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  • General Chemistry  (7,564)
  • GEOPHYSICS  (5,928)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • 1970-1974  (11,628)
  • 1910-1914  (2,932)
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  • 1
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Measurements made in the midday auroras are analyzed and compared to measurements from the nighttime auroras. Examples are given of coordinated programs in Alaska which involve satellites, radars, ground optical instrumentation, and other types of observing satellites for the study of auroras.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138156
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10621 , NASA-CR-138731
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Summaries are presented on the use of ATS-1 data to analyze low frequency oscillations of the earth's magnetic field and hydromagnetic wave polarization.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138802
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Skylab data has been used: (1) as an aid to resource management in Northern California; (2) to assess and monitor change in the Southern California environment; and (3) for resource inventory and analysis of The California Desert Program.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10495 , NASA-CR-136899
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The feasibility of detecting eight trace constituents (CH4, HCl, HF, HNO3, NH3, NO, NO2 and SO2) against the rest of the atmospheric background at various altitudes from infrared emission and absorption atmospheric spectra was studied. Line-by-line calculations and observational data were used to establish features that can be observed in the atmospheric spectrum due to each trace constituent. Model calculations were made for experimental conditions which approximately represent state of the art emission and absorption spectrometers.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137762
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A three-dimensional CW Doppler sounding system currently under operation at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama is described. The properties of the neutral atmosphere are discussed along with the theory of Doppler sounding technique. Methods of data analyses used to investigate the dynamical phenomena at the ionospheric heights are presented and suggestions for future investigations provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-120189
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The importance of global geomagnetic field models for the reduction of magnetic surveys is discussed. It is demonstrated that a numerical model with adequate secular variation correction, provides a suitable representation of the regional field. The limitations of the presently available models are reported, with emphasis on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70777 , X-922-74-295
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  • 8
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Surface elevation deviations in the Gulf Stream region off the eastern coast of the United States between Wallops Island, Virginia and Miami, Florida were investigated. The main causes of surface elevation deviations are geoid perturbations due to the continental shelf and the geostrophic adjustment of the density field due to the Gulf Stream. Quantitative surface elevation profiles were calculated based on geophysical measurements of gravity anomalies and hydrographic data. The results are presented graphically along with contemporaneous weather data. Comparisons are made between the profiles based on hydrographic data and a mean theoretical model. The theory of geostrophic flows including some classical Gulf Stream models is also presented briefly.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137471
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The instantaneous values of output voltages representing the wind velocity vector and the temperature at different elevations of the 250-foot meteorological tower located at NASA Wallops Flight Center are provided with the three dimensional split-film TSI Model 1080 anemometer system. The output voltages are sampled at a rate of one every 5 milliseconds, digitized and stored on digital magnetic tapes for a time period of approximately 40 minutes, with the use of a specially designed data acqusition system. A new calibration procedure permits the conversion of the digital voltages to the respective values of the temperature and the velocity components in a Cartesian coordinate system connected with the TSI probe with considerable accuracy. Power, cross, coincidence and quadrature spectra of the wind components and the temperature are obtained with the use of the fast Fourier transform. The cosine taper data window and ensemble and frequency smoothing techniques are used to provide smooth estimates of the spectral functions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-62088 , VPI-E-74-26
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Controlled ground-based passive microwave radiometric measurements on soil moisture were conducted to determine the effects of terrain surface roughness and vegetation on microwave emission. Theoretical predictions were compared with the experimental results and with some recent airborne radiometric measurements. The relationship of soil moisture to the permittivity for the soil was obtained in the laboratory. A dual frequency radiometer, 1.41356 GHz and 10.69 GHz, took measurements at angles between 0 and 50 degrees from an altitude of about fifty feet. Distinct surface roughnesses were studied. With the roughness undisturbed, oats were later planted and vegetated and bare field measurements were compared. The 1.4 GHz radiometer was less affected than the 10.6 GHz radiometer, which under vegetated conditions was incapable of detecting soil moisture. The bare surface theoretical model was inadequate, although the vegetation model appeared to be valid. Moisture parameters to correlate apparent temperature with soil moisture were compared.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: RSC-56 , NASA-CR-140515
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The research to use remote sensing techniques for studying the continental shelf is reported. The studies reported include: (1) nearshore circulation in the vincinity of a natural tidal inlet; (2) identification of indicators of biological activity; (3) remote navigation system for tracking free drifting buoys; (4) experimental design of an estuaring tidal circulation; and (5) Skylab support work.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140189
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  • 12
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Varied uses of ERTS imagery are briefly discussed. Applications to mineral/land resources, environment, land use, water resources, maps/charts, marine resources, and agriculture/forestry/range resources are also provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70333
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140428 , QR-2 , E74-10798
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140150 , E74-10797
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Dynamical orbital techniques were employed to estimate the center-of-mass station coordinates of six C-band radars located in the designated primary GEOS-C radar altimeter calibration area. This work was performed in support of the planned GEOS-C mission (December, 1974 launch). The sites included Bermuda, Grand Turk, Antigua, Wallops Island (Virginia), and Merritt Island (Florida). Two sites were estimated independently at Wallops Island yielding better than 40 cm relative height recovery, with better than 10 cm and 1 m (relative) recovery for phi and gamma respectively. Error analysis and comparisons with other investigators indicate that better than 2 m relative recovery was achieved at all sites. The data used were exclusively that from the estimated sites and included 18 orbital arcs which were less than two orbital revolutions in length, having successive tracks over the area. The techniques employed here, given their independence of global tracking support, can be effectively employed to improve various geodetic datums by providing very long and accurate baselines. The C-band data taken on GEOS-C should be employed to improve such geodetic datums as the European-1950 using similar techniques.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-69356
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: ERIM-103300-33-L , E74-10794 , NASA-CR-140147
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10793 , NASA-CR-140146
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10789 , NASA-CR-140142 , PR-1
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PR-2 , NASA-CR-140141 , E74-10788
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Calculations of the steady-state photoelectron energy and angular distribution in the altitude region between 120 and 1000 km are presented. The distribution is found to be isotropic at all altitudes below 250 km, while above this altitude anisotropies in both pitch angle and energy are found. The isotropy found in the angular distribution below 250 km implies that photoelectron transport below 250 km is insignificant, while the angular anisotropy found above this altitude implies a net photoelectron current in the upward direction. The energy anisotropy above 500 km arises from the selective backscattering of the low energy photoelectron population of the upward flux component by Coulomb collisions with the ambient ions. The total photoelectron flux attains its maximum value between about 40 and 70 km above the altitude at which the photoelectron production rate is maximum. The displacement of the maximum of the equilibrium flux is attributed to an increasing (with altitude) photoelectron lifetime. Photoelectrons at altitudes above that where the flux is maximum are on the average more energetic than those below that altitude.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140040
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The earth physics satellite systems error analysis program was applied to the problem of predicting the relative accuracy of station position determinations under varying orbital and observing geometries. The reference case consists of nine ground stations extending over 1500 km which lasers ranged to a LAGEOS satellite, with simultaneous Doppler tracking from a geosynchronous satellite for 16 days. Eleven variations from the reference case were tested. The results showed little sensitivity to whether the LAGEOS altitude is 3700 or 5690 km. More significant were the high inclination, and that LAGEOS was tracked by a geosynchronous satellite.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140118
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. Studies were conducted in key field areas in the Sierra Nevada, the Basin Range Province and the Colorado Plateau to evaluate the origins and significance of geologic and structural anomalies expressed in the ERTS-1 data. The investigation included development of image enhancement and analysis techniques and comparison of remote sensing data available over the test site. The ERTS-1 MSS imagery has proven to be an effective tool for studying the interrelationsships between Cenozoic tectonic patterns and the distributions of Cenozoic plutonism and volcanism, seismic activity, geologic hazards, and known mineral, geothermal and ground water resources. Recommendations are made for applications of ERTS-1 data to natural and resource exploration and management.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10705 , NASA-CR-139434
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data obtained from 30 earth resources aircraft missions, flown between September 1, 1973 and September 1, 1974, were screened, cataloged, and indexed using microfilm copy. The manhours required for completing the task are presented, and problems encountered during the project are reported. It is concluded that a cataloging and indexing report of remote sensor data can be prepared on a timely basis for a relatively low cost from microfilm. Recommendations are given in order to further facilitate the task.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140239
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  • 24
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Silicon ions are normally detected at altitudes above 100 km and within sporadic E layers. Traces have rarely been observed within the more permanent metallic layer near 93 km. This is surprising since silicon is an important constituent of chondritic meteorites, which ablate material in this region to provide a primary source of the metallic species observed there. Evidence is presented that Si(+)ions form SiO2(+) at the lower altitudes, and exist in this ionic state prior to recombination. A rocket launched from El Arenosillo, Spain on 3 July 1972, at 0743 LMT, during the predicted period of the Beta Taurids meteor shower, passed through a continuous belt of metallic ions that began near 85 km, ended near 115 km, and exhibited an order of magnitude increase in the form of a layer near 114 km. Si(+)was measured in and below the ledge down to 103 km. It showed a rapid decrease below this height. Radiative association is offered as a primary mechanism for SiO2(+) production.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-912-74-251 , NASA-TM-X-70751
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two study areas in a cratonic platform underlain by flat-lying sedimentary rocks were analyzed to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between fracture trace patterns and their frequency distributions and subsurface structural closures which might contain petroleum. Fracture trace lengths and frequency (number of fracture traces per unit area) were analyzed by trend surface analysis and length frequency distributions also were compared to a standard Gaussian distribution. Composite rose diagrams of fracture traces were analyzed using a multivariate analysis method which grouped or clustered the rose diagrams and their respective areas on the basis of the behavior of the rays of the rose diagram. Analysis indicates that the lengths of fracture traces are log-normally distributed according to the mapping technique used. Fracture trace frequency appeared higher on the flanks of active structures and lower around passive reef structures. Fracture trace log-mean lengths were shorter over several types of structures, perhaps due to increased fracturing and subsequent erosion. Analysis of rose diagrams using a multivariate technique indicated lithology as the primary control for the lower grouping levels. Groupings at higher levels indicated that areas overlying active structures may be isolated from their neighbors by this technique while passive structures showed no differences which could be isolated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70742 , X-923-74-200
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  • 26
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A feasibility study was conducted to determine whether wheat could be distinguished from other small grain crops in a selected spring wheat growing area in Burke County, North Dakota using a maximum likelihood classification program and ERTS 1 multispectral band scanner data. ERTS 1 data scenes were selected from passes made on June 5, 1973 and June 23, 1973. The Univac 1108 computer and the LARSYS pattern recognition software package were used in performing the classification. Results of the analysis are provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: LEC-3783 , NASA-CR-140249
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  • 27
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A 10 micron infrared sky noise survey, which was conducted during the period from June 1, 1970 to June 30, 1974, is reported along with associated electronics and recording equipment which was developed and deployed for periods up to 18 months at various potential or existing infrared observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile. The results of the data activity are given, and variables are defined which influence the intensity and duration of the sky noise.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-139693
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PR-1 , E74-10750 , NASA-CR-139990
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. Computer techniques were applied to process ERTS tapes acquired over coal mining operations in southeastern Ohio on 21 August 1972 and 3 September 1973. ERTS products obtained included geometrically-correct map overlays, at scales from 1:24,000 to 1:250,000, showing stripped earth, partially reclaimed earth, water, and natural vegetation. Computer-generated tables listing the area covered by each land-water category in square kilometers were also produced. By comparing these mapping products, the study demonstrates the capability of ERTS to monitor changes in the extent of stripping and reclamation. NASA C-130 photography acquired on 7 September 1973 when compared with the ERTS products generated from the 3 September 1973 tape established the categorization accuracy to be better than 90%. It is estimated that the stripping and reclamation maps and data were produced from the ERTS CCTs at a tenth of the cost of conventional techniques.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10715 , NASA-CR-139547
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  • 30
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Both the theoretical and experimental investigations into current-wave interactions are discussed. The following three problems were studied: (1) the dispersive relation of a random gravity-capillary wave field; (2) the changes of the statistical properties of surface waves under the influence of currents; and (3) the interaction of capillary-gravity with the nonuniform currents. Wave current interaction was measured and the feasibility of using such measurements for remote sensing of surface currents was considered. A laser probe was developed to measure the surface statistics, and the possibility of using current-wave interaction as a means of current measurement was demonstrated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137467
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Progress of ARSIG projects is reported and the impact of the projects upon policy decision within Arizona is discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: OALS-BULL-7 , NASA-CR-139315 , AR-2
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The maximum disturbances from the positive and negative regions of delta B (Bp and Bn, respectively) are investigated with respect to their correlation with (1) the average N-S component, Bz, (2) the average angle with respect to the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane, theta (3) the variance, sigma sub i, and (4) the magnitude, Bi, of the interplanetary magnetic field. These quantities were averaged over a period, T, ranging from 20 min. to 8 hours prior to the measurement of Bp or Bn. Variations (i.e., disturbances) in total magnetic field magnitude were studied utilizing data from the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory satellites (OGO 2, 4, and 6), unofficially referred to as POGO.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70711 , X-922-74-189
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Comparisons and analyses were carried out through the use of detailed gravimetric geoids which we have computed by combining models with a set of 26,000 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies. The accuracy of the detailed gravimetric geoid computed using the most recent Goddard earth model (GEM-6) in conjunction with the set of 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies is assessed at + or - 2 meters on the continents of North America, Europe, and Australia, 2 to 5 meters in the Northeast Pacific and North Atlantic areas, and 5 to 10 meters in other areas where surface gravity data are sparse. The R.M.S. differences between this detailed geoid and the detailed geoids computed using the other satellite gravity fields in conjuction with same set of surface data range from 3 to 7 meters.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-921-74-131 , NASA-TM-X-70709
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A brief status report on the performance of the ERTS-1, and an overview of the applications derived from the images are presented. The ERTS-1 spacecraft, sensor and picture processing systems have continued to perform almost flawlessly since August 1972. Registered, multispectral images of all major land masses of the earth, both polar and some oceanic regions are continuously made, covering daily an area of about 5 million square kilometers. The systematic repetition of these observations, which were made over most parts of the world at least once every season, and the high accuracy of thematic mapping that can be obtained from the images, have resulted in many applications that have immense potential benefits for developing countries. Among these applications are the detection and accurate mensuration of surface water; the identification and mensuration of forests, rangeland, crops and soils; the monitoring and mapping of water quality, wildlife habitats and of the effects of land use practices on food and water resources; the assessment of flooding and earthquake hazards; and the facilitation of mineral exploration.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-900-74-217 , NASA-TM-X-70715 , COSPAR Seminar on Space Appl. of Direct Interest to Developing Countries; Sao Paulo; Brazil
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Several local edge detection operators were applied to a set of ERTS pictures of the Monterey, Calif. area. Gradient operators performed consistently better than laplacian operators in detecting edges. It was also found that if a grayscale normalization operation, histogram flattening, was applied to the pictures first, the edge detector outputs were greatly enhanced. The use of interpolation for more accurate location of edges on a digital picture was also briefly investigated. Curve detection operators were applied to the edge detector outputs; this had the effect of enhancing the edges while suppressing noise.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138963 , TR-312
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: For abstract, see N74-29716.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-139378
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138886 , E74-10655
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Blunt probe theory for subsonic flow in a weakly ionized and collisional gas is reviewed, and an electron collection theory for the relatively unexplored case, Deybye length approximately 1, which occurs in the lower ionosphere (D-region), is developed. It is found that the dimensionless Debye length is no longer an electric field screening parameter, and the space charge field effect can be negelected. For ion collection, Hoult-Sonin theory is recognized as a correct description of the thin, ion density-perturbed layer adjacent the blunt probe surface. The large volume with electron density perturbed by a positively biased probe renders the usual thin boundary layer analysis inapplicable. Theories relating free stream conditions to the electron collection rate for both stationary and moving blunt probes are obtained. A model based on experimental nonlinear electron drift velocity data is proposed. For a subsonically moving probe, it is found that the perturbed region can be divided into four regions with distinct collection mechanisms.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PSU-IRL-SCI-424 , NASA-CR-138518
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: NASA aerial photography, primarily color infrared and color positive transparencies, was used in a study of marsh management practices and in comparing managed and unmanaged marsh areas. Weir locations for tidal control are recommended.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: DER-RM-2 , NASA-CR-138775
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ion effects are often observed on topside-sounder stimulated electron plasma wave phenomena. A commonly observed effect is a spur, appearing after a time delay corresponding to the proton gyro period, attached to the low frequency side of an electron plasma resonance. The spurs are often observed on the resonances at the electron plasma frequency f sub N, the harmonics nf sub H of the electron cyclotron frequency f sub H (n = 2, 3, 4, ...), and occasionally on the upper hybrid frequency. The spurs on the f sub N resonance are usually quite small unless the f sub N resonance overlaps with an nf sub H resonance; very large spurs are observed during such overlap conditions. Proton spurs are only observed on the nf sub H resonances when the electron plasma waves associated with these resonances are susceptible to the Harris instability and when the electromagnetic z wave can be initiated by the sounderpulse. This instability is the result of a sounder stimulated anisotropic electron velocity distribution. The observations suggest that energy is fed into the nf sub H longitudinal plasma wave from the z wave via wave-mode coupling. The magnitude of the nf sub H spurs for large n is much greater than for small n.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70675 , X-621-74-138
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: NASA aerial photography in the form of color infrared and color positive transparencies is used as an aid in evaluating the rate and effect of erosion and sediment transport in Bay Champagne Louisiana.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: DER-RM-3 , NASA-CR-138776
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10531 , NASA-CR-138280
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138275 , E74-10526
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10545 , NASA-CR-138294
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A complete description of holography is provided, both for the time-dependent case of moving scene holography and for the time-independent case of stationary holography. Further, a specific holographic arrangement for application to the detection of particle size distribution in an atmospheric simulation cloud chamber. In this chamber particle growth rate is investigated; therefore, the proposed holographic system must capture continuous particle motion in real time. Such a system is described.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TR-R-424 , M-463
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138293 , E74-10544
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138267 , E74-10517
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: QPR-3 , E74-10464 , NASA-CR-137453
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  • 49
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three conclusions are drawn on the usability, inherent variations, and noise aspects of the spectral signatures processed from data collected by the Field Signature Acquisition System (FSAS). Conclusions are based on the spectral data collected from winter wheat of the 1972/73 season, grown at Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: LEC-3175 , NASA-CR-134263
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Different forms of the theoretical gravity formula are summarized and methods of standardization of gravity anomalies obtained from satellite gravity and terrestrial gravity data are discussed in the context of three most commonly used reference figures, e.g., International Reference Ellipsoid, Reference Ellipsoid 1967, and Equilibrium Reference Ellipsoid. These methods are important in the comparison and combination of satellite gravity and gravimetric data as well as the integration of surface gravity data, collected with different objectives, in a single reference system. For ready reference, tables for such reductions are computed. Nature of the satellite gravity anomalies is examined to aid the geophysical and geodetic interpretation of these anomalies in terms of the tectonic features of the earth and the structure of the earth's crust and mantle. Computation of the Potsdam correction from satellite-determined geopotential is reviewed. The contribution of the satellite gravity results in decomposing the total observed gravity anomaly into components of geophysical interest is discussed. Recent work on the possible temporal variations in the geogravity field is briefly reviewed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70634 , X-921-74-54
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An ultraviolet source suitable for balloon and rocket payloads for measurements of nitric oxide in the lower D-region of the ionosphere was developed. The source primarily emits 1236 A and 1165 A photons obtained from an R.F.-excited krypton discharge in a resonator of coaxial geometry. Ultraviolet flux output greater than 10 to the 14th power photons/sec can be obtained from this source. A systematic design philosophy is developed which enables the photon output to be optimized with respect to photon wavelength, gas pressure, R.F., resonator geometry, and gas to be used. Critical factors in the design are discussed in detail.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-136909 , PSU-IRL-SCI-421E
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. Based on processing ERTS CCTs and ground truth measurements collected on Michigan test site for January through June 1973 the following results are reported: (1) atmospheric transmittance varies from: 70 to 85% in band 4, 77 to 90% in band 5, 80 to 94% in band 6, and 84 to 97% in band 7 for one air mass; (2) a simple technique was established to determine atmospheric scattering seen by ERTS-1 from ground-based measurements of sky radiance. For March this scattering was found to be equivalent to that produced by a target having a reflectance of 11% in band 4, 5% in band 5, 3% in band 6, and 1% in band 7; (3) computer ability to classify targets under various atmospheric conditions was determined. Classification accuracy on some targets (i.e. bare soil, tended grass, etc.) hold up even under the most severe atmospheres encountered, while performance on other targets (trees, urban, rangeland, etc.) degrades rapidly when atmospheric conditions change by the smallest amount.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10489 , NASA-CR-136890
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. In response to the need for a faster, more economical means of producing land use maps, this study evaluated the suitability of using ERTS-1 computer compatible tape (CCT) data as a basis for automatic mapping. Significant findings are: (1) automatic classification accuracy greater than 90% is achieved on categories of deep and shallow water, tended grass, rangeland, extractive (bare earth), urban, forest land, and nonforested wet lands; (2) computer-generated printouts by target class provide a quantitative measure of land use; and (3) the generation of map overlays showing land use from ERTS-1 CCTs offers a significant breakthrough in the rate at which land use maps are generated. Rather than uncorrected classified imagery or computer line printer outputs, the processing results in geometrically-corrected computer-driven pen drawing of land categories, drawn on a transparent material at a scale specified by the operator. These map overlays are economically produced and provide an efficient means of rapidly updating maps showing land use.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137423 , E74-10440
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10425 , NASA-CR-137351
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  • 55
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Remeasurement of the Adama, Lake Langana, and Arba Minch (Lake Margherita) geodimeter networks in 1973 has enabled Mohr's interpretation concerning possible surface ground deformation in the Ethiopian rift to be considerably developed. Extension appears to have occurred across the Mojjo-Adama horst at a rate of about 1 cm yr/1. The opposing rims of the Adama graben have not moved significantly relative to one another (between 1969 and 1973), but stations on the sliced graben floor show possible movement with a large rift-trend component. In the Wolenchiti quadrilateral, significant movement of station RABBIT is confirmed, but the radical change of vector (that of 1970-1971 to that of 1971-1973) casts doubt on a tectonic cause and seems to indicate that stations on steep hillslopes are liable to be unstable. South of the quadrilateral and east of the Adama graben, alternating rift-trend zones of extension and shortening appear to coexist. In the Lake Langana network, significant movements of the order of 0.5 cm yr/1 are directed perpendicular to the rift floor faulting.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: SAO-SPECIAL-REPT-358 , SAO-310-047 , NASA-CR-137357
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137353 , E74-10427
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. Field reconnaissance and study of geologic literature guided by analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery have led to a hypothesis of tectonic control of Miocene volcanism, plutonism, and related mineralization in part of the Basin Range Province of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The easterly trending right-lateral Las Vegas Shear Zone separates two volcanic provinces believed to represent areas of major east-west crustal extension. One volcanic province is aligned along the Colorado River south of the eastern termination of the Las Vegas Shear Zone; the second province is located north of the western termination of the shear zone in southern Nye County, Nevada. Geochronologic, geophysical, and structural evidence suggests that the Las Vegas Shear Zone may have formed in response to crustal extension in the two volcanic provinces in a manner similar to the formation of a ridge-ridge transform fault, as recognized in ocean floor tectonics.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10411 , NASA-CR-137256
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Harang discontinuity, the area separating the positive and negative bay regions in the midnight sector of the auroral zone, is a focal point for changes in behavior of many phenomena. Through this region the electric field rotates through the west from a basically northward field in the positive bay region to a basically southward field in the negative bay region, appearing as a reversal in a single axis measurement; 32 of these reversals have been identified in the OGO-6 data from November and December, 1969. The discontinuity is dynamic in nature, moving southward and steepening its latitudinal profile as magnetic activity is increased. As activity decreases it relaxes poleward and spreads out in latitudinal width. It occurs over several hours of magnetic local time. The boundary in the electric field data is consistent with the reversal of ground magnetic disturbances from a positive to negative bay condition. The discontinuity is present in the electric field data both during substorms and during quiet times and appears to define a pattern on which other effects can occur.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-625-74-67 , NASA-TM-X-70613 , NSSDC-ID-69-051A-23-PM
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The first in situ measurements of ion composition in the nighttime equatorial E and F region ionospheres (90-300 km) are presented and discussed. These profiles were obtained by two rocket-borne ion mass spectrometers launched from Thumba, India on March 9-10, 1970 at solar zenith angles of 112 deg and 165 deg. Ionosonde data established that the composition was measured at times bounding a period of F region downward drift. During this period the ions O(+) and N(+) were enhanced by one to three orders of magnitude between 220 and 300 km. Below the drift region (200 km), O(+) ceased to be the major ionic constituent, but the concentrations of O(+) and N(+) remained larger than predicted from known radiation sources and loss processes. Here also, both the O2(+) and NO(+) profiles retained nearly the same shape and magnitude throughout the night in agreement with theories assuming scattered UV radiation to be the maintaining source. Light metallic ions including Mg(+), Na(+) and possibly Si(+) were observed to altitude approaching 300 km, while the heavier ions Ca(+) and K(+) were seen in reduced quantity to 200 km. All metal ion profiles exhibited changes which can be ascribed to vertical drifting.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70593 , X-625-74-50
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  • 60
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Some examples are presented of the use of remote sensing in cultivated crops, forestry, and range management. Areas of concern include: the determination of crop areas and types, prediction of yield, and detection of disease; the determination of forest areas and types, timber volume estimation, detection of insect and disease attack, and forest fires; and the determination of range conditions and inventory, and livestock inventory. Articles in the literature are summarized and specific examples of work being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center are given. Primarily, aerial photographs and photo-like ERTS images are considered.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-64803
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  • 61
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10344 , NASA-CR-136856
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. NASA's ERTS-1 satellite and Skylab EREP have both provided imagery suitable for investigating coastal vegetation, land use, current circulation, water turbidity, waste disposal, and sea state. Based on high contrast targets, such as piers and breakwaters, the ERTS-1 MSS seems to have a resolution of 70-100 meters, Skylab's S190A about 30-70 meters, and its S190B about 10-30 meters. Important coastal land use details can be more readily mapped using Skylab's imagery. On the other hand, the regular eighteen day cycle of ERTS-1 allows observation of important manmade and natural changes, and facilitates collection of ground truth. The Skylab/EREP multispectral scanner offers 13 spectral bands as compared to 4 bands on ERTS-1. However, EREP scanner tapes require special filtering to remove several types of noise and their conical line scan pattern must be linearized before one can identify small targets based on spatial features.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-136859 , E74-10347
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is shown that magnetic bottles as the sources of moving metric type 4 bursts are not responsible for the development of geomagnetic storms, despite the fact that shock waves producing type 2 bursts are the sources of the interplanetary shock waves, which produce SSC's on the geomagnetic field. These magnetic bottles, in general, tend to move in the solar envelope with the speed of several hundred Km/sec at most, which is much slower than that of the motion of type 2 radio sources.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70567 , X-693-74-1
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A computer program is described which allows for calculation of the effects of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide on earth resources remote sensing techniques. A flow chart of the program and operating instructions are provided. Comparisons are made between the atmospheric transmission obtained from laboratory and spacecraft spectrometer data and that obtained from a computer prediction using a model atmosphere and radiosonde data. Limitations of the model atmosphere are discussed. The computer program listings, input card formats, and sample runs for both radiosonde data and laboratory data are included.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-58137 , JSC-09063
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Soil dielectric constant measurements are reviewed and the dependence of the dielectric constant on various soil parameters is determined. Moisture content is given special attention because of its practical significance in remote sensing and because it represents the single most influential parameter as far as soil dielectric properties are concerned. Relative complex dielectric constant curves are derived as a function of volumetric soil water content at three frequencies (1.3 GHz, 4.0 GHz, and 10.0 GHz) for each of three soil textures (sand, loam, and clay). These curves, presented in both tabular and graphical form, were chosen as representative of the reported experimental data. Calculations based on these curves showed that the power reflection coefficient and emissivity, unlike skin depth, vary only slightly as a function of frequency and soil texture.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: RSL-TR-177-47 , NASA-CR-141868
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Radiation budget data measured at the top of the atmosphere by earth-orbiting satellites for various time periods in the years 1962 through 1970 are presented in the form of contoured maps which were derived from 5 seasonal and 25 monthly and semimonthly data sets. The data are values of planetary albedo, infrared radiant exitance, absorbed solar energy, net radiation balance. Documentation and contoured maps are included together with data tabulation at each 10 deg latitude and longitude. Additional data published by other authors are referenced.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-142676 , PAPER-231
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Fundamental physical and chemical processes, and measurement techniques on the D region are reviewed. Design considerations about a partial-reflection system are made, and the main characteristics of the partial-reflection system at the University of Illinois are presented. The nature of the partial reflections is discussed, particularly reflections produced by gradients in electron density and by random fluctuations in a locally homogeneous random medium. Possible reasons for disagreement between partial reflections and rocket measurements are discussed. Some suggestions are made to improve partial-reflection data reduction, including the use of only maximums of the reflections and deconvolution of the data. The results of partial-reflection measurements at Wallops Island, Virginia during the 1971-1972 winter are presented and compared to rocket measurements.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: UILU-ENG-74-2506 , AERONOMY-63 , NASA-CR-142352
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The direct recovery was investigated of mean gravity anomalies from summed range rate observations, the signal path being ground station to a geosynchronous relay satellite to a close satellite significantly perturbed by the short wave features of the earth's gravitational field. To ensure realistic observations, these were simulated with the nominal orbital elements for the relay satellite corresponding to ATS-6, and for two different close satellites (one at about 250 km height, and the other at about 900 km height) corresponding to the nominal values for GEOS-C. The earth's gravitational field was represented by a reference set of potential coefficients up to degree and order 12, considered as known values, and by residual gravity anomalies obtained by subtracting the anomalies, implied by the potential coefficients, from their terrestrial estimates. It was found that gravity anomalies could be recovered from strong signal without using any a-priori terrestrial information, i.e. considering their initial values as zero and also assigning them a zero weight matrix. While recovering them from weak signal, it was necessary to use the a-priori estimate of the standard deviation of the anomalies to form their a-priori diagonal weight matrix.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-142303 , REPT-218
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An intercomparison is made of the wavelike structures in the data from the light ion mass spectrometer and the fluxgate magnetometer on OGO 5. The wavelike structures appear simultaneously in the data from both experiments. The waves contain both transverse and compressional modes and exhibit periods of 100 to 200 seconds. The waves are usually observed outside the plasmapause and are located primarily on the dayside of the magnetosphere. One possible cause of the apparent density fluctuation is a velocity modulation of the thermal plasma which causes the particles to drift into and out of the ion spectrometer.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: LMSC-D405375 , NSSDC-ID-68-014A-18-PM , NASA-CR-143680
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An initial experiment was conducted to verify geostationary satellite derived cloud motion wind estimates with in situ aircraft wind velocity measurements. Case histories of one-half hour to two hours were obtained for 3-10km diameter cumulus cloud systems on 6 days. Also, one cirrus cloud case was obtained. In most cases the clouds were discrete enough that both the cloud motion and the ambient wind could be measured with the same aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS). Since the INS drift error is the same for both the cloud motion and wind measurements, the drift error subtracts out of the relative motion determinations. The magnitude of the vector difference between the cloud motion and the ambient wind at the cloud base averaged 1.2 m/sec. The wind vector at higher levels in the cloud layer differed by about 3 m/sec to 5 m/sec from the cloud motion vector.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70826 , X-911-74-365
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Simultaneous measurements of ion composition and plasma drift velocity by the Bennett mass spectrometer on the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite reveal a direct correlation between enhancements in NO(+) concentration and ion drift velocity in the southern auroral oval. Low altitude (137 to 250 km) nighttime data reveal a region of westward plasma flow at velocities up to 1.3 km/s between 62 deg and 68 deg invariant latitude, with corresponding NO(+) enhancements of up to a factor of 25. A narrow region of reverse flow at approximately 0.9 km/s was also measured. These drift observations are consistent with convective flow patterns derived from electric field measurements, and their correlation with NO(+) appears to support the suggestion that NO(+) enhancements would be expected in regions of drift owing to the dependence on ion energy of the reaction O(+) + N2 yields NO(+) + N.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70821 , X-621-74-343
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A statistical evaluation of some of the recent satellite determined gravity models, including some with distinct data base, indicates that the geopotential coefficients of these models are individually meaningful for frequencies with wave numbers n = 2 through 7 certainly and wave numbers n = 8 through 10 probably. Geopotential coefficients in higher frequency ranges while apparently important for computing accurate satellite orbits seem to have little geophysical significance in an individual sense. Differences between various gravity models and those satellite purely between determined geopotential models and their associated combination models show no consistent relationship to surface gravimetric coverage. Additional classical tracking data are important in improving the existing description of the earth's gravity field but their contribution in extending its frequency range beyond what is now available is uncertain.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-921-74-275 , NASA-TM-X-70796
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: A relationship between the vertical component of the ion velocity and electron density profiles derived from reduced ionograms is developed. Methods for determining the horizontal components of the neutral winds and electric fields by using this relationship and making use of the variations of the inclinations and declinations of the earth's magnetic field are presented. The effects that electric fields have on the neutral wind calculations are estimated to be small but not second order. Seasonal and latitudinal variations of the calculated neutral winds are presented. From the calculated neutral winds a new set of neutral pressure gradients is determined. The new pressure gradients are compared with those generated from several static neutral atmospheric models. Sensitivity factors relating the pressure gradients and neutral winds are calculated and these indicate that mode coupling and harmonic generation are important to studies which assume linearized theories.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PSU-IRL-SCI-431 , NASA-CR-141321
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A comprehensive study has been undertaken to determine the extent to which conventional image interpretation and computer-aided (spectral pattern recognition) analysis techniques using ERTS-1 data could be used to detect, identify (classify), locate, and measure current land use over large geographic areas. It can be concluded that most of the level 1 and 2 categories in the USGS Circular no. 671 can be detected in the Houston-Gulf Coast area using a combination of both techniques for analysis. These capabilities could be exercised over larger geographic areas, however, certain factors such as different vegetative cover, topography, etc. may have to be considered in other geographic regions. The best results in identification (classification), location, and measurement of level 1 and 2 type categories appear to be obtainable through automatic data processing of multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-L9 , 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 439-455
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: It has been shown that ERTS imagery, particularly in the form of 1:500,000 scale false color photolithographic prints, can contribute very significantly towards facilitating and accelerating (dramatically, in some cases) resource surveys and geologic mapping. Fire mapping on a national scale becomes a feasability; numerous new geologic features, particularly lineaments, have been discovered, land use can be mapped efficiently on a regional scale and degraded areas identified. The first detailed tectonic and geomorphological maps of the Republic of South Africa will be published mainly owing to the availability of ERTS images.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-L6 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 383-392
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A graphic description is given of the Census Cities ERTS experiment in urban change detection using remote sensors. The relationship or model between land use data from sensors and socio-demographic data from the census is partly demonstrated. The example suggests how knowledge of land use changes acquired by sensors can be used to make estimates of population, and other attributes. The feasibility of nationwide mapping of land use, and land use changes, by direct computer classification of ERTS-1 multispectral digital data is also demonstrated. Potential applications in state and regional planning are many, and some are named. But the longer-range gains are likely to be improved understanding by legislators, managers and voters as to what it is that makes the country tick. One of the specific tasks could be the allocation of revenues to be shared.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-L2 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 339
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The Okavango is Botswana's major water resource. The present study has been specifically directed at mapping vegetation types within the delta and generally concerned with finding what information of value to plant and animal ecologists could be extracted from the imagery. To date it has been found that. (1) It is possible to map broad vegetation types from the imagery. (2) Imagery of the delta records the state of the system in a manner which will facilitate long-term studies of plant succession. (3) Phenological events can be detected. (4) The imagery can be used to detect and map wild fires. This will be useful in determining the role of fire in the ecology of the region. Using the imagery it is thus possible to map existing vegetation and monitor both short and long-term changes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A19 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 301-308
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: ERTS-1 resolution capabilities and repetitive coverage have allowed the acquisition of several statewide inventories of natural resource features not previously completed or that could not be completed in any other way. Familiarity with landform, tone, pattern and other converging factors, along with multidate imagery, has been required. Nevada's vegetation has been mapped from ERTS-1. Dynamic characteristics of the landscape have been studied. Sequential ERTS-1 imagery has proved its usefulness for mapping vegetation, following vegetation phenology changes, monitoring changes in lakes and reservoirs (including water quality), determining changes in surface mining use, making fire fuel estimates and determining potential hazard, mapping the distribution of rain and snow events, making range readiness determinations, monitoring marshland management practices and other uses. Feasibility has been determined, but details of incorporating the data in management systems awaits further research and development. The need is to accurately define the steps necessary to extract required or usable information from ERTS imagery and fit it into on-going management programs.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A17 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 267-289
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: ERTS 1 imagery is a useful tool in the identification and refinement of soil association areas and an excellent base map upon which soil association information can be published. Prints of bands 5 and 7 were found to be most useful to help delineate major soil and vegetation areas. After delineating major soil areas, over 4800 land sale prices covering a period of 1967-72 were located in the soil areas and averaged. The soil association then were described as soil association value areas and published on a 1:1,000,000 scale ERTS mosaic of South Dakota constructed using negative prints of band 7. The map is intended for use by state and county revenue officers, by individual buyers and sellers of land and lending institutions, and as a reference map by those planning road routes and cable lines and pipelines.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: SDSU-RSI-73-11 , PAPER-A12 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 183-204
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Photographic and digital imagery received from ERTS-1 was analyzed and evaluated as to its usefulness for the assessment of agricultural and forest land resources. Black and white, and color composite imagery provided spectral and spatial data, which, when matched with temporal land information, provided the basis for a semidetailed land use and forest site evaluation cartography. Color composite photographs have provided some information on the status of irrigation of agricultural lands. Computer processed digital imagery was successfully used for detailed crop classification and semidetailed soil evaluation. The results and techniques of this investigation are applicable to ecological and geological conditions similar to those prevailing in the Eastern Mediterranean.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A11 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 159-182
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Reflectance from vegetation increases with increasing vegetation density in the 0.75- to 1.35 micron wavelength interval. Therefore, ERTS-1 bands 6 (0.7 to 0.8 micron) and 7 (0.8 to 1.1 micron) contain information that should relate to the probable yield of crops and the animal carrying capacity of rangeland. The results of an experiment designed specifically to test the relations among leaf area index (LAI), plant population, plant cover and plant height, and the ERTS-1 MSS responses for 3 corn, 10 sorghum, and 10 cotton fields are given. Plant population was as useful as LAI for characterizing the sorghum and corn fields, and plant height was as good as LAI for characterizing cotton fields. These findings generally support the utility of ERTS-1 data for explaining variability in green biomass, harvestable forage and other indicators of productivity.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A6 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 93-116
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A comprehensive study has been undertaken to determine the extent to which ERTS-1 data could be used to detect, identify (classify), locate and measure features of applications interest in the disciplines of Agriculture and Forestry. The study areas included: six counties in five states in which were located examples of the most important crops and practices of American agriculture; and a portion of the Sam Houston National Forest, a typical Gulf coastal plain pine forest. The investigation utilized conventional image interpretation and computer-aided (spectral pattern recognition) analysis using both image products and computer compatible tapes. The emphasis was generally upon the computer-aided techniques. It was concluded that ERTS-1 data can be used to detect, identify, locate and measure a wide array of features of interest in agriculture and forestry.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A4 , 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 75-85
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  • 83
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The ERTS-1 spacecraft had a life of one year as a design goal. At the end of one year, the spacecraft was still providing about 130 scenes per day in multispectral images having resolution and radiometric accuracy better than prelaunch predictions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 1-12
    Format: application/pdf