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  • GEOPHYSICS  (5,928)
  • General Chemistry  (4,740)
  • SPACE RADIATION  (1,972)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • 1970-1974  (13,600)
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  • 1
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Measurements made in the midday auroras are analyzed and compared to measurements from the nighttime auroras. Examples are given of coordinated programs in Alaska which involve satellites, radars, ground optical instrumentation, and other types of observing satellites for the study of auroras.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138156
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10621 , NASA-CR-138731
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Summaries are presented on the use of ATS-1 data to analyze low frequency oscillations of the earth's magnetic field and hydromagnetic wave polarization.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138802
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: Skylab data has been used: (1) as an aid to resource management in Northern California; (2) to assess and monitor change in the Southern California environment; and (3) for resource inventory and analysis of The California Desert Program.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10495 , NASA-CR-136899
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The feasibility of detecting eight trace constituents (CH4, HCl, HF, HNO3, NH3, NO, NO2 and SO2) against the rest of the atmospheric background at various altitudes from infrared emission and absorption atmospheric spectra was studied. Line-by-line calculations and observational data were used to establish features that can be observed in the atmospheric spectrum due to each trace constituent. Model calculations were made for experimental conditions which approximately represent state of the art emission and absorption spectrometers.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137762
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Supermassive black holes which exist in the nuclei of many quasars and galaxies are examined along with the collapse which forms these holes and subsequent collisions between them which produce strong, broad-band bursts of gravitational waves. Such bursts might arrive at earth as often as 50 times per year--or as rarely as once each 300 years. The detection of such bursts with dual-frequency Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft is considered.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-145432
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A three-dimensional CW Doppler sounding system currently under operation at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama is described. The properties of the neutral atmosphere are discussed along with the theory of Doppler sounding technique. Methods of data analyses used to investigate the dynamical phenomena at the ionospheric heights are presented and suggestions for future investigations provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-120189
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Element abundances of cosmic rays Li through Si with energy above 0.8 GeV/amu were measured on a balloon borne instrument containing a total absorption ionization spectrometer. Statistical techniques were used to analyze the five measurements of each particle to determine its charge and energy. The technique allows a determination of systematic errors to be made. Corrections for Landau fluctuations, spark chamber inefficiency, and background particles were included. Comparison with other published results is made. Differences in the shape of the spectrum determined from measurements of different workers indicate that the absolute intensity is still known to only plus or minus 15% between 2 and 10 GV/c rigidity.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-661-74-335 , NASA-TM-X-70802
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  • 9
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The theory of gamma ray production in solar flares is treated in detail. Both lines and continuum are produced. Results show that the strongest line predicted at 2.225 MeV with a width of less than 100 eV and detected at 2.24 + or - 2.02 MeV, is due to neutron capture by protons in the photosphere. Its intensity is dependent on the photospheric He-3 abundance. The neutrons are produced in nuclear reactions of flare accelerated particles which also produce positrons and prompt nuclear deexcitation lines. The strongest prompt lines are at 4.43 MeV from c-12 and at approximately 6.2 from 0-16 and N-15. The gamma ray continuum, produced by electron bremsstrahlung, allows the determination of the spectrum and number of accelerated electrons in the MeV region. From the comparison of the line and continuum intensities a proton-to-electron ratio of about 10 to 100 at the same energy for the 1972, August 4 flare. For the same flare the protons above 2.5 MeV which are responsible for the gamma ray emission produce a few percent of the heat generated by the electrons which make the hard X rays above 20 keV.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70808 , X-660-74-368
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The characteristics of a model for analyzing the propagation of cosmic rays are discussed. The requirements for analyzing the relevant observational data on cosmic rays are defines as: (1) the chemical and isotopic composition of cosmic rays as a function of energy, (2) the flux and energy spectrum of the individual nucleonic components, (3) the flux and energy spectrum of the electronic component, (4) the cosmic ray prehistory, and (5) the degree of isotropy in their arrival directions as a function of energy. It is stated that the model which has been able to bring to pass the greatest measure of success is the galactic confinement model.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: TR-75-028 , NASA-CR-141190
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This experiment was carried out during three balloon flights which provided a total exposure of 3500 + or - 60 sq m sec sterad at an average depth of 4.8 g/sq cm The detector, in which the development of cascade showers in a 33.7 rl absorber was sampled by 10 scintillation counters and 216 Geiger-Muller tubes, was calibrated at the Cornell Electron Synchrotron, the separation of cosmic electrons from the nuclear background was confirmed by extensive analysis of data from the flights, from the calibration and from ground level exposure. The spectral intensity of primary cosmic ray electrons were found in particles/sq m sec sterad GeV. Similarly, the ground level spectrum of secondary cosmic ray electrons was also found. The steepness of the spectrum of cosmic electrons relative to that of nuclei implies one of the following conclusions: either the injection spectrum of electrons is steeper than that of nuclei, or the electron spectrum has been steepened by Compton/synchrotron losses in the energy range covered by the experiment.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-141287 , TR-75-019
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model is developed which incorporates to first order the direct effects of the time dependent diffusive propagation of interstellar cosmic rays in a slowly changing interplanetary medium. The model provides a physical explanation for observed rigidity-dependent phase lags in modulated spectra (cosmic ray hysteresis). The average distance to the modulating boundary during the last solar cycle is estimated.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: TR-74-114 , NASA-CR-141146
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An investigation of the intensity fluctuations of 28 pulsars near 0.4 GHz indicates that scintillation spectra have a Gaussian shape, scintillation indices are near unity, and the scintillation bandwidth depends linearly on dispersion measure. Observations near 2.5 GHz suggest a strong dependence of the frequency at which scintillation indices fall below unity on dispersion measure. Multistation measurements of scintillation provide values or limits for the scale size of the scattering diffraction pattern. The dependences of scattering parameters on dispersion measure is discussed in terms of the current models. It is suggested that any line of sight through the galaxy encounters increasingly rare, increasingly large deviations of thermal electron density on the scale of 10 to the 11th power cm.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-693-74-316 , NASA-TM-X-70789
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Direction finding measurements with plasma wave experiments onboard the Hawkeye-1 and IMP-8 satellites were used to locate the source region of auroral kilometric radiation. The radiation exhibits peak intensities between about 100 kHz and 300 kHz, and emits intense sporadic bursts lasting for between one half hour to several hours. The total power emitted in this frequency range exceeds 10 to the 9th power watts at peak intensity. The occurrence of the radiation is known to be closely associated with bright auroral arcs which occur in the local evening auroral regions.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: U-OF-IOWA-74-35 , NASA-CR-140766
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spectral observation of nine recent cosmic gamma-ray bursts are reported. The average photon number spectra of all nine events are shown to be consistent with a 150-keV exponential from 100 keV to about 400 keV, and a power law of index -2.5 from 400 keV to 1100 keV. The observations also indicate an event rate of 16 in 1972 and 1973, or 8 + or - 2 per year, higher than the 5 + or - 1 per year initially reported. This corresponds to an approximately 40-percent lower effective intensity threshold, attained by using more sensitive detectors in multiple-satellite coincidence.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-661-74-296 , NASA-TM-X-70778
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The importance of global geomagnetic field models for the reduction of magnetic surveys is discussed. It is demonstrated that a numerical model with adequate secular variation correction, provides a suitable representation of the regional field. The limitations of the presently available models are reported, with emphasis on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70777 , X-922-74-295
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The isotopic composition of hydrogen and helium in solar cosmic rays provides a means of studying solar flare particle acceleration mechanisms since the enhanced relative abundance of rare isotopes, such as H-2, H-3, and He-3, is due to their production by inelastic nuclear collisions in the solar atmosphere during the flare. Electron isotope spectrometer on an IMP spacecraft was used to measure this isotopic composition. The response of the dE/dx-E particle telescope is discussed, and alpha particle channeling in thin detectors is identified as an important background source affecting measurement of low values of (He-3/He-4). The flare-averaged results obtained for the period October, 1972 November, 1973 are given.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: SRL-74-3 , NASA-CR-140568
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  • 18
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Surface elevation deviations in the Gulf Stream region off the eastern coast of the United States between Wallops Island, Virginia and Miami, Florida were investigated. The main causes of surface elevation deviations are geoid perturbations due to the continental shelf and the geostrophic adjustment of the density field due to the Gulf Stream. Quantitative surface elevation profiles were calculated based on geophysical measurements of gravity anomalies and hydrographic data. The results are presented graphically along with contemporaneous weather data. Comparisons are made between the profiles based on hydrographic data and a mean theoretical model. The theory of geostrophic flows including some classical Gulf Stream models is also presented briefly.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137471
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The instantaneous values of output voltages representing the wind velocity vector and the temperature at different elevations of the 250-foot meteorological tower located at NASA Wallops Flight Center are provided with the three dimensional split-film TSI Model 1080 anemometer system. The output voltages are sampled at a rate of one every 5 milliseconds, digitized and stored on digital magnetic tapes for a time period of approximately 40 minutes, with the use of a specially designed data acqusition system. A new calibration procedure permits the conversion of the digital voltages to the respective values of the temperature and the velocity components in a Cartesian coordinate system connected with the TSI probe with considerable accuracy. Power, cross, coincidence and quadrature spectra of the wind components and the temperature are obtained with the use of the fast Fourier transform. The cosine taper data window and ensemble and frequency smoothing techniques are used to provide smooth estimates of the spectral functions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-62088 , VPI-E-74-26
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Controlled ground-based passive microwave radiometric measurements on soil moisture were conducted to determine the effects of terrain surface roughness and vegetation on microwave emission. Theoretical predictions were compared with the experimental results and with some recent airborne radiometric measurements. The relationship of soil moisture to the permittivity for the soil was obtained in the laboratory. A dual frequency radiometer, 1.41356 GHz and 10.69 GHz, took measurements at angles between 0 and 50 degrees from an altitude of about fifty feet. Distinct surface roughnesses were studied. With the roughness undisturbed, oats were later planted and vegetated and bare field measurements were compared. The 1.4 GHz radiometer was less affected than the 10.6 GHz radiometer, which under vegetated conditions was incapable of detecting soil moisture. The bare surface theoretical model was inadequate, although the vegetation model appeared to be valid. Moisture parameters to correlate apparent temperature with soil moisture were compared.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: RSC-56 , NASA-CR-140515
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The research to use remote sensing techniques for studying the continental shelf is reported. The studies reported include: (1) nearshore circulation in the vincinity of a natural tidal inlet; (2) identification of indicators of biological activity; (3) remote navigation system for tracking free drifting buoys; (4) experimental design of an estuaring tidal circulation; and (5) Skylab support work.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140189
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  • 22
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Varied uses of ERTS imagery are briefly discussed. Applications to mineral/land resources, environment, land use, water resources, maps/charts, marine resources, and agriculture/forestry/range resources are also provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70333
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140428 , QR-2 , E74-10798
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140150 , E74-10797
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Dynamical orbital techniques were employed to estimate the center-of-mass station coordinates of six C-band radars located in the designated primary GEOS-C radar altimeter calibration area. This work was performed in support of the planned GEOS-C mission (December, 1974 launch). The sites included Bermuda, Grand Turk, Antigua, Wallops Island (Virginia), and Merritt Island (Florida). Two sites were estimated independently at Wallops Island yielding better than 40 cm relative height recovery, with better than 10 cm and 1 m (relative) recovery for phi and gamma respectively. Error analysis and comparisons with other investigators indicate that better than 2 m relative recovery was achieved at all sites. The data used were exclusively that from the estimated sites and included 18 orbital arcs which were less than two orbital revolutions in length, having successive tracks over the area. The techniques employed here, given their independence of global tracking support, can be effectively employed to improve various geodetic datums by providing very long and accurate baselines. The C-band data taken on GEOS-C should be employed to improve such geodetic datums as the European-1950 using similar techniques.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-69356
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: ERIM-103300-33-L , E74-10794 , NASA-CR-140147
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10793 , NASA-CR-140146
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10789 , NASA-CR-140142 , PR-1
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PR-2 , NASA-CR-140141 , E74-10788
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The cross section requirements are presented for studying UV and X-ray emission spectra associated with active and flare-produced plasmas in the sun's corona. The general approach to the calculation of the distorted wave approximation problem is also given.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-602-74-260 , NASA-TM-X-70755
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Calculations of the steady-state photoelectron energy and angular distribution in the altitude region between 120 and 1000 km are presented. The distribution is found to be isotropic at all altitudes below 250 km, while above this altitude anisotropies in both pitch angle and energy are found. The isotropy found in the angular distribution below 250 km implies that photoelectron transport below 250 km is insignificant, while the angular anisotropy found above this altitude implies a net photoelectron current in the upward direction. The energy anisotropy above 500 km arises from the selective backscattering of the low energy photoelectron population of the upward flux component by Coulomb collisions with the ambient ions. The total photoelectron flux attains its maximum value between about 40 and 70 km above the altitude at which the photoelectron production rate is maximum. The displacement of the maximum of the equilibrium flux is attributed to an increasing (with altitude) photoelectron lifetime. Photoelectrons at altitudes above that where the flux is maximum are on the average more energetic than those below that altitude.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140040
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The earth physics satellite systems error analysis program was applied to the problem of predicting the relative accuracy of station position determinations under varying orbital and observing geometries. The reference case consists of nine ground stations extending over 1500 km which lasers ranged to a LAGEOS satellite, with simultaneous Doppler tracking from a geosynchronous satellite for 16 days. Eleven variations from the reference case were tested. The results showed little sensitivity to whether the LAGEOS altitude is 3700 or 5690 km. More significant were the high inclination, and that LAGEOS was tracked by a geosynchronous satellite.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140118
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. Studies were conducted in key field areas in the Sierra Nevada, the Basin Range Province and the Colorado Plateau to evaluate the origins and significance of geologic and structural anomalies expressed in the ERTS-1 data. The investigation included development of image enhancement and analysis techniques and comparison of remote sensing data available over the test site. The ERTS-1 MSS imagery has proven to be an effective tool for studying the interrelationsships between Cenozoic tectonic patterns and the distributions of Cenozoic plutonism and volcanism, seismic activity, geologic hazards, and known mineral, geothermal and ground water resources. Recommendations are made for applications of ERTS-1 data to natural and resource exploration and management.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10705 , NASA-CR-139434
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data obtained from 30 earth resources aircraft missions, flown between September 1, 1973 and September 1, 1974, were screened, cataloged, and indexed using microfilm copy. The manhours required for completing the task are presented, and problems encountered during the project are reported. It is concluded that a cataloging and indexing report of remote sensor data can be prepared on a timely basis for a relatively low cost from microfilm. Recommendations are given in order to further facilitate the task.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140239
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  • 35
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Silicon ions are normally detected at altitudes above 100 km and within sporadic E layers. Traces have rarely been observed within the more permanent metallic layer near 93 km. This is surprising since silicon is an important constituent of chondritic meteorites, which ablate material in this region to provide a primary source of the metallic species observed there. Evidence is presented that Si(+)ions form SiO2(+) at the lower altitudes, and exist in this ionic state prior to recombination. A rocket launched from El Arenosillo, Spain on 3 July 1972, at 0743 LMT, during the predicted period of the Beta Taurids meteor shower, passed through a continuous belt of metallic ions that began near 85 km, ended near 115 km, and exhibited an order of magnitude increase in the form of a layer near 114 km. Si(+)was measured in and below the ledge down to 103 km. It showed a rapid decrease below this height. Radiative association is offered as a primary mechanism for SiO2(+) production.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-912-74-251 , NASA-TM-X-70751
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two study areas in a cratonic platform underlain by flat-lying sedimentary rocks were analyzed to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between fracture trace patterns and their frequency distributions and subsurface structural closures which might contain petroleum. Fracture trace lengths and frequency (number of fracture traces per unit area) were analyzed by trend surface analysis and length frequency distributions also were compared to a standard Gaussian distribution. Composite rose diagrams of fracture traces were analyzed using a multivariate analysis method which grouped or clustered the rose diagrams and their respective areas on the basis of the behavior of the rays of the rose diagram. Analysis indicates that the lengths of fracture traces are log-normally distributed according to the mapping technique used. Fracture trace frequency appeared higher on the flanks of active structures and lower around passive reef structures. Fracture trace log-mean lengths were shorter over several types of structures, perhaps due to increased fracturing and subsequent erosion. Analysis of rose diagrams using a multivariate technique indicated lithology as the primary control for the lower grouping levels. Groupings at higher levels indicated that areas overlying active structures may be isolated from their neighbors by this technique while passive structures showed no differences which could be isolated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70742 , X-923-74-200
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  • 37
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A feasibility study was conducted to determine whether wheat could be distinguished from other small grain crops in a selected spring wheat growing area in Burke County, North Dakota using a maximum likelihood classification program and ERTS 1 multispectral band scanner data. ERTS 1 data scenes were selected from passes made on June 5, 1973 and June 23, 1973. The Univac 1108 computer and the LARSYS pattern recognition software package were used in performing the classification. Results of the analysis are provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: LEC-3783 , NASA-CR-140249
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  • 38
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A 10 micron infrared sky noise survey, which was conducted during the period from June 1, 1970 to June 30, 1974, is reported along with associated electronics and recording equipment which was developed and deployed for periods up to 18 months at various potential or existing infrared observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile. The results of the data activity are given, and variables are defined which influence the intensity and duration of the sky noise.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-139693
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PR-1 , E74-10750 , NASA-CR-139990
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A detailed study of the charge composition of heavy solar cosmic rays measured in the January 25, 1971 solar flare including differential fluxes for the even charged nuclei from carbon through argon is presented. The measurements are obtained for varying energy intervals for each nuclear species in the energy range from 10 to 35 MeV/nucleon. In addition, abundances relative to oxygen are computed for all the above nuclei in the single energy interval from 15 to 25 MeV/nucleon. This interval contains measurements for all of the species and as a result requires no spectral extrapolations. An upper limit for the abundance of calcium nuclei is also presented. These measurements, when combined with other experimental results, enable the energy dependence of abundance measurements as a function of nuclear charge to be discussed. It is seen that at energies above about 10 MeV/nucleon, the variations of abundance ratios are limited to about a factor of 3 from flare to flare, in spite of large variations in other characteristics of these solar events.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70731 , X-662-74-231
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Electromagnetic radiation from the Crab nebula were observed, showing that the Crab is unique among strong X-ray sources in that major component in the low energy range (1 to 10 KeV) shows little or no temporal variation. Observations of the Crab above 35 MeV were made with the high energy gamma ray telescope flown on SAS-2. The detector and technique are described in detail.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-662-74-236 , NASA-TM-X-70734
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The solar event of 28 May 1968 is reported using the Goddard Cosmic Ray Telescope on OGO-5. The flare associated with the event occurred at 12:48 on 28 May and had importance 1B. About 600 He-3 were detected in the event and the He-3/He-4 equals 1.52 plus or minus 0.1 in the energy range 4-80 MeV/necleon. This is the highest ratio reported so far for any solar event.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-661-74-233 , NASA-TM-X-70732
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. Computer techniques were applied to process ERTS tapes acquired over coal mining operations in southeastern Ohio on 21 August 1972 and 3 September 1973. ERTS products obtained included geometrically-correct map overlays, at scales from 1:24,000 to 1:250,000, showing stripped earth, partially reclaimed earth, water, and natural vegetation. Computer-generated tables listing the area covered by each land-water category in square kilometers were also produced. By comparing these mapping products, the study demonstrates the capability of ERTS to monitor changes in the extent of stripping and reclamation. NASA C-130 photography acquired on 7 September 1973 when compared with the ERTS products generated from the 3 September 1973 tape established the categorization accuracy to be better than 90%. It is estimated that the stripping and reclamation maps and data were produced from the ERTS CCTs at a tenth of the cost of conventional techniques.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10715 , NASA-CR-139547
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A green line intensity variation is associated with the interplanetary and photospheric magnetic sector structure. This effect depends on the solar cycle and occurs with the same amplitude in the latitude range 60 deg N - 60 deg S. Extended longitudinal coronal structures are suggested, which indicate the existence of closed magnetic field lines over the neutral line, separating adjacent regions of opposite polarities on the photospheric surface.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-139500 , SU-IPR-569
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  • 45
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Both the theoretical and experimental investigations into current-wave interactions are discussed. The following three problems were studied: (1) the dispersive relation of a random gravity-capillary wave field; (2) the changes of the statistical properties of surface waves under the influence of currents; and (3) the interaction of capillary-gravity with the nonuniform currents. Wave current interaction was measured and the feasibility of using such measurements for remote sensing of surface currents was considered. A laser probe was developed to measure the surface statistics, and the possibility of using current-wave interaction as a means of current measurement was demonstrated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137467
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ratios of solar to trapped proton fluences were computed for circular-orbit, geocentric space missions to be flown during the active phase of the next solar cycle (1977-1983). The ratios are presented as functions of orbit altitude and inclination, mission duration, proton energy threshold, and the chance the mission planner is willing to take that the actually encountered solar proton fluence will exceed the design fluence provided by the statistical solar proton model. It is shown that the ratio is most sensitively dependent on orbit altitude and inclination, with trapped protons dominant for low inclination, low and mid altitude orbits and for high inclination, mid altitude orbits. Conversely, solar protons are dominant for high inclination, low altitude orbits, and for low and high inclination, high altitude orbits.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70716 , X-601-74-221
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The charged particle fluxes incident on spacecrafts in very eccentric orbits were investigated in support of the International Sun-Earth Explorer (International Magnetospheric Explorer) For this purpose, two flightpaths were considered having identical inclinations but different perigee altitudes (240 and 1364 kilometers, respectively). Apogee altitude was approximately the same for both cases (about 22 earth radii). For each of the two perigee altitudes investigated, two nominal trajectories were generated, having identical orbital configurations but with their major axes rotated by 180 deg in the plane of orbit, which resulted in placing the initial apogee into into opposite hemispheres. This was done in order to determine the corresponding variation in the vehicle-encountered particle intensities. Estimates of average energetic solar proton fluxes are given for a one year mission duration at selected integranlenergies ranging from E 10 to E 100 MeV. Results are summarized and discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70696 , X-601-74-204
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Progress of ARSIG projects is reported and the impact of the projects upon policy decision within Arizona is discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: OALS-BULL-7 , NASA-CR-139315 , AR-2
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The maximum disturbances from the positive and negative regions of delta B (Bp and Bn, respectively) are investigated with respect to their correlation with (1) the average N-S component, Bz, (2) the average angle with respect to the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane, theta (3) the variance, sigma sub i, and (4) the magnitude, Bi, of the interplanetary magnetic field. These quantities were averaged over a period, T, ranging from 20 min. to 8 hours prior to the measurement of Bp or Bn. Variations (i.e., disturbances) in total magnetic field magnitude were studied utilizing data from the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory satellites (OGO 2, 4, and 6), unofficially referred to as POGO.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70711 , X-922-74-189
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Comparisons and analyses were carried out through the use of detailed gravimetric geoids which we have computed by combining models with a set of 26,000 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies. The accuracy of the detailed gravimetric geoid computed using the most recent Goddard earth model (GEM-6) in conjunction with the set of 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies is assessed at + or - 2 meters on the continents of North America, Europe, and Australia, 2 to 5 meters in the Northeast Pacific and North Atlantic areas, and 5 to 10 meters in other areas where surface gravity data are sparse. The R.M.S. differences between this detailed geoid and the detailed geoids computed using the other satellite gravity fields in conjuction with same set of surface data range from 3 to 7 meters.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-921-74-131 , NASA-TM-X-70709
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A brief status report on the performance of the ERTS-1, and an overview of the applications derived from the images are presented. The ERTS-1 spacecraft, sensor and picture processing systems have continued to perform almost flawlessly since August 1972. Registered, multispectral images of all major land masses of the earth, both polar and some oceanic regions are continuously made, covering daily an area of about 5 million square kilometers. The systematic repetition of these observations, which were made over most parts of the world at least once every season, and the high accuracy of thematic mapping that can be obtained from the images, have resulted in many applications that have immense potential benefits for developing countries. Among these applications are the detection and accurate mensuration of surface water; the identification and mensuration of forests, rangeland, crops and soils; the monitoring and mapping of water quality, wildlife habitats and of the effects of land use practices on food and water resources; the assessment of flooding and earthquake hazards; and the facilitation of mineral exploration.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-900-74-217 , NASA-TM-X-70715 , COSPAR Seminar on Space Appl. of Direct Interest to Developing Countries; Sao Paulo; Brazil
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Several local edge detection operators were applied to a set of ERTS pictures of the Monterey, Calif. area. Gradient operators performed consistently better than laplacian operators in detecting edges. It was also found that if a grayscale normalization operation, histogram flattening, was applied to the pictures first, the edge detector outputs were greatly enhanced. The use of interpolation for more accurate location of edges on a digital picture was also briefly investigated. Curve detection operators were applied to the edge detector outputs; this had the effect of enhancing the edges while suppressing noise.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138963 , TR-312
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: For abstract, see N74-29716.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-139378
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138886 , E74-10655
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A description is given of the relationship observed between enhancements in the far ultraviolet solar irradiance and the position of the solar magnetic sector boundaries. The ultraviolet observations were made with the monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) experiments which were launched aboard Nimbus 3 in April 1969 and Nimbus 4 April 1970. A comparison between the positions of solar magnetic sector boundaries and ultraviolet enchancements of the sun seems to show, at least during the year of 1969, that the ultraviolet maxima tend to occur near the times when a solar sector boundary is near the central meridian. An estimate of the magnitude of the variable ultraviolet solar energy input into the atmosphere resulting from the rotation of active solar longitudes is that for wavelengths less that 175 nm and down to H Lyman alpha it exceeds the annual variation whereas at longer wavelengths it is less. The total observed peak to peak variation in the ultraviolet irradiance from 120 to 300 nm over a solar rotation is typically at least 230 ergs/sq cm sec.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70674 , X-912-74-135
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Blunt probe theory for subsonic flow in a weakly ionized and collisional gas is reviewed, and an electron collection theory for the relatively unexplored case, Deybye length approximately 1, which occurs in the lower ionosphere (D-region), is developed. It is found that the dimensionless Debye length is no longer an electric field screening parameter, and the space charge field effect can be negelected. For ion collection, Hoult-Sonin theory is recognized as a correct description of the thin, ion density-perturbed layer adjacent the blunt probe surface. The large volume with electron density perturbed by a positively biased probe renders the usual thin boundary layer analysis inapplicable. Theories relating free stream conditions to the electron collection rate for both stationary and moving blunt probes are obtained. A model based on experimental nonlinear electron drift velocity data is proposed. For a subsonically moving probe, it is found that the perturbed region can be divided into four regions with distinct collection mechanisms.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PSU-IRL-SCI-424 , NASA-CR-138518
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: NASA aerial photography, primarily color infrared and color positive transparencies, was used in a study of marsh management practices and in comparing managed and unmanaged marsh areas. Weir locations for tidal control are recommended.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: DER-RM-2 , NASA-CR-138775
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ion effects are often observed on topside-sounder stimulated electron plasma wave phenomena. A commonly observed effect is a spur, appearing after a time delay corresponding to the proton gyro period, attached to the low frequency side of an electron plasma resonance. The spurs are often observed on the resonances at the electron plasma frequency f sub N, the harmonics nf sub H of the electron cyclotron frequency f sub H (n = 2, 3, 4, ...), and occasionally on the upper hybrid frequency. The spurs on the f sub N resonance are usually quite small unless the f sub N resonance overlaps with an nf sub H resonance; very large spurs are observed during such overlap conditions. Proton spurs are only observed on the nf sub H resonances when the electron plasma waves associated with these resonances are susceptible to the Harris instability and when the electromagnetic z wave can be initiated by the sounderpulse. This instability is the result of a sounder stimulated anisotropic electron velocity distribution. The observations suggest that energy is fed into the nf sub H longitudinal plasma wave from the z wave via wave-mode coupling. The magnitude of the nf sub H spurs for large n is much greater than for small n.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70675 , X-621-74-138
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: NASA aerial photography in the form of color infrared and color positive transparencies is used as an aid in evaluating the rate and effect of erosion and sediment transport in Bay Champagne Louisiana.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: DER-RM-3 , NASA-CR-138776
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model is presented of the trapped electron environment of solar minimum conditions. Solar maximum models have been presented for the inner radiation zone (AE-5 1967), and for the outer radiation zone (AE-4 1967). The present solar minimum model consists of an inner zone model (AE-5 1975 Projected) with an epoch of 1975, and an outer zone model with an epoch of 1964. With only minor modifications this latter model is identical to the AE-4 1964 model presented previous. The model, however, has not previously been issued in computer form. AE-4 1964 is based upon satellite data, while the inner zone solar minimum model AE-5 1975 Projected consists entirely of extrapolations from AE-5 1967. While the two components of the solar minimum model have epochs 11 years part, it is assumed that any differences between the successive solar minima are smaller than the model error, and the complete model is associated with an epoch of 1975.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NSSDC-74-03 , NASA-TM-X-69909
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  • 61
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The overabundance of heavy nuclei in solar cosmic rays of energy approximately 5 Mev/nucleon is explained by taking into account the pre-flare ionization states of these nuclei in the region where they are accelerated. A model is proposed which considers two-step accelerations associated with the initial development of solar flares. The first step is closely related to the triggering process of flares, while the second one starts with the development of the explosive phase. Further ionization of medium and heavy nuclei occurs through their interaction with Kev electrons accelerated by the first-step acceleration. It is suggested that the role of these electrons is important in producing fully ionized atoms in the acceleration regions.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-693-74-142 , NASA-TM-X-70661
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10531 , NASA-CR-138280
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138275 , E74-10526
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10545 , NASA-CR-138294
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A complete description of holography is provided, both for the time-dependent case of moving scene holography and for the time-independent case of stationary holography. Further, a specific holographic arrangement for application to the detection of particle size distribution in an atmospheric simulation cloud chamber. In this chamber particle growth rate is investigated; therefore, the proposed holographic system must capture continuous particle motion in real time. Such a system is described.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TR-R-424 , M-463
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138293 , E74-10544
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-138267 , E74-10517
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Investigations of cosmic ray anisotropies and their relationship to concurrent magnetic field data are reported. These investigations range in scope from the examination of data very late in the decay phase of a solar particle event where long term (approximately 6 hour) averages are used and definite interplanetary effects sought after to an examination of the change in low energy particle anisotropy as the satellite approaches the bow shock and the magnetopause.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-138127
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: QPR-3 , E74-10464 , NASA-CR-137453
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  • 70
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three conclusions are drawn on the usability, inherent variations, and noise aspects of the spectral signatures processed from data collected by the Field Signature Acquisition System (FSAS). Conclusions are based on the spectral data collected from winter wheat of the 1972/73 season, grown at Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: LEC-3175 , NASA-CR-134263
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Different forms of the theoretical gravity formula are summarized and methods of standardization of gravity anomalies obtained from satellite gravity and terrestrial gravity data are discussed in the context of three most commonly used reference figures, e.g., International Reference Ellipsoid, Reference Ellipsoid 1967, and Equilibrium Reference Ellipsoid. These methods are important in the comparison and combination of satellite gravity and gravimetric data as well as the integration of surface gravity data, collected with different objectives, in a single reference system. For ready reference, tables for such reductions are computed. Nature of the satellite gravity anomalies is examined to aid the geophysical and geodetic interpretation of these anomalies in terms of the tectonic features of the earth and the structure of the earth's crust and mantle. Computation of the Potsdam correction from satellite-determined geopotential is reviewed. The contribution of the satellite gravity results in decomposing the total observed gravity anomaly into components of geophysical interest is discussed. Recent work on the possible temporal variations in the geogravity field is briefly reviewed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70634 , X-921-74-54
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An ultraviolet source suitable for balloon and rocket payloads for measurements of nitric oxide in the lower D-region of the ionosphere was developed. The source primarily emits 1236 A and 1165 A photons obtained from an R.F.-excited krypton discharge in a resonator of coaxial geometry. Ultraviolet flux output greater than 10 to the 14th power photons/sec can be obtained from this source. A systematic design philosophy is developed which enables the photon output to be optimized with respect to photon wavelength, gas pressure, R.F., resonator geometry, and gas to be used. Critical factors in the design are discussed in detail.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-136909 , PSU-IRL-SCI-421E
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. Based on processing ERTS CCTs and ground truth measurements collected on Michigan test site for January through June 1973 the following results are reported: (1) atmospheric transmittance varies from: 70 to 85% in band 4, 77 to 90% in band 5, 80 to 94% in band 6, and 84 to 97% in band 7 for one air mass; (2) a simple technique was established to determine atmospheric scattering seen by ERTS-1 from ground-based measurements of sky radiance. For March this scattering was found to be equivalent to that produced by a target having a reflectance of 11% in band 4, 5% in band 5, 3% in band 6, and 1% in band 7; (3) computer ability to classify targets under various atmospheric conditions was determined. Classification accuracy on some targets (i.e. bare soil, tended grass, etc.) hold up even under the most severe atmospheres encountered, while performance on other targets (trees, urban, rangeland, etc.) degrades rapidly when atmospheric conditions change by the smallest amount.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10489 , NASA-CR-136890
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. In response to the need for a faster, more economical means of producing land use maps, this study evaluated the suitability of using ERTS-1 computer compatible tape (CCT) data as a basis for automatic mapping. Significant findings are: (1) automatic classification accuracy greater than 90% is achieved on categories of deep and shallow water, tended grass, rangeland, extractive (bare earth), urban, forest land, and nonforested wet lands; (2) computer-generated printouts by target class provide a quantitative measure of land use; and (3) the generation of map overlays showing land use from ERTS-1 CCTs offers a significant breakthrough in the rate at which land use maps are generated. Rather than uncorrected classified imagery or computer line printer outputs, the processing results in geometrically-corrected computer-driven pen drawing of land categories, drawn on a transparent material at a scale specified by the operator. These map overlays are economically produced and provide an efficient means of rapidly updating maps showing land use.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137423 , E74-10440
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10425 , NASA-CR-137351
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  • 76
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Remeasurement of the Adama, Lake Langana, and Arba Minch (Lake Margherita) geodimeter networks in 1973 has enabled Mohr's interpretation concerning possible surface ground deformation in the Ethiopian rift to be considerably developed. Extension appears to have occurred across the Mojjo-Adama horst at a rate of about 1 cm yr/1. The opposing rims of the Adama graben have not moved significantly relative to one another (between 1969 and 1973), but stations on the sliced graben floor show possible movement with a large rift-trend component. In the Wolenchiti quadrilateral, significant movement of station RABBIT is confirmed, but the radical change of vector (that of 1970-1971 to that of 1971-1973) casts doubt on a tectonic cause and seems to indicate that stations on steep hillslopes are liable to be unstable. South of the quadrilateral and east of the Adama graben, alternating rift-trend zones of extension and shortening appear to coexist. In the Lake Langana network, significant movements of the order of 0.5 cm yr/1 are directed perpendicular to the rift floor faulting.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: SAO-SPECIAL-REPT-358 , SAO-310-047 , NASA-CR-137357
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137353 , E74-10427
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. Field reconnaissance and study of geologic literature guided by analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery have led to a hypothesis of tectonic control of Miocene volcanism, plutonism, and related mineralization in part of the Basin Range Province of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The easterly trending right-lateral Las Vegas Shear Zone separates two volcanic provinces believed to represent areas of major east-west crustal extension. One volcanic province is aligned along the Colorado River south of the eastern termination of the Las Vegas Shear Zone; the second province is located north of the western termination of the shear zone in southern Nye County, Nevada. Geochronologic, geophysical, and structural evidence suggests that the Las Vegas Shear Zone may have formed in response to crustal extension in the two volcanic provinces in a manner similar to the formation of a ridge-ridge transform fault, as recognized in ocean floor tectonics.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10411 , NASA-CR-137256
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Harang discontinuity, the area separating the positive and negative bay regions in the midnight sector of the auroral zone, is a focal point for changes in behavior of many phenomena. Through this region the electric field rotates through the west from a basically northward field in the positive bay region to a basically southward field in the negative bay region, appearing as a reversal in a single axis measurement; 32 of these reversals have been identified in the OGO-6 data from November and December, 1969. The discontinuity is dynamic in nature, moving southward and steepening its latitudinal profile as magnetic activity is increased. As activity decreases it relaxes poleward and spreads out in latitudinal width. It occurs over several hours of magnetic local time. The boundary in the electric field data is consistent with the reversal of ground magnetic disturbances from a positive to negative bay condition. The discontinuity is present in the electric field data both during substorms and during quiet times and appears to define a pattern on which other effects can occur.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-625-74-67 , NASA-TM-X-70613 , NSSDC-ID-69-051A-23-PM
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The first in situ measurements of ion composition in the nighttime equatorial E and F region ionospheres (90-300 km) are presented and discussed. These profiles were obtained by two rocket-borne ion mass spectrometers launched from Thumba, India on March 9-10, 1970 at solar zenith angles of 112 deg and 165 deg. Ionosonde data established that the composition was measured at times bounding a period of F region downward drift. During this period the ions O(+) and N(+) were enhanced by one to three orders of magnitude between 220 and 300 km. Below the drift region (200 km), O(+) ceased to be the major ionic constituent, but the concentrations of O(+) and N(+) remained larger than predicted from known radiation sources and loss processes. Here also, both the O2(+) and NO(+) profiles retained nearly the same shape and magnitude throughout the night in agreement with theories assuming scattered UV radiation to be the maintaining source. Light metallic ions including Mg(+), Na(+) and possibly Si(+) were observed to altitude approaching 300 km, while the heavier ions Ca(+) and K(+) were seen in reduced quantity to 200 km. All metal ion profiles exhibited changes which can be ascribed to vertical drifting.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70593 , X-625-74-50
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  • 81
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Some examples are presented of the use of remote sensing in cultivated crops, forestry, and range management. Areas of concern include: the determination of crop areas and types, prediction of yield, and detection of disease; the determination of forest areas and types, timber volume estimation, detection of insect and disease attack, and forest fires; and the determination of range conditions and inventory, and livestock inventory. Articles in the literature are summarized and specific examples of work being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center are given. Primarily, aerial photographs and photo-like ERTS images are considered.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-64803
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  • 82
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    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10344 , NASA-CR-136856
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. NASA's ERTS-1 satellite and Skylab EREP have both provided imagery suitable for investigating coastal vegetation, land use, current circulation, water turbidity, waste disposal, and sea state. Based on high contrast targets, such as piers and breakwaters, the ERTS-1 MSS seems to have a resolution of 70-100 meters, Skylab's S190A about 30-70 meters, and its S190B about 10-30 meters. Important coastal land use details can be more readily mapped using Skylab's imagery. On the other hand, the regular eighteen day cycle of ERTS-1 allows observation of important manmade and natural changes, and facilitates collection of ground truth. The Skylab/EREP multispectral scanner offers 13 spectral bands as compared to 4 bands on ERTS-1. However, EREP scanner tapes require special filtering to remove several types of noise and their conical line scan pattern must be linearized before one can identify small targets based on spatial features.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-136859 , E74-10347
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is shown that magnetic bottles as the sources of moving metric type 4 bursts are not responsible for the development of geomagnetic storms, despite the fact that shock waves producing type 2 bursts are the sources of the interplanetary shock waves, which produce SSC's on the geomagnetic field. These magnetic bottles, in general, tend to move in the solar envelope with the speed of several hundred Km/sec at most, which is much slower than that of the motion of type 2 radio sources.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS