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  • GEOPHYSICS  (21,936)
  • 1
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    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: At the last International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Workshop it was decided that future editions of the model should include a representationof the aurroral oval boundaries. In this paper we review the different existing parameterizations of the auroral oval discussing their data base, boundary criteria, matematical formation, and overall usefulness for IRI. As a first candidate for incorporation into IRI we recomment the parameterization of the Feldstein ovals by Holzworth and Meng. Ways of implementing this model into IRI are discussed. We will also address adjustability with user-provided boundaries or boundary-related parameters, to better support strom-related studies.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 1; p. (1)13-(1)16
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: Measurements by single-frequency satellite altimeter (Geosat, ERS-1) require a ionospheric correction to account for the signal time delay in the ionosphere. We propose using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) for the determination of this time delay. To investigate the effectiveness of an IRI correction, we have compared the IRI values with ionospheric corrections deduce from measurements by the dual-frequency Topex altimeter. By measuring at two frequencies, the Topex instrument can record (and thus eliminate) the ionospheric influence. We find that IRI agrees with the Topex data much better than the model that is currently used in Geosat data analysis. In particular the earlier model does not represent the equatorial double-peak (equator anomaly) clearly seen in the Topex data. Overall, the use of IRI results in a 30% improvement (over the older model) in the accuracy of ionospheric corrections computed for the first year of the Topex mission.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 2; p. 113-119
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  • 3
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    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: This paper was presented during the special session that was held at the 1993 International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) Workshop in honor of Karl Rawer's 80th birthday. It retraces the steps that led from the start of the IRI project to the present edition of the model highlighting the important role that the honoree played in guiding IRI from infancy to maturity. All summary view graphs are reproduced at the end of the article.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 2; p. 7-10
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-03-30
    Description: An international conference on high-latitude ionospheric modeling produced 27 papers in the areas of ionospheric mapping, electron density and distribution, ion density and distribution, ionospheric storems, ionospheric composition, and ionospheric sounding techniques. Upgrades to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model were proposed in several papers.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 1
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-03-29
    Description: Papers from the conference are presented and cover the following topics: ion and electron beams; ionospheric modification; spacecraft interactions; chemical releases; and plasma waves. Auroras and plasma emissions are reported from electron beam injection experiments on the EXCEDE 3 rocket and APEX satellite respectively. The important parameters affecting the charging of spacecraft during the operation of electron guns is covered. The Active Magnetospheric Particle Acceleration Satellite (AMPAS) mission utilizing dual-payload tethered satellites and both up and downward directed electron beams is proposed to study the magnetosphere. Recent results and associated theories from the Sura, Arecibo and Troms ionospheric heating facitlites are presented. The effects of neutral gases on spacecraft charging are examined in a series of rocket flights. Many results from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite chemical release experiments are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 12
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-03-29
    Description: The main subject of the symposium was 'off-median phenomena'. The title denotes a range of problems that are rarely considered in 'pure science' studies of the ionosphere. The appearance of regular ionospheric variations is well known. Most of these depend on evident solar-geophysical influences like day and night, solar zenith angle, the seasons, geomagnetic control, solar activity, etc. Applicants and theoreticians as well used to work with monthly medians so that the in fact existing and quite important day-to-day variability is systematically overlooked. It is evident that a descriptive model like the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) would be inadequate if this variability were denied. Interesting contributions from the symposium on 'off-median phenomena' and the IRI are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 2
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  • 7
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    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: A data base comprised of all available ionosphere satellite ion composition measurements - the Goddard Comprehensive Ionosphere Data Base (GCID) - has been set upon optical disks for convenient merging and accessing of data from different satellites. This data has recentely been expanded to include all accessible satellite electron density and plasma temperature measurements. This paper demonstrates with a couple examples, the potential of GCID as an alternative to empirical models for undertanding ionsophere physics and chemistry. Through binning techniques GCID provdes a tool that complements and improves on the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI) in delineating the topology of high latitude ion composition. GCID provides at a glance a measure of the local statistical variabilty of the ion compostions that is not in empirical models such as IRI. Furthermusing the data to determine the spatial and geophysical parameter range over which the minor ion species are approximately in chemical equilibrium, the number of data points available for empirical ion composition models can be increased by using the statiscally more reliable neutral and electron empirical models to derive ions composition. Currently available empirical models are not capable of adequately defining the comples high latitude distribution - a measure of the variablity is needed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 16; 1; p. (1)95-(1)104
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the largest enhancement of stratospheric aerosol loading ever observed by lidar over Hampton, Virginia. Low altitude layers (less than 20 km) were the first to arrive over Hampton in early August, the result of transport associated with a tropospheric anticyclonic cell over North America. The maximum peak scattering ratio, 34 at 22.4 km, and the maximum stratospheric integrated backscatter of 0.0053 sr(exp -1), both at 694 nm, observed since the eruption were measured on February 20, 1992. After decreasing during the spring and summer of 1992, the aerosol burden increased significantly during the winter of 1992-93, evidence of a poleward winter transport from the equatorial reservoir. Over the period from February 1992 to February 1994, the stratospheric aerosol loading decreased with an average 1/e decay time of 10.1 months. The vertical distribution, intensity, and transport of Pinatubo aerosols over this site are described and compared with similar measurements after El Chichon.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1101-1104
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Azimuthal asymmetries in the atmospheric refractive index can lead to errors in estimated vertical and horizontal station coordinates. Daily average gradient effects can be as large as 50 mm of delay at a 7 deg elevation. To model gradients, the constrained estimation of gradient paramters was added to the standard VLBI solution procedure. Here the analysis of two sets of data is summarized: the set of all geodetic VLBI experiments from 1990-1993 and a series of 12 state-of-the-art R&D experiments run on consecutive days in January 1994. In both cases, when the gradient parameters are estimated, the overall fit of the geodetic solution is improved at greater than the 99% confidence level. Repeatabilities of baseline lengths ranging up to 11,000 km are improved by 1 to 8 mm in a root-sum-square sense. This varies from about 20% to 40% of the total baseline length scatter without gradient modeling for the 1990-1993 series and 40% to 50% for the January series. Gradients estimated independently for each day as a piecewise linear function are mostly continuous from day to day within their formal uncertainties.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1041-1044
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper describes an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm for choosing a new direction of a photon after a scattering interaction. The algorithm chooses a scattering angle by linear interpolation in a table of the inverse cumulative scattering probability. A Legendre expansion of the phase function makes it easy to apply Clenshaw's algorithm to build the interpolation table. The points in the table are close enough together that linear interpolation is accurate. With a table of 100,000 entries, we can keep the absolute and relative errors in matching the probability distribution below 10(exp -5).
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (ISSN 0022-4073); 53; 1; p. 23-38
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report multi-instrument observations during an isolated substorm on 17 October 1989. The European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar operated in the SP-UK-POLI mode measuring ionospheric convection at latitudes 71 deg Lambda - 78 deg Lambda. Sub-Auroral Magnetometer Network (SAMNET) and the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross provide information on the timing of substorm expansion phase onset and subsequent intensifications, as well as the location of the field aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the substorm current wedge. Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-8 (IMP-8) magnetic field data are also included. Evidence of a substorm growth phase is provided by the equatorward motion of a flow reversal boundary across the EISCAT radar field of view at 2130 MLT, following a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We infer that the polar cap expanded as a result of the addition of open magnetic flux in the tail lobes during this interval. The flow reversal boundary, which is a lower limit to the polar cap boundary, reached an invariant latitude equatorward of 71 deg Lambda by the time of the expansion phase onset. We conclude that the substorm onset region in the ionosphere, defined by the westward electrojet, mapped to a part of the tail radially earthward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux, the distant neutral line. Thus the substorm was not initiated at the distant neutral line, although there is evidence that it remained active during the expansion phase.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0992-7689); 13; 2; p. 147-158
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The effects on double-probe electric field measurements induced by electron density and temperature gradients are investigated. We show that on some occasions such gradients may lead to marked spurious electric fields if the probes are assumed to lie at the same probe potential with repect to the plasma. The use of a proper bias current will decrease the magnitude of such an error. When the probes are near the plasma potential, the magnitude of these error signals, delta Epsilon, can vary as delta Epsilon approx. T(sub e)(Delta n(sub e)/n(sub e)) + 0.5 Delta T(sub e), where T(sub e) is the electron temperature, Delta n(sub e)/ n(sub e) the relative electron density variation between the two sensors, and Delta T(sub e) the electron temperature difference between the two sensors. This not only implies that the error signals will increase linearly with the density variations but also that such signatures grow with Delta T(sub e) i.e., such effects are 10 times larger in a 10-eV plasma than in a 1-eV plasma. This type of error is independent of the probe separation distance provided the gradient scale length is much larger than the distance. The largest errors occur when the probes are near to the plasma potential. During the crossing of a small structure (e.g, a double layer) the error signal appears as a bipolar signature. Our analysis shows that errors in double-probe measurements caused by plasma gradients are not significant at large scale (much greater than 1 km) plasma boundaries, and may only be important in cases where small-scale (less than 1 km), internal gradient structures exist. Bias currents tailored for each plasma parameter regime (i.e., variable bias current) would improve the double-probe response to gradient effects considerably.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0992-7689); 13; 2; p. 130-146
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Radiation resulting from interaction between the effluent cloud of a space shuttle thruster and the ambient atmosphere was observed with a spectograph aboard the shutttle. The spectral measurements were made between 400 and 800 nm with a resolutoion of 3 nm. The primary emissions are identified as NO2, HNO, O(1)D, and O(1)S. These are the first observations od O(1)S emission in the shuttle plume. These data are compared with the previous measurements, and possible excitation mechanisms are discussed. The results are also compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of thruster plume-atmosphere interaction radiation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5819-5825
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: New investigations of the core ion motion within high-latitude topside ionosphere and near-Earth magnetosphere, using data from the Dynamics Explorer (DE) retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS), reveal the existence of significant regions of downward moving O(+). The occurences of downgoing versus upgoing O(+) are not clearly separable in terms of either polar zenith angle or Kp but are well distinquished by the direction of the z component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). On the average, down flow dominates when IMFB2 less than O, while upflow dominates for IMFB2 greater than 0. Combining cross-field convection velocities derived from an empirical convection electric field model with the observed parallel velocities yields a two dimensional ion velocity field. This velocity field is consistent with a senario which has O(+) of cusp/cleft and auroral zone origin concvecting into the polar cap and, because of the dominance of gravitational energy over the upward kinetic energy, falling back into the inonsphere. This provides additional confirmation of the results of studies of the cleft ion fountain. Estimates of the flux of O(+) in the upflowing and downflowing regions for Lambda greater than or equal to 60 deg give a total upflow of approximately 6 X 10(exp 25) ions/sec for IMFB2 greater than 0 and total upflow and downflow of approximately 4 X 10 (exp 25) ions/sec and 1 x 10(exp 25) ions/sec, respectively, for IMFB less than 0. In all cases the magnitude of the dayside outflow is consistent with previous work on upwelling ions. While the magnitudes vary for high and low Kp the ratios of upward to downward flow are roughly the same at approximately 1.7. The downflowing O(+) shows a correlation with the magnitude of the outflow of light ions in the same region but the cause and effect of this relationship is not distinquishable. hable.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5795-5800
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The relation between the solar wind input to the magetosphere, VB(sub South), and the auroral geomagnetic index AL is modeled with two linear moving-average filtering methods: linear prediction filters and a driven harmonic oscillator in the form of an electric circuit. Although the response of the three-parameter oscillator is simpler than the filter's, the methods yield similar linear timescales and values of the prediction-observation correlation and the prediction Chi(exp 2). Further the filter responses obtained by the two methods are similar in their long-term features. In these aspects the circuit model is equivalent to linear prediction filtering. This poses the question of uniqueness and proper interpretation of detailed features of the filters such as response peaks. Finally, the variation of timescales and filter responses with the AL activity level is discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5637-5641
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Empirical data-based models of the magnetosphereic magnetic field have been widely used during recent years. However, the existing models (Tsyganenko, 1987, 1989a) have three serious deficiencies: (1) an unstable de facto magnetopause, (2) a crude parametrization by the K(sub p) index, and (3) inaccuracies in the equatorial magnetotail B(sub z) values. This paper describes a new approach to the problem; the essential new features are (1) a realistic shape and size of the magnetopause, based on fits to a large number of observed crossing (allowing a parametrization by the solar wind pressure), (2) fully controlled shielding of the magnetic field produced by all magnetospheric current systems, (3) new flexible representations for the tail and ring currents, and (4) a new directional criterion for fitting the model field to spacecraft data, providing improved accuracy for field line mapping. Results are presented from initial efforts to create models assembled from these modules and calibrated against spacecraft data sets.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A4; p. 5599-5612
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The evolution of the volcanic debris plume originating from the June 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo has been monitored since its genesis using a ground-based backscatter lidar facility sited at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Both absolute and relative pre- and post-Pinatubo backscatter observations are in accord with Mie scattering projections based on measured aerosol particle size distributions reported in the literature. The post-Pinatubo column-integrated backscatter coefficient peaked approximately 400 days after the eruption, and the observed upper boundary of the aerosol column subsided at a rate of approximately 200 m/mon.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 7; p. 807-810
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Direct current (DC) electric field and ion density measurements near density depletion regions (that is, equatorial plasma bubbles) are used to estimate the vertical neutral wind speed. The measured zonal electric field in a series of density depletions crossed by the San Marco D satellite at 01.47-01.52 Universal Time (UT) on 25 October 1988, can be explained if a downward neutral wind of 15-30 m/s exists. Simultaneously, the F-region plasma was moving downward at a speed of 30-50 m/s. These events appear in the local time sector of 23.00-23.15 in which strong downward neutral winds may occur. Indeed, airglow measurements suggest that downward neutral velocities of 25-50 m/s are possible at time near midnight in the equatorial F-region.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 6; p. 645-651
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  • 19
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An overview of the observations of backstreaming electrons in the foreshock and the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain their properties will be presented. A primary characteristic of observed foreshock electrons is that their velocity distributions are spatially structured in a systematic way depending on distance from the magnetic field line which is tangent to the shock. There are two interrelated aspects to explaining the structure of velocity distributions in the foreshock, one involving the acceleration mechanism and the other, propagation from the source to the observing point. First, the source distribution of electrons energized by the shock must be determined along the shock surface. Proposed acceleration mechanisms include magnetic mirroring of incoming solar wind particles and mechanisms involving transmission of particles through the shock. Secondly, the kinematics of observable electrons streaming away from a curved shock with an initial parallel velocity and a downstream perpendicular velocity component due to the motional electric field must be determined. This is the context in which the observations and their explanations will be reviewed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 8-9; p. 9-27
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Measurements of superthermal electron fluxes in the solar wind indicate that field lines within coronal mass ejections, CMEs, near and beyond 1 AU are normally connected to the Sun at both ends. However, on occasion some field lines embedded deep within CMEs appear to be connected to the Sun at only one end. Here we propose an explanation for how such field lines arise in terms of 3-dimensional reconnection close to the Sun. Such reconnection also provides a natural explanation for the flux rope topology characteristic of many CMEs as well as the coronal loops formed during long-duration, solar X-ray events. Our consideration of the field topologies resulting from 3-dimensional reconnection indicates that field lines within and near CMEs may on occasion be connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 8; p. 869-872
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We report here on a number of examples of anomalous enhancements of eastward electric fields near sunrise in the equatorial ionospheric F-region. These examples were selected from the data base of the equatorial satellite, San Marco D (1988), which measured ionospheric electric fields during a period of solar minimum. The eastward electric fields reported correspond to vertical plasma drifts. The examples studied here are similar in signature and polarity to the pre-reversal electric field enhancements seen near sunset from ground-based radar systems. The morphology of these sunrise events, which are observed on about 14% of the morning-side satellite passes, are studied as a function of local zonal velocity, magnetic activity, geographic longitude and altitude. The nine events studied occur at locations where the zonal plasma flow is generally measured to be eastward, but reducing as a function of local time and at satellite longitudes where the magnetic declination has the opposite polarity as the declination of the sunrise terminator.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 1; p. 19-24
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The subject of this paper is a self-consistent, magnetohydrodynamic numerical realization for the Earth's magnetosphere which is in a quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium for a due northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Although a few hours of steady northward IMF are required for this asymptotic state to be set up, it should still be of considerable theoretical interest because it constitutes a 'ground state' for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Moreover, particular features of this ground state magnetosphere should be observable even under less extreme solar wind conditions. Certain characteristics of this magnetosphere, namely, NBZ Birkeland currents, four-cell ionospheric convection, a relatively weak cross-polar potential, and a prominent flow boundary layer, are widely expected. Other characteristics, such as no open tail lobes, no Earth-connected magnetic flux beyond 155 R(sub E) downstream, magnetic merging in a closed topology at the cusps, and a 'tadpole' shaped magnetospheric boundary, might not be expected. In this paper, we will present the evidence for this unusual but interesting magnetospheric equilibrium. We will also discuss our present understanding of this singular state.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3623-3635
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A nonlinear filtering method is introduced for the study of the solar wind -- magnetosphere coupling and related to earlier linear techniques. The filters are derived from the magnetospheric state, a representation of the magnetospheric conditions in terms of a few global variables, here the auroral electrojet indices. The filters also couple to the input, a representation of the solar wind variables, here the rectified electric field. Filter-based iterative prediction of the indices has been obtained for up to 20 hours. The prediction is stable with respect to perturbations in the initial magnetospheric state; these decrease exponentially at the rate of 30/min. The performance of the method is examined for a wide range of parameters and is superior to that of other linear and nonlinear techniques. In the magnetospheric state representation the coupling is modeled as a small number of nonlinear equations under a time-dependent input.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3495-3512
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: This paper focuses on the comparison of cloud amounts derived from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), Satellite-observed clouds, and Ground-based cloud observations. Unlike Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)-type comparisons it does not mix potential errors in the cloud amount with those in the radiation code embedded in the model. Long term cloud climatologies were used to compare global cloud amounts and regional seasonal cycles. The AGCM successfully reproduced the signatures of the warm pool and North Pacific seasonal cycle cloudiness but failed in the low stratus region off the coast of South America, a known problem for AGCMs. The data sets also reproduced the anomaly signature associated with El Nino in the warm pool region, but the model amounts were lower. Global results had a similar success rate, with the model generally producing lower total cloud compared to the satellite and in situ measurements. To compare cloud vertical distributions the cloud height may need to be validated using the corresponding radiation fields. Unfortunately there were also some large discrepancies between the two observed cloud data sets. While tremendously improved over the last decade the character of the observed cloud data sets, must be substantially enhanced before they will be useful in validating AGCMs by any but the crudest levels of comparison.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D1; p. 1367-1378
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D1; p. 1121-1135
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Movement of water as vapor in the atmosphere is a fundamental process in the Earth's hydrological cycle. Investigations of spatial and time scales of water vapor transport in the atmosphere are important areas of research. Water vapor transmits energy as a function of its abundance across the spectrum. This is shown in the 400- to 2500-nm spectral region where the transmission of the terrestrial atmosphere has been modeled using the MODTRAN radiative transfer code for a range of water vapor abundances. Based on these model results, spectra measured by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) have been used to investigate the movement of water vapor at 20-m spatial resolution over an 11-by-30-km area at approximately 15-minute time intervals (1.25 hours total). AVIRIS measures the upwelling spectral radiance from 400 to 2500 nm at 10-nm spectral intervals and collects images of 11-by-up-to-1000 km at 20-m spatial resolution. Data are collected at a rate of 1 km of flight line per 4.5 seconds. A set of five AVIRIS flight lines was acquired in rapid succession over Rogers Dry Lake, CA on May 18, 1993 at 18:59, 19:13, 19:29, 19:47, and 19:59 UTC. Rogers Dry lake is located 2 hours north of Los Angeles, CA at 34.84 degrees north latitude and 117.83 degrees west longitude in the Mojave Desert.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Summaries of the Fifth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 1: AVIRIS Workshop; p 79-82
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The second pulsating aurora rocket (PULSAUR 2) rocket was launched into a pulsating aurora on 9 February 1994 and carried a broad range of instruments in order to perform a study of this type of aurora. The rocket measurements were complemented with a set of ground-based measurements. The particle measurements performed in the rocket are related to the ground-based optical measurements performed along the rocket trajectory. It is found that the high energy electrons are largely in phase with the measured luminosity. The EISCAT measurements carried out during the flight are reviewed. The PULSAUR 2 campaign is described. Results concerning the auroral conditions and the particle measurements are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: ESA, Proceedings of 12th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research; p 233-237
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: T-matrix computations of light scattering by polydispersions of randomly oriented nonspherical aerosols and Mie computations for equivalent spheres are compared. Findings show that even moderate nonsphericity results in suubstantial errors in the retrieved aerosol optical thickness if satellite reflectance measurements are analyzed using Mie theory. On the other hand, the use of Mie theory for nonspherical aerosols produces negligible errors in the computation of albedo and flux related quantities, provided that the aerosol size distribution and optical thickness are known beforehand. The first result can be explained by large nonspherical-spherical differences in scattering phase function, while the second result follows from small nonspherical-spherical differences in single-scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter. No cancellation of errors occurs if one consistently uses Mie theory in the retrieval algorithm and then in computing the albedo for the retrieved aerosol optical thickness.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 9; p. 1077-1080
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The impact of the extraterrestrial object that formed the Chicxulub crater in the northwestern Yucatan peninsula of Mexico is the leading suspect for the extinction of the dinosaurs. This article reports on a Planetary Society expedition to Albion Island in the Rio Hondo region of Belize to investigate evidence supporting the impact theory.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Planetary Report (ISSN 0736-3680); 15; 4; p. 10-14
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A large set of bow shock crossings (i.e., 1392) observed by 17 spacecraft has been used to explore the three-dimensional shape and location of the Earth's bow shock and its dependence on solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. This study investigates deviations from gas dynamic flow models associated with the magnetic terms in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Empirical models predicting the statistical position and shape of the bow shock for arbitrary values of the solar wind pressure, IMF, and Alfvenic Mach number (M(sub A)) have been derived. The resulting data set has been used to fit three-dimensional bow shock surfaces and to explore the variations in these surfaces with sonic (M(sub S)), Alfvenic (M(sub A)) and magnetosonic (M(sub MS)) Mach numbers. Analysis reveals that among the three Mach numbers, M(sub A) provides the best ordering of the least square bow shock curves. The subsolar shock is observed to move Earthward while the flanks flare outward in response to decreasing M(sub A); the net change represents a 6-10% effect. Variations due to changes in the IMF orientation were investigated by rotating the crossings into geocentric interplanetary medium coordinates. Past studies have suggested that the north-south extent of the bow shock surface exceeds the east-west dimension due to asymmetries in the fast mode Mach cone. This study confirms such a north-south versus east-west asymmetry and quantifies its variation with M(sub S), M(sub A), M(sub MS), and IMF orientation. A 2-7% effect is measured, with the asymmetry being more pronounced at low Mach numbers. Combining the bow shock models with the magnetopause model of Roelof and Sibeck (1993), variations in the magnetosheath thickness at different local times are explored. The ratio of the bow shock size to the magnetopause size at the subpolar point is found to be 1.46; at dawn and dusk, the ratios are found to be 1.89 and 1.93, respectively. The subsolar magnetosheath thickness is used to derive the polytropic index gamma according to the empirical relation of Spreiter et al. (1966). The resulting gamma = 2.3 suggests the empirical formula is inadequate to describe the MHD interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A5; p. 7907-7916
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have developed the numerical algorithm for the computation of transient viscoelastic responses in the time domain for a radially stratified Earth model. Stratifications in both the elastic parameters and the viscosity profile have been considered. The particular viscosity profile employed has a viscosity maximum with a constrast of O(100) in the mid lower mantle. The distribution of relaxation times reveals the presence of a continuous spectrum situated between O(100) and O(exp 4) years. The principal mode is embedded within this continuous spectrum. From this initial-value approach we have found that for the low degree harmonics the non-modal contributions are comparable to the modal contributions. For this viscosity model the differences between the time-domain and normal-mode results are found to decrease strongly with increasing angular order. These calculations also show that a time-dependent effective relaxation time can be defined, which can be bounded by the relaxation times of the principal modes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1285-1288
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Many problems in geophysical and astrophysical convection systems are characterized by fast rotation and spherical shell geometry. The combined effects of Coriolis forces and spherical shell geometry produce a unique spatial symmetry for the convection pattern in a rapidly rotating spherical shell. In this paper, we first discuss the general spatial symmetries for rotating spherical shell convection. A special model, a spherical shell heated from below, is then used to illustrate how and when the spatial symmetries are broken. Symmetry breaking occurs via a sequence of spatial transitions from the primary conducting state to the complex multiple-layered columnar structure. It is argued that, because of the dominant effects of rotation, the sequence of spatial transitions identified from this particular model is likely to be generally valid. Applications of the spatial symmetry breaking to planetary convection problems are also discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1265-1268
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Initial observations of a newly documented type of optical emission above thunderstorms are reported. 'Blue jets', or narrowly collimated beams of blue light that appear to propagate upwards from the tops of thunderstorms, were recorded on B/W and color video cameras for the first time during the Sprites94 aircraft campaign, June-July, 1994. The jets appear to propagate upward at speeds of about 100 km/s and reach terminal altitudes of 40-50 m. Fifty six examples were recorded during a 22 minute interval during a storm over Arkansas. We examine some possible mechanisms, but have no satisfactory theory of this phenomenon.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1209-1212
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: It is shown from flux transfer event (FTE) occurrence statistics, observed as a function of MLT by the ISEE satellites, that recent 2-dimensional analytic theories of the effects of pulsed Petschek reconnection predict FTEs to contribute between 50 and 200 kV to the total reconnection voltage when the magnetosheath field points southward. The upper limit (200 kV) allows the possibility that FTEs provide all the antisunward transport of open field lines into the tail lobe. This range is compared with the voltages associated with series of FTEs signatures, as inferred from ground-based observations, which are in the range 10-60 kV. We conclude that the contribution could sometimes be made by a series of single, large events; however, the voltage is often likely to be contributed by several FTEs at different MLT.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1185-1188
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We have investigated the middle atmospheric response to the 27-day and 11-yr solar UV flux variations at low to middle latitudes using a two-dimensional photochemical model. The model reproduced most features of the observed 27-day sensitivity and phase lag of the profile ozone response in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere, with a maximum sensitivity of +0.51% per 1% change in 205 nm flux. The model also reproduced the observed transition to a negative phase lag above 2 mb, reflecting the increasing importance with height of the solar modulated HO(x) chemistry on the ozone response above 45 km. The model revealed the general anti-correlation of ozone and solar UV at 65-75 km, and simulated strong UV responses of water vapor and HO(x) species in the mesosphere. Consistent with previous 1D model studies, the observed upper mesospheric positive ozone response averaged over +/- 40 was simulated only when the model water vapor concentrations above 75 km were significantly reduced relative to current observations. In agreement with observations, the model computed a low to middle latitude total ozone phase lag of +3 days and a sensitivity of +0.077% per 1% change in 205 nm flux for the 27-day solar variation, and a total ozone sensitivity of +0.27% for the 11-yr solar cycle. This factor of 3 sensitivity difference is indicative of the photochemical time constant for ozone in the lower stratosphere which is comparable to the 27-day solar rotation period but is much shorter than the 11-yr solar cycle.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics (ISSN 0021-9169); 57; 4; p. 333-365
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The stability of collisionless tearing modes is examined in the presence of curvature drift resonances and the trapped particle effects. A kinetic description for both electrons and ions is employed to investigate the stability of a two-dimensional equilibrium model. The main features of the study are to treat the ion dynamics properly by incorporating effects associated with particle trajectories in the tail fields and to include the linear coupling of trapped particle modes. Generalized dispersion relations are derived in several parameter regimes by considering two important sublayers of the reconnecting region. For a typical choice of parameters appropriate to the current sheet region, we demonstrate that localized tearing modes driven by ion curvature drift resonance effects are excited in the current sheet region with growth time of the order of a few seconds. Also, we examine nonlocal characteristics of tearing modes driven by curvature effects and show that modes growing in a fraction of a second arise when mode widths are larger than the current sheet width. Further, we show that trapped particle effects, in an interesting frequency regime, significantly enhance the growth rate of the tearing mode. The relevance of this theory for substorm onset phase and other features of the substorms is briefly discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3563-3572
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, we reoccupied several leveling benchmarks on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska which had been surveyed by conventional leveling immediately following the March 27, 1964, Prince William Sound earthquake (M(sub w) = 9.3). By combining the two sets of measurements with a new, high-resolution model of the geoid in the region, we were able to determine the cumulative 1993-1964 postseismic vertical displacement. We find uplift at all of our benchmarks, relative to Seward, Alaska, a point that is stable according to tide gauge data. The maximum uplift of about 1 m occurs near the middle of the peninsula. The region of maximum uplift appears to be shifted northwest relative to the point of maximum coseismic subsidence. If we use tide gauge data at Nikishka and Seward to constrain the vertical motion, then the observed uplift has a trenchward tilt (down to the southeast) as well as an arching component. To explain the observations, we use creep-at-depth models. Most acceptable models require a fault slip of about 2.75 m, although this result is not unique. If the slip has been continuous since the 1964 earthquake, then the average slip rate is nearly 100 mm/yr, twice the plate convergence rate. Comparing the net uplift achieved in 29 years with that observed over 11 years in an adjacent region southeast of Anchorage, Alaska, we conclude that the rate of uplift is decreasing. A further decrease in the uplift rate is expected as the 29-year averaged displacement rate is about twice the plate convergence rate and therefore cannot be sustained over the entire earthquake cycle.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; B2; p. 2031-2038
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver at Casa Diablo Hot Springs, Long Valley Caldera, California was installed in January, 1993, and has operated almost continuously since then. The data have been transmitted daily to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for routine analysis with data from the Fiducial Laboratories for an International Natural sciences Network (FLINN) by the JPL FLINN analysis center. Results from these analyses have been used to interpret the on going deformation at Long Valley, with data excluded from periods when the antenna was covered under 2.5 meters of snow and from some periods when Anti Spoofing was enforced on the GPS signal. The remaining time series suggests that uplift of the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera during 1993 has been 2.5 +/- 1.1 cm/yr and horizontal motion has been 3.0 +/- 0.7 cm/yr at S53W in a no-net-rotation global reference frame, or 1.5 +/- 0.7 cm/yr at S14W relative to the Sierra Nevada block. These rates are consistent with uplift predicted from frequent horizontal strain measurements. Spectral analysis of the observations suggests that tidal forcing of the magma chamber is not a source of the variability in the 3 dimensional station location. These results suggest that remotely operated, continuously recording GPS receivers could prove to be a reliable tool for volcanic monitoring throughout the world.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geopysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 3; p. 195-198
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A comparison is made of the vertical distribution of high-level cloud tops derived from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements and from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for all Julys and Januarys in 1985 to 1990. The results suggest that ISCCP overestimates the pressure of high-level clouds by up to 50-150 mbar, particularly at low latitudes. This is caused by the frequent presence of clouds with diffuse tops (greater than 50% time when cloudy events are observed). The averaged vertical extent of the diffuse top is about 1.5 km. At midlatitudes where the SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressure agree best, clouds with distinct tops reach a maximum relative proportion of the total level cloud amount (about 30-40%), and diffuse-topped clouds are reduced to their minimum (30-40%). The ISCCP-defined cloud top pressure should be regarded not as the material physical height of the clouds but as the level which emits the same infrared radiance as observed. SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressures agree for clouds with distinct tops. There is also an indication that the cloud top pressures of optically thin clouds not overlying thicker clouds are poorly estimated by ISCCP at middle latitudes. The average vertical extent of these thin clouds is about 2.5 km.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D1; p. 1137-1147
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Particles leving the neutral sheet in the distant magnetotail at times display adiabatic trajectory sequences characterized by an inflection toward the equator and subsequent mirroring in its vicinity. We demonstrate that this low-latitude mirroring results primarily from a centrifugal deceleration due to the fast direction-changing E x B drift. This effect which we refer to as 'centrifugal trapping' appears both in guiding centre and full particle treatments. It thus does not directly relate to nonadiabatic motion. However, pitch angle scattering due to nonadiabatic neutral sheet interaction does play a role in reducing the parallel speed of the particles. We show that centrifugal trapping is an important mechanism for the confinement of the slowest (typically below the equatorial E x B drift speed) plasma sheet populations to the midplane vicinity.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0992-7689); 13; 3; p. 242-246
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The high-speed correction factor to the O(+)-O collision frequency, resulting from drift velocities between ions and neutrals, is calculated by solving the integral expression in this factor both numerically and analytically. Although the analytic solution is valid for either small or large drift velocities between ions and neutrals, for temperatures of interest and all drift velocities considered, agreement is found between analytic and detailed numerical integration results within less than 1% error. Let T(sub r) designate the average of the ion and neutral temperatures in K, and u = nu(sub d)/alpha, where nu(sub d) is the relative drift velocity in cm/s, and alpha = 4.56 x 10(exp 3) square root of T(sub r) cm/s is the thermal velocity of the O(+)-O system. Then, as u ranges from 0 to 2, the correction factor multiplying the collision frequency increases monotonically from 1 to about 1.5. An interesting result emerging from this calculation is that the correction factor for temperatures of aeronomical interest is to a good approximation independent of the temperature, depending only on the scaled velocity u.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Annales Geophysicae (ISSN 0992-7689); 13; 3; p. 253-255
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: We examined 11 cases when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was intensely northward (greater than 10 nT) for long durations of time (greater than 3 hours), to quantitatively determine an uppler limit on the efficiency of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere. We have specifically selected these large B(sub N) events to minimize the effects of magnetic reconnection. Many of these cases occurred during intervals of high-speed streams associated with coronal mass ejections when viscous interaction effects might be at a maximum. It is found that the typical efficiency of solar wind energy injection into the magnetosphere is 1.0 x 10(exp -3) to 4.0 x 10(exp -3), 100 to 30 times less efficient than during periods of intense southward IMFs. Other energy sinks not included in these numbers are discussed. Estimates of their magnitudes are provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 6; p. 663-666
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The accuracy of Geosat satellite altimetry over the Greenland ice sheet is evaluated by comparing the measured heights to radar elevations from the airborne Greenland Aerogeophysics Project. At the center of the ice sheet where the ice surface is nearly level, surface comparisons show a fit at the 1 to 3 m level as expected, but even at moderately sloping ice regions (0.3 deg-0.6 deg), satellite altimetry mean errors in the range of 10 to 35 m are observed. These errors are found for slope-corrected and waveform-retracked data, so most previous accuracy estimates of current satellite altimetry ice sheet elevations in regions of slopping or undulating ice appear to be too optimistic.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; C2; p. 2687-2696
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Magnetic reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the geomagnetic field is thought to play a major role in the transfer of solar wind momentum and energy to the magnetosphere. As the angle between the IMF and the geomagnetic field is changed at the bow of the magnetosphere, the topological record of the location of the reconnection region should be recorded in the magnetosheath and on the magnetopause along the flanks of the tail, because the super fast flow freezes strong magnetic gradients formed in the bow reconnection regions into the plasma downstream. In this report, we present results from a three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), global numerical simulation code for the location of the separatrix between unconnected IMF magnetosheath field lines and reconnected field lines which penetrate the magnetopause and connect to the polar ionosphere. The angle between the IMF direction and the line where the separatrix crosses the magnetopause is shown to be a sensitive function of the IMF clock angle. We also explain how this behavior can be used to derive an approximate relation for the dependence of the cross-polar voltage on the IMF clock angle. We conclude with a note of caution concerning the importance of physical boundary conditions in magnetoplasma simulations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A3; p. 3613-3621
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Narrow enhancements of electron precipitation, with energy and flux well above typical values, have been observed with Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) in the cusp/cleft region. The electron flux in the energy range 0.2-1 keV was 2 orders of magnitude higher in these structures than in the magnetosheath and were seen in approximaetly 80% of DE 2 cusp crossings at ionospheric altitudes. Typically, there was more than one electron structure in each cusp crossing. The position of these structures showed a systematic variation: for poleward ion dispersion (energy decreases with increasing latitude), electron structures were seen more often on the equatorial boundary of the cusp, while for equatorward ion dispersion (energy decreases with decreasing latitude), electron structures were more often seen on the poleward boundary. This suggests that the electron structures are associated with newly reconnected field lines. The electron spectra suggest that field-aligned acceleration processes could produce the electron structures, first near the boundary of the cusp/cleft during the reconnection of field lines and then in the cusp/cleft during the motion of reconnected flux tubes through the polar ionosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A2; p. 1597-1610
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Enhancements in the fluxes of relativistic electrons trapped within the Earth's magnetosphere have been measured by the high-energy particle spectrometer, part of the particle environment monitor on the upper atmosphere research satellite (UARS). The largest increase in the electron fluxes with energies greater than 1 MeV observed on UARS from October 1991 through July 1994 was in early May 1992. The fluxes of trapped electrons in the drift loss cone and locally precipitating electrons showed differing buildup and decay rates as a function of invariant latitude. Increases of more than 2 orders of magnitude were observed in drift loss cone fluxes at magnetic latitudes of 40 deg-66 deg and in precipitating fluxes from 48 deg to 66 deg. The energy flux contained in the most intense local precipitation observed was approximately 0.1 erg/sq cm/s, entering the atmosphere and creating up to 1000 ion pairs/cu cm/s at 55-km altitude. The daily averaged energy flux from directly precipitating electrons with energies greater than 1 MeV deposited greater than 10(exp 20) erg/d worldwide into the atmosphere for the period May 12-21, 1992, producing greater than 10(exp 31) odd nitrogen molecules below 60-km altitude.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D1; p. 1027-1033
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Airborne Astronomy Symposium on the Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust, Volume 73; p 353-356
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The goals of this project are to observe how the open water/thin ice fraction in a high-concentration ice pack responds to different short-period atmospheric forcings, and how this response is represented in different scales of observation. The objectives can be summarized as follows: determine the feasibility and accuracy of ice concentration and ice typing by ERS-1 SAR backscatter data, and whether SAR data might be used to calibrate concentration estimates from optical and massive-microwave sensors; investigate methods to integrate SAR data with other satellite data for turbulent heat flux parameterization at the ocean/atmosphere interface; determine how the development and evolution of open water/thin ice areas within the interior ice pack vary under different atmospheric synoptic regimes; compare how open-water/thin ice fractions estimated from large-area divergence measurements differ from fractions determined by summing localized openings in the pack; relate these questions of scale and process to methods of observation, modeling, and averaging over time and space.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-200179 , NAS 1.26:200179 , NIPS-96-08477
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The use of radio sounding techniques for the study of the ionospheric plasma dates back to G. Briet and M. A. Tuve in 1926. Ground based swept frequency sounders can monitor the electron number density (N(sub e)) as a function of height (the N(sub e) profile). These early instruments evolved into a global network that produced high-resolution displays of echo time delay vs frequency on 35-mm film. These instruments provided the foundation for the success of the International Geophysical Year (1958). The Alouette and International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) programs pioneered the used of spaceborne, swept frequency sounders to obtain N(sub e) profiles of the topside of the ionosphere, from a position above the electron density maximum. Repeated measurements during the orbit produced an orbital plane contour which routinely provided density measurements to within 10%. The Alouette/ISIS experience also showed that even with a high powered transmitter (compared to the low power sounder possible today) a radio sounder can be compatible with other imaging instruments on the same satellite. Digital technology was used on later spacecraft developed by the Japanese (the EXOS C and D) and the Soviets (Intercosmos 19 and Cosmos 1809). However, a full coherent pulse compression and spectral integrating capability, such as exist today for ground-based sounders (Reinisch et al., 1992), has never been put into space. NASA's 1990 Space Physics Strategy Implementation Study "The NASA Space Physics Program from 1995 to 2010" suggested using radio sounders to study the plasmasphere and the magnetopause and its boundary layers (Green and Fung, 1993). Both the magnetopause and plasmasphere, as well as the cusp and boundary layers, can be observed by a radio sounder in a high-inclination polar orbit with an apogee greater than 6 R(sub e) (Reiff et al., 1994; Calvert et al., 1995). Magnetospheric radio sounding from space will provide remote density measurements of unprecedented precision and coverage in the plasmasphere, inner magnetosphere and magnetopause, from which the structure, inter-relationship, and variations of different plasma regions can be determined (Armstrong Johnson, 1995). A space-borne Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) could provide a unique global view of the magnetosphere revealing the underlying structure of remote plasma regions, thereby providing a framework for the interpretation of images obtained by other techniques as identified in the technical areas TA1 to TA4 in the MSFC NRA8-8.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-200009 , NAS 1.26:200009 , NIPS-96-07147
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Simultaneous very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and water vapor radiometer (WVR) measurements on a 21 km baseline showed that calibration by WVRs removed a significant fraction of the effect of tropospheric delay fluctuations for these experiments. From comparison of the residual delay variations within scans and between scans, the total tropospheric contribution t the delay residuals for each of the three 5 to 20 hour sessions was estimated as 1, 17, and 10%, with the first value being uncertain. The observed improvement in rms residual delay from WVR calibration during these three sessions was 4, 16, and 2%, respectively. The improvement is consistent with the estimated 2 to 3 mm path delay precision of current WVRs. The VLBI measurements, of natural radio sources, were conducted in April and May 1993 at Goldstone, California. Dual-frequency (2.3 and 8.4 GHz) observations were employed to remove the effects of charged particles from the data. Measurements with co-pointed WVRs, located within 50 m of the axis of each antenna, were performed to test the ability of the WVRs to calibrate line-of-sight path delays. Factors that made WVR performance assessment difficult included (1) the fact that the level of tropospheric fluctuations was smaller than is typical for Goldstone during these experiments and (2) VLBI delay variations on longer time scales (i.e., over multiple scans) contained uncalibrated instrumental effects (probably a result of slow temperature variations in the VLBI hardware) that were larger than the tropospheric effects.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report; p 12-31
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The main results of the grant were (1) finishing the manuscript of a proof of completeness of the Poincare modes in an incompressible nonviscous fluid corotating with a rigid ellipsoidal boundary, (2) partial completion of a manuscript describing a definition of helicity that resolved questions in the literature about calculating the helicities of vector fields with complicated topologies, and (3) the beginning of a reexamination of the inverse problem of inferring properties of the geomagnetic field B just outside the core-mantle boundary (CMB) from measurements of elements of B at and above the earth's surface. This last work has led to a simple general formalism for linear and nonlinear inverse problems that appears to include all the inversion schemes so far considered for the uniqueness problem in geomagnetic inversion. The technique suggests some new methods for error estimation that form part of this report.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199296 , NAS 1.26:199296
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: For three decades, magnetospheric field and plasma measurements have been made by diverse instruments flown on spacecraft in may different orbits, widely separated in space and time, and under various solar and magnetospheric conditions. Scientists have used this information to piece together an intricate, yet incomplete view of the magnetosphere. A simultaneous global view, using various light wavelengths and energetic neutral atoms, could reveal exciting new data nd help explain complex magnetospheric processes, thus providing a clear picture of this region of space. This report documents the scientific rational for such a magnetospheric imaging mission and provides a mission concept for its implementation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-RP-1378 , NAS 1.61:1378 , M-794 , NIPS-95-06265
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The latest version of the Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-95) is presented and discussed. GRAM-95 uses the new Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) CD-ROM data set, for 0- to 27-km altitudes. As with earlier versions, GRAM-95 provides complete geographical and altitude coverage for each month of the year. Individual years 1985 to 1991 and a period-of-record (1980 to 1991) can be simulated for the GUACA height range. GRAM-95 uses a specially developed data set, based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) data, for the 20- to 120-km height range, and the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model for heights above 90 km. Fairing techniques assure a smooth transition in the overlap height ranges (20 to 27 km and 90 to 120 km). In addition to the traditional GRAM variables of pressure, density, temperature and wind components, GRAM-95 now includes water vapor and 11 other atmospheric constituents (O3, N2O, CO, CH4, CO2, N2, O2, O, A, He, and H). A new, variable-scale perturbation model provides both large-scale and small-scale deviations from mean values for the thermodynamic variables and horizontal and vertical wind components. The perturbation model includes new features that simulate intermittency (patchiness) in turbulence and small-scale perturbation fields. The density perturbations and density gradients (density shears) computed by the new model compare favorably in their statistical characteristics with observed density perturbations and density shears from 32 space shuttle reentry profiles. GRAM-95 provides considerable improvement in wind estimates from the new GUACA data set, compared to winds calculated from the geostrophic wind relations previously used in the 0- to 25-km height range. The GRAM-95 code has been put into a more modular form, easier to incorporate as subroutines in other programs (e.g., trajectory codes). A complete user's guide for running the program, plus sample input and output, is provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-4715 , NAS 1.15:4715 , M-790
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The various regions of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are coupled by flows of charged particle beams and electromagnetic waves. This coupling gives rise to processes that affect both technical and non-technical aspects of life on Earth. The CRRES Program sponsored experiments which were designed to produce controlled and known input to the space environment and the effects were measured with arrays of diagnostic instruments. Large amounts of material were used to modify and perturb the environment in a controlled manner, and response to this was studied. The CRRES and PEGSAT satellites were dual-mission spacecraft with a NASA mission to perform active chemical-release experiments, grouped into categories of tracer, modification, and simulation experiments. Two sounding rocket chemical release campaigns completed the study.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-108494 , NAS 1.15:108494
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: We use a dynamical guiding-center model to investigate the stormtime transport of ring current and radiation-belt ions. We trace the motion of representative ions' guiding centers in response to model substorm-associated impulses in the convection electric field for a range of ion energies. Our simple magnetospheric model allows us to compare our numerical results quantitatively with analytical descriptions of particle transport, (e.g., with the quasilinear theory of radial diffusion). We find that 10-145-keV ions gain access to L approximately 3, where they can form the stormtime ring current, mainly from outside the (trapping) region in which particles execute closed drift paths. Conversely, the transport of higher-energy ions (approximately greater than 145 keV at L approximately 3) turns out to resemble radial diffusion. The quasilinear diffusion coefficient calculated for our model storm does not vary smoothly with particle energy, since our impulses occur at specific (although randomly determined) times. Despite the spectral irregularity, quasilinear theory provides a surprisingly accurate description of the transport process for approximately greater than 145-keV ions, even for the case of an individual storm. For 4 different realizations of our model storm, the geometric mean discrepancies between diffusion coefficients D(sup sim, sub LL) obtained from the simulations and the quasilinear diffusion coefficient D(sup ql, sub LL) amount to factors of 2.3, 2.3, 1.5, and 3.0, respectively. We have found that these discrepancies between D(sup sim, sub LL) and D(sup ql, sub LL) can be reduced slightly by invoking drift-resonance broadening to smooth out the sharp minima and maxima in D(sup ql, sub LL). The mean of the remaining discrepancies between D(sup sim, sub LL) and D(sup ql, sub LL) for the 4 different storms then amount to factors of 1.9, 2.1, 1.5, and 2.7, respectively. We find even better agreement when we reduce the impulse amplitudes systematically in a given model storm (e.g., reduction of all the impulse amplitudes by half reduces the discrepancy factor by at least its square root) and also when we average our results over an ensemble of 20 model storms (agreement is within a factor of 1.2 without impulse-amplitude reduction). We use our simulation results also to map phase-space densities f in accordance with Liouville's theorem. We find that the stormtime transport of approximately greater than 145-keV ions produces little change in f-bar the drift-averaged phase-space density on any drift shell of interest. However, the stormtime transport produces a major enhancement from the pre-storm phase-space density at energies approximately 30-145 keV, which are representative of the stormtime ring current.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199540 , NAS 1.26:199540 , ATR-92(7251)-3
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: If current plans are realized, within the next few years, an extraordinary set of coordinated research efforts focusing on energy flows in the Arctic will be implemented. All are motivated by the prospect of global climate change. SHEBA (Surface Energy Budget of the Arctic Ocean), led by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR), involves instrumenting an ice camp in the perennial Arctic ice pack, and taking data for 12-18 months. The ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) focuses on atmospheric radiative transport, especially in the presence of clouds. The NSA/AAO CART involves instrumenting a sizeable area on the North Slope of Alaska and adjacent waters in the vicinity of Barrow, and acquiring data over a period of about 10 years. FIRE (First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program) Regional Experiment) Phase 3 is a program led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which focuses on Arctic clouds, and which is coordinated with SHEBA and ARM. FIRE has historically emphasized data from airborne and satellite platforms. All three program anticipate initiating Arctic data acquisition during spring, 1997. In light of his historic opportunity, the authors discuss a strawman atmospheric radiative transfer experimental plan that identifies which features of the radiative transport models they think should be tested, what experimental data are required for each type of test, the platforms and instrumentation necessary to acquire those data, and in general terms, how the experiments could be conducted. Aspects of the plan are applicable to all three programs.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: DE95-009580 , SAND-95-0571C , CONF-950153-3
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This report describes the analysis component of the Goddard Earth Observing System, Data Assimilation System, Version 1 (GEOS-1 DAS). The general features of the data assimilation system are outlined, followed by a thorough description of the statistical interpolation algorithm, including specification of error covariances and quality control of observations. We conclude with a discussion of the current status of development of the GEOS data assimilation system. The main components of GEOS-1 DAS are an atmospheric general circulation model and an Optimal Interpolation algorithm. The system is cycled using the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) technique in which analysis increments are introduced as time independent forcing terms in a forecast model integration. The system is capable of producing dynamically balanced states without the explicit use of initialization, as well as a time-continuous representation of non- observables such as precipitation and radiational fluxes. This version of the data assimilation system was used in the five-year reanalysis project completed in April 1994 by Goddard's Data Assimilation Office (DAO) Data from this reanalysis are available from the Goddard Distributed Active Center (DAAC), which is part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). For information on how to obtain these data sets, contact the Goddard DAAC at (301) 286-3209, EMAIL daac@gsfc.nasa.gov.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-104606-VOL-4 , REPT-95B00040-VOL-4 , NAS 1.15:104606-VOL-4
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Although many properties of the Earth's magnetosphere have been measured and quantified in the past 30 years since it was discovered, one fundamental measurement (for zeroth order MHD equilibrium) has been made infrequently and with poor spatial coverage - the global electric field. This oversight is due in part to the neglect of theorists. However, there is renewed interest in the convection electric field because it is now realized to be central to many magnetospheric processes, including the global MHD equilibrium, reconnection rates, Region 2 Birkeland currents, magnetosphere ionosphere coupling, ring current and radiation belt transport, substorm injections, and several acceleration mechanisms. Unfortunately the standard experimental methods have not been able to synthesize a global field (excepting the pioneering work of McIlwain's geostationary models) and we are left with an overly simplistic theoretical field, the Volland-Stern electric field model. Single point measurements of the plasmapause were used to infer the appropriate amplitudes of this model, parameterized by K(sub p). Although this result was never intended to be the definitive electric field model, it has gone nearly unchanged for 20 years. The analysis of current data sets requires a great deal more accuracy than can be provided by the Volland-Stern model. The variability of electric field shielding has not been properly addressed although effects of penetrating magnetospheric electric fields has been seen in mid-and low-latitude ionospheric data sets. The growing interest in substorm dynamics also requires a much better assessment of the electric fields responsible for particle injections. Thus we proposed and developed algorithms for extracting electric fields from particle data taken in the Earth's magnetosphere. As a test of the effectiveness of these new techniques, we analyzed data taken by the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft in equatorial orbit from 1984 to 1989.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-197392 , NAS 1.26:197392
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The second pulsating aurora (PULSAUR 2) rocket was a comprehensively instrumented rocket for the study of the generating mechanisms of pulsating auroras and their related atmospheric and ionospheric effects. It carried instruments to measure electrons and ions over a wide range of energies and pitch angles, optical emissions and X-rays, direct currents and alternating currents, magnetic fields, electron densities and temperatures. The rocket was flown from Andoeya, Norway on 9 February 1994, during good auroral and optical conditions, and reached an altitude of 291.5 km. Coordinated measurements were made from the rocket range by television cameras, photometers, magnetometers, riometers and very low frequency receivers. Ionospheric parameters were measured by the EISCAT radar. The main objectives and performance of the project are discussed, and some of the data obtained are mentioned.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-111282 , NAS 1.15:111282 , ESA, Proceedings of 12th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research; p 227-232
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The goal of the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA) experiment carried out at Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 3, 1992, was to determine the response of the neutral atmosphere to the long-lived, large-scale forcing that is characteristic of the diffuse aurora in the post midnight sector. A combination of chemical release rocket wind measurements, instrumented rocket composition measurements, and ground-based optical measurements were used to characterize the response of the neutral atmosphere. The rocket measurements were made at the end of a 90-min period of strong Joule heating. We focus on the neutral wind measurements made with the rocket. The forcing was determined by running the assimilated mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) analysis procedure developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The winds expected at the latitude and longitude of the experiment were calculated using the spectral thermospheric general circulation model developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute. Comparisons of the observations and the model suggest that the neutral winds responded strongly in two height ranges. An eastward wind perturbation of approximately 100 m/s developed between 140 and 200 km altitude with a peak near 160 km. A southwestward wind with peak magnitude of approximately 150 m/s developed near 115 km altitude. The large amplitude winds at the lower altitude are particularly surprising. They appear to be associated with the upward propagating semidiurnal tide. However, the amplitude is much larger than predicted by any of the tidal models, and the shear found just below the peak in the winds was nominally unstable with a Richardson number of approximately 0.08.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199706 , NAS 1.26:199706 , ATR-94(8406)-3 , REPT-95JA01346 , NIPS-95-05900
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Moments of plasma distributions observed in the magnetotail vary with different time scales. In this paper we attempt to explain the observed variability on intermediate timescales of approximately 10-20 min that result from the simultaneous energization and spatial structuring of solar wind plasma in the distant magnetotail. These processes stimulate the formation of a system of spatially disjointed. highly accelerated filaments (beamlets) in the tail. We use the results from large-scale kinetic modeling of magnetotail formation from a plasma mantle source to calculate moments of ion distribution functions throughout the tail. Statistical restrictions related to the limited number of particles in our system naturally reduce the spatial resolution of our results, but we show that our model is valid on intermediate spatial scales Delta(x) x Delta(z) equal to approximately 1 R(sub E) x 1000 km. For these spatial scales the resulting pattern, which resembles a mosaic, appears to be quite variable. The complexity of the pattern is related to the spatial interference between beamlets accelerated at various locations within the distant tail which mirror in the strong near-Earth magnetic field. Global motion of the magnetotail results in the displacement of spacecraft with respect to this mosaic pattern and can produce variations in all of the moments (especially the x-component of the bulk velocity) on intermediate timescales. The results obtained enable us to view the magnetotail plasma as consisting of two different populations: a tailward-Earthward system of highly accelerated beamlets interfering with each other, and an energized quasithermal population which gradually builds as the Earth is approached. In the near-Earth tail, these populations merge into a hot quasi-isotropic ion population typical of the near-Earth plasma sheet. The transformation of plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) beam energy into central plasma sheet (CPS) quasi-thermal energy occurs in the absence of collisions or noise. This paper also clarifies the relationship between the global scale where an MHD description might be appropriate and the lower intermediate scales where MHD fails and large-scale kinetic theory should be used.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199697 , NAS 1.26:199697 , ATR-94(7251)-1 , NIPS-95-05899
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Recently, extremely interesting high-altitude cloud-ionosphere electrical discharges, like lightning above thunderstorms, have been observed from NASA's space shuttle missions and during airborne and ground-based experiments. To understand these discharges, a new experiment was conceived to simulate a thundercloud in a vacuum chamber using a dielectric in particulate form into which electrodes were inserted to create charge centers analogous to those in an electrified cloud. To represent the ionosphere, a conducting medium (metallic plate) was introduced at the top of the chamber. It was found that for different pressures between approximately 1 and 300 mb, corresponding to various upper atmospheric altitudes, different discharges occurred above the simulated thundercloud, and these bore a remarkable similarity to the observed atmospheric phenomena. At pressures greater than 300 mb, these discharges were rare and only discharges within the simulated thundercloud were observed. Use of a particulate dielectric was critical for the successful simulation of the high-altitude lightning.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TP-3578 , M-792 , NAS 1.60:3578
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A survey of bulk parameters of analyzable O(+) outward streams in the mid-altitude (3-4.7 R(sub E) geocentric distance) polar cap magnetosphere is obtained from measurements by the Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) aboard the Dynamics Explorer-1 (DE-1) spacecraft. There is wide scatter in the obtained densities, but they do display discernible trends: the average O(+) density in these streams decreases from about 60 ions/cc at 3.5 R(sub E) to about 1 ion/cc at 4.6 R(sub E). The streaming velocities are somewhat more defined, and their average increases from about 8 km/s at 3.5 R(sub E) to about 12 km/s at 4.6 R(sub E). The densities and bulk velocities are inversely correlated. We have further compared these observational trends with model profiles for the centrifugally-accelerated polar wind as recently described by Horwitz et al. (1994). The large outflow velocities observed can be understood in part as centrifugally-driven by convection with ionospheric electric field magnitudes of the order 50-70 mV/m, perhaps including plasma expansion effects.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-198930 , NAS 1.26:198930
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This serves as a final report entitled Energization and Transport of Ions of Ionospheric Origin in the Terrestrial Magnetosphere. The work has been predominantly focused on ion outflows identified in two data sets: (1) Prognoz 7; and (2) Dynamics Explorer. The study analyzed ion densities, temperatures, and flow velocities in the magnetotail. The work performed under this contract consisted of developing a program to load the raw data, compute the background subtraction of a strong sun pulse, and use the net counts to calculate the low order moments of the distribution function. The study confirms the results of ISEE that the the cusp is a major source of plasmasheet plasma and goes beyond this to discuss the use of ion velocities as a way to examine the motions of the magnetotail.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-198618-REV , NAS 1.26:198618-REV
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The Compton Observatory commonly encounters fluxes of energetic electrons which have been scattered from the inner radiation belt to the path of the satellite by resonant interactions with VLF waves from powerful man-made transmitters. The present investigation was motivated by the fact that in the Fall of 1993, the Gamma Ray Observatory was boosted from a 650 km altitude circular orbit to a 750 km altitude circular orbit. This was an opportunity, for the first time, to make observations at two different altitudes using the same instrument. We have examined DISCLA data from the Burst & Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) experiment from 1 Sep. 1993 to 29 Jan. 1994. During the period of study we identified 48 instances of the satellite encountering a cloud of energetic electrons which had been scattered by VLF transmitters. We find that boosting the altitude of the circular orbit from 650 km to 750 km increased the intensity of cyclotron resonance scattered electrons by a factor of two. To search for long term changes in the cyclotron resonance precipitation, we have compared the approx. 750 km altitude data from 106 days at the end of 1993 with data at the same altitudes and time of year in 1991. The cyclotron resonance events in 1991 were three times more frequent and 25% of those cases were more intense than any seen in the 1993 data. We attribute this difference to increased level of geomagnetic activity in 1991 near the Solar Maximum.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-197780 , NAS 1.26:197780 , LMSC-F254281
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at Goddard Space Flight Center has produced a multiyear global assimilated data set with version 1 of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-1 DAS). One of the main goals of this project, in addition to benchmarking the GEOS-1 system, was to produce a research quality data set suitable for the study of short-term climate variability. The output, which is global and gridded, includes all prognostic fields and a large number of diagnostic quantities such as precipitation, latent heating, and surface fluxes. Output is provided four times daily with selected quantities available eight times per day. Information about the observations input to the GEOS-1 DAS is provided in terms of maps of spatial coverage, bar graphs of data counts, and tables of all time periods with significant data gaps. The purpose of this document is to serve as a users' guide to NASA's first multiyear assimilated data set and to provide an early look at the quality of the output. Documentation is provided on all the data archives, including sample read programs and methods of data access. Extensive comparisons are made with the corresponding operational European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses, as well as various in situ and satellite observations. This document is also intended to alert users of the data about potential limitations of assimilated data, in general, and the GEOS-1 data, in particular. Results are presented for the period March 1985-February 1990.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-104606-VOL-6 , REPT-95B00079-VOL-6 , NAS 1.15:104606-VOL-6
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A detailed description of the numerical formulation of Version 2 of the ARIES/GEOS 'dynamical core' is presented. This code is a nearly 'plug-compatible' dynamics for use in atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs). It is a finite difference model on a staggered latitude-longitude C-grid. It uses second-order differences for all terms except the advection of vorticity by the rotation part of the flow, which is done at fourth-order accuracy. This dynamical core is currently being used in the climate (ARIES) and data assimilation (GEOS) GCMs at Goddard.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-104606-VOL-5 , REPT-95B00069-VOL-5 , NAS 1.15:104606-VOL-5
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) experiment onboard the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) satellite was designed to perform energy and mass-per-charge analysis on low-energy ions (less than 50 eV) with mass/charge ratios ranging from 1 to 40 amu/Z. the DE 1 satellite, carrying the RIMS experiment, was launched into an elliptical polar orbit on August 3, 1981. The approximately 7.5 hour orbit has perigee of 675 km altitude and apogee of 24,875 km altitude. This document and those that follow in this series, contain summary RIMS data spectrograms for each orbit for which RIMS data are available. The RIMS instrument began returning science data on day 280 of 1981 and continued to return usable data until the end of the DE mission in March 1991. It should be noted that studies of the RIMS data set should be conducted only with a thorough awareness of the material described in the introduction section presented here, or in collaboration with a scientist familiar with RIMS data analysis.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-108486 , NAS 1.15:108486
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The SBUV/2 instrument onboard the NOAA-11 satellite made daily solar spectral irradiance measurements in the wavelength region 160405 nm at 1.1 nm resolution between January 1989 and October 1994. These observations continued the uninterrupted series of solar measurements begun by the Nimbus-7 SBUV in 1978 and continued by NOAA-9 SBUV/2. While the measurements made by the SBUV-series instruments furnish an excellent data base for studies of solar UV variability, these instruments do not have an internal mew to evaluate and correct for long-term instrument sensitivity degradation, needed to evaluate solar cycle timescale irradiance change. During yearly Shuttle flights the Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) also performs solar spectral irradiance measurements in the wavelength region 200 to 400 nm with an instrument that is calibrated preflight, inflight, and postflight. Comparisons between the simultaneous NOAA-11 SBUV/2 and SSBUV solar measurements are used to identify and correct long term sensitivity changes in the satellite instrument. The NOAA-11 data will then be used to evaluate long-term solar change. We present a progress report on the above process. At this preliminary stage uncertainties in the calibration transfer between SSBUV and NOAA-11 SBUV/2 are too large to accurately evaluate long-term solar change near the A1 edge, but solar rotational activity variations can be evaluated. We find that rotational activity declined from roughly 6% peak-to-peak (p-p) near the maximum of solar cycle 22 in 1989-1991 to approximately 3% p-p in mid 1992 and 2% p-p by mid 1994. Emphasizing rotational variations, comparisons between the 200 nm data and the NOAA-11 Mg II proxy index are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-200302 , NAS 1.26:200302 , NIPS-96-08169 , EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union Spring Meeting; 1995; United States
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Argon Release for Controlled Studies (ARCS) 4 sounding rocket was launched northward into high altitude from Poker Flat Research Range on February 23, 1990. The vehicle crossed geomagnetic field lines containing discrete auroral activity. An instrumented subpayload released 100-eV and 200-eV Ar(+) ion beams sequentially, in a direction largely perpendicular to both the local geomagnetic field and the subpayload spin axis. The instrumented main payload was separated along field lines from the beam emitting subpayload by a distance which increased at a steady rate of approximately 2.4 m/s. Three dimensional mass spectrometric ion observations of ambient H(+) and O(+) ions, obtained on board the main payload, are presented. Main payload electric field observations in the frequency range 0-16 kHz, are also presented. These observations are presented to demonstrate the operation of transverse ion acceleration, which was differential with respect to ion mass, primarily during 100-eV beam operations. The preferential transverse acceleration of ambient H(+) ions, as compared with ambient O(+) ions, during the second, third, fourth, and fifth 100-eV beam operations, is attributed to a resonance among the injected Ar(+) ions, beam-generated lower hybrid waves, and H(+) ions in the tail of the ambient thermal distribution. This work provides experimental support of processes predicted by previously published theory and simulations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-200044 , NAS 1.26:200044 , PAPER JA03238 , NIPS-96-07298 , (ISSN 0148-0227)
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Spectral and spatial images obtained with the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory on the ATLAS 1 and Spacelab 1 missions are used to study the ultraviolet emissions of nitric oxide in the thermosphere. By synthetically fitting the measured NO gamma bands, intensities are derived as a function of altitude and latitude. We find that the NO concentrations inferred from the ATLAS 1 measurements are higher than predicted by our thermospheric airglow model and tend to lie to the high side of a number of earlier measurements. By comparison with synthetic spectral fits, the shape of the NO gamma bands is used to derive temperature as a function of altitude. Using the simultaneous spectral and spatial imaging capability of the instrument, we present the first simultaneously acquired altitude images of NO gamma band temperature and intensity in the thermosphere. The lower thermospheric temperature images show structure as a function of altitude. The spatial imaging technique appears to be a viable means of obtaining temperatures in the middle and lower thermosphere, provided that good information is also obtained at the higher altitudes, as the contribution of the overlying, hotter NO is nonnegligible. By fitting both self-absorbed and nonabsorbed bands of the NO gamma system, we show that the self absorption effects are observable up to 200 km, although small above 150 km. The spectral resolution of the instrument (1.6 A) allows separation of the N(+)(S-5) doublet, and we show the contribution of this feature to the combination of the NO gamma (1, 0) band and the N(+)(S-5) doublet as a function of altitude (less than 10% below 200 km). Spectral images including the NO delta bands support previous findings that the fluorescence efficiency is much higher than that determined from laboratory measurements. The Spacelab 1 data indicate the presence of a significant population of hot NO in the vehicle environment of that early shuttle mission.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-200032 , NAS 1.26:200032 , PAPER 98J01040 , NIPS-96-07277 , (ISSN 0148-0227)
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The main focus of this work is to understand the dynamics of mass exchange between the tropics and the midlatitudes and to determine any links between tropospheric exchange and that in the stratosphere. We have approached this problem from two different perspectives. The first is aimed towards understanding the troposphere's role in inducing lower stratospheric tropical/midlatitude exchange. For this project we focus on observational analysis of the lower stratosphere to assess the key regions of transport in/out of the tropics and to what extent this transport is driven by tropospheric processes. The second approach is to determine the extent to which stratospheric processes influence the troposphere. In this project we are performing potential vorticity (PV) inversions to assess the winds induced near the tropopause when the stratospheric polar vortex is displaced equatorward. These are each discussed in more detail in the subsections below. Also, we have organized a session on Tropical/Midlatitude Interaction and Transport at the Fall AGU where we will be showing our latest results.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199419 , NAS 1.26:199419
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  • 73
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The work performed under this contract provides for the improvement of modeling of troposphere propagation delay in very long base interferometry (VLBI) data, defining of required accuracy of ancillary data type(s) to measure tropospheric behavior and to develop a clear correspondence between tropospheric behavior and the quality of geodetic VLBI measurements.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199944 , NAS 1.26:199944 , NIPS-95-06477
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Compton Observatory commonly encounters fluxes of energetic electrons which have been scattered from the inner radiation belt to the path of the satellite by resonant interactions with VLF waves from powerful man-made transmitters. The present investigation was motivated by the fact that in the Fall of 1993, the Gamma Ray Observatory was boosted from a 650 km altitude circular orbit to a 750 km altitude circular orbit. This was an opportunity, for the first time, to make observations at two different altitudes using the same instrument. We have examined DISCLA data from the Burst & Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) experiment from 1 Sep. 1993 to 29 Jan. 1994. During the period of study we identified 48 instances of the satellite encountering a cloud of energetic electrons which had been scattered by VLF transmitters. We find that boosting the altitude of the circular orbit from 650 km to 750 km increased the intensity of cyclotron resonance scattered electrons by a factor of two. To search for long term changes in the cyclotron resonance precipitation, we have compared the approx. 750 km altitude data from 106 days at the end of 1993 with data at the same altitudes and time of year in 1991. The cyclotron resonance events in 1991 were three times more frequent and 25% of those cases were more intense than any seen in the 1993 data. We attribute this difference to increased level of geomagnetic activity in 1991 near the Solar Maximum.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-189394 , NAS 1.26:189394 , LMSC-F254281-REV
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The objective of this project was to investigate the utility of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery for measurement of geophysical parameters on Alaskan glaciers relevant to their mass balance and dynamics, including: (1) the positions of firn lines (late-summer snow lines); (2) surface velocities on fast-flowing (surging) glaciers, and also on slower steady-flow glaciers; and (3) the positions and changes in the positions of glacier termini. Preliminary studies of topography and glacier surface velocity with SAR interferometry have also been carried out. This project was motivated by the relationships of multi-year to decadal changes in glacier geometry to changing climate, and the probable significant contribution of Alaskan glaciers to rising sea level.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199267 , NAS 1.26:199267
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The fast neutron flux in near-Earth orbit has been measured with the COMPTEL instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). For this measurement one of COMPTEL's seven liquid scintillator modules was used as an uncollimated neutron detector with threshold of 12.8 MeV. The measurements cover a range of 4.8 to 15.5 GV in vertical cutoff rigidity and 3 deg to 177 deg in spacecraft geocenter zenith angle. One of the measurements occurred near the minimum of the deepest Forbush decrease ever observed by ground-level neutron monitors. After correction for solar modulation, the total flux is well fitted by separable functions in rigidity and zenith angle. With the spacecraft pointed near the nadir the flux is consistent with balloon measurements of the atmospheric neutron albedo. The flux varies by about a factor of 4 between the extremes of rigidity and a factor of 2 between the extremes of zenith angle. The effect of the spacecraft mass in shielding the detector from the atmospheric neutron albedo is much more important than its role as a source of additional secondary neutrons. The neutron spectral hardness varies little with rigidity or zenith angle and lies in the range spanned by earlier atmospheric neutron albedo measurements.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,243-12,249
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Pyranometers have been used for many years to measure broadband surface incoming solar irradiance, data that is necessary for surface energy budget, cloud forcing, and satellite validation research. Because such measurements are made at a specific location, it is unclear how representative they may be of a larger area. This study attempts to determine a reasonable spacing between measurement sites for such research by computing the correlation, and standard deviation from perfect correlation, between simultaneous measurements of incoming solar irradiance for a network of surface measurement sites covering a 75 km x 75 km area. Using 1-min data collected from this network of 11 sites during the NASA First ISSCP Radiation Experiment/Surface Radiation Budget (FIRE/SRB) Project temporal averages were calculated. The correlation between any two of these sites was determined by comparing simultaneous measurement averages for the 55 possible combinations of site pairs, along with the distances between them. In an attempt to remove the effect of the diurnal cycle, thus leaving clouds as the primary influence on correlation of the radiation field, model results for a clear day were used to normalize measured irradiances and correlations were again calculated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0894-8763); 34; 5; p. 1039-1046
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements spanning approximately 3 years have been used to determine velocities for 7 sites on the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates. The site velocities agree with both plate model predictions and other space geodetic techniques. We find no evidence for internal deformation of the interior of the Australian plate. Wellington, New Zealand, located in the Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, moves 20 +/- 5 mm/yr west-southwest relative to the Australian plate. Its velocity lies midway between the predicted velocities of the two plates. Relative Euler vectors for the Australia-Antarctica and Pacific-Antarctica plates agree within one standard deviation with the NUVEL-1A predictions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 1; p. 37-40
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A variety of suprathermal and energetic ion distributions are found upstream from shocks. Some distributions, such as field-aligned beams, are generated directly at the shock either through reflection processes or through leakage from the hotter downstream region. Other distributions, such as intermediate distributions, evolve from these parent distributions through wave-particle interactions. This paper reviews our current understanding of the creation and evolution of suprathermal distributions at shocks. Examples of suprathermal ion distributions are taken from observations at the Earth's bow shock. Particular emphasis is placed on the creation of field-aligned beams and specularly reflected ion distributions and on the evolution of these distributions in the Earth's ion foreshock. However, the results from this heavily studied region are applicable to interplanetary shocks, bow shocks at other planets, and comets.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 15; 9-Aug; p. 43-52
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We demonstrate connections between decadal and secular global climatic variations, and historical variations in the volume of the Great Salt Lake. The decadal variations correspond to a low-frequency shifting of storm tracks which influence winter precipitation and explain nearly 18% of the interannual and longer-term variance in the record of monthly volume change. The secular trend accounts for a more modest approximately 1.5% of the variance.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 8; p. 937-940
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  • 81