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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During December 1988, 24 hours of darkness and clear sky conditions permitted continuous observations of the O I(6300 A) airglow by a Fabry-Perot interferometer located at Thule Air Base, Greenland. Thus a continuous record of the F region neutral winds was obtained for that month. During this same time period, a digital ionosonde located at Qanaq, Greenland (110 km north of Thule Air Base), was in operation measuring electron density profiles and F region ion drifts. This combination of ground-based observations allowed the investigation of ion/neutral coupling at a temporal resolution of about 15 min. Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data from the IMP 8 satellite were also available from December 16 to 24 and indicated intervals of B(sub z) northward IMF conditions during this period. Here we investigate the observed response of the neutral wind to convection changes in the ion drift inside the polar cap for southward and northward IMF B(sub z) conditions. In particular, we establish a control day illustrating the typical antisunward neutral wind and ion drift patterns observed for southward B(sub z) over Thule and Qanaq, and we compare it with observations made when the IMF B(sub z) is directed northward. The observations during periods of northward B(sub z) display sunward directed ion drifts over the polar cap accompanied by decreasing antisunward directed neutral winds. We investigate these times of northward B(sub z) further and demonstrate that the ion drag term alone cannot describe the observed response in the neutral wind during northward IMF.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,189-12,199
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During the later stages of the auroral substorm the luminosity distribution frequently resembles a double oval, one oval lying poleward of the normal or main UV auroral oval. We interpret the double oval morphology as being due to the plasma sheet boundary layer becoming active in the later stages of the substorm process. If the disturbance engulfs the nightside low-latitude boundary layers, then the double oval configuration extends into the dayside ionospheric region. The main UV oval is associated with the inner portion of the central plasma sheet and can rapidly change its auroral character from being diffuse to discrete. This transition is associated with the substorm process and is fundamental to understanding the near-Earth character of substorm onset. On the other hand, the poleward arc system in the nightside ionosphere occurs adjacent to or near the open-closed field line boundary. This system activates at the end of the optical expansion phase and is a part of the recovery phase configuration in substorms where it occurs. These two source regions for nightside discrete auroral arcs are important in resolving the controversy concerning the mapping of arcs to the magnetosphere. The dayside extension of this double oval configuration is also investigated and shows particle signatures which differ considerably from those on the nightside giving clues to the magnetospheric source regions of the aurora in the two local time sectors. Near-Earth substorm onsets are shown to be coupled to processes occurring much further tailward and indicate the importance of understanding the temporal development of features within the double oval. Using 'variance images,' a new technqiue for the investigation of these dynamics is outlined.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,075-12,092
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Magnetic field rotations in the high ion beta magnetosheath that are part of the magnetopause structure are expected to have only a small normal component. We have studied the properties of rotational discontinuities (RDs) under these conditions, viewed as the limit of weak intermediate shocks (ISs), by performing hybrid simulations with a reflecting wall boundary condition (piston method). With this dynamic formation, the sense and size of rotation are not arbitrarily predetermined, but rather evolve from the given upstream (magnetosheath) and downstream (magnetospheric) boundary conditions, similar to what takes place at the magnetopause. This work focuses on several aspects: the observed minimum shear of RDs, their width, their internal signature, and their relation to ISs in isotropic plasmas. Our simulation results are in agreement with the minimum shear observations, that is, the RDs choose the sense of rotation that corresponds to the minimum angle between the upstream and downstream field vector. The RDs are stable, with a unique scale size. Typical gradient scale half widths are one to four ion inertial lengths with a total width up to ten times of that, in agreement with magnetopause observations. We develop a generalized fluid theory of RDs and discuss the characteristic internal signatures of the rotational layer, comparing the kinetic simulation results to predictions from the generalized fluid theory. The results show that ion inertia, anisotropic pressure, finite Larmor radius effects, nonzero ion heat flux, and reflected ions all contribute to the signatures of RDs on kinetic scales. The RDs may have upstream or downstream wave trains, which become weak for high ion beta and small normal components of the magnetic field. We explain the presence and direction of wave trains in terms of the kinetic properties of the Alfven/ion-cyclotron mode. Away from the RD limit there is a smooth transition to weak intermediate shocks, which have small jumps close to expected Rankine-Hugoniot values. Apart from that, there are few kinetic plasma signatures that distinguish RDs from their neighboring ISs. However, noncoplanar ISs evolve in time into thin RDs. Using the properties of RDs and ISs, we make specific suggestions how these discontinuities can be distinguished observationally in the case of an isotropic plasma.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,981-11,999
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  • 4
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Electromagnetic wave generation and resulting cross-field diffusion of plasma are considered at a tangential discontinuity, which characterizes the magnetopause for northward interplanetary magnetic field. Two-dimensional hybrid (particle ions, massless fluid electrons) simulations, in which the tangential discontinuity is generated self-consistently via a stream-stream interaction, are used to show that wave growth occurs when the ambient magnetic field is predominantly perpendicular to the direction of the density gradient. Low-frequency (much less than ion gyrofrequency) waves, with amplitudes delta B/B less than or equal to 0.2 and anticorrelated density fluctuations delta n/n less than or equal to 0.6, are generated at the discontinuity, resulting in cross-field diffusion that is comparable to the Bohm rate. Both the fluctuation level and the lack of ion heating in the calculations are consistent with observations at the magnetopause. The magnitude of the diffusion is considered in the presence of numerical effects and in the context of the inferred diffusion rate at the magnetopause. The relation of the low-frequency waves and their consequences to faster growing, short-wavelength waves due to the lower hybrid drift instability is also addressed. The overall conclusion of this initial study is that diffusion due to low frequency waves is not likely to be a major effect at the magnetopause.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,923-11,933
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  • 5
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation the magnetic field geometry at the dayside magnetopause is susceptible to magnetic reconnection. It has been suggested that reconnection may occur in a localized manner at several patches on the magnetopause. A major problem with this picture is the interaction of magnetic flux ropes which are generated by different reconnection processes. An individual flux rope is bent elbowlike where it intersects the magnetopause and the magnetic field changes from magnetospheric to interplanetary magnetic field orientation. Multiple patches of reconnection can lead to the formation of interlinked magnetic flux tubes. Although the corresponding flux is connected to the IMF the northward and southward connected branches are hooked into each other and cannot develop independently. We have studied this problem in the framework of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The results indicate that a singular current sheet forms at the interface of two interlinked flux tubes if no resistivity is present in the simulation. This current sheet is strongly tilted compared to the original current sheet. In the presence of resistivity the interaction of the two flux tubes forces a fast reconnection process which generates helically twisted closed magnetospheric flux. This linkage induced reconnection generates a boundary layer with layers of open and closed magnetospheric flux and may account for the brightening of auroral arcs poleward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,863-11,874
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Impulsive ELF/VLF electric field bursts observed by the vector electric field instrument (VEFI) on the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite on almost every crossing of the geomagnetic equator in the evening hours are interpreted as originating in lightning discharges. These signals that peak in intensity near the magnetic equator are observed within 5-20 deg latitude of the geomagnetic equator at altitudes of 300-500 km with amplitudes of the order of approximately mV/m in the 512- or 1024-Hz frequency band of the VEFI instrument. Whistler-mode ELF/VLF wave propagation through a horizontally stratified ionosphere predicts strong attenuation of subionospheric signals reaching the equator at low altitudes. However, ray tracing analysis shows that the presence of the equatorial density anomaly, commonly observed in the upper ionosphere during evening hours, leads to the focusing of the wave energy from lightning near the geomagnetic equator at low altitudes, thus accounting for all observed aspects of the phenomenon. The observations presented here indicate that during certain hours in the evening, almost all the energy input from lightning discharges entering the ionosphere at less than 30 deg latitude remains confined to a small region (in altitude and latitude) near the geomagnetic equator. The net wideband electric field, extrapolated from the observed electric field values in the 512- to 1024-Hz band, can be approximately 10 mV/m or higher. These strong electric fields generated in the ionosphere by lightning at local evening times may be important for the equatorial electrodynamics of the ionosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7783-7790
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The 'radial' transport of energy by internal ULF waves, stimulated by dayside magnetospheric boundary oscillations, is analyzed in the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. (the term radial is used here to denote the direction orthogonal to geomagnetic flux surfaces.) The model for the inhomogeneous magnetospheric plasma and background magnetic field is axisymmetric and includes radial and parallel variations in the magnetic field, magnetic curvature, plasma density, and low but finite plasma pressure. The radial mode structure of the coupled fast and intermediate MHD waves is determined by numerical solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation; the parallel mode structure is characterized by a Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Ionospheric dissipation is modeled by allowing the parallel wave number to be complex. For boudnary oscillations with frequencies in the range from 10 to 48 mHz, and using a dipole model for the background magnetic field, the combined effects of magnetic curvature and finite plasma pressure are shown to (1) enhance the amplitude of field line resonances by as much as a factor of 2 relative to values obtained in a cold plasma or box-model approximation for the dayside magnetosphere; (2) increase the energy flux delivered to a given resonance by a factor of 2-4; and (3) broaden the spectral width of the resonance by a factor of 2-3. The effects are attributed to the existence of an 'Alfven buoyancy oscillation,' which approaches the usual shear mode Alfven wave at resonance, but unlike the shear Alfven mode, it is dispersive at short perpendicular wavelengths. The form of dispersion is analogous to that of an internal atmospheric gravity wave, with the magnetic tension of the curved background field providing the restoring force and allowing radial propagation of the mode. For nominal dayside parameters, the propagation band of the Alfven buoyancy wave occurs between the location of its (field line) resonance and that of the fast mode cutoff that exists at larger radial distances.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7599-7612
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We present a statisical survey of Prognoz 10 solar wind observations at the times of transient (step function and impulsive) variations in the dayside magnetospheric magnetic field strength measured by the GOES 5 and 6 geosynchronous satellites. The results indicate that 51% of the magnetospheric events can be associated with corresponding variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure. A further 17% of the events can be associated with fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field orientation in the sense previously associated with foreshock pressure pulses. We find no tendency for impulsive events at dayside geosynchronous orbit to be associated with north/south fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation, nor for the events to occur primarily during intervals of southward IMF. The success rate for associating transient events at dayside geosynchronous orbit with solar wind features decreases as Prognoz 10 moves farther from the Earth-Sun line. The observations indicate that variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure and foreshock pressure pulses associated with variations in the IMF cone angle are the predominant causes of large-amplitude transient events observed at dayside geosynchronous orbit.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5643-5656
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: There are four low-frequency modes which may propagate in a high-beta nearly bi-Maxwellian plasma. These are the magnetosonic, Alfven, ion acoustic, and mirror modes. This manuscript defines a procedure based on linear Vlasov theory for the unique identification of these modes by use of transport ratios, dimensionless ratios of the fluctuating field and plasma quantities. A single parameter, the mode deviation is calculated using the plasma and magnetic field data gathered by the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Ion Release Module (AMPTE/IRM) spacecraft to identify the modes observed in the terrestial magnetosheath near the magnetopause. As well as determining the mode which best describes the observed fluctuations, it gives us a measure of whether or not the resulting identification is unique. Using 17 time periods temporally close to a magnetopause crossing, and confining our study to the frequency range from 0.01 to 0.04 Hz, we find that the only clearly identified mode in this frequency range is the mirror mode. Most commonly, the quasi-perpendicular mirror mode (with wave vector k roughly perpendicular to the background magnetic field B(sub zero) is observed. In two events the quasi-parallel mirror mode k parallel B(sub zero) was identified.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5665-5679
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A tilt-dependent magnetic field model of the Earth's magnetosphere with variable magnetopause standoff distance is presented. Flexible analytic representations for the ring and cross-tail currents, each composed of the elements derived from the Tsyganenko and Usmanov (1982) model, are combined with the fully shielded vacuum dipole configurations of Voigt (1981). Although the current sheet does not warp in the y-z plane, changes in the shape and position of the neutral sheet with dipole tilt are consistent with both MHD equilibrium theory and observations. In addition, there is good agreement with observed Delta B profiles and the average equatorial contours of magnetic field magnitude. While the dipole field is rigorously shielded within the defined magnetopause, the ring and cross-tails currents are not similarly confined, consequently, the model's region of validity is limited to the inner magnetosphere. The model depends on four independent external parameters. We present a simple but limited method of simulating several substorm related magnetic field changes associated with the disrupion of the near-Earth cross-tail current sheet and collapse of the midnight magnetotail field region. This feature further facilitates the generation of magnetic field configuration time sequences useful in plasma convection simulations of real magnetospheric events.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5613-5626
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Plasmoids are thought to occur as a consequence of the formation of a near-Earth neutral line during the evolution of a geomagnetic substorm. Using a 3D, global MHD simulation of the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind, we initiate a substorm by a southward turning of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) after a long period of steady northward field. A large plasmoid is formed and ejected. We show field line maps of its shape and relate its formation time to the progress of the substorm as indicated by the cross polar potential. Because of the large region of closed field in the magnetotail at the time of the substorm, this plasmoid is longer in axial dimension than is typically observed. We compare the simulation results with the type of satellite observations which have been used to argue for the existence of plasmoids or of traveling compression regions (TCRs) in the lobes or magnetosheath. The simulation predicts that plasmoid passage would result in a strong signal in the cross tail electric field.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 7; p. 859-862
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have investigated the middle atmospheric response to the 27-day and 11-yr solar UV flux variations at low to middle latitudes using a two-dimensional photochemical model. The model reproduced most features of the observed 27-day sensitivity and phase lag of the profile ozone response in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere, with a maximum sensitivity of +0.51% per 1% change in 205 nm flux. The model also reproduced the observed transition to a negative phase lag above 2 mb, reflecting the increasing importance with height of the solar modulated HO(x) chemistry on the ozone response above 45 km. The model revealed the general anti-correlation of ozone and solar UV at 65-75 km, and simulated strong UV responses of water vapor and HO(x) species in the mesosphere. Consistent with previous 1D model studies, the observed upper mesospheric positive ozone response averaged over +/- 40 was simulated only when the model water vapor concentrations above 75 km were significantly reduced relative to current observations. In agreement with observations, the model computed a low to middle latitude total ozone phase lag of +3 days and a sensitivity of +0.077% per 1% change in 205 nm flux for the 27-day solar variation, and a total ozone sensitivity of +0.27% for the 11-yr solar cycle. This factor of 3 sensitivity difference is indicative of the photochemical time constant for ozone in the lower stratosphere which is comparable to the 27-day solar rotation period but is much shorter than the 11-yr solar cycle.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 4; p. 333-365
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have studied 2-D time-dependent convection for a rheology which is both non-Newtonian and temperature-dependent. Strong effects associated with viscous heating are found in the downwelling sheets, which are heated on both sides with an intensity around O(100) times the chondritic value. The magnitude of viscous heating increases strongly with the subduction speed. The slab interior is weakened by viscous heating and slab breakoff then takes place. This process provides a self-regulating mechanism for governing the speed of intact slabs able to reach the deep mantle. Timescales associated with viscous heating are quite short, a few million years. Internal heating by radioactivity decreases the amount of shear heating.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1277-1280
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have developed the numerical algorithm for the computation of transient viscoelastic responses in the time domain for a radially stratified Earth model. Stratifications in both the elastic parameters and the viscosity profile have been considered. The particular viscosity profile employed has a viscosity maximum with a constrast of O(100) in the mid lower mantle. The distribution of relaxation times reveals the presence of a continuous spectrum situated between O(100) and O(exp 4) years. The principal mode is embedded within this continuous spectrum. From this initial-value approach we have found that for the low degree harmonics the non-modal contributions are comparable to the modal contributions. For this viscosity model the differences between the time-domain and normal-mode results are found to decrease strongly with increasing angular order. These calculations also show that a time-dependent effective relaxation time can be defined, which can be bounded by the relaxation times of the principal modes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1285-1288
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We examine the consequences of magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause using a three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. Magnetic field lines from the simulation reveal the formation of magnetic flux ropes during periods with northward interplanetary magnetic field. These flux ropes result from multiple reconnection processes between the lobes field lines and draped magnetosheath field lines that are convected around the flank of the magnetosphere. The flux ropes identified in the simulation are consistent with features observed in the magnetic field measured by Hawkeye-1 during some high-latitude magnetopause crossings.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1189-1192
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Ten transient magnetic structures in Earth's magnetotail, as observed in GEOTAIL measurements, selected for early 1993 (at (-) X(sub GSM) = 90 - 130 Earth radii), are shown to have helical magnetic field configurations similar to those of interplanetary magnetic clouds at 1 AU but smaller in size by a factor of approximately = 700. Such structures are shown to be well approximated by a comprehensive magnetic force-free flux-rope model. For this limited set of 10 events the rope axes are seen to be typically aligned with the Y(sub GSM) axis and the average diameter of these structures is approximately = 15 Earth radii.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1193-1196
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: It is shown from flux transfer event (FTE) occurrence statistics, observed as a function of MLT by the ISEE satellites, that recent 2-dimensional analytic theories of the effects of pulsed Petschek reconnection predict FTEs to contribute between 50 and 200 kV to the total reconnection voltage when the magnetosheath field points southward. The upper limit (200 kV) allows the possibility that FTEs provide all the antisunward transport of open field lines into the tail lobe. This range is compared with the voltages associated with series of FTEs signatures, as inferred from ground-based observations, which are in the range 10-60 kV. We conclude that the contribution could sometimes be made by a series of single, large events; however, the voltage is often likely to be contributed by several FTEs at different MLT.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1185-1188
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper describes an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for choosing a new direction of a photon after a scattering interaction. The algorithm chooses a scattering angle by linear interpolation in a table of the inverse cumulative scattering probability. A Legendre expansion of the phase function makes it easy to apply Clenshaw's algorithm to build the interpolation table. The points in the table are close enough together that linear interpolation is accurate. With a table of 100,000 entries, we can keep the absolute and relative errors in matching the probability distribution below 10(exp -5).
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (ISSN 0022-4073); 53; 1; p. 23-38
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  • 19
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Intermediate shocks (ISs) lead to a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic flow and are different from slow and fast shocks in that an IS rotates the component of the magnetic field tangent to the shock plane by 180 deg. Another peculiarity of ISs is that for the same upstream conditions an IS can have two different downstream states. There also exist a second class of ISs which rotate the magnetic field by an angle other than 180 deg. Due to their noncoplanar nature they cannot be time-stationary and are referred to as time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDIS). The existence of ISs has been the subject of much controversy over the years. Early studies questioned the physical reality of ISs. However, the studies of ISs found a new impetus when C.C. Wu showed that ISs do exist and are stable within the resistive MHD framework. In this paper, after a brief historical overview of the subject, we will review the latest developments in the study of ISs. In particular, we will address the questions of stability and structure of ISs and the relationship between ISs and other discontinuities. One of the recent developments has been the finding that ISs can be unsteady, reforming in time. Details of this process will be discussed. Finally, we examine the effect of anisotropy on the resolutions and discuss the relevance of ISs to the observed field rotations at the Earth's magnetopause.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 8-9; p. 507-520
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A bow shock (BS has been observed in the collisionless solar wind upstream of every planet except Pluto, which has yet to be visited by a spacecraft. They are all of similar character, but their size relative to the planet varies widely, e.g., the planeto-centric distance to the BS nose ranges from about 1.4 R(sub V) for Venus to 88 R(sub J) or more for Jupiter. Comparisons are reviewed that show its location may be represented satisfactorily by a gasdynamic (GD) model, provided the properties of the solar wind and planetary magnetic field and ionosphere are known and used as input in the application. Factors that determine the location are discussed, and examples are presented to illustrate effects of their variation, including which part of a BS is influenced by a local variation of the magneto/ionopause (MIP) shape. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has no influence on the BS location in the GD model, but is shown to have a small effect in corresponding solutions of the basic MHD model from which the GD model is derived as the limit for weak IMF. Nearly all GD and MHD solutions are for steady flow, but a solution for unsteady flow associated with the passage of an interplanetary shock is also presented. It shows that the BS moves rapidly from its initial to final location, e.g., in about minute for the earth. Since many changes in the solar wind occur over longer intervals, these results help explain the success of quasi-stationary solutions in modeling the BS in time-varying solar wind flows.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 8-9; p. 433-449
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Ions that are energized at quasi-parallel collisionless shocks and move back upstream generate low-frequency waves, largely on the fast/magnetosonic branch. At sufficient Mach number, the waves are convected back into the shock, lead to shock re-formation, and are mode-converted into downstream (magnetosheath) Alfvenic turbulence. Other waves are generated more locally at the interface of the incoming solar wind and the partially thermalized plasma. This paper reviews how recent simulation studies of collisionless shocks in conjunction with linear kinetic theory and proper wave diagnostics have aided in our understanding of the upstream and magnetosheath waves.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 8-9; p. 271-284
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An international conference on high-latitude ionospheric modeling produced 27 papers in the areas of ionospheric mapping, electron density and distribution, ion density and distribution, ionospheric storems, ionospheric composition, and ionospheric sounding techniques. Upgrades to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model were proposed in several papers.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 1; 186 p.
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: In this study, Atmosphere Explorer data and model results for the ion and electron temperature and the density of N(+), O(+), H(+), and He(+) between 120 and 1400 km altitude are compared for two midlatitude ranges (L=2 and L=4), noon and midnight local time, winter and summer, at solar minimum. The data for the heavy atomic ions (O(+) and N(+)) show that their densities are greater at noon than at midnight for a given season and greater in summer than winter for a given local time. There is only a weak latitudinal variation in the density of these ions. The data show that the light ion (H(+) and He(+)) densities are greater at midnight than at noon and are generally greater in winter than summer. There is a strong latitudinal variation of the light ion densities, with the densities decreasing with increasing latitude. The model densities are in good agreement with the AE densities for N(+), O(+), and H(+). Model He(+) densities are lower, by a factor of 2 or more, than the measured densities. Model ion and electron temperatures agree well with the measured temperatures with only a modest increase in plasmapheric heating.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 257-268
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The spatial structure of dayside large-scale field-aligned current (FAC) systems is examined by using Viking and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-F7 (DMSP-F7) data. We focus on four events in which the satellites simultaneously observed postnoon and prenoon three FAC systems: the region 2, the region 1, and the mantle (referred to as midday region O) systems, from equatorward to poleward. These events provide the most solid evidence to date that the midday region O system is a separate and unique FAC system, and is not an extension of the region 1 system from other local times. The events are examined comprehensively by making use of a mulit-instrumental data set, which includes magnetic field, particle flux, electric field, auroral UV image data from the satellites, and the Sondrestrom convection data. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Region 2 currents flow mostly in the central plasma sheet (CPS) precipitation region, often overlapping with the boundary plasma sheet (BPD) at their poleward edge. (2) The region 1 system is located in the core part of the auroral oval and is confined in a relatively narrow range in latitude which includes the convection reversal. The low-latitude boundary layer, possibly including the outer part of the plasma sheet, and the external cusp are the major source regions of dayside region 1 currents. (2) Midday region O currents flow on open field lines and are collocated with the shear of antisunward convection flows with velocites decreasing poleward. On the basis of these results we support the view that both prenoon and postnoon current systems consist of the three-sheet structure when the disctortion ofthe convection pattern associated with interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B(sub Y) is small and both morningside and eveningside convection cells are crescent-shaped. We also propose that the midday region O and a part of the region 1 systems are closely coupled to the same source.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 119-136
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The poloidal mode field line resonance in the Earth's dipole magnetic field is investigated using cold plasma ideal MHD simulations in dipole geometry. In order to excite the poloidal mode resonance, we use either an initial or a continuous velocity perturbation to drive the system. The perturbation is localized at magnetic shell L = 7 with plasma flow in the radial direction (electric field component in the azimuthal direction). It is found that with the initial perturbation alone, no polodial mode resonance can be obtained and the initially localized perturbation spreads out across all magnetic L shells. With the continuous perturbation, oscillating near the poloidal resonance frequency, a global-scale poloidal cavity mode can be obtained. For the first time, a localized guided poloidal mode resonance is obtained when a radial component of electric field is added to the initial perturbation such that the curl of the electric field is everywhere perpendicular to the background dipole magnetic field. During the localized poloidal resonance, plasma vortices parallel/antiparallel to the background dipole magnetic field B(sub 0). This circular flow, elongated radially, results in twisting of magnetic field flux tubes, which, in turn, leads to the slowdown of the circular plasma flow and reversal of the plasma vortices. The energy associated with the localized poloidal resonance is conserved as it shifts back and forth between the oscillating plasma vortices and the alternately twisted magnetic flux tubes. In the simulations the eigenfunctions associated with the localized poloidal resonance are grid-scale singular functions. This result indicates that ideal MHD is inadequate to describe the underlying problem and nonideal MHD effects are needed for mode broadening.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 63-77
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The subject of this paper is a self-consistent, magnetohydrodynamic numerical realization for the Earth's magnetosphere which is in a quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium for a due northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Although a few hours of steady northward IMF are required for this asymptotic state to be set up, it should still be of considerable theoretical interest because it constitutes a 'ground state' for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Moreover, particular features of this ground state magnetosphere should be observable even under less extreme solar wind conditions. Certain characteristics of this magnetosphere, namely, NBZ Birkeland currents, four-cell ionospheric convection, a relatively weak cross-polar potential, and a prominent flow boundary layer, are widely expected. Other characteristics, such as no open tail lobes, no Earth-connected magnetic flux beyond 155 R(sub E) downstream, magnetic merging in a closed topology at the cusps, and a 'tadpole' shaped magnetospheric boundary, might not be expected. In this paper, we will present the evidence for this unusual but interesting magnetospheric equilibrium. We will also discuss our present understanding of this singular state.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3623-3635
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We adopt a magnetotail model with stretched field lines where ion motions are generally nonadiabatic and where it is assumed that the pressure anisotropy resides only in the electron pressure tensor. We show that the magnetic field lines with p(perpendicular) greater than p(parallel) are less stretched than the corresponding field lines in the isotropic model. For p(parallel) greater than p(perpendicular), the magnetic field lines become more and more stretched as the anisotropy approaches the marginal firehose limit, p(parallel) = p(perpendicular) + B(exp 2)/mu(sub 0). We also show that the tail current density is highly enhanced at the firehose limit, a situation that might be subject to a microscopic instability. However, we emphasize that the enhancement in the current density is notable only near the center of the tail current sheet (z = 0). Thus it remains unclear whether any microscopic instability can significantly alter the global magnetic field configuration of the tail. By comparing the radius of the field-line curvature at z = 0 with the particle's gyroradius, we suspect that even the conventional adiabatic description of electrons may become questionable very close to the marginal firehose limit.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3573-3584
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, we reoccupied several leveling benchmarks on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska which had been surveyed by conventional leveling immediately following the March 27, 1964, Prince William Sound earthquake (M(sub w) = 9.3). By combining the two sets of measurements with a new, high-resolution model of the geoid in the region, we were able to determine the cumulative 1993-1964 postseismic vertical displacement. We find uplift at all of our benchmarks, relative to Seward, Alaska, a point that is stable according to tide gauge data. The maximum uplift of about 1 m occurs near the middle of the peninsula. The region of maximum uplift appears to be shifted northwest relative to the point of maximum coseismic subsidence. If we use tide gauge data at Nikishka and Seward to constrain the vertical motion, then the observed uplift has a trenchward tilt (down to the southeast) as well as an arching component. To explain the observations, we use creep-at-depth models. Most acceptable models require a fault slip of about 2.75 m, although this result is not unique. If the slip has been continuous since the 1964 earthquake, then the average slip rate is nearly 100 mm/yr, twice the plate convergence rate. Comparing the net uplift achieved in 29 years with that observed over 11 years in an adjacent region southeast of Anchorage, Alaska, we conclude that the rate of uplift is decreasing. A further decrease in the uplift rate is expected as the 29-year averaged displacement rate is about twice the plate convergence rate and therefore cannot be sustained over the entire earthquake cycle.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B2; p. 2031-2038
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A model of mantle convection which generates plate tectonics requires strain rate- or stress-dependent rheology in order to produce strong platelike flows with weak margins as well as strike-slip deformation and plate spin (i.e., toroidal motion). Here, we employ a simple model of source-sink driven surface flow to determine the form of such a rheology that is appropriate for Earth's present-day plate motions. In this model, lithospheric motion is treated as shallow layer flow driven by sources and sinks which correspond to spreading centers and subduction zones, respectively. Two plate motion models are used to derive the source sink field. As originally implied in the simpler Cartesian version of this model, the classical power law rheologies do not generate platelike flows as well as the hypothetical Whitehead-Gans stick-slip rheology (which incorporates a simple self-lubrication mechanism). None of the fluid rheologies examined, however, produce more than approximately 60% of the original maximum shear. For either plate model, the viscosity fields produced by the power law rheologies are diffuse, and the viscosity lows over strike-slip shear zones or pseudo-margins are not as small as over the prescribed convergent-divergent margins. In contrast, the stick-slip rheology generates very platelike viscosity fields, with sharp gradients at the plate boundaries, and margins with almost uniformly low viscosity. Power law rheologies with high viscosity contrasts, however, lead to almost equally favorable comparisons, though these also yield the least platelike viscosity fields. This implies that the magnitude of toroidal flow and platelike strength distributions are not necessarily related and thus may present independent constraints on the determination of a self-consistent plate-mantle rheology.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B2; p. 2013-2030
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2014-10-08
    Description: As part of the SAMPIE (The Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment) program, the Langmuir probe (LP) was employed to measure plasma characteristics during the flight STS-62. The whole set of data could be divided into two parts: (1) low frequency sweeps to determine voltage-current characteristics and to find electron temperature and number density; (2) high frequency turbulence (HFT dwells) data caused by electromagnetic noise around the shuttle. The broadband noise was observed at frequencies 250-20,000 Hz. Measurements were performed in ram conditions; thus, it seems reasonable to believe that the influence of spacecraft operations on plasma parameters was minimized. The average spectrum of fluctuations is in agreement with theoretical predictions. According to purposes of SAMPIE, the samples of solar cells were placed in the cargo bay of the shuttle, and high negative bias voltages were applied to them to initiate arcing between these cells and surrounding plasma. The arcing onset was registered by special counters, and data were obtained that included the amplitudes of current, duration of each arc, and the number of arcs per one experiment. The LP data were analyzed for two different situations: with arcing and without arcing. Electrostatic noise spectra for both situations and theoretical explanation of the observed features are presented in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:106891 , E-9533 , NASA-TM-106891 , Chapman Conference on Measurement Techniques for Space Plasma; 3-7 Apr. 1995; Santa Fe, NM; United States
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The various regions of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are coupled by flows of charged particle beams and electromagnetic waves. This coupling gives rise to processes that affect both technical and non-technical aspects of life on Earth. The CRRES Program sponsored experiments which were designed to produce controlled and known input to the space environment and the effects were measured with arrays of diagnostic instruments. Large amounts of material were used to modify and perturb the environment in a controlled manner, and response to this was studied. The CRRES and PEGSAT satellites were dual-mission spacecraft with a NASA mission to perform active chemical-release experiments, grouped into categories of tracer, modification, and simulation experiments. Two sounding rocket chemical release campaigns completed the study.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:108494 , NASA-TM-108494
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The main subject of the symposium was 'off-median phenomena'. The title denotes a range of problems that are rarely considered in 'pure science' studies of the ionosphere. The appearance of regular ionospheric variations is well known. Most of these depend on evident solar-geophysical influences like day and night, solar zenith angle, the seasons, geomagnetic control, solar activity, etc. Applicants and theoreticians as well used to work with monthly medians so that the in fact existing and quite important day-to-day variability is systematically overlooked. It is evident that a descriptive model like the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) would be inadequate if this variability were denied. Interesting contributions from the symposium on 'off-median phenomena' and the IRI are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 2; 215 p.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at Goddard Space Flight Center has produced a multiyear global assimilated data set with version 1 of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-1 DAS). One of the main goals of this project, in addition to benchmarking the GEOS-1 system, was to produce a research quality data set suitable for the study of short-term climate variability. The output, which is global and gridded, includes all prognostic fields and a large number of diagnostic quantities such as precipitation, latent heating, and surface fluxes. Output is provided four times daily with selected quantities available eight times per day. Information about the observations input to the GEOS-1 DAS is provided in terms of maps of spatial coverage, bar graphs of data counts, and tables of all time periods with significant data gaps. The purpose of this document is to serve as a users' guide to NASA's first multiyear assimilated data set and to provide an early look at the quality of the output. Documentation is provided on all the data archives, including sample read programs and methods of data access. Extensive comparisons are made with the corresponding operational European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses, as well as various in situ and satellite observations. This document is also intended to alert users of the data about potential limitations of assimilated data, in general, and the GEOS-1 data, in particular. Results are presented for the period March 1985-February 1990.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: REPT-95B00079-VOL-6 , NASA-TM-104606-VOL-6 , NAS 1.15:104606-VOL-6
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: A detailed description of the numerical formulation of Version 2 of the ARIES/GEOS 'dynamical core' is presented. This code is a nearly 'plug-compatible' dynamics for use in atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs). It is a finite difference model on a staggered latitude-longitude C-grid. It uses second-order differences for all terms except the advection of vorticity by the rotation part of the flow, which is done at fourth-order accuracy. This dynamical core is currently being used in the climate (ARIES) and data assimilation (GEOS) GCMs at Goddard.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-104606-VOL-5 , NAS 1.15:104606-VOL-5 , REPT-95B00069-VOL-5
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The primary objective of the three-day workshop on results from the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) five-year assimilation was to provide timely feedback from the data users concerning the strengths and weaknesses of version 1 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) assimilated products. A second objective was to assess user satisfaction with the current methods of data access and retrieval. There were a total of 49 presentations, with about half (23) of the presentations from scientists from outside of Goddard. The first two days were devoted to applications of data: studies of the energy diagnostics, precipitation and diabatic heating, hydrological modeling and moisture transport, cloud forcing and validation, various aspects of intraseasonal, seasonal, and interannual variability, ocean wind stress applications, and validation of surface fluxes. The last day included talks from the National Meteorological Center (NMC), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA), the United States Navy, and the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF).
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:104606-VOL-7 , REPT-95B00132 , NASA-TM-104606-VOL-7 , 6-8 Mar. 1995; Greenbelt, MD; United States
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This report covers the time period 1 January 1994 to 31 December 1994. During this reporting period we had our fourth Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) correlative balloon flight; the data from this flight have been reduced and submitted to the UARS CDHF. We have spent most of the past year analyzing data from this and past flights. For example, using data from our September 1989 balloon flight we have demonstrated for the first time ever that the rates of production and loss of ozone are in balance in the upper stratosphere. As part of this analysis, we have completed the most detailed study to date of radical partitioning throughout the stratosphere. We have also produced the first measurement of HBr and HOBr mixing ratio profiles over a full diurnal cycle.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-197368 , NAS 1.26:197368
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Test particle calculations are used to compute the effects of gravity and ponderomotive acceleration by shear Alfven wave oscillations on the distribution function of O(+) ions along auroral field lines, assuming an ionospheric Maxwellian source of the ions at 2000 km altitude with approximately 0.5 eV of thermal energy in the parallel component of velocity. The electric field model corresponds to a standing wave oscillation with a frequency approximately 1 Hz in the azimuthal direction superimposed on the background dipole field, in which the wave amplitude is either increasing or decreasing in time. The electric field is taken to be primarily in the perpendicular direction. The time varying wave produces broad distributions with widths of 2 to 10 times the initial 0.5-eV thermal energy of the Maxwellian source, and the density and flux of upward going O(+) ions at one Earth radius are both enhanced in this model. The oxygen ion distribution functions at 1 R(sub E) altitude resulting from interaction with waves whose amplitudes are increasing in time have a more gradual lower energy cutoff than do the distribution functions resulting from decaying waves. The high-energy part of the distribution functions in growing waves reflects the temperature of the Maxwellian source, while the high-energy part of the distributions resulting from decaying waves steepens with time, independent of the source temperature.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,151-12,161
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Compressional magnetic pulsations with irregular waveforms and periods longer than 150 s (here termed Pi 3) have been studied by using data from Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers Charge Composition Explorer (AMPTE/CCE) and GOES 5 and 6 in the dayside magnetosphere and compared with signatures on the ground at low latitudes by using data from Kakioka station (L = 1.25). On the ground, the pulsations appear in the horizontal component. A study of 17 such concurrent events during a 2-month period in 1986 reveals the following pulsation characteristics. (1) The peak-to-peak amplitudes in space (delta B(sub T)) and on the ground (delta H) are comparable and are in the range of 0.5-7 nT. (2) On the ground the pulsations can be seen at all local times, even at midnight, while at geostationary orbit they are observed only on the dayside with a clear amplitude maximum at noon. (3) The pulsations on the ground lag those observed by CCE near local noon, and the lag increases as the local time separation between CCE and the ground station increases. The time lag is 1-2 min longer when the ground station is on the nightside than when it is on the dayside. (4) The time lag between pulsations observed at geostationary orbit and near noon by CCE varies systematically with local time and is about 2 min per 6 hours of local time separation. These observations indicate that some nightside pulsations in the Pi 3 band have dayside origins. The position dependence of the pulsation amplitude can be explained well by changes in the magnetopause current, which are in turn presumably caused by changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure. The time lags observed in space are consistent with signal propagation in the MHD fast mode, but the variation in space-ground time lags with ground station local time must be attributed to another mechanism.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,103-12,115
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The structure of the magnetopause is investigated by studying the interaction between two plasmas with solar wind and magnetospheric properties. Both Hall-MHD and hybrid (particle ions and fluid electrons) simulations are performed to compare and contrast the nature of the solutions in the fluid and the kinetic limits. It is shown that, in accordance with previous studies, the fluid solutions consist of multiple discontinuities and waves such as slow shocks and waves, as well as contact and rotational discontinuities. In contrast, the kinetic solutions consist of fewer discontinuities and include non-MHD boundaries. The difference between the two types of solutions are attributed to the absence of contact surfaces in collisionless plasmas and the possible Landau damping of slow waves. The kinetic solutions are found to be in a much better agreement with magnetopause observations, which have shown little evidence for the presence of slow shocks or contact discontinuities. The results of kinetic calculations suggest that the presence of a small but finite normal component of the magnetic field allows for the mixing of magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasmas and may, in part, be responsible for the formation of the boundary layer even during the periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field. These results also show that the necessary changes in the fields and the plasma parameters across the magnetopause do not occur simultaneously (i.e., in the same spatial location). As such, the magnetopause cannot be viewed as a single boundary but instead is a region which includes both abrupt and gradual changes in the fields and plasma parameters.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,935-11,955
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Classical models of magnetic reconnection consist of a small diffusion region bounded by two symmetric slow shocks, across which the plasma is accelerated. Asymmetries often present in space plasmas are sheared plasma flow and dissimilar plasma densities on the two sides of current sheets. In this paper, we investigate magnetic reconnection in the presence of a shear flow and an asymmetric density across the current sheet using two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The results demonstrate that magnetic reconnection can occur only for a plasma flow velocity (in the frame of the X line) which is below the Alfven speed in each inflow region. This limits the velocity of the X line to a certain range for a given flow shear and provides an upper limit to the total velocity shear at which reconnection ceases to operate. Depending on the direction of the flow in the adjacent inflow region, the effects from the sheared flow and from the density asymmetry will compete with or enhance each other in respect to the magnitude and location of the currents which bound the outflow regions. The results are applied to the dayside and flank regions of the magnetosphere. For the dayside region where the magnetosheath flow is slow, the magnetic field transition region is thin and the accelerated flow is earthward of the sharp current layer (magnetopause). At the flanks tailward of the X line, shear flow and density asymmetry effects compete making the magnetic field transition layer broad with the high-speed flow contained within the transition region which explains corresponding observations. At the flanks sunward of the X line, shear flow and density asymmetry effects enhance each other and lead to a strong current sheet on the magnetosheath side of the accelerated flow. The total volume affected by magnetic reconnection is much larger than the steady state region. A large bulge region precedes the steady state region. Qualitatively, the bulge and the steady state region have similar signatures and both can explain observations. We provide criteria in order to distinguish between the bulge and the steady state region in observations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,875-11,889
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Observations of waves at frequencies below approximately 200 Hz obtained near the magnetopause are presented. For one case identified in the ISEE 1 data as a period when steady state reconnection was occurring, there were waves below the lower hybrid frequency with amplitudes up to approximately 7 mV/m. Intense low-frequency waves with amplitudes up to approximately 20 mV/m at the subsolar magnetopause have also been observed by the Geotail electric field instrument. In some cases, large spiky fields were embedded in the waves. The waves observed by ISEE 1 and Geotail were large enough to provide the dissipation required for reconnection to occur.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,823-11,829
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission measurements during the large solar energetic particle events of October 1989 are presented using proton data from the NOAA-10 and GOES-7 satellies. The measurements are compared to geomagnetic transmission calculations determined by tracing particle trajectories through the combination of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model and the 1989 Tsyganenko magnetospheric magnetic field model. The effective 'ring current' parameter in the 1989 Tsyganenko model based on the Dst data. Results are compared to calculations employing only the IGRF and to a parameterization of geomagnetically quiet-time cutoff rigidities derived from Cosmos/intercosmos observations. The 3-hour orbit-averaged results have approximately 15% accuracy during the October 1989 events.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1133-1136
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the largest enhancement of stratospheric aerosol loading ever observed by lidar over Hampton, Virginia. Low altitude layers (less than 20 km) were the first to arrive over Hampton in early August, the result of transport associated with a tropospheric anticyclonic cell over North America. The maximum peak scattering ratio, 34 at 22.4 km, and the maximum stratospheric integrated backscatter of 0.0053 sr(exp -1), both at 694 nm, observed since the eruption were measured on February 20, 1992. After decreasing during the spring and summer of 1992, the aerosol burden increased significantly during the winter of 1992-93, evidence of a poleward winter transport from the equatorial reservoir. Over the period from February 1992 to February 1994, the stratospheric aerosol loading decreased with an average 1/e decay time of 10.1 months. The vertical distribution, intensity, and transport of Pinatubo aerosols over this site are described and compared with similar measurements after El Chichon.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1101-1104
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  • 44
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The impact of the extraterrestrial object that formed the Chicxulub crater in the northwestern Yucatan peninsula of Mexico is the leading suspect for the extinction of the dinosaurs. This article reports on a Planetary Society expedition to Albion Island in the Rio Hondo region of Belize to investigate evidence supporting the impact theory.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Planetary Report (ISSN 0736-3680); 15; 4; p. 10-14
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The cause of the apparent small friction exhibited by long runout landslides has long been speculated upon. In an attempt to provide some insight into the matter, this paper describes results obtained from a discrete particle computer simulation of landslides composed of up to 1,000,000 two-dimensional discs. While simplified, the results show many of the characteristics of field data (the volumetric effect on runout, preserved strata, etc.) and with allowances made for the two-dimensional nature of the simulation, the runouts compare well with those of actual landslides. The results challenge the current view that landslides travel as a nearly solid block riding atop a low friction basal layer. Instead, they show that the mass is completely shearing and indicate that the apparent friction coefficient is an increasing function of shear rate. The volumetric effect can then be understood. With all other conditions being equal, different size slides appear to travel with nearly the same average velocity; however, as the larger landslides are thicker, they experience smaller shear rates and correspondingly smaller frictional resistance.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B5; p. 8267-8283
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Multi-instrument data sets from the ground and satellites at both low and high altitude have provided new results concerning substorm onset and its source region in the magnetosphere. Twenty-six out of 37 substorm onset events showed evidence of azimuthally spaced auroral forms (AAFs) prior to the explosive poleward motion associated with optical substorm onset. AAFs can span 8 hours of local time prior to onset and generally propagate eastward in the morning sector. Onset itself is, however, more localized spanning only about 1 hour local time. AAF onset occur during time periods when the solar wind pressure is relatively high. AAFs brighten in conjunction with substorm onset leading to the conclusion that they are a growth phase activity casually related to substorm onset. Precursor activity associated with these AAFs is also seen near geosynchronous orbit altitude and examples show the relationship between the various instrumental definitions of substorm onset. The implied mode number (30 to 135) derived from this work is inconsistent with cavity mode resonances but is consistent with a modified flute/ballooning instability which requires azimuthal pressure gradients. The extended source region and the distance to the open-closed field line region constrain reconnection theory and local mechanisms for substorm onset. It is demonstrated that multiple onset substorms can exist for which localized dipolarizations and the Pi 2 occur simultaneously with tail stretching existing elsewhere. These pseudobreakups can be initiated by auroral streamers which originate at the most poleward set of arc systems and drift to the more equatorward main UV oval. Observations are presented of these AAFs in conjunction with low- and high-altitutde particle and magnetic field data. These place the activations at the interface between dipolar and taillike field lines probably near the peak in the cross-tail current. These onsets are put in the context of a new scenario for substorm morphology which employs individual modules which operate independently or couple together. This allows particular substorm events to be more accurately described and investigated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7937-7969
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Continuous ground-based observations of ionospheric and magnetospheric regions are critical to the Geospace Environmental Modeling (GEM) program. It is therefore important to establish clear intercalibrations between different ground-based instruments and satellites in order to clearly place the ground-based observations in context with the corresponding in situ satellite measurements. HF-radars operating at high latitudes are capable of observing very large spatial regions of the ionosphere on a nearly continuous basis. In this paper we report on an intercalibration study made using the Polar Anglo-American Conjugate Radar Experiment radars located at Goose Bay, Labrador, and Halley Station, Antarctica, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites. The DMSP satellite data are used to provide clear identifications of the ionospheric cusp and the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL). The radar data for eight cusp events and eight LLBL events have been examined in order to determine a radar signature of these ionospheric regions. This intercalibraion indicates that the cusp is always characterized by wide, complex Doppler power spectra, whereas the LLBL is usually found to have spectra dominated by a single component. The distribution of spectral widths in the cusp is of a generally Gaussian form with a peak at about 220 m/s. The distribution of spectral widths in the LLBL is more like an exponential distribution, with the peak of the distribution occurring at about 50 m/s. There are a few cases in the LLBL where the Doppler power spectra are strikingly similar to those observed in the cusp.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7671-7695
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Ion drift meter observations from the Atmosphere Explorer E (AE-E) satellite during the period of January 1977 to December 1979 are used to study the dependence of equatorial (dip latitudes less than or equal to 7.5 deg) F region vertical plasma drifts (east-west electric fields) on solar activity, season, and longitude. The satellite-observed ion drifts show large day-to-day and seasonal variations. Solar cycle effects are most pronounced near the dusk sector with a large increase of the prereversal velocity enhancement from solar minimum to maximum. The diuurnal, seasonal, and solar cycle dependence of the logitudinally averaged drifts are consistent with results from the Jicamarca radar except near the June solstice when the AE-E nighttime downward velocities are significantly smaller than those observed by the radar. Pronounced presunrise downward drift enhancements are often observed over a large longituudinal range but not in the Peruvian equatorial region. The satellite data indicate that longitudinal variations are largest near the June solstice, particularly near dawn and dusk but are virtually absent during equinox. The longitudinal dependence of the AE-E vertical drifts is consistent with results from ionosonde data. These measurements were also used to develop a description of equatorial F region vertical drifts in four longitudinal sectors.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5769-5776
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: In order to facilitate bounce-averaged guiding center simulations of geomagnetically trapped particles, we express the kinetic energy of a particle with magnetic coordinates (L,phi) as an analytic function of the first two adiabatic invariants (M,J) and the L value of the field line. The magnetic field model is axisymmetric, consisting of a dipolar vector-B field plus a uniform southward magnetic field parallel to the dipole moment mu(sub E). This model magnetosphere is surrounded by a circular equatorial neutral line whose radius b is an adjustable parameter. Our formulation provides a computationally efficient method for tracing the bounce-averaged adiabatic motion (conserving all three invariants) and nonadiabatic transport (violating the third invariant while conserving the first two invariants) of geomagnetically trapped particles in the model magnetosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5627-5635
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Empirical data-based models of the magnetosphereic magnetic field have been widely used during recent years. However, the existing models (Tsyganenko, 1987, 1989a) have three serious deficiencies: (1) an unstable de facto magnetopause, (2) a crude parametrization by the K(sub p) index, and (3) inaccuracies in the equatorial magnetotail B(sub z) values. This paper describes a new approach to the problem; the essential new features are (1) a realistic shape and size of the magnetopause, based on fits to a large number of observed crossing (allowing a parametrization by the solar wind pressure), (2) fully controlled shielding of the magnetic field produced by all magnetospheric current systems, (3) new flexible representations for the tail and ring currents, and (4) a new directional criterion for fitting the model field to spacecraft data, providing improved accuracy for field line mapping. Results are presented from initial efforts to create models assembled from these modules and calibrated against spacecraft data sets.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5599-5612
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: By comparing data from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to field data, a melt threshold of the cross-polarized gradient ratio (XPGR), which is a normalized difference between the 19 GHz horizontally-polarized and 37 GHz vertically polarized brightness temperatures, is determined. This threshold, XPGR = -0.025, is used to classify dry and wet snow. The annual areal extent of melt is mapped for the years 1988 through 1991, and inter-annual variations of melt extent are examined. The results show that the melt extent varied from a low of 38.3% of the ice sheet (1990) to a high of 41.7% (1991) during the years 1988-1991.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 7; p. 787-790
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Coseismic surface deformation associated with the M(sub w) 6.1, April 23, 1992, Joshua Tree earthquake is well represented by estimates of geodetic monument displacements at 20 locations independently derived from Global Positioning System and trilateration measurements. The rms signal to noise ratio for these inferred displacements is 1.8 with near-fault displacement estimates exceeding 40 mm. In order to determine the long-wavelength distribution of slip over the plane of rupture, a Tikhonov regularization operator is applied to these estimates which minimizes stress variability subject to purely right-lateral slip and zero surface slip constraints. The resulting slip distribution yields a geodetic moment estimate of 1.7 x 10(exp 18) N m with corresponding maximum slip around 0.8 m and compares well with independent and complementary information including seismic moment and source time function estimates and main shock and aftershock locations. From empirical Green's functions analyses, a rupture duration of 5 s is obtained which implies a rupture radius of 6-8 km. Most of the inferred slip lies to the north of the hypocenter, consistent with northward rupture propagation. Stress drop estimates are in the range of 2-4 MPa. In addition, predicted Coulomb stress increases correlate remarkably well with the distribution of aftershock hypocenters; most of the aftershocks occur in areas for which the mainshock rupture produced stress increases larger than about 0.1 MPa. In contrast, predicted stress changes are near zero at the hypocenter of the M(sub w) 7.3, June 28, 1992, Landers earthquake which nucleated about 20 km beyond the northernmost edge of the Joshua Tree rupture. Based on aftershock migrations and the predicted static stress field, we speculate that redistribution of Joshua Tree-induced stress perturbations played a role in the spatio-temporal development of the earth sequence culminating in the Landers event.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B4; p. 6443-6461
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Previous studies indicated that damping rates of upstream whistlers strongly depend on the details of the electron distribution function. Moreover, detailed analysis of Doppler-shift and whistler dispersion relation indicated that upstream whistlers propagate obliquely in a broad band. In this paper we present results of a kinetic calculation of damping lengths of wide-band whistlers using the sum of 7-drifting bi-Maxwellian electron distributions as a best fit to the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) 1 electron data. For 2 cases, when upstream whistlers are observed, convective damping lengths derived from ISEE magnetic field and ephemeris data are compared with theoretical results. We find that the calculated convective damping lengths are consistent with the data and that upstream whistlers remain marginally stable. We also show that the slope of plasma frame spectra of upstream whistlers, obtained by direct fitting of the observed spectra is between 5 and 7 with a sharp lower frequency cutoff corresponding to a wavelength of about one ion inertial length. When the solar wind velocity is directed largely along the wave normal of the upstream whistlers the polariztion of the right hand waves becomes reversed and low frequencies are switched to high resulting in a peaked spectrum with a strong high frequency cutoff. The overall spectral, wave and particle characteristics, proximity to the shock as well as propagation and damping properties indicate that these waves cannot be generated locally. Instead the observed upstream whistlers arise in the shock ramp most likely by a variety of cross-field drift and/or anisotropy driven instabilities.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 8-9; p. 85-92
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Magnetosheath plasma peertated into the magnetospere creating the particle cusp, and similarly the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B(sub y) component penetrates the magnetopause. We reexamine the phenomenology of such penetration to investigate implications for the magnetopause merging site. Three models are popular: (1) the 'antiparallel' model, in which merging occurs where the local magnetic shear is largest (usually high magnetic latitude); (2) a tilted merging line passing through the subsolar point but extending to very high latitudes; or (3) a tilted merging line passing through the subsolar point in which most merging occurs within a few Earth radii of the equatorial plane and local noon (subsolar merging). It is difficult to distinguish between the first two models, but the third implies some very different predictions. We show that properties of the particle cusp imply that plasma injection into the magnetosphere occurs most often at high magnetic latitudes. In particular, we note the following: (1) The altitude of the merging site inferred from midaltitude cusp ion pitch angle dispersion is typically 8-12 R(sub E). (2) The highest ion energy observable when moving poleward through the cusp drops long before the bulk of the cusp plasma is reached, implying that ions are swimming upstream against the sheath flow shortly after merging. (3) Low-energy ions are less able to enter the winter cusp than the summer cusp. (4) The local time behavior of the cusp as a function of B(sub y) and B(sub z) corroborates predictions of the high-latitude merging models. We also reconsider the penetration of the IMF B(sub y) component onto closed dayside field lines. Our approach, in which closed field lines ove to fill in flux voids created by asymmetric magnetopause flux erosion, shows that strich subsolar merging cannot account for the observations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 235-243
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A system of four current sheets of large-scale field-aligned currents (FACs) was discovered in the data set of simultaneous Viking and Defense Meteorological Satellire Program-F7 (DMSP-F7) crossing of the dayside high-latitude region. This paper reports four examples of this system that were observed in the prenoon sector. The flow polarities of FACs are upward, downward, upward, and downward, from equatorward to poleward. The lowest-latitude upward current is flowing mostly in the central plasma sheet (CPS) precipitation region, often overlapping with the boundary plasma sheet (BPS) at its poleward edge, andis interpreted as a region 2 current. The pair of downward and upward FACs in the middle of te structure are collocated with structured electron precipitation. The precipitation of high-energy (greater than 1 keV) electrons is more intense in the lower-latitude downward current sheet. The highest-latitude downward flowing current sheet is located in a weak, low-energy particle precipitation region, suggesting that this current is flowing on open field lines. Simulaneous observations in the postnoon local time sector reveal the standard three-sheet structure of FACs, sometimes described as region 2, region 1, and mantle (referred to the midday region O) currents. A high correlation was found between the occurrence of the four FAC sheet structure and negative interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B(sub Y). We discuss the FAC structurein terms of three types of convection cells: the merging, viscous, andlobe cells. During strongly negative IMF B(sub Y), two convection reversals exist in the prenoon sector; one is inside the viscous cell, and the other is between the viscous cell and the lobe cell. This structure of convection flow is supported by the Viking electric field and auroral UV image data. Based on the convection pattern, the four FAC sheet structure is interpreted as the latitude overlap of midday and morning FAC systems. We suggest that the for-current sheet structure is common in a certain prenoon localtime sector during strongly negative IMF B(sub Y).
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 137-153
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: From a study of the 21 largest geomagnetic storms during solar cycle 21, a strong correlation is established between the ring current index Dst and the time-weighted accumulation of the 1-hour auroral electrojets indices, AE and AL. The time-weighted accumulation corresponds to convolution of the auroral electrojet indices with an exponential weighting function with an e-folding time of 9.4 hours. The weighted indices AE(sub w) and AL(sub w) have correltation coefficients against Dst ranging between 0.8 and 0.95 for 20 of the 21 storms. Correlation over the entire solar cycle 21 database is also strong but not as strong as for an individual storm. A set of simple Dst prediction functions provide a first approximation of the inferred dependence, but the specific functional relationship of Dst (AL(sub w)) or Dst (AL(sub w)) varies from one storm to the next in a systematic way. This variation reveals a missing parametric dependence in the transfer function. However, our results indicate that auroral electroject indices are potentially useful for predicting storm time enhancements of ring current intensity with a few hours lead time.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A1; p. 97-105
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  • 57
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A new concept for an active experiments mission is presented: The Active Magnetospheric Particle Acceleration Satellite (AMPAS). It is proposed to fly a dual-payload tethered satellite to study three important areas of magnetopsheric physics: (1) electric and magnetic field structures of the Earth's magnetosphere, (2) electron beam-plasma interactions, and (3) far ultraviolet (FUV) signatures of energetic electron precipitation. The tethered system is to be flown in a gravity-gradient stabilized configuration with a 70 deg circular orbit at altitudes in the range 300-800 km. The upper payload will carry two electron beam accelerators (1-10 keV, 1 A) and a plasma contractor to electrically neutralize the payload, while the lower will carry a complement of optical imaging and plasma diagonstics instrumentation. Upward directed beams are injected to 'sound' electric and magnetic field structures, including parallel electric fields in the auroral region, while simultaneous optical instruments aimed downwards measure characteristics of reflected beam pulses precipitating into the upper atmosphere below the satellite. Downward directed beams, and simultaneous plasma wave, particle and optical measurements, are used for the investigation of beam-plasma interactions and electron precipitation studies. The payloads are to be connected by a 1-6 km long tether to be deployed in stages. The configuration of the beam source and the plasma and optical diagnostics on separate, tethered payloads allows the diagnostics to be performed outside of the disturbed region around the source payload, and plasma wave and particle observations of beam-plasma interactions to be performed at well-defined locations relative to the source.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 12; p. (12)3-(12)12
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The tail currents predicted by empirical magnetic field models and global MHD simulations are compared. It is shown that the near-Earth currents obtained from the MHD simulations are much weaker than the currents predicted by the Tsyganenko models, primarily because the ring current is not properly represented in the simulations. On the other hand, in the mid-tail and distant tail the lobe field strength predicted by the simulations is comparable to what is observed at about 50 R(sub E) distance, significantly larger than the very low lobe field values predicted by the Tsyganenko models at that distance. Ways to improve these complementary approaches to model the actual magnetospheric configuration are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 6; p. 675-678
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Four recent sounding rocket experiments demonstrate that the release of neutral gas from both positively and negatively charged vechicles returns the vehicle potential to near the plasma potential. Early active experiment payloads, CHARGE-2 and Space Power Experiments Aboard Rockets 1 (SPEAR-1) observed enhanced currents from/to the vehicles during unplanned attitude thruster firings. The follow-on CHARGE-2B ad SPEAR-3 payloads directly measured the changes to the vehicle potential caused by both planned argon and unplanned nitrogen releases. The gas releases from positively charged CHARGE-2B consistently reduced the potential to 20-50 V, wheras the gas releases from negatively charged SPEAR-3 brought the potential to between -200 and -500 V. The difference in grounding levels for positively and negatively charged payloads suggests that the gas responsible for grounding is near the vehicle, within a small fraction of the sheath size.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 12; p. (12)83-(12)86
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During the period July-August 1991, observations were made of Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) at 46.9 MHz and 224 MHz by the CUPRI and EISCAT radars, respectively, at two sites in northern Scandinavia. Those observations are compared here with observations of noctilucent clouds, nergetic particle precipitation and magnetic disturbances. The appearance and morphology of PMSE are found to be closely correlated at the two frequencies and the two sites, 200 km apart. No correlation is found between PMSE and noctilucent clouds or magnetic disturbance. No correlation is found between energetic particle precipitation and the appearance of PMSE at 46.9 MHz for the whole time period. At 224 MHz, there is no evidence for a correlation before the beginning of August and only one event suggesting a possible correlation after the beginning of August. A minimum in occurrence for PMSE is found between 16 and 21 UT (17-22 LST) which may be related to an expected minimum in background wind strength in that time interval.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 1; p. 35-44
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Magnetic reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the geomagnetic field is thought to play a major role in the transfer of solar wind momentum and energy to the magnetosphere. As the angle between the IMF and the geomagnetic field is changed at the bow of the magnetosphere, the topological record of the location of the reconnection region should be recorded in the magnetosheath and on the magnetopause along the flanks of the tail, because the super fast flow freezes strong magnetic gradients formed in the bow reconnection regions into the plasma downstream. In this report, we present results from a three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), global numerical simulation code for the location of the separatrix between unconnected IMF magnetosheath field lines and reconnected field lines which penetrate the magnetopause and connect to the polar ionosphere. The angle between the IMF direction and the line where the separatrix crosses the magnetopause is shown to be a sensitive function of the IMF clock angle. We also explain how this behavior can be used to derive an approximate relation for the dependence of the cross-polar voltage on the IMF clock angle. We conclude with a note of caution concerning the importance of physical boundary conditions in magnetoplasma simulations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3613-3621
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  • 62
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper puts together several aspects of the substorm phenomena into a scenario subject to quantitative analysis, based on Ampere's law, magnetic stresses, and the effect of the parallel electric field. As the magnetospheric convection continuously shears the magnetic field, the parallel electric field suddenly switches on when the shear reaches a critical value. The parallel electric field not only accelerates the charged particles to cause the auroral display but also partially decouples the ionosphere from the magnetosphere so that the magnetospheric convection is enhanced significantly, causing the substorm expansion phase. Pi 2 pulsations are excited by the change of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. We show a direct relationship between the parallel potential drop, the enhanced convection rate, and the amplitude of the Pi 2 pulsations. With no adjustable parameter, the relationship shows quantitative agreement with the diverse observations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A2; p. 1847-1856
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Onsager et al. (1991) have put forward a model of the formation of the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) which relies on a steady source of plasma from a spatially extended plasma sheet, together with steady equatorward and earthward ExB convection of field lines due to reconnection at a downtail neutral line. This model is a synthesis of earlier proposals and it explains such features as an electron layer exterior to the ion boundary layer, ion velocity dispersion, counter streaming beams, low-speed cutoffs in the beams. It also explains the apparent evolution of the ion beams through 'kidney bean' shaped velocity-space distributions toward quasi-isotropic shells without invoking pitch angle scattering or energy diffusion. In this paper we explore two ramifications of the model. In principle we can map, as a function of time, the downtail neutral line distance and establish whether or not it is retreating during substorm recovery. We can also reconstruct the plasma distribution function near the neutral line to see if it is most consistent with mantle or plasma sheet plasma. We perform this analysis using International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) Fast Plasma Experiment (FPE) data for two plasma sheet recovery events, one on March 1, 1978, and the other on April 18, 1978. On March 1, 1978, we find evidence for an initial retreat from around 110 to 160 R(sub E) in the first 15 min; little further retreat occurs thereafter. On April 18, 1978, the neutral line location ranges from as little as 40 R(sub E) tailward of the satellite to as much as 200 R(sub E), but there is no evidence for a systematic retreat. The reconstructed ion distributions for these events are most consistent with a plasma sheet origin for the March 1 case and possibly plasma mantle or low-latitude boundary layer for the April 18 case.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A2; p. 1857-1869
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Narrow enhancements of electron precipitation, with energy and flux well above typical values, have been observed with Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) in the cusp/cleft region. The electron flux in the energy range 0.2-1 keV was 2 orders of magnitude higher in these structures than in the magnetosheath and were seen in approximaetly 80% of DE 2 cusp crossings at ionospheric altitudes. Typically, there was more than one electron structure in each cusp crossing. The position of these structures showed a systematic variation: for poleward ion dispersion (energy decreases with increasing latitude), electron structures were seen more often on the equatorial boundary of the cusp, while for equatorward ion dispersion (energy decreases with decreasing latitude), electron structures were more often seen on the poleward boundary. This suggests that the electron structures are associated with newly reconnected field lines. The electron spectra suggest that field-aligned acceleration processes could produce the electron structures, first near the boundary of the cusp/cleft during the reconnection of field lines and then in the cusp/cleft during the motion of reconnected flux tubes through the polar ionosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A2; p. 1597-1610
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have made a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves (approx. 0.01-0.1 Hz) in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock (-50 Re less than X less than 15 Re) using both GEOTAIL and international sun earth explorer 3 (ISEE-3) magnetometer data. We have found that the wave amplitude dependence on D and X(sub s), where D is the distance from the bow shock and X(sub s) the x-coordinate position of shock foot point of the IMF, can be described by a functional form of A exp (X(sub s)/L(sub X)-D/L(sub D), with the characteristic attenuation distances, L(sub X) = 62 +/- 12 Re and L(sub D) = 59 +/- 38 Re.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 2; p. 81-84
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D1; p. 1121-1135
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  • 67
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Melting of the upper mantle and extraction of melt result in the formation of a less dense depleted mantle. This paper describes series of two-dimensional models that investigate the effects of chemical buoyancy induced by these density variations. A tracer particles method has been set up to follow as closely as possible the chemical state of the mantle and to model the chemical buoyant force at each grid point. Each series of models provides the evolution with time of magma production, crustal thickness, surface heat flux, and thermal and chemical state of the mantle. First, models that do not take into account the displacement of plates at the surface of Earth demonstrate that chemical buoyancy has an important effect on the geometry of convection. Then models include horizontal motion of plates 5000 km wide. Recycling of crust is taken into account. For a sufficiently high plate velocity which depends on the thermal Rayleigh number, the cell's size is strongly coupled with the plate's size. Plate motion forces chemically buoyant material to sink into the mantle. Then the positive chemical buoyancy yields upwelling as depleted mantle reaches the interface between the upper and the lower mantle. This process is very efficient in mixing the depleted and undepleted mantle at the scale of the grid spacing since these zones of upwelling disrupt the large convective flow. At low spreading rates, zones of upwelling develop quickly, melting occurs, and the model predicts intraplate volcanism by melting of subducted crust. At fast spreading rates, depleted mantle also favors the formation of these zones of upwelling, but they are not strong enough to yield partial melting. Their rapid displacement toward the ridge contributes to faster large-scale homogenization.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B1; p. 497-520
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  • 68
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper was presented during the special session that was held at the 1993 International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Workshop in honor of Karl Rawer's 80th birthday. It retraces the steps that led from the start of the IRI project to the present edition of the model highlighting the important role that the honoree played in guiding IRI from infancy to maturity. All summary view graphs are reproduced at the end of the article.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 2; p. 7-10
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The second pulsating aurora rocket (PULSAUR 2) rocket was launched into a pulsating aurora on 9 February 1994 and carried a broad range of instruments in order to perform a study of this type of aurora. The rocket measurements were complemented with a set of ground-based measurements. The particle measurements performed in the rocket are related to the ground-based optical measurements performed along the rocket trajectory. It is found that the high energy electrons are largely in phase with the measured luminosity. The EISCAT measurements carried out during the flight are reviewed. The PULSAUR 2 campaign is described. Results concerning the auroral conditions and the particle measurements are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: ESA, Proceedings of 12th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research; p 233-237
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Pyranometers have been used for many years to measure broadband surface incoming solar irradiance, data that is necessary for surface energy budget, cloud forcing, and satellite validation research. Because such measurements are made at a specific location, it is unclear how representative they may be of a larger area. This study attempts to determine a reasonable spacing between measurement sites for such research by computing the correlation, and standard deviation from perfect correlation, between simultaneous measurements of incoming solar irradiance for a network of surface measurement sites covering a 75 km x 75 km area. Using 1-min data collected from this network of 11 sites during the NASA First ISSCP Radiation Experiment/Surface Radiation Budget (FIRE/SRB) Project temporal averages were calculated. The correlation between any two of these sites was determined by comparing simultaneous measurement averages for the 55 possible combinations of site pairs, along with the distances between them. In an attempt to remove the effect of the diurnal cycle, thus leaving clouds as the primary influence on correlation of the radiation field, model results for a clear day were used to normalize measured irradiances and correlations were again calculated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0894-8763); 34; 5; p. 1039-1046
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A magnetofricional method is used to construct two-dimensional MHD equilibria of the Earth's magnetosphere for a given distribution of entropy functions(S = pV(exp gamma), where p is the plasma pressure and V is the tube volume per unit magnetic flux. It is found that a very thin current sheet with B (sub zeta) is less than 0.5 nu T and thickness less than 1000 km can be formed in the near-earth magnetotail (x is approximately -8 to -20R(sub e) during the growth phase of substorm. The tail current sheets are found to become thinner as the entropy or the entropy gradient increases. It is suggested that the new entropy anti-diffusion instability associated with plasma transport across field lines leads to magnetic field dipolarization and accelerates the formation of thin current sheet, which may explain the observed explosive growth phase of substorms.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1137-1140
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The existence of localized regions of intense lower hybrid waves in the auroral ionosphere recently observed by rocket and satellite experiments can be understood by the study of a non-linear two-timescale coupling process. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the leading non-linear term in the standard Musher-Sturman equation vanishes identically in strict two-dimensions (normal to the magnetic field). Instead, the new two-dimensional equation is characterized by a much weaker non-linear term which arises from the ponderomotive force perpendicular to the magnetic field, particularly that due to the ions. The old and new equations are compared by means of time-evolution calculations of wave fields. The results exhibit a remarkable difference in the evolution of the waves as governed by the two equations. Such dissimilar outcomes motivate our investigation of the limitation of Musher-Sturman equation in quasi-two-dimensions. Only within all these limits can Musher-Sturman equation adequately describe the collapse of lower hybrid waves.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1125-1128
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: T-matrix computations of light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented nonspherical aerosols and Mie computations for equivalent spheres are compared. Findings show that even moderate nonsphericity results in suubstantial errors in the retrieved aerosol optical thickness if satellite reflectance measurements are analyzed using Mie theory. On the other hand, the use of Mie theory for nonspherical aerosols produces negligible errors in the computation of albedo and flux related quantities, provided that the aerosol size distribution and optical thickness are known beforehand. The first result can be explained by large nonspherical-spherical differences in scattering phase function, while the second result follows from small nonspherical-spherical differences in single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter. No cancellation of errors occurs if one consistently uses Mie theory in the retrieval algorithm and then in computing the albedo for the retrieved aerosol optical thickness.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1077-1080
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: High spatial resolution numerical simulations of mantle plumes impinging from below on the endothermic phase change at 660-km depth are used to investigate the effects of latent heat release on the plume-phase change interaction. Both axisymmetric and planar upflows are considered, and the strong temperature dependence of mantle viscosity is taken into account. For plume strengths considered, a Clapeyron slope of -4 MPa/K prevents plume penetration of the phase change. Plumes readily penetrate the phase change for a Clapeyron slope of -2 MPa/K and arrive in the upper mantle considerably hotter than if they had not traversed the phase change. For the same amount of thermal drive, i.e., the same excess basal temperature, axisymmetric plumes are hotter upon reaching the upper mantle than are planar upwellings. Heating of plumes by their passage through the spinel-perovskite endothermic phase change can have important consequences for the ability of the plume to thermally thin the lithosphere and cause melting and volcanism.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B5; p. 8245-8256
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A large set of bow shock crossings (i.e., 1392) observed by 17 spacecraft has been used to explore the three-dimensional shape and location of the Earth's bow shock and its dependence on solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. This study investigates deviations from gas dynamic flow models associated with the magnetic terms in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Empirical models predicting the statistical position and shape of the bow shock for arbitrary values of the solar wind pressure, IMF, and Alfvenic Mach number (M(sub A)) have been derived. The resulting data set has been used to fit three-dimensional bow shock surfaces and to explore the variations in these surfaces with sonic (M(sub S)), Alfvenic (M(sub A)) and magnetosonic (M(sub MS)) Mach numbers. Analysis reveals that among the three Mach numbers, M(sub A) provides the best ordering of the least square bow shock curves. The subsolar shock is observed to move Earthward while the flanks flare outward in response to decreasing M(sub A); the net change represents a 6-10% effect. Variations due to changes in the IMF orientation were investigated by rotating the crossings into geocentric interplanetary medium coordinates. Past studies have suggested that the north-south extent of the bow shock surface exceeds the east-west dimension due to asymmetries in the fast mode Mach cone. This study confirms such a north-south versus east-west asymmetry and quantifies its variation with M(sub S), M(sub A), M(sub MS), and IMF orientation. A 2-7% effect is measured, with the asymmetry being more pronounced at low Mach numbers. Combining the bow shock models with the magnetopause model of Roelof and Sibeck (1993), variations in the magnetosheath thickness at different local times are explored. The ratio of the bow shock size to the magnetopause size at the subpolar point is found to be 1.46; at dawn and dusk, the ratios are found to be 1.89 and 1.93, respectively. The subsolar magnetosheath thickness is used to derive the polytropic index gamma according to the empirical relation of Spreiter et al. (1966). The resulting gamma = 2.3 suggests the empirical formula is inadequate to describe the MHD interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7907-7916
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The extended flight of the Airborne Ionospheric Observatory during the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Pilot program on January 16, 1990, allowed continuous all-sky monitoring of the two-dimensional ionospheric footprint of the northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cusp in several wavelengths. Especially important in determining the locus of magnetosheath electron precipitation was the 630.0-nm red line emission. The most striking morphological change in the images was the transient appearance of zonally elongated regions of enhanced 630.0-nm emission which resembled 'rays' emanating from the centroid of the precipitation. The appearance of these rays was strongly correlated with the Y component of the IMF: when the magnitude of B(sub y) was large compared to B(sub z), the rays appeared; otherwise, the distribution was relatively unstructured. Late in the flight the field of view of the imager included the field of view of flow measurements from the European incoherent scatter radar (EISCAT). The rays visible in 630.0-nm emission exactly aligned with the position of strong flow jets observed by EISCAT. We attribute this correspondence to the requirement of quasi-neutrality; namely, the soft electrons have their largest precipitating fluxes where the bulk of the ions precipitate. The ions, in regions of strong convective flow, are spread out farther along the flow path than in regions of weaker flow. The occurrence and direction of these flow bursts are controlled by the IMF in a manner consistent with newly opened flux tubes; i.e., when absolute value of B(sub y) greater than absolute value of B(sub z), tension in the reconnected field lines produce east-west flow regions downstream of the ionospheric projection of the x line. We interpret the optical rays (flow bursts), which typically last between 5 and 15 min, as evidence of periods of enhanced dayside (or lobe) reconnection when absolute value of B(sub y) greater than absolute value of B(sub z). The length of the reconnection pulse is difficult to determine, however, since strong zonal flows would be expected to persist until the tension force in the field line has decayed, even if the duration of the enhanced reconnection was relatively short.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7649-7659
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A statistical study has been made of the high-latitude impulsive events that were observed during the 1985-1986 South Pole Balloon Campaign. The events were selected by searching for unipolar pulses greater than or equal to 10 nT above background in the vertical component of the magnetic field on the ground and/or pedestal or 'W' shaped horizontal electric field perturbations greater than or equal to 10 mV/m in amplitude and accompanied by perturbations in the vertical electric field at balloon altitude. A main event list comprising 112 events was compiled from the 468 hours of data available. Three aspects of the events were examined: the solar wind conditions prior to the event, local time of observation, and intrinsic properties of the events. The local time distribution was obtained from the 112 entry main event list and was found to be nearly uniform across the dayside, with no midday gap. The event rate found using our low-amplitude selection criteria was 0.7 event/hr, comparable to expectations based on in situ studies of the magnetopause. A total of 42 events were found for which data were available from Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP) 8. Of these events, 12 occurred when the Z(sub GSM) component (B(sub Z)) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was northward and 30 occurred when B(sub Z) was southward or fluctuating. Only three of the B(sub Z) northward cases and only five of the B(sub Z) southward cases were preceded by pressure pulses greater than 0.4 nPa in amplitude. Ten of the events were studied in detail by means of a model-fitting method discussed elsewhere. This method infers values of several parameters, including the total current flowing in a coaxial or monopole system and a two-dimensional dipole system. The intrinsic properties of the events showed that only approximately 10% of the total current contributed to momentum transfer to the high-latitude ionosphere, that the direction of the motion depended more on local time of observation than IMF B(sub y), and that events were usually several hundred kilometers in size. The observed B(sub z) control found in the 42 event list and the prevalence of coaxial current dominated events are inconsistent with the predictions of the pressure pulse model.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7553-7566
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The rotational response of Earth to long-period tidal forces, embodied in a 'zonal response function,' can be expected to vary with frequency because of variable contributions by the oceans, mantle, and core. The zonal response function has been estimated from 9 years of International Radio Interferometric Surveying (IRIS) universal time (UT1) data and compared with theoretical predictions, using a spherical harmonic tide model to compute the oceans' dynamic response, at semiannual, monthly, fortnightly, and 9-day lunisolar tidal frequencies. Different amounts of mantle anelasticity have been considered for both the oceanic and soild earth responses; predictions have been made assuming axial core-mantle coupling which is either complete or absent. Additionally, an extensive recalibration of the ocean model's frictional parameters was performed using constraints derived in part from Space92 polar motion data; zonal response function predictions have also been made employing this recalibrated ocean tide model. Our results indicate that any amount of core coupling can be ruled out at a fortnightly period and probably at a 9-day period, but not at a monthly period. Our results also suggest that the mantle responds purely elastically at a 9-day period but may behave increasingly anelastically at longer periods. A simple dispersive rule is postulated for periods ranging up to the 14-month Chandler wobble period.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B5; p. 8233-8243
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