in order to calculate the frequency and temperature dependence of the continuous absorption coefficient for frequencies up to 10,000 cm(exp -1) for pure H2O and for H2O-N2 mixtures. The calculations were made assuming an interaction potential consisting of an isotropic Lennard-Jones part with two parameters that are consistent with values obtained from other data, and the leading long-range anisotropic part, together with the measured line strengths and transition frequencies. The results, obtained without the introduction of adjustable parameters, compare well with the existing laboratory data, both in magnitude and in temperature dependence. This leads us to the conclusion that the water continuum can be explained in terms of far-wing absorption. Current work in progress to extend the theory and to validate the theoretically calculated continuum will be discussed briefly.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-111219 , NAS 1.15:111219 , NIPS-96-07297 , (ISSN 0169-8095)
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The major activities of the Global Tropospheric Experiment at the Hong Kong Atmospheric Chemistry Measurement Station are presented for the period 1 January - 31 December 1995. Activities included data analysis, reduction, and archiving of atmospheric measurements and sampling. Sampling included O3, CO, SO2, NO, TSP, RSP, and ozone column density. A data archive was created for the surface meteorological data. Exploratory data analysis was performed, including examination of time series, frequency distributions, diurnal variations and correlation. The major results have been or will be published in scientific journals as well as presented at conferences/workshops. Abstracts are attached.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199965 , NAS 1.26:199965 , NIPS-96-07056
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The main focus of this work is to understand the dynamics of mass exchange between the tropics and the midlatitudes and to determine any links between tropospheric exchange and that in the stratosphere. We have approached this problem from two different perspectives. The first is aimed towards understanding the troposphere's role in inducing lower stratospheric tropical/midlatitude exchange. For this project we focus on observational analysis of the lower stratosphere to assess the key regions of transport in/out of the tropics and to what extent this transport is driven by tropospheric processes. The second approach is to determine the extent to which stratospheric processes influence the troposphere. In this project we are performing potential vorticity (PV) inversions to assess the winds induced near the tropopause when the stratospheric polar vortex is displaced equatorward. These are each discussed in more detail in the subsections below. Also, we have organized a session on Tropical/Midlatitude Interaction and Transport at the Fall AGU where we will be showing our latest results.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199419 , NAS 1.26:199419
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The poleward arc system of a double oval distribution is shown to activate at the end of the optical expansion phase signifying the beginning of substorm recovery. The velocity dispersed ion signature (VDIS) can exist coincident with this discrete aurora developing on the most poleward oval. Although the VDIS is usually associated with ion beams in the plasma sheet boundary layer, it is demonstrated that the ionospheric signature is not beamlike but distributed in pitch angle. At the time when the double oval begins to form, the magnetic field in the magnetotail lobe becomes less flared and can show Pc 5 period oscillations. Similar pulsations also exist in the ionosphere associated with the most poleward oval and with stationary surge formation. Theoretical considerations link this phenomenon with a wave source tailward of x(sub GSE) = -30R(sub E) and fast mode evanescent waves propagating earthward in the tail lobe region. In this case the magnetotail appears to act like a waveguide and the plasma sheet boundary layer as a resonance region. This implies that the coupling of this fast mode waves is with the plasma sheet boundary layer and not with dipolar like field lines. The implications of this for the reconnection model of substorms are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,093-12,102
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Forty-three examples of ISEE 1 tailward flank side magnetopause crossings are examined and directly compared with upstream solar wind parameters. The crossings are classified into two groups. In the first group, a few sudden magnetopause crossings are observed, whereas repeated magnetopause crossings and oscillatory motions, often with boundary layer signatures, are observed in the second group. These distinctive characteristics of the two groups are interpreted in terms of the surface waves due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It is found that low solar wind speed tends to favor characteristics of the first group, whereas high solar wind speed yields those of the second group. However, no evident correlations between the groups and the interplanetary magnetic field directions are found.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,907-11,922
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Observations of waves at frequencies below approximately 200 Hz obtained near the magnetopause are presented. For one case identified in the ISEE 1 data as a period when steady state reconnection was occurring, there were waves below the lower hybrid frequency with amplitudes up to approximately 7 mV/m. Intense low-frequency waves with amplitudes up to approximately 20 mV/m at the subsolar magnetopause have also been observed by the Geotail electric field instrument. In some cases, large spiky fields were embedded in the waves. The waves observed by ISEE 1 and Geotail were large enough to provide the dissipation required for reconnection to occur.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,823-11,829
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Pyranometers have been used for many years to measure broadband surface incoming solar irradiance, data that is necessary for surface energy budget, cloud forcing, and satellite validation research. Because such measurements are made at a specific location, it is unclear how representative they may be of a larger area. This study attempts to determine a reasonable spacing between measurement sites for such research by computing the correlation, and standard deviation from perfect correlation, between simultaneous measurements of incoming solar irradiance for a network of surface measurement sites covering a 75 km x 75 km area. Using 1-min data collected from this network of 11 sites during the NASA First ISSCP Radiation Experiment/Surface Radiation Budget (FIRE/SRB) Project temporal averages were calculated. The correlation between any two of these sites was determined by comparing simultaneous measurement averages for the 55 possible combinations of site pairs, along with the distances between them. In an attempt to remove the effect of the diurnal cycle, thus leaving clouds as the primary influence on correlation of the radiation field, model results for a clear day were used to normalize measured irradiances and correlations were again calculated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0894-8763); 34; 5; p. 1039-1046
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A magnetofricional method is used to construct two-dimensional MHD equilibria of the Earth's magnetosphere for a given distribution of entropy functions(S = pV(exp gamma), where p is the plasma pressure and V is the tube volume per unit magnetic flux. It is found that a very thin current sheet with B (sub zeta) is less than 0.5 nu T and thickness less than 1000 km can be formed in the near-earth magnetotail (x is approximately -8 to -20R(sub e) during the growth phase of substorm. The tail current sheets are found to become thinner as the entropy or the entropy gradient increases. It is suggested that the new entropy anti-diffusion instability associated with plasma transport across field lines leads to magnetic field dipolarization and accelerates the formation of thin current sheet, which may explain the observed explosive growth phase of substorms.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1137-1140
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The fast neutron flux in near-Earth orbit has been measured with the COMPTEL instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). For this measurement one of COMPTEL's seven liquid scintillator modules was used as an uncollimated neutron detector with threshold of 12.8 MeV. The measurements cover a range of 4.8 to 15.5 GV in vertical cutoff rigidity and 3 deg to 177 deg in spacecraft geocenter zenith angle. One of the measurements occurred near the minimum of the deepest Forbush decrease ever observed by ground-level neutron monitors. After correction for solar modulation, the total flux is well fitted by separable functions in rigidity and zenith angle. With the spacecraft pointed near the nadir the flux is consistent with balloon measurements of the atmospheric neutron albedo. The flux varies by about a factor of 4 between the extremes of rigidity and a factor of 2 between the extremes of zenith angle. The effect of the spacecraft mass in shielding the detector from the atmospheric neutron albedo is much more important than its role as a source of additional secondary neutrons. The neutron spectral hardness varies little with rigidity or zenith angle and lies in the range spanned by earlier atmospheric neutron albedo measurements.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,243-12,249
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We demonstrate the use of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) images of the May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens volcanic plume in providing details of the dynamics and changing character of this major explosive eruption. Visible and thermal infrared (IR) data from a sequence of images at 30-min intervals from 0850 to 1720 Local Time (LT) give information on dispersal and plume top temperature. Initial visible and IR images at 0850 show the top of a spreading co-ignimbrite-like umbrella plume and an overshooting column emerging from it, both rising off the ground-hugging pyroclastic gravity flow generated by the opening directed blast. The overshooting column had a minimum temperature significantly colder than local ambient atmosphere, indicating substantial undercooling, and a maximum altitude of 31 +/- 2 km at 0920. This large plume system then formed a high-velocity, radially spreading, gravitationally driven current before becoming advected in the wind field at an average downwind velocity of 29 m/s. Reflectance values from visible GOES data change from lower to higher during periods of transition from darker toned Plinian to lighter toned co-ignimbrite plumes indicating that in this case satellite data resolved changes in eruptive style from plumes with a coarser to a finer dominant particle size.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B5; p. 8469-8487
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The dual jet aircraft Sprites94 campaign yielded the first color imagery and unambiguously triangulated physical dimensions and heights of upper atmospheric optical emissions associated with thunderstorm systems. Low light level television images, in both color and in black and white (B/W), obtained during the campaign show that there are at least two distinctively different types of optical emissions spanning part or all of the distance between the anvil tops and the ionosphere. The first of these emissions, dubbed 'sprites' after their elusive nature, are luminous structures of brief (less than 16 ms) duration with a red main body that typically spans the latitude range 50-90 km, and possessing lateral dimensions of 5-30 km. Faint bluish tendrils often extend downward from the main body of sprites, occasionally appearing to reach cloud tops near 20 km. In this paper the principal characteristics of red sprites as observed during the Sprites94 campaign are described. The second distinctive type of emissions, 'blue jets,' are described in a companion paper (Wescott et al., this issue).
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1205-1208
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