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  • GEOPHYSICS  (5,928)
  • 1970 - 1974  (5,928)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Use of the ERTS imagery involved the recognition and interpretation of various ground patterns. Analysis and application are tied to ongoing programs. Specific studies utilizing the imagery and NASA aircraft photography are: a statewide lake and dam inventory; assessment of flooding and floodprone areas along the Missouri portion of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers; land-use classification for several counties; structural features in selected areas; and Pleistocene features in northern Missouri. Though it has been suggested that repetitive coverage is not necessary for geologic studies, it is this specific feature along with the synoptic view of large portions of the State that provided the potential for the utilization of the ERTS imagery in Missouri. Other State agencies, Departments of Conservation, Agriculture, and Community Affairs, have expressed interest in the potential application of ERTS data in their respective fields.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G2 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 621-631
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The area of investigation includes part of the Central and Capital Region of Venezuela. Climatic conditions define the existence of different ecological associations with biological forms well defined in their physiognomic complexity as they reach complete development in environments related to gross geomorphic units: coastal area, northern mountain range, fluvio-lacustrines plains, southern mountain range, southern ridges and parts of Venezuelan central plains. In this area, rainfall varies from 600 mm to 2000 mm and evapotranspiration indexes indicate the existence of vegetation for semiarid conditions ( tropical very dry forest) as well as vegetation for very humid conditions (very humid premontane forest). This project was designed for: (1) Location of areas with representative ecosystems for the purpose of managing planning. (2) Identification of structural and physiognomic characteristics of vegetation. (3) Assessment of human activity effects on environmental debasement. (4) Definition of the content and possibilities of orbital ERTS images for the study of urban and rural land use. (5) Setting photointerpretation patterns applicable to areas of similar gross environmental conditions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-L18 , 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 585-593
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The U. S. Geological Survey CARETS (Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site)/ERTS investigation is testing the applicability of ERTS data as input to an environmental information system for a multi-state mid-Atlantic region surrounding the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The information system framework encompasses a flow of information through several stages from sensor to user, and involving evaluation and feedback from several potential users. Basic assumptions of the CARETS project model are that there is a measurable environmental impact associated with land use and land use change as determined with remote sensor data, and that the ERTS derived land use data sets, when properly calibrated, may thus provide regional planners and administrators with a shortcut to an understanding of the environmental changes that are going on in their regions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-L13 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 505-522
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Research on applications of ERTS-1 imagery to land use has focused on evaluating the ability of ERTS-1 imagery to update and refine the detail of land use information in the Minnesota Land Management Information System. Work has been directed toward defining the capabilities of the ERTS-1 system to provide information about surface cover by identifying forest, water, and wetland resources; urban and agricultural development: and testing and evaluating data input and output procedures. As capabilities were developed, meetings were held with administrators and resource information users from various agencies of government to identify their information needs. A full scale systems test for several selected pilot areas in the state is nearly complete. Users have been identified for each test area and they have been instrumental in identifying data requirements and analysis needs for administrative purposes. Users have both rural and urban orientations and provide a basis for evaluation of the results.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-L3 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A.; p 341-350
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Recent advances made in three disciplinary areas that are of major importance to Thailand are briefly discussed. These areas are; (1) agriculture, (2) forestry, and (3) land use. Preliminary investigations of the ERTS-1 data have been so successful that the Thai Government has decided to develop a remote sensing data handling and research center.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A21 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-(1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 319-329
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Photographic and digital imagery received from ERTS-1 was analyzed and evaluated as to its usefulness for the assessment of agricultural and forest land resources. Black and white, and color composite imagery provided spectral and spatial data, which, when matched with temporal land information, provided the basis for a semidetailed land use and forest site evaluation cartography. Color composite photographs have provided some information on the status of irrigation of agricultural lands. Computer processed digital imagery was successfully used for detailed crop classification and semidetailed soil evaluation. The results and techniques of this investigation are applicable to ecological and geological conditions similar to those prevailing in the Eastern Mediterranean.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A11 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 159-182
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-136585 , E74-10257
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: JRB-74-202-AA , E74-10764 , NASA-CR-140004
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  • 9
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: This field trip mostly involves volcanic features that can be seen from roads in the east Puna District. Most of the features are associated with the eruptions of 1750(?), 1790(?), 1840, 1955, 1960, and the recent flows from Mauna Ulu on the Keauhou Lava Plains during the years 1969 to 1973. Particular emphasis is given to the 1955 and 1960 volcanic activity that occurred near the village of Kapoho.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Res. Center Guidebook to the Hawaiian Planetology Conf.; p 248-257
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Charged particle conductivities measured in the very low ionosphere are compared with atmospheric parameters and high-frequency radio wave absorption measurements. Between 33 and 58 km, positive conductivity is well correlated with neutral atmospheric temperature. Good correlations are found also between high-frequency radio wave absorption and negative conductivity at altitudes as low as 53 km, this fact suggesting that day-to-day variations in absorption may be principally due to variations in electron loss rate. These correlations do not apply to some days of very low or very high radio wave absorption, for which the effects of transport on nitric oxide appear to be important.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AD-785797 , AROD-10287-6-EN , Journal of Geophysical Research; 79; May 20
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: New extra-terrestrial techniques are discussed for geodesy and geodynamics include laser range measurements to the moon or to artificial satellites, Doppler measurements with the Transit satellite system, and both independent-clock and linked-antenna microwave interferometry. The ways in which PTTI measurements are used in these techniques will be reviewed, and the accuracies expected during the latter half of the 1970's will be discussed. At least 3 of the techniques appear capable of giving accuracies of 5 cm or better in each coordinate for many points on the earth's surface, and comparable accuracies for the earth's rotation and polar motion. For fixed stations or for sites a few hundred km apart, baseline lengths accurate to 1 cm may be achieved. Ways in which the complementary aspects of the different techniques can be exploited will be discussed, as well as how they tie in with improved ground techniques for determining crustal movements. Some recent results from the extra-terrestrial methods will be mentioned.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Proc. of the Sixth Ann. Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Planning Meeting; p 39-57
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: ERTS-1 images of West Aswan area were interpreted in terms of geology, drainage, and structure. Twenty-two geological units were distinguished on ERTS-1 images in West Aswan area covering geological formations and erosional levels within some formations ranging from the Precambrian to the Quaternary. Apart from the distinction of Aswan monumental granite the investigated area shows very interesting exposures of sedimentary rocks ranging from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary. Of special interest is the delineation of the iron-ore member of the Nubian Sandstone and the phosphate-bearing formation. The tracing of the geological formations from south to north and the distinction of the varied geological units within the Pliocene and Quaternary, and the discussion on the origin of tufa are of particular significance. Also, the tracing on these images of major fractures and faults intercepting Aswan Dam Reservoir and their significance on the seepage and possible future development of diversion channels from reservoir is emphasized.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G25 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 919-942
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A simple method to determine the approximate altitude of clouds is described, with the objective of refining their classification using only marginal data from the photographs. Results of the application of this method on photographs of the Goajira Peninsula, Paraguana Peninsula and the Central Coast of Venezuela are presented. Here, the altitudes computed are used to classify clouds and to identify the genus of others without typical form. Instability of air masses through clouds vertical development, and wind direction as well as other local climatic characteristics such as moisture content, loci of condensation, area, etc. are determined using repetitive coverage for the time interval of the photography. Applications for the regional and urban planning (including airport location and flights schedule) and natural resources evaluation are suggested.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G22 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 869-882
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: ERTS imagery is of unique value for mapping of certain fractures that are not identifiable on aircraft imagery. Because color infrared and ERTS imagery complement each other both sources of data were used to map fractures in western Indiana and eastern Illinois. In the Kings Station Mine, Gibson County, Indiana, most roof falls reported had occurred in areas where mapped fractures were closely spaced and intersecting. Using this information as a basis for extrapolation, roof fall hazard maps were prepared for other mine sites. Various coal resources programs related to energy and environment also were conducted.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G19 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 825-843
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A number of base metal finds have recently focussed attention on the North Western Cape Province of South Africa as an area of great potential mineral wealth. From the point of view of competitive mineral exploration it was essential that an insight into the regional geological controls of the base metal mineralization of the area be obtained as rapidly as possible. Conventional methods of producing a suitable regional geological map were considered to be too time-consuming and ERTS-1 imagery was consequently examined. This imagery has made a significant contribution in the compilation of a suitable map on which to base further mineral exploration programmes. The time involved in the compilation of maps of this nature was found to be only a fraction of the time necessary for the production of similar maps using other methods. ERTS imagery is therefore considered to be valuable in producing accurate regional maps in areas where little or no geological data are available, or in areas of poor access. Furthermore, these images have great potential for rapidly defining the regional extent of metallogenic provinces.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G15 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 797-806
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: ERTS imagery reveals for the first time the structural pattern of the African rift system as a whole. The strong influence of Precambrian structures on this pattern is clearly evident, especially along zones of cataclastic deformation, but the rift pattern is seen to be ultimately independent in origin and nature from Precambrian tectonism. Continuity of rift structures from one swell to another is noted. The widening of the Gregory rift as its northern end reflects an underlying Precambrian structural divergence, and is not a consequence of reaching the swell margin. Although the Western Rift is now proven to terminate at the Aswa Mylonite Zone, in southern Sudan, lineaments extend northeastwards from Lake Albert to the Eastern Rift at Lake Stefanie. The importance of en-echelon structures in the African rifts is seen to have been exaggerated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G12 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 767-782
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Three areas in central and northern Arizona centered on the (1) Verde Valley, (2) Coconino Plateau, and (3) Shivwits Plateau were studied using ERTS photography. Useful applications results include: (1) upgrading of the existing state geologic map of the Verde Valley region; (2) detection of long NW trending lineaments in the basalt cap SE of Flagstaff which may be favorable locations for drilling for new water supplies; (3) tracing of the Bright Angel and Butte faults to twice their previously known length and correlating the extensions with modern seismic events, showing these faults to be present-day earthquake hazards; (4) discovering and successfully drilling perched sandstone aquifers in the Kaibab Limestone on the Coconino Plateau; and (5) determining the relationship between the Shivwits lavas and the formation of the lower Grand Canyon and showing that the lavas should be an excellent aquifer, as yet untapped.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G9 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 719-744
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G7 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 681-689
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  • 19
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Identification on ERTS images of severe vehicular scars in the northern Alaska tundra suggests that, if such scars are of an intensity or have spread to a dimension such that they can be resolved by ERTS sensors (20 meters), they can be identified and their state monitored by the use of ERTS images. Field review of the state of vehicular scars in the Umiat area indicates that all are revegetating at varying rates and are approaching a stable state.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G3 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 633-641
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G28 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 969-976
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Based on initial work in the Lake Tanganyika area of eastern Zaire, it has been concluded that ERTS imagery is extremely useful for reconnaissance level geologic mapping and analysis in this region of the humid tropics. In particular, ERTS imagery has proven useful for recognizing and mapping regional structural units, for recognizing major structural features, and for arriving at some preliminary hypotheses about the mineral potential of the area. Results so far indicate that ERTS imagery can make a major contribution to the development of the mineral resources of the country. Research has concentrated on applications of ERTS imagery in the field of cartography, geology, forestry, hydrology and agriculture. For the work in geology, a test site was chosen in eastern Zaire on the shore of Lake Tanganyika in the vicinity of the Lukuga River. This area was selected because of its varied geology and the existence of two frames of cloud-free ERTS imagery.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G27 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 955-967
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Four lineaments in the Alabama Appalachians that appear on ERTS-1 imagery have been geologically analysed. Two of the lineaments appear to have regional geologic significance, showing relationships to structural and stratigraphic frameworks, water and mineral resources, geophysical anomalies, and seismicity. The other two lineaments are of local geologic significance, but, nevertheless, have important environmental implications.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G24 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 897-918
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A methodology was developed to evaluate multispectral analysis of orbital imagery on the interpretation of geology, coastal geomorphology and sedimentary processes. The images analyzed were obtained during the pass of ERTS satellite over the center region of Venezuela on October 19, 1972. ERTS-1 multispectral images in black and white paper copies and transparencies of the 4 bands and false color composites at scales of 1:1,000,000 and 1:500,000 were interpreted. Lithology and outcrop patterns of the following geological formations have been interpreted: igneous and metamorphic basement of Cocodite and Santa Ana, Jurassic-Cretaceous metamorphics of Pueblo Nuevo, Cantaure Miocene-Pliocene sediments, and Quaternary alluvium, dunes, beach ridges, bars and reefs. A prominent and extensive Paraguana tonal anomaly shaped as an 8 has been discovered at the NW of the Peninsula. Its erosional origin has exposed light toned lower beds at the center, with additional evidence of topographic depression and development of underground drainage of karst origin. Coastal geomorphology, its processes and energy has been interpreted with the help of wind direction analysis (ENE-WSW) at sea level through the orientation of transported materials (water vapor, water and sediments) by clouds, waves, sea current, plumes of suspended sediments associated to river outlets, dunes, sediment sources and shore-line orientation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G23 , NASA. Goodard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 883-896
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The temporal changes that are recorded by ERTS were evaluated for an area around Bathurst Inlet in the North West Territories. The seasons represented by the images included: early winter, spring, early summer, summer, and fall. Numerous surface characteristics (vegetation, drainage patterns, surface texture, lineament systems and topographic relief, etc.) were used to relate the change in observable features with the different seasons. It was found that the time of year when an observation is made has a strong control over the amount and type of information that can be derived by an experienced interpreter. It was concluded that a detailed study of temporal changes is an important part of any ERTS interpretation for geology.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G20 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 845-855
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: This experiment was designed to determine the types and amounts of information valuable to petroleum exploration extractable from ERTS data and the cost of obtaining the information using traditional or conventional means. It was desired that an evaluation of this new petroleum exploration tool be made in a geologically well known area in order to assess its usefulness in an unknown area. The Anadarko Basin lies in western Oklahoma and the panhandle of Texas. It was chosen as a test site because there is a great deal of published information available on the surface and subsurface geology of the area, and there are many known structures that act as traps for hydrocarbons. This basin is similar to several other large epicontinental sedimentary basins. It was found that ERTS imagery is an excellent tool for reconnaissance exploration of large sedimentary basins or new exploration provinces. For the first time, small and medium size oil companies can rapidly and effectively analyze exploration provinces as a whole.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G17 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 809-821
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  • 26
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Ten potential target areas for metallic mineral exploration were selected on the basis of a photo-lineament interpretation of the ERTS image 1172-17141 in central Colorado. An evaluation of bias indicated that prior geologic knowledge of the region had little, if any, effect on target selection. In addition, a contoured plot of the frequency of photo-lineament intersections was made to determine what relationships exist between the photo-lineaments and mineral districts. Comparison of this plot with a plot of the mineral districts indicates that areas with a high frequency of intersections commonly coincide with known mineral districts. The results of this experiment suggest that photo-lineaments are fractures or fracture-controlled features, and their distribution may be a guide to metallic mineral deposits in Colorado, and probably other areas as well.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G14 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 785-796
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  • 27
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: This survey covered the French Massif-Central (where crystalline and volcanic rocks outcrop) and its surrounding sedimentaries, Bassin de Paris, Bassin d'Aquitaine and Rhodanian valley. One objective was the mapping of fracturing and the surveying of its relationship with known ore deposits. During this survey it was found that ERTS imagery outlines lithology in some sedimentary basins. On the other hand, in a basement area, under temperature climate conditions, lithology is rarely expressed. These observations can be related to the fact that band 5 gives excellent results above sedimentary basins in France and generally band 7 is the most useful in a basement area. Several examples show clearly the value of ERTS imagery for mapping linear features and circular structures. All the main fractures are identified with the exception of new ones found both in sedimentaries and basement areas. Other interesting findings concern sun elevation which, stereoscopic effect not being possible, simulates relief in a better way under certain conditions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-G11 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 757-766
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: ERTS-1 satellite imagery can be an effective data-gathering tool for resource managers. Techniques are developed which allow managers to visually analyze simulated color infrared composite images to map perennial and ephemeral (annual) plant communities. Tentative results indicate that ephemeral plant growth and development and potential to produce forage can be monitored.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A18 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 291-299
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: ERTS-1 data, obtained during the period 25 August 1972 to 5 September 1973 over a range of test sites in the Central United States, have been used for identifying and mapping differences in soil patterns, species and conditions of cultivated crops, and conditions of rangelands. Multispectral scanner data from multiple ERTS passes over certain test sites have provided the opportunity to study temporal changes in the scene. Multispectral classifications delineating soils boundaries in different test sites compared well with existing soil association maps prepared by conventional means. Spectral analysis of ERTS data was used to identify, maps, and make areal measurements of wheat in western Kansas. Multispectral analysis of ERTS-1 data provided patterns in rangelands which can be related to soils differences, range management practices, and the extent of infestation of grasslands by mesquite (prosopis fuliflora) and juniper (juniperus spp.).
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A13 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 205-223
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The Center for Remote Sensing Research has conducted studies designed to evaluate the potential application of ERTS data in performing agricultural inventories, and to develop efficient methods of data handling and analysis useful in the operational context for performing large area surveys. This work has resulted in the development of an integrated system utilizing both human and computer analysis of ground, aerial, and space imagery, which has been shown to be very efficient for regional crop acreage inventories. The technique involves: (1) the delineation of ERTS images into relatively homogeneous strata by human interpreters, (2) the point-by-point classification of the area within each strata on the basis of crop type using a human/machine interactive digital image processing system; and (3) a multistage sampling procedure for the collection of supporting aerial and ground data used in the adjustment and verification of the classification results.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A7 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 117-125
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The Statistical Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is evaluating ERTS-1 imagery as a potential tool for estimating crop acreage. A main data source for the estimates is obtained by enumerating small land parcels that have been randomly selected from the total U.S. land area. These small parcels are being used as ground observations in this investigation. The test sites are located in Missouri, Kansas, Idaho, and South Dakota. The major crops of interest are wheat, cotton, corn, soybeans, sugar beets, potatoes, oats, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. Some of the crops are unique to a given site while others are common in two or three states. This provides an opportunity to observe crops grown under different conditions. Results for the Missouri test site are presented. Results of temporal overlays, unequal prior probabilities, and sample classifiers are discussed. The amount of improvement that each technique contributes is shown in terms of overall performance. The results show that useful information for making crop acreage estimates can be obtained from ERTS-1 data.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PAPER-A5 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 87-92
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  • 32
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Progress of the Canadian ERTS program is provided along with statistics on the production and role of ERTS images both from the CCRS in Ottawa and from the Prince Albert Saskatchewan satellite station. The types of products, difficulties of production and some of the main applications in Canada are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 3d ERTS-1 Symp., Vol. 1, Sect. A; p 13-19
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-05-05
    Description: Papers presented at the Third Symposium on Significant Results Obtained from the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite covered the areas of: agriculture, forestry, range resources, land use, mapping, mineral resources, geological structure, landform surveys, water resources, marine resources, environment surveys, and interpretation techniques.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-SP-351-VOL-1-SECT-A , 10-14 Dec. 1973; Washington, DC; United States
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2012-05-22
    Description: Threshold and growth rate for stimulated Brillouin scattering are calculated for a uniform magnetoplasma. These are then compared with the threshold and growth rate of a new thermal instability in which the nonlinear Lorentz force felt by the electrons at the beat frequency of the two electromagnetic waves is replaced by a pressure force due to differential heating in the interference pattern of the pump wave and the generated electromagnetic wave. This thermal instability, which is still essentially stimulated Brillouin scattering, has a threshold which is especially low when the propagation vector of the beat wave is almost normal to the magnetic field. The threshold is then considerably lower than the threshold for normal stimulated Brillouin scattering and therefore this new instability is probably responsible for the generation of large scale field aligned irregularities and ionospheric spread F.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AGARD Nonlinear Effects in Electromagnetic Wave Propagation; 7 p
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2012-05-22
    Description: The Arecibo 430 MHz incoherent scatter radar (ISR) was used to monitor the effects of modifying the ionosphere by a high power HF transmitter feeding the 305 m reflector antenna. When in the ordinary magnetoionic mode parametric instabilities develop in the ionosphere near the reflection level. Manifestations of these instabilities are the strong enhancement of Langmuir oscillations in the direction of the ISR beam at a wavelength of 35 cm and the simultaneous much weaker enhancement of ion oscillations in that direction. The spectral analysis of the enhanced peak with a height resolution of 2.4 km shows that the ionic mode enhancement most often has a double humped frequency spectrum corresponding to up- and down-going ion acoustic waves. The shape of the frequency spectrum is interpreted in terms of a stable oscillation which is driven by a secondary electrostatic field caused by nonlinear interaction of Langmuir waves within a cone centered on the magnetic field and by the scattering of the pump field on stable Langmuir waves travelling along the direction of the ISR.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AGARD Nonlinear Effects in Electromagnetic Wave Propagation; 13 p
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  • 36
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2012-05-22
    Description: Recent calculations on the nonlinear saturation spectrum of the parametric decay instability are described. The initial calculations did not use the correct expression for the spontaneous emission term and were aimed at obtaining the distribution of spectral energy in the unstable part of wave vector space. Results of those initial calculations are combined here with the correct expression for the spontaneous emission term to obtain the distribution of spectral energy in the stable part of wave vector space. These latter calculations are believed to be relevant to the interpretation of the so called plasma line spectra obtained in ionospheric heating experiments at Arecibo, Puerto Rico.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AGARD Nonlinear Effects in Electromagnetic Wave Propagation 10p (SEE N74-31812 21-13)
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A computer program is described which allows for calculation of the effects of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide on earth resources remote sensing techniques. A flow chart of the program and operating instructions are provided. Comparisons are made between the atmospheric transmission obtained from laboratory and spacecraft spectrometer data and that obtained from a computer prediction using a model atmosphere and radiosonde data. Limitations of the model atmosphere are discussed. The computer program listings, input card formats, and sample runs for both radiosonde data and laboratory data are included.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-58137 , JSC-09063
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Seismic data recorded at the Tonto Forest Seismological Observatory in Arizona and the Uinta Basin Seismological Observatory in Utah were used to compare the frequency of occurrence, severity, and spectral content of ground motions resulting from earthquakes, and other natural and man-made sources with the motions generated by sonic booms. A search of data recorded at the two observatories yielded a classification of over 180,000 earthquake phase arrivals on the basis of frequency of occurrence versus maximum ground velocity. The majority of the large ground velocities were produced by seismic surface waves from moderate to large earthquakes in the western United States, and particularly along the Pacific Coast of the United States and northern Mexico. A visual analysis of raw film seismogram data over a 3-year period indicates that local and regional seismic events, including quarry blasts, are frequent in occurrence, but do not produce ground motions at the observatories comparable to either the large western United States earthquakes or to sonic booms. Seismic data from the Nevada Test Site nuclear blasts were used to derive magnitude-distance-sonic boom overpressure relations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-132606
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  • 39
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The concept of gravity tectonics is applied to reveal the major clue as to the conditions which result in the correspondence of seismic and tectonic gaps in the mantle. An asymptotic theory is developed for the calculation of the thrust and moment when a descending lithospheric plate encounters resistance to its downward motion in the mesosphere. Dynamic analysis falls into two parts: (1) deriving equations for forces in the descending lithosphere, (2) deducing moment distribution which causes the detachment of lithosphere. For the analysis of forces a mathematical theory of shells is given. In order to determine the detachment mechanism, solutions of equations are obtained by asymptotic integration. It is found that a thrust N sub phi coupled with a moment M sub phi due to gravitational forces generated by density contrast may play a key role in the initial detachment of a piece of descending lithosphere. The results are in agreement with the observed seismic gaps beneath South America, Toga-Fiji, New Zealand and New Hebrides regions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70856 , X-921-74-184
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The direct recovery was investigated of mean gravity anomalies from summed range rate observations, the signal path being ground station to a geosynchronous relay satellite to a close satellite significantly perturbed by the short wave features of the earth's gravitational field. To ensure realistic observations, these were simulated with the nominal orbital elements for the relay satellite corresponding to ATS-6, and for two different close satellites (one at about 250 km height, and the other at about 900 km height) corresponding to the nominal values for GEOS-C. The earth's gravitational field was represented by a reference set of potential coefficients up to degree and order 12, considered as known values, and by residual gravity anomalies obtained by subtracting the anomalies, implied by the potential coefficients, from their terrestrial estimates. It was found that gravity anomalies could be recovered from strong signal without using any a-priori terrestrial information, i.e. considering their initial values as zero and also assigning them a zero weight matrix. While recovering them from weak signal, it was necessary to use the a-priori estimate of the standard deviation of the anomalies to form their a-priori diagonal weight matrix.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-142303 , REPT-218
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Simultaneous measurements of ion composition and plasma drift velocity by the Bennett mass spectrometer on the Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite reveal a direct correlation between enhancements in NO(+) concentration and ion drift velocity in the southern auroral oval. Low altitude (137 to 250 km) nighttime data reveal a region of westward plasma flow at velocities up to 1.3 km/s between 62 deg and 68 deg invariant latitude, with corresponding NO(+) enhancements of up to a factor of 25. A narrow region of reverse flow at approximately 0.9 km/s was also measured. These drift observations are consistent with convective flow patterns derived from electric field measurements, and their correlation with NO(+) appears to support the suggestion that NO(+) enhancements would be expected in regions of drift owing to the dependence on ion energy of the reaction O(+) + N2 yields NO(+) + N.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70821 , X-621-74-343
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  • 42
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A weak nonthermal continuum, radiated by the earth from energetic electrons in the outer radiation zone, is studied. It is shown that the frequency spectrum of the continuum radiation consists of two components, a trapped component, which is permanently trapped within the magnetosphere at frequencies below the solar wind plasma frequency, and an escaping component which propagates freely away from the earth at frequencies above the solar wind plasma frequency. Direction finding measurements and measurements of the spatial distribution of intensity for both components indicated that the continuum radiation is generated (1) in a broad region which extends through the morning and early afternoon immediately beyond the plasmapause boundary, and (2) over a broad range of latitudes, including the magnetic equator. Possible mechanisms by which this radiation is generated, including gyro-synchrotron radiation from energetic electrons in the outer radiation zone, are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-142076
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An accelerator nominally capable of ejecting pulses of electrons up to 6 sec in length, current to 500 ma and energy to 20 keV was flown on a rocket at 1500 October 15, 1972. The Strypi rocket was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Kauai, Hawaii. The intent was to eject electron pulses of various characteristics upwards along the magnetic field so as to produce artificial auroras in the conjugate (Southern Hemisphere) atmosphere and possibly to produce weaker auroras in the nearby atmosphere as a consequence of backscattered electrons. The accelerator package included a gas jet actuated attitude control system controlled by gyros. Attitude sensing also was accomplished by a two-axis fluxgate magnetometer, and a large foil was deployed to collect ambient electrons to neutralize the accelerator when it ejected high-energy electrons. Scientific instrumentation contained on the flight package included retarding potential analyzers, energetic electron detectors, and detectors to sense very low frequency radio noise. Image orthicon television systems and other optical sensors were operated in the conjugate region aboard two NC-135 jet aircrafts based in Samoa. Similar devices were operated at Haleakala, Hawaii, to attempt detection of auroras caused by backscattered electrons.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140379
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  • 44
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Nomographs were developed for relating uncertainty in temperature T to uncertainty in the observed height profiles of both pressure p and density rho. The relative uncertainty delta T/T is seen to depend not only upon the relative uncertainties delta P/P or delta rho/rho, and to a small extent upon the value of T or H, but primarily upon the sampling-height increment Delta h, the height increment between successive observations of p or delta. For a fixed value of delta p/p, the value of delta T/T varies inversely with Delta h. No limit exists in the fineness of usable height resolution of T which may be derived from densities, while a fine height resolution in pressure-height data leads to temperatures with unacceptably large uncertainties.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-911-74-270 , NASA-TM-X-70809
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effect of temperature fluctuations on atmospheric ozone chemistry is examined by considering the Chapman photochemical theory of ozone transport to calculate globally averaged ozone production rates from mean reaction rates, activation energies, and recombination processes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70813 , X-912-74-341 , Effect of temperature oscillation on chemical reaction rates inthe atmosphere; Nov 1974; United States
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  • 46
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A statistical evaluation of some of the recent satellite determined gravity models, including some with distinct data base, indicates that the geopotential coefficients of these models are individually meaningful for frequencies with wave numbers n = 2 through 7 certainly and wave numbers n = 8 through 10 probably. Geopotential coefficients in higher frequency ranges while apparently important for computing accurate satellite orbits seem to have little geophysical significance in an individual sense. Differences between various gravity models and those satellite purely between determined geopotential models and their associated combination models show no consistent relationship to surface gravimetric coverage. Additional classical tracking data are important in improving the existing description of the earth's gravity field but their contribution in extending its frequency range beyond what is now available is uncertain.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-921-74-275 , NASA-TM-X-70796
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Remote sounding of stratospheric temperatures up to 3.2 millibars is attempted using high resolution (unapodized) radiance measurements in the 15 micron CO2 band from the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer on Nimbus 4. Inversions are performed using the Chahine relaxation technique. Radiance data and simultaneous in situ temperature profiles are obtained from the Rocket/Nimbus Sounder Comparison. Numerical tests with synthetic radiance data show that the uncertainty in the retrieved temperatures due to random instrument noise is about 1.1 K when averaged over layers about 10 km thick. However, comparison of the measured radiances with the radiances calculated from the in situ profiles show the calculated radiances to be systematically higher than the measured radiances. The evidence indicates that systematic errors exist in both the radiance and the in situ measurements.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-141130
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The City of Cleveland Division of Air Pollution Control and NASA jointly investigated the chemical and physical characteristics of the suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, and as part of the program, measurements of the particle size distribution of ambient air samples at five urban locations during August and September 1972 were made using high-volume cascade impactions. The distributions were evaluated for lognormality, and the mass median diameters were compared between locations and as a function of resultant wind direction. Junge-type distributions were consistent with dirty continental aerosols. About two-thirds of the suspended particulate matter observed in Cleveland is less than 7 microns in diameter.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-3124 , E-8024
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A system of computer programs were developed which performs geometric rectification and line-by-line mapping of airborne multispectral scanner data to ground coordinates and estimates ground area. The system requires aircraft attitude and positional information furnished by ancillary aircraft equipment, as well as ground control points. The geometric correction and mapping procedure locates the scan lines, or the pixels on each line, in terms of map grid coordinates. The area estimation procedure gives ground area for each pixel or for a predesignated parcel specified in map grid coordinates. The results of exercising the system with simulated data showed the uncorrected video and corrected imagery and produced area estimates accurate to better than 99.7%.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-2460 , ERIM-190100-28-T
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The instantaneous values of output voltages representing the wind velocity vector and the temperature at different elevations of the 250-foot meteorological tower located at NASA Wallops Flight Center are provided with the three dimensional split-film TSI Model 1080 anemometer system. The output voltages are sampled at a rate of one every 5 milliseconds, digitized and stored on digital magnetic tapes for a time period of approximately 40 minutes, with the use of a specially designed data acqusition system. A new calibration procedure permits the conversion of the digital voltages to the respective values of the temperature and the velocity components in a Cartesian coordinate system connected with the TSI probe with considerable accuracy. Power, cross, coincidence and quadrature spectra of the wind components and the temperature are obtained with the use of the fast Fourier transform. The cosine taper data window and ensemble and frequency smoothing techniques are used to provide smooth estimates of the spectral functions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-62088 , VPI-E-74-26
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  • 51
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Surface elevation deviations in the Gulf Stream region off the eastern coast of the United States between Wallops Island, Virginia and Miami, Florida were investigated. The main causes of surface elevation deviations are geoid perturbations due to the continental shelf and the geostrophic adjustment of the density field due to the Gulf Stream. Quantitative surface elevation profiles were calculated based on geophysical measurements of gravity anomalies and hydrographic data. The results are presented graphically along with contemporaneous weather data. Comparisons are made between the profiles based on hydrographic data and a mean theoretical model. The theory of geostrophic flows including some classical Gulf Stream models is also presented briefly.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-137471
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Air-quality data for metropolitan Cleveland, Ohio, from 1967 through 1972 were collated and statistically analyzed. Total suspended particulates (TSP) departed from lognormal distribution in 1972. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, departed significantly from lognormal distributions in 1972. In Cleveland the Ohio standards were not met. However, the data indicate a general improvement in air quality. Unusually high precipitation (43% above the average in 1972) may be responsible in lowering these values from the 1971 levels. The mean values of TSP, NO2, and SO2 are 104, 191, and 83 microgram/cu m respectively.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-3113 , E-7850
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A surface heating function, defined as the ratio of the time derivative of the mean annual temperature curve to the surface heat balance, is computed from the annual temperature range and heat balance data for the North American continent. An annual cycle of the surface heat balance is then reconstructed from the surface heating function and the annual temperature curve, and an annual cycle of evaporative plus turbulent heat loss is recomputed from the annual cycles of radiation balance and surface heat balance for the continent. The implications of these results for long range weather forecasting are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: CONTRIB-36 , NASA-CR-140587
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Controlled ground-based passive microwave radiometric measurements on soil moisture were conducted to determine the effects of terrain surface roughness and vegetation on microwave emission. Theoretical predictions were compared with the experimental results and with some recent airborne radiometric measurements. The relationship of soil moisture to the permittivity for the soil was obtained in the laboratory. A dual frequency radiometer, 1.41356 GHz and 10.69 GHz, took measurements at angles between 0 and 50 degrees from an altitude of about fifty feet. Distinct surface roughnesses were studied. With the roughness undisturbed, oats were later planted and vegetated and bare field measurements were compared. The 1.4 GHz radiometer was less affected than the 10.6 GHz radiometer, which under vegetated conditions was incapable of detecting soil moisture. The bare surface theoretical model was inadequate, although the vegetation model appeared to be valid. Moisture parameters to correlate apparent temperature with soil moisture were compared.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: RSC-56 , NASA-CR-140515
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  • 55
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Varied uses of ERTS imagery are briefly discussed. Applications to mineral/land resources, environment, land use, water resources, maps/charts, marine resources, and agriculture/forestry/range resources are also provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70333
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Dynamical orbital techniques were employed to estimate the center-of-mass station coordinates of six C-band radars located in the designated primary GEOS-C radar altimeter calibration area. This work was performed in support of the planned GEOS-C mission (December, 1974 launch). The sites included Bermuda, Grand Turk, Antigua, Wallops Island (Virginia), and Merritt Island (Florida). Two sites were estimated independently at Wallops Island yielding better than 40 cm relative height recovery, with better than 10 cm and 1 m (relative) recovery for phi and gamma respectively. Error analysis and comparisons with other investigators indicate that better than 2 m relative recovery was achieved at all sites. The data used were exclusively that from the estimated sites and included 18 orbital arcs which were less than two orbital revolutions in length, having successive tracks over the area. The techniques employed here, given their independence of global tracking support, can be effectively employed to improve various geodetic datums by providing very long and accurate baselines. The C-band data taken on GEOS-C should be employed to improve such geodetic datums as the European-1950 using similar techniques.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-69356
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140150 , E74-10797
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  • 58
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: ERIM-101900-38-L , E74-10795 , NASA-CR-140148
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. In the course of the ERTS investigation in the Cataract Creek Basin of the Coconino Plateau it was recognized that shallow perched ground water associated with the Kaibab Limestone could be discovered by means of drilling guided by geologic mapping aided by the use of ERTS imagery. At the Globe Ranch, the perched water table is only 5 meters beneath the surface at the site of the original, hand dug well. Recharge occurs from local runoff and from direct precipitation on the outcrop belt of the sandstone. This well provides water for the ranch at the rate of about 1,000 gallons a week. In order to explore the possibility of further developing this aquifer, unit 5 was mapped over an area of about 50 square miles in the vicinity of the hand-dug well, with negative results. A new location was then picked for drilling based on the occurrence of unit 5 in a favorable structural setting. This location was along a normal fault, and it was anticipated that water might be structurally trapped within the down-dropped block of the fault. Four shallow testholes were drilled and all encountered water. These four water-bearing holes are currently being monitored and will be tested to determine potential production of water from the local sandstone aquifer.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140144 , E74-10791
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PR-2 , NASA-CR-140141 , E74-10788
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10785 , NASA-CR-140138
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140135 , E74-10782 , QPR-6
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140132 , E74-10779
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. In the Eastern Aquitaine Basin in southern France, investigations using SL 3 photographs from an S190A camera reveal a slight line joining a Paleozoic trend of the Montagne Noire massif to a more recent Pyrenean fault zone of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. According to the interpretation of this line as the superficial geomorphological trace of a deep-seated fault zone, Hercynian weakness lines appear to have played a more important part than previously thought in the building of the Pyrenean range. The Lezat line is a trend of small morphological features obvious only in the photographs having the highest resolution.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PR-4 , E74-10774 , NASA-CR-140127
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140124 , E74-10771
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10770 , NASA-CR-140123
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. Road systems being developed within the Manitou, Colorado area for human habitation are readily discernible on the S192 normal-color photographs. These are dirt roads, some of which are about 20 feet wide. These data should provide the District Ranger of the Pike National Forest required information on the size and extent of these developing areas, information which he does not now have but is required for total management of the District.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140122 , BMPR-13 , E74-10769
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  • 68
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Pseudobrookite, is found in volcanic rocks, and the mineral armalcolite ((Fe,Mg)Ti2O5) found in the Apollo 11 and subsequent lunar samples seems to be unique to the moon. In plutonic rocks on the earth, ilmenite and rutile were found with what appears to be an equilibrium liquidus texture, while on the moon armalcolite often appears to be the primary liquidus phase among Ti-oxides. This suggests that total pressure may be a factor in the formation of these minerals, and a knowledge of the phase relations in this system yields information about the pressure under which a given magma crystallized.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140490
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  • 69
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The exospheric temperatures are derived from Ar, N2, O and He measurements obtained from the Aeros-1 NATE experiment. It is shown that the temperatures derived from Ar and N2 are very close to each other and show very similar seasonal, latitudinal and the day to night variations both under quiet and the geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The temperatures derived from O and He do not usually follow this pattern because of their large variabilities in the lower thermosphere. The differences in the inferred temperatures from these gases are particularly noticeable when the neutral composition data between 220-250 km are used. In this altitude region Ar appears to have some advantage over N2 for the purpose of deriving neutral temperature.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-621-74-254 , NASA-TM-X-70754
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Calculations of the steady-state photoelectron energy and angular distribution in the altitude region between 120 and 1000 km are presented. The distribution is found to be isotropic at all altitudes below 250 km, while above this altitude anisotropies in both pitch angle and energy are found. The isotropy found in the angular distribution below 250 km implies that photoelectron transport below 250 km is insignificant, while the angular anisotropy found above this altitude implies a net photoelectron current in the upward direction. The energy anisotropy above 500 km arises from the selective backscattering of the low energy photoelectron population of the upward flux component by Coulomb collisions with the ambient ions. The total photoelectron flux attains its maximum value between about 40 and 70 km above the altitude at which the photoelectron production rate is maximum. The displacement of the maximum of the equilibrium flux is attributed to an increasing (with altitude) photoelectron lifetime. Photoelectrons at altitudes above that where the flux is maximum are on the average more energetic than those below that altitude.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-140040
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from surface to 25 mb is presented for the 54 stations participating in the Atmospheric Variability Experiment 11 pilot experiment which began at 12 GMT on May 11, 1974, and ended at 12 GMT on May 12, 1974. Soundings were made at 3 hour intervals. A brief discussion is included on methods of processing and data accuracy, and synoptic charts prepared from the the data are presented. The area covered by the sounding stations is the eastern United States, east of approximately 105 deg west longitude.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-64877
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-139548 , E74-10716
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: The author has identified the following significant results. A 1.1,000,000 scale sketch map has been prepared from ERTS imagery of the Prince Olav Coast, Antarctica. This is the first such mapping of the extent of the ice tongues of the Shtrase and Fietta Bay glaciers. Shtrase is of particular interest because the ERTS imagery shows the tongue extending out into the Lutzom-Holm Bay approximately 32 miles further than ever depicted on existing maps. This sketch map and others in work covering coastal areas of the Antarctic continent show many coastal changes when compared to what is believed to be the most current published maps. These sketch maps along with the accompanying mosaics will be a bench mark for future revision to existing maps and charts and also an invaluable source for mew mapping. ERTS imagery is now available over Mt. Siple, Antarctica, and it is expected to provide a source to position Mt. Siple correctly in relation to the Executive Committee Range. A mosaic at 1:500,000 scale is also being compiled that will serve as a source for future revision of 1:250,000 scale maps of the Ellsworth Mountains, change and improve the shape and size of the islands within the Ronne Ice Shelf, and redefine the ice front of the Ronne and Filchner Shelves.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10713 , NASA-CR-139546
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10707 , NASA-CR-139540
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-139222 , E74-10689
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Progress of ARSIG projects is reported and the impact of the projects upon policy decision within Arizona is discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: OALS-BULL-7 , NASA-CR-139315 , AR-2
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10661 , NASA-CR-138893
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: MR-11 , NASA-CR-138888 , E74-10656
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10599 , NASA-CR-138708
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10698 , NASA-CR-139317
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: E74-10693 , NASA-CR-139226
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-139228 , E74-10695
    Format: application/pdf
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