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  • GEOPHYSICS  (594)
  • 1980-1984  (594)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1983  (594)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Magnetization, derived from gravity-seismic data from the northern Mississippi Embayment, is evaluated relative to magnetization values obtained from satellite magnetic data. A magnetization contrast of approximately -0.54 A/m determined from the geophysical model compares favorably to a value of approximately -0.47 A/m from MAGSAT United States Apparent Magnetization contrast map. The negative magnetization contrast, required by the MAGSAT data, is unusual as rift zones with the exception of those which are currently active are associated with positive magnetization. The model presented favors an intrusion of low Curie temperature mafic rock at the base of the crust. Alternate possibilities, a shallow Curie isotherm or remanence in a direction other than that of the current main field, seem less likely as reported regional heat flow values are too low and remanence is attenuated at depth.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85075 , NAS 1.15:85075
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The evolution of wave energy, enstrophy, and wave motion for atmospheric Rossby waves in a variable mean flow are discussed from a theoretical and pedagogic standpoint. In the absence of mean flow gradients, the wave energy density satisfies a local conservation law, with the appropriate flow velocity being the group velocity. In the presence of mean flow variations, wave energy is not conserved, but wave action is, provided the mean flow is independent of longitude. Wave enstrophy is conserved for arbitrary variations of the mean flow. Connections with Eliassen-Palm flux are also discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86058 , NASA-TM-86058
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Simulated equivalent width data of weak lines in solar occultation spectra were analyzed to retrieve both the solar atmospheric temperature profile and the tangent heights of the rays. It was assumed that the mixing ratio of the absorbing gas was known, but it is not necessary to know the satellite height. By analyzing lines with temperature dependent and temperature independent intensities, temperatures accurate to 1 K and tangent heights to 0.25 km were determined over the range 20 to 90 km.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173649 , NAS 1.26:173649
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Methods used to determine various atmospheric gas distributions are summarized. The experimentally determined mixing ratio profiles (the mixing ratio of a gas is the ratio of the number of gas molecules to the number of air molecules) of some atmospheric gases are shown. In most in situ experiments stratospheric gas samples are collected at several altitudes by balloon, aircraft, or rocket. These samples are then analyzed by various methods. Mixing ratio profiles of Ci, ClO, and OH were determined by laser induced fluorescence of samples. Others have analyzed gas samples by gas chromatography in order to determine the molecular abundances of CCl2F2, CCl4, CCl3F, CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CHClF2, CH3CCl3, CH4, CO, C2Cl3F3, C2Cl4, C2HCl3, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, C6H6, C7H8, H2, and N2O.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173303 , NASA-CR-173303
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A summary of the progress report is given, covering the following areas: atmospheric circulation, planetary waves, adaption of the model to the Cyber 205, continental heat flux anomalies, and nonlinear evolution of inertial instabilities in the tropics.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:175165 , NASA-CR-175165
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The first three VISSR Atmospheric Sounders (VAS) were launched on GOES-4, -5, and -6 in 1980, 1981 and 1983. Postlaunch radiometric performance is assessed for noise, biases, registration and reliability, with special attention to calibration and problems in the data processing chain. The postlaunch performance of the VAS radiometer meets its prelaunch design specifications, particularly those related to image formation and noise reduction. The best instrument is carried on GOES-5, currently operational as GOES-EAST. Single sample noise is lower than expected, especially for the small longwave and large shortwave detectors. Detector to detector offsets are correctable to within the resolution limits of the instrument. Truncation, zero point and droop errors are insignificant. Absolute calibration errors, estimated from HIRS and from radiation transfer calculations, indicate moderate, but stable biases. Relative calibration errors from scanline to scanline are noticeable, but meet sounding requirements for temporarily and spatially averaged sounding fields of view. The VAS instrument is a potentially useful radiometer for mesoscale sounding operations. Image quality is very good. Soundings derived from quality controlled data meet prelaunch requirements when calculated with noise and bias resistant algorithms.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85125 , NAS 1.15:85125
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data acquisition and evaluation, basement geologic provinces, basement ages and tectonic provinces, configuration of the basement surface, and various abstracts and preprints are provided.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:175180 , NASA-CR-175180
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A data base describing the properties of the exhaust cloud produced by the launch of the Space Transportation System and the acidic fallout observed after each of the first four launches was assembled from a series of ground and aircraft based measurements made during the launches of STS 2, 3, and 4. Additional data were obtained from ground-based measurements during firings of the 6.4 percent model of the Solid Rocket Booster at the Marshall Center. Analysis indicates that the acidic fallout is produced by atomization of the deluge water spray by the rocket exhaust on the pad followed by rapid scavening of hydrogen chloride gas aluminum oxide particles from the Solid Rocket Boosters. The atomized spray is carried aloft by updrafts created by the hot exhaust and deposited down wind. Aircraft measurements in the STS-3 ground cloud showed an insignificant number of ice nuclei. Although no measurements were made in the column cloud, the possibility of inadvertent weather modification caused by the interaction of ice nuclei with natural clouds appears remote.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TP-2258 , NAS 1.60:2258
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Both hypervelocity impact and dynamic spall experiments were carried out on a series of well-indurated samples of gabbro. The impact experiments carried out with 0.04 to 0.2g, 5-6 km/sec projectiles produced deci-centimeter-sized craters and demonstrated crater efficiencies of 6/10 to the - 9 g/erg, and order of magnitude greater than in metal and some two to three times that of previous experiments on less strong igneous rocks. Most of the crater volume (some 60 to 80%) is due to spall failure. Distribution of cumulative fragment number, as a function of mass of fragments with masses greater than 0.1 gram yield values of b = d(log10N sub f)dlog10(m)of -0.5 to -0.6, where N sub f is the cumulate number of fragments and m is the mass of fragments. These values are in agreement or slightly higher than those obtained for less strong rocks and indicate that a large fraction of the ejectra resides in a few large fragments.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:174618 , NASA-CR-174618
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The crustal deformation patterns associated with the earthquake cycle can depend strongly on the rheological properties of subcrustal material. Substantial deviations from the simple patterns for a uniformly elastic earth are expected when viscoelastic flow of subcrustal material is considered. The detailed description of the deformation pattern and in particular the surface displacements, displacement rates, strains, and strain rates depend on the structure and geometry of the material near the seismogenic zone. The origin of some of these differences are resolved by analyzing several different linear viscoelastic models with a common finite element computational technique. The models involve strike-slip faulting and include a thin channel asthenosphere model, a model with a varying thickness lithosphere, and a model with a viscoelastic inclusion below the brittle slip plane. The calculations reveal that the surface deformation pattern is most sensitive to the rheology of the material that lies below the slip plane in a volume whose extent is a few times the fault depth. If this material is viscoelastic, the surface deformation pattern resembles that of an elastic layer lying over a viscoelastic half-space. When the thickness or breath of the viscoelastic material is less than a few times the fault depth, then the surface deformation pattern is altered and geodetic measurements are potentially useful for studying the details of subsurface geometry and structure. Distinguishing among the various models is best accomplished by making geodetic measurements not only near the fault but out to distances equal to several times the fault depth. This is where the model differences are greatest; these differences will be most readily detected shortly after an earthquake when viscoelastic effects are most pronounced.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: GSFC-921 , NAS 1.15:85117 , NASA-TM-85117
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The synchrotron emission by electrons of energy greater than a few TeV in Earth's magnetic field was examined. An omnidirectional detector, it is shown, can be satisfactorily used to estimate the energy. The collecting power of the detector, it is also shown, is a sensitive function of the area of the detector, the energy of electron, and the number of photons required to identify an electron. The event rate expected was calculated using an ideal balloon-borne detector.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85068 , NASA-TM-85068 , REPT-660
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere and their propagation in the ionosphere and the study of infrasonic signals from thunder were investigated. Doppler shifts of the order of 0.1 Hz are determined and they provide high-resolution measurements of the movements in the ionosphere. By using an array of transmitters with different frequencies and at different locations, the horizontal and vertical propagation vectors of disturbances propagating through the ionosphere are determined.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-170834 , NAS 1.26:170834
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A ground-based search for stratospheric 35-ClO was carried out using an infrared heterodyne spectrometer in the solar absorption mode. Lines due to stratospheric HNO3 and tropospheric OCS were detected at about 0.2% absorptance levels, but the expected 0.1% lines of ClO in this same region were not seen. We find that stratospheric ClO is at least a factor of seven less abundant than is indicated by in situ measurements, and we set an upper limit of 2.3x10 to the 13th molecules/sq cm at the 95% confidence level for the integrated vertical column density of ClO. Our results imply that the release of chlorofluorocarbons may be significantly less important for the destruction of stratospheric ozone (O3) than is currently thought.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85026 , NAS 1.15:85026
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The relationships between field-aligned currents, electric fields, and particle fluxes are determined using observations from the polar orbiting low-altitude satellite Dynamics Explorer-2. It is shown that the north-south electric field and the east-west magnetic field components are usually highly correlated in the field-aligned current regions. This proportionality observationally proves that the field-aligned current equals the divergence of the height-integrated ionospheric Pedersen current in the meridional plane to a high degree of approximation. As a general rule, in the evening sector the upward field-aligned currents flow in the boundary plasma sheet region and the downward currents flow in the central plasma sheet region. The current densities determined independently from the plasma and magnetic field measurements are compared. Although the current densities deduced from the two methods are in general agreement, the degree and extent of the agreement vary in individual cases.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85025 , NASA-TM-85025
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Energy release in earthquakes is discussed. Dynamic energy from source time function, a simplified procedure for modeling deep focus events, static energy estimates, near source energy studies, and energy and magnitude are addressed. Subduction zone seismicity and stress in slabs are also discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:170222 , NASA-CR-170222
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: For abstract for A83-13549
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84986 , NASA-TM-84986
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Evaluated sets of rate constants and photochemical cross sections are presented. The primary application of the data is in the modeling of stratospheric processes, with particular emphasis on the ozone layer and its possible perturbation by anthropogenic and natural phenomena.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:175564 , JPL-PUB-83-62 , NASA-CR-175564
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from MAGSAT analyzed as a function of the Dst index to determine the first degree/order spherical harmonic description of the near-Earth external field and its corresponding induced field. The analysis was done separately for data from dawn and dusk. The MAGSAT data was compared with POGO data. A local time variation of the external field persists even during very quiet magnetic conditions; both a diurnal and 8-hour period are present. A crude estimate of Sq current in the 45 deg geomagnetic latitude range is obtained for 1966 to 1970. The current strength, located in the ionosphere and induced in the Earth, is typical of earlier determinations from surface data, although its maximum is displaced in local time from previous results.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85012 , NAS 1.15:85012
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  • 19
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Long period Rayleigh wave and Love wave dispersion data, particularly for oceanic areas, were not simultaneously satisfied by an isotropic structure. Available phase and group velocity data are inverted by a procedure which includes the effects of transverse anisotropy, an elastic dispersion, sphericity, and gravity. The resulting models, for the average Earth, average ocean and oceanic regions divided according to the age of the ocean floor, are quite different from previous results which ignore the above effects. The models show a low velocity zone with age dependent anisotropy and velocities higher than derived in previous surface wave studies. The correspondence between the anisotropy variation with age and a physical model based on flow aligned olivine is suggested.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173549 , NASA-CR-173549 , CIT-CONTRIB-4015
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  • 20
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The documentation and user manual for the software used to invert the UVSP aeronomy data taken by the SMM are provided. The programs are described together with their interfaces and what inputs are required from the user.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: VI-697 , NAS 1.26:175216 , NASA-CR-175216
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The lateral heterogeneity and apparent anisotropy of the upper mantle are studied by measuring Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocities in the period range 100-250 sec. Spherical harmonic descriptions of the lateral heterogeneity are obtained for order and degree up to 1=m=10. Slow regions are evident at the East Pacific rise, northeast Africa, Tibet, Tasman sea, southwestern North America and triple junctions in the Northern Atlantic and Indian oceans. Fast regions occur in Australia, western Pacific and the eastern Atlantic. Details which are not evident in previous studies include two fast regions in the central Pacific and the subduction zone in the Scotia Arc region. Inversion for azimuthal dependence showed (1) little correlation between the fast phase velocity directions and the plate motion vector in plate interiors, but (2) correlation of the fast direction with the perpendicular direction to trenches and ridges. Phase velocity is high when waves propagate perpendicular to these structures. Severe tradeoffs exist between heterogeneity and azimuthal dependence because of the yet unsatisfactory path coverage.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:174619 , NASA-CR-174619
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Examples of an interplanetary and the bow shock illustrate the small relative size of the electrostatic layer relative to the scale of the magnetic fluctuations in quasi-parallel shocks. While both examples are supercritical, the interplanetary example is marginally so, showing a thickness in absolute and convected ion larmor radii units that is thicker (approximately 13 U/omega sub ci) than at the bow shock (approximately omega sub ci). The fluid speed changes abruptly in the quasi-parallel shock on this shorter scale. The increase in electron and ion random energies also is clearly seen on this shorter scale. In the interplanetary example the scale of the electric layer is certainly less than 1/60th that of the up or downstreams magnetic fluctuations. The thickness of the earth's bow shock deceleration layer is dramatically narrower than any domain of upstream waves as controlled by reflected, intermediate, or diffuse ions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85109 , NAS 1.15:85109
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Normal mode theory, extended to the slightly laterally heterogeneous Earth by the first-order Born approximation, is applied to the waveform inversion of mantle Love waves (200-500 sec) for the Earth's lateral heterogeneity at l=2 and a spherically symmetric anelasticity (Q sub mu) structure. The data are from the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN). The l=2 pattern is very similar to the results of other studies that used either different methods, such as phase velocity measurements and multiplet location measurements, or a different data set, such as mantle Rayleigh waves from different instruments. The results are carefully analyzed for variance reduction and are most naturally explained by heterogeneity in the upper 420 km. Because of the poor resolution of the data set for the deep interior, however, a fairly large heterogeneity in the transition zones, of the order of up to 3.5% in shear wave velocity, is allowed. It is noteworthy that Love waves of this period range can not constrain the structure below 420 km and thus any model presented by similar studies below this depth are likely to be constrained by Rayleigh waves (spheroidal modes) only.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:174483 , CONTRIB-3996 , NASA-CR-174483
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Fluid signatures in the MHD approximation at rotational discontinuities (RD) of finite width called rotational shear layers (RSL) are examined for general flow and magnetic geometries. Analytical and geometrical arguments illustrate that the fluid speed can either go up or down across an RSL for a fixed normal mass flux. The speed profile may or may not be monotonic depending on the boundary conditions. The flow velocity may or may not be field aligned or ""jetting'' as a result of traversing the RSL. In general, significant ""convection'' is expected in the layer. The observable signatures of (MHD) RSL's depend on 7 (boundary condition) parameters are (1) the mass density, (2 to 5) the incident normal and transverse components of the magnetic field and fluid velocity, (6) the angle epsilon between the incident tangential flow velocity and tangential magnetic field, and (7) the size of the magnetic angular rotation implemented by the layer delta phi.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85097 , NASA-TM-85097
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The 1982 Crustal Dynamics Project observations by fixed and mobile SLR and VLBI systems are reviewed. Plate motion measurements between North America and Europe were conducted by both techniques and SLR measurements were also made between North America, the Pacific, Australia and South American plates. Regional deformation measurements by VLBI and SLR systems were restricted to the western United States in 1982, including a number of important intercomparison baseline measured by both techniques. In 1983 the observing program grows significantly, with new SLR systems in Mexico, Easter Island, the Pacific and Italy. New VLBI systems will include a dedicated VLBI site at Weltzell, in Germany. Two highly mobile SLR and two highly mobile VLBI systems will greatly increase the regional deformation measurements in California and through the Basin and Range, where more than 25 sites will be occupied in 1983.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85091 , NASA-TM-85091
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  • 26
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Chemical processes in the thermosphere and ionosphere using AE data were studied. These data were analyzed and interpreted in such a way as to verify and correct laboratory measured rate coefficients, obtain values for rate coefficients not measured in the laboratory, and to reveal and correct inadequacies in existing models of thermospheric chemistry. This activity stimulated new work in the laboratory measurement of rate coefficients by revealing errors in existing measurements and by suggesting new measurements that need to be made.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:170572 , NASA-CR-170572
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This Catalog of Reports on Crustal Movements and Deformation is a structured bibliography of scientific papers on the movements of the Earth crust. The catalog summarizes by various subjects papers containing data on the movement of the Earth's surface due to tectonic processes. In preparing the catalog we have included studies of tectonic plate motions, spreading and convergence, microplate rotation, regional crustal deformation strain accumulation and deformations associated with the earthquake cycle, and fault motion. We have also included several papers dealing with models of tectonic plate motion and with crustal stress. Papers which discuss tectonic and geologic history but which do not present rates of movements or deformations and papers which are primarily theoretical analyses have been excluded from the catalog. An index of authors cross-referenced to their publications also appears in the catalog. The catalog covers articles appearing in reviewed technical journals during the years 1970-1981. Although there are citations from about twenty journals most of the items come from the following publications: Journal of Geophysical Research, Tectonophysics, Geological Society of America Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Nature, Science, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, and Geology.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85041 , NASA-TM-85041
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Surface temperature and dewpoint reports are added to the infrared radiances from the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) in order to improve the retrieval of temperature and moisture profiles in the lower troposphere. The conventional (airways) surface data are combined with the twelve VAS channels as additional predictors in a ridge regression retrieval scheme, with the aim of using all available data to make high resolution space-time interpolations of the radiosonde network. For one day of VAS observations, retrievals using only VAS radiances are compared with retrievals using VAS radiances plus surface data. Temperature retrieval accuracy evaluated at coincident radiosonde sites shows a significant impact within the boundary layer. Dewpoint retrieval accuracy shows a broader improvement within the lowest tropospheric layers. The most dramatic impact of surface data is observed in the improved relative spatial and temporal continuity of low-level fields retrieved over the Midwestern United States.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83987 , NAS 1.15:83987
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Detailed analysis of short period travel time, and waveform data reveals the upper mantle structure beneath an oceanic ridge to depths of 900 km. More than 1400 digital seismograms from earthquakes in Mexico and central America recorded at SCARLET yield 1753 travel times and 58 direct measurements of short period travel time as well as high quality, stable waveforms. The 29 events combine to form a continuous record section from 9 deg to 40 deg with an average station spacing of less than 5 km. First the travel times are inverted. Further constraints arise from the observed relative amplitudes of mantle phases, which are modeled by trial and error.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:170166 , NASA-CR-170166
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The total geoid anomaly which is the result of a given density contrast in a convecting viscous earth is affected by the mass anomalies associated with the flow induced deformation of the upper surface and internal compositional boundaries, as well as by the density contrast itself is discussed. If the internal density contrasts can be estimated, the depth and variation of viscosity with depth of the convecting system can be constrained. The observed long wavelength geoid is highly correlated with that predicted by a density model for seismically active subducted slabs. The amplitude of the correlation is explained if the density contrasts associated with subduction extend into the lower mantle or if subducted slabs exceeding 350 km in thickness are piled up over horizontal distances of thousands of km at the base of the upper mantle. Mantle wide convection in a mantle that has a viscosity increasing with depth provides the explanation of the long-wavelength geoid anomalies over subduction zones.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-170192 , CONTRIB-3678 , NAS 1.26:170192
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Several advanced atmospheric remote sensing systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were demonstrated under various field conditions to determine how useful they would be for general use by the California Air Resources Board and local air quality districts. One of the instruments reported on is the Laser Absorption Spectrometer (LAS). It has a pair of carbon dioxide lasers with a transmitter and receiver and can be flown in an aircraft to measure the column abundance of such gases as ozone. From an aircraft, it can be used to rapidly survey a large region. The LAS is usually operated from an aircraft, although it can also be used at a fixed location on the ground. Some tests were performed with the LAS to measure ozone over a 2-km horizontal path. Another system reported on is the Microwave Atmospheric Remote Sensing System (MARS). It is tuned to microwave emissions from water vapor, liquid water, and oxygen molecules (for atmospheric temperature). It can measure water vapor and liquid water in the line-of-sight, and can measure the vertical temperature profile.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: JPL-PUB-83-80 , NAS 1.26:173208 , NASA-CR-173208
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Seismic refraction profiles for the North American continent were compiled. The crustal models compiled data on the upper mantle seismic velocity (P sub n), the crustal thickness (H sub c) and the average seismic velocity of the crystalline crust (V sub p). Compressional wave parameters were compared with shear wave data derived from surface wave dispersion models and indicate an average value for Poisson's ratio of 0.252 for the crust and of 0.273 for the uppermost mantle. Contour maps illustrate lateral variations in crustal thickness, upper mantle velocity and average seismic velocity of the crystalline crust. The distribution of seismic parameters are compared with a smoothed free air anomaly map of North America and indicate that a complidated mechanism of isostatic compensation exists for the North American continent. Several features on the seismic contour maps also correlate with regional magnetic anomalies.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-175134 , NAS 1.26:175134
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  • 33
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The criteria for selecting site locations and constructing observing pads and monuments for the Mobile VLB1 and the satellite laser ranging systems used in the NASA/GSFC Crustal Dynamics Project are discussed. Gross system characteristics (size, shape, weight, power requirement, foot prints, etc.) are given for the Moblas, MV-1 through 3, TLRS-1 through 4 and Series instruments.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85084 , NAS 1.15:85084 , REPT-922
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Turbulent scatter from he mesosphere is observed using the Urbana coherent-scatter radar. The variation in signal-to-noise ratio as a function of time-of-day is examined. The origin of scattering regions is investigated by comparing the variations in scattered power and Doppler velocity. Nighttime echoes are shown for periods of enhanced electron concentration. The spectrum of the returned signal is studied with a resolution of ten seconds. Spectral information is used to increase altitude resolution and observe the motion of scatterers. The expected variation in signal-to-noise ratio with solar flux is observed. It is found that variations in the scattered power generally do not correspond to the gravity waves which are simultaneously observed. Turbulent layers are observed at altitudes with high shear in the horizontal velocity and at altitudes with low shear. The ten-second resolution is necessary to distinguish meteor echoes from echoes produced by the advection of a scattering layer through the radar beam.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173001 , AR-110 , UILU-ENG-83-2502 , NAS 1.26:173001 , (ISSN 0568-0581)
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The neutral upper atmospheric models for the Earth's thermosphere currently used in NASA-MSFC programs are the Jacchia 1970 (J70), 1971 (J71), and 1977 (J77). The Jacchia 1970 model (modified) is used in all MSFC orbital mechanics analyses. Since total density and its variations are the main environmental parameters of interest in orbital lifetime and attitude control studies, the total neutral density was selected for this analysis. This report presents the results of a parametric study of the total density (at 400 km altitude) as computed with three MSFC/Jacchia models. The sensitivity of each of the density models at the summer solstice to varying solar conditions (flux) and geomagnetic (index) values is discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-82534 , NAS 1.15:82534
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  • 36
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Beta flight test data analysis, LDV signal processing analysis and simulation, data processing code, and CESTIM, signal processing code are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:170777 , NASA-CR-170777
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) 2 sensor is aboard the Nimbus 7 spacecraft providing extinction measurements of the Antarctic and Arctic stratospheric aerosols with a vertical resolution of 1 km. Representative examples and weekly averages of these aerosol data and corresponding temperature profiles are presented. Contours of aerosols extinction as a function of altitude and longitude or time are plotted and weekly aerosol optical depths are calculated. Stratospheric optical depths are 0.002 to 0.003 for the Antarctic and 0.002 to 0.003 at the beginning to 0.005 to 0.006 at the end of the time period for the Arctic. Polar stratospheric clouds at altitudes between the tropopause and 20 km were observed during the Antarctic winter. A ready-to-use format containing a representative sample of the fourth 6 months of data to be used in atmospheric and climatic studies is reported.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.61:1107 , L-15625 , NASA-RP-1107
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The excitation of the Earth's polar motion in connection with problems that are associated with the diversity of reference frames involved in observations and theoretical computations is studied. Following the dynamics of the Earth's polar motion, the kinematics that relates observations from different reference frames is developed. The conventional procedures of studying the seismic excitation of polar motion are re-examined, subject to the question: relative to what reference frame? It is concluded that an inconsistency in reference frames has prevailed in the literature. While this inconsistency is indeed far from trivial, the resultant discrepancy, however, is small for all practical purposes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: REPT-921 , NASA-TM-85028 , NAS 1.15:85028
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Auroral optical imagery shows marked differences between auroral features of the evening and morning sectors: the separation between diffuse and discrete auroras in the evening sector is not distinct in the morning sector, which is dominated by auroral patches and multiple banded structures aligned along some direction. Plasma distribution function signatures also show marked differences: downward electron beams and inverted-V signatures prefer the evening sector, while the electron spectra on the morning sector are similar to the diffuse aurora. A theory of morningside auroras consistent with these features was constructed. The theory is based on modulation of the growth rates of electron cyclotron waves by the mirror instability, which is in turn driven by inward-convected ions that have become anisotropic. This modulation produces alternating bands of enhanced and reduced electron precipitation which approximate the observed multiple auroral bands and patches of the morning sector.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: ATR-83(7951)-2 , NAS 1.26:170109 , NASA-CR-170109
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The role of pull aparts and pushups in transcurrent systems, the rotation of faults and blocks within transcurrent fault systems, the role of accretion tectonics in plate boundary deformation, and power law creep behavior and the yielding at plate boundaries were investigated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-169896 , NAS 1.26:169896
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Surface strain rate is best observed by fitting a strain-rate ellipsoid to the measured movement of a stake network or other collection of surface features, using a least squares procedure. Error of the resulting fit varies as 1/(L delta t square root of N), where L is the stake separation, delta is the time period between initial and final stake survey, and n is the number of stakes in the network. This relation suggests that if n is sufficiently high, the traditional practice of revisiting stake-network sites on successive field seasons may be replaced by a less costly single year operation. A demonstration using Ross Ice Shelf data shows that reasonably accurate measurements are obtained from 12 stakes after only 4 days of deformation. It is possible for the least squares procedure to aid airborne photogrammetric surveys because reducing the time interval between survey and re-survey permits better surface feature recognition.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173877 , NASA-CR-173877
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A fault which is treated as an array of asperities with a prescribed statistical distribution of strengths is described. For a linear array the stress is transferred to a single adjacent asperity and for a two dimensional array to three ajacent asperities. It is shown that the solutions bifurcate at a critical applied stress. At stresses less than the critical stress virtually no asperities fail on a large scale and the fault is locked. At the critical stress the solution bifurcates and asperity failure cascades away from the nucleus of failure. It is found that the stick slip behavior of most faults can be attributed to the distribution of asperities on the fault. The observation of stick slip behavior on faults rather than stable sliding, why the observed level of seismicity on a locked fault is very small, and why the stress on a fault is less than that predicted by a standard value of the coefficient of friction are outlined.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173362 , NAS 1.26:173362 , CONTRIB-766
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A study of the O(+) ion distribution reveals that the OII 834 A emission can be used to infer the O(+) density as a function of altitude. The ion temperature was obtained from these measurements. Variations of the ion density distributions were obtained as a function of latitude. Daytime observations show that the OII 834 A emissions contain the signature of the Appleton anomary. Analysis of the 300 to 900 A auroral spectra reveals a large number of OII features. Several pairs of OII features with a common upper state were used to obtain their branching ratios and compared with laboratory observations and theoretical calculations. Evidence for OIII emissions were also found in an aurora.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-173146 , NAS 1.26:173146
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Shock devolatilization recovery data for brunite (Mg(OH)2) shocked to 13 and 23 GPa are presented. These data combined with previous data for serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) are used to constrain the minimum size terrestrial planet for which planetesimal infall will result in an impact generated water atmosphere. Assuming, in hydrous phyllosilicates, model calculations simulating the interaction of metallic iron with impact released free water on the surface of the accreting Earth were carried out. It is assumed that the reaction of water with iron in the presence of enstatite is the prime source of the terrestrial FeO component of silicates and oxides. Lower and upper bounds on the terrestrial FeO budget are based on mantle FeO content and possible incorporation of FeO in the outer core. We demonstrate that the iron water reaction would result in the absence of atmospheric/hydrospheric water, if homogeneous accretion is assumed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173242 , NASA-CR-173242
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analyzed data from rocket flight, 29.007UE is presented. In a discrete electron arc the measured upward moving electrons are well accounted for by secondaries produced in collisional scattering of the measured downcoming electrons. No collective mechanisms need to invoke. The low energy downcoming electrons are accounted for by thermal plasma accelerated through a potential drop of a few kV that specularly reflects upward-moving lower energy electrons. No low altitude collective effects need to invoke in the arc. Simultaneous measurements of electric field by double probes on 29.007 and the Chatanika Radar allow one to infer that there are upward drifting ions above the discrete electron arc, and there is a westward neutral wind in the discrete arc. Two rocket payloads were built to investigate plasma effects in the pulsating aurora.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: SAI/NW-83-428-06 , NAS 1.26:175352 , NASA-CR-175352
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Urbana coherent-scatter radar was used to observe the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and 134 hours of data were collected. Horizontal wind measurements show good agreement with balloon-measured winds. Gravity waves were frequently observed, and were enhanced during convective activity. Updrafts and downdrafts were observed within thunderstorms. Power returns are related to hydrostatic stability, and changes in echo specularity are shown.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-174594 , UILU-ENG-83-2503 , AR-111 , NAS 1.26:174594 , (ISSN 0568-0581)
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A simple modification of Gilbert's formula to account for slight lateral heterogeneity of the Earth leads to a convenient formula to calculate synthetic long period seismograms. Partial derivatives are easily calculated, thus the formula is suitable for direct inversion of seismograms for lateral heterogeneity of the Earth.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-172818 , CONTRIB-3909 , NAS 1.26:172818
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Under the simple postulate that multiple large scale detachable magnetospheric convection eddies can exist in the vicinity of the convection reversal boundary and in the polar cap, by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or otherwise, it is shown that a number of seemingly disconnected plasma and electric field observations in the polar cap can be organized into a theory of magnetosheath and plasmasheet plasma intrusion into the polar cap. Current theory of inverted V structures then predicts existence of similar, but weaker, structures at the eddy convection reversal boundaries in the polar cap. A possible consequence is that the polar cap auroras are natural offshoots from discrete oval arcs and evidently are formed by similar processes. The two arc systems can occassionally produce an optical image in the form of the theta aurora.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-170377 , ATR-83(7951)-1 , NAS 1.26:170377
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II sensor is aboard the Earth-orbiting Nimbus 7 spacecraft providing extinction measurements of the Antarctic and Arctic stratospheric aerosol with a vertical resolution of 1 km. Representative examples and weekly averages of aerosol data and corresponding temperature profiles for the time and place of each SAM II measurement (Oct. 1979 through Apr. 1980) are presented. Contours of aerosol extinction as a function of altitude and longitude or time are plotted and weekly aerosol optical depths are calculated. Seasonal variations and variations in space (altitude and longitude) for both polar regions are easily seen. Typical values of aerosol extinction at the SAM II wavelength of 1.0 microns for this time period are 2 to 4 times .0001/km in the main stratospheric aerosol layer. Optical depths for the stratosphere are about 0.002 to 0.003, up slightly over normal background levels (due to the eruption of Sierra Negra, Nov. 1979). Polar stratospheric clouds at altitudes of about 22 km were observed during the Arctic winter. A ready-to-use format containing a representative sample of the third 6 months of data to be used in atmospheric and climatic studies is presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.61:1106 , NASA-RP-1106 , L-15624
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Improving the realism and accuracy of the GLAS general circulation model (by adding an interactive biosphere that will simulate the transfers of latent and sensible heat from land surface to atmosphere as functions of the atmospheric conditions and the morphology and physiology of the vegetation) is proposed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:84973 , REPT-911 , NASA-TM-84973
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: An infrared radiative transfer model has been developed for evaluating anisotropic functions in the longwave region (5-50 microns) due to limb-darkening effects in the earth's atmosphere. An accurate narrow-band model of absorption has been used for computing transmission functions of the atmosphere. Absorption due to all major and minor atmospheric constituents has been taken into account including the continuum absorption due to water vapor. Anisotropic functions have been calculated for several latitudinal and seasonal climatological-average model atmospheres. The effects of the variability of various meteorological parameters, e.g. surface temperature, surface relative humidity, and cloud-top height have been examined. It has been found that the variability of cloud parameters has the largest effect on the infrared anisotropic functions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 83-0161
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Ozone densitities were measured in the troposphere and stratosphere of Natal using ECC sondes launches on balloons. The data analyzed so far show tropospheric densities and total ozone contents larger than expected.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-172625 , NAS 1.26:172625 , INPE-2708-PRE/296 , Ann. Reunion of the SBPC
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: Planetary volatiles, physical and chemical planetary evolution, surface processes, planetary formation, metallogenesis, crustal features and their development, tectonics, and paleobiology are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-170106 , LPI-TR-81-08 , NAS 1.26:170106
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: A model was developed to study the prospects of extracting information on carbon dioxide sources and sinks from observed CO2 variations. The approach uses a three dimensional global transport model, based on winds from a 3-D general circulation model (GCM), to advect CO2 noninteractively, i.e., as a tracer, with specified sources and sinks of CO2 at the surface. The 3-D model employed is identified and biosphere, ocean and fossil fuel sources and sinks are discussed. Some preliminary model results are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: DOE/ER-60082/T1 , DE84-005696 , NASA-TM-85444 , NAS 1.15:85444
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: The vast majority of the microearthquakes recorded occurred to the east: on the Huaytapallana fault in the Eastern Cordillera or in the western margin of the sub-Andes. The sub-Andes appear to be the physiographic province subjected to the most intense seismic deformation. Focal depths for the crustal events here are as deep as 50 km, and the fault plane solutions, show thrust faulting on steep planes oriented roughly north-south. The Huaytapallana fault in the Cordillera Oriental also shows relatively high seismicity along a northeast-southwest trend that agrees with the fault scarp and the east dipping nodal plane of two large earthquakes that occurred on this fault in 1969. The recorded microearthquakes of intermediate depth show a flat seismic zone about 25 km thick at a depth of about 100 km. This agrees with the suggestion that beneath Peru the slab first dips at an angle of 30 deg to a depth of 100 km and then flattens following a quasi-horizontal trajectory. Fault plane solutions of intermediate depth microearthquakes have horizontal T axes oriented east-west.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:175445 , NASA-CR-175445
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The ionosphere can contribute appreciable group delay and phase change to radio signals traversing it; this can constitute a fundamental limitation to the accuracy of time and frequency measurements using satellites. Because of the dispersive nature of the ionosphere, the amount of delay is strongly frequency-dependent. Ionospheric compensation is necessary for the most precise time transfer and frequency measurements, with a group delay accuracy better than 10 nanoseconds. A priori modeling is not accurate to better than 25%. The dual-frequency compensation method holds promise, but has not been rigorously experimentally tested. Irregularities in the ionosphere must be included in the compensation process.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Goddard Sace Flight Center Proc. of the 16th Ann. Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Appl. and Planning Meeting; p 229-245
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A theory is developed for the extraction of r.m.s. velocities of scatterer motions from spectra measured with a Doppler backscatter radar. The effects of finite beam-widths, finite pulse lengths, beam broadening, shear broadening, and the other such spectral contaminants are considered. It is shown that these contaminants can play a major role in determining the measured spectral widths (and, equivalently, the signal fading time), and so must be properly considered if the spectral widths are to be used to extract the r.m.s. motions of the scatterers. It is also shown that these r.m.s. motions can be used to estimate turbulence intensities, in those cases where turbulence is the dominant cause of the scatterer motions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Intern. Council Sci. Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 304
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Because of contributions due to reflection, the determination of the turbulence refractive index structure constant may be affected. For pure scattering from turbulence in the inertial subrange, the radar echo power can be used to calculate the refractive index structure constant. The radar power is determined by a convolution integral. If the antenna beam is swung to sufficiently large off-zenith angles ( 12.5 deg) so that a quasi-isotropic response from the tail ends of the Gaussian angular distribution can be anticipated, the evaluation of the convolution integral depends only on the known antenna pattern of the radar. This procedure, swinging the radar beam to attenuate the reflected component, may be called angular or direction filtering. The tilted antenna also may be pick up reflected components from near the zenith through the sidelobes. This can be tested by the evaluation of the correlation function. This method applies a time domain filtering of the intensity time series but needs a very careful selection of the high pass filters.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Intern. Council Sci. Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 302-303
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Winter mesospheric echoes are observed between about 55 and 80 km when auroral absorption is present during daylight hours. Relatively steady auroral absorption during sunrise and sunset periods causes a distinct onset and decay signature in mesospheric echo occurrence. The echo onset and disappearance time are shown versus height by the inclined lines for four different dates. The more vertical lines give the visible sunlight height/time curves for both sunrise (SR) and sunset (SS). The data is combined and replotted to give the morning onset height and the afternoon disappearance height as a function of solar zenith angle. Echoes are not observed at the lowest heights in the morning until the solar zenith angle is less than 90 deg. The afternoon echoes at the lowest heights also start to disappear as soon as the solar zenith angle exceeds 90 deg, implying that the solar component which sustains the mesospheric echo is screened by a layer extending up to about 60 km. The morning echo at 73 km onsets near the time of visible sunrise, but in the afternoon the 73 km echo lasts well past visible sunset.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 145-146
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The energy source of stratospheric planetary waves is largely due to vertical propagation from the troposphere, but the stratospheric zonal mean state which changes with time is not stable against small perturbations, whereby transient perturbation waves are generated at the expense of the stratospheric zonal mean available potential energy. This theoretical conclusion is obtained based on the quasi-geostrophic model in spherical coordinates which calculates the characteristic solutions for the basic zonal mean state changing with time.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 35
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The formulae relating turbulence and other atmospheric parameters to backscattered power for radar observations are reviewed. Emphasis is on the case of scatter from turbulent irregularities which have scales corresponding to the range of isotropic, inertial range turbulence. The applicability of this assumption is discussed. A formula is introduced for the mesosphere which relates ionospheric electron densities to backscattered power.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 289-301
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The determination of horizontal and vertical wavelengths of gravity waves obviously relies on measurement of wave parameters in horizontal and vertical directions. A very suitable parameter, measured fairly easily with MST radars, is the fluid velocity. Average velocities and superimposed turbulent fluctuations are much larger in the horizontal than in the vertical direction. Vertical and horizontal fluid velocities due to wave-like events are mostly about equal in magnitude. Vertical fluid velocities due to waves therefore can be more reliably detected than horizontal velocities. Estimates of gravity wave events using MST radar data are calculated and results are indicated.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 262-268
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Gravity waves and their associated breaking into turbulence are very important in producing the overall picture of middle atmosphere global dynamics and associated transport. It is shown in this research that MST radars represent a most powerful technique for obtaining the needed parameters for gravity-wave-induced drag and diffusion effects as well as measuring wave accelerations and diffusion directly. A mathematical solution to this problem is that of radiative equilibrium with a balanced thermal wind.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 241-246
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The physical cause of partial reflection from the mesosphere is of interest. Data are presented from an image-forming radar at Brighton, Colorado, that suggest that some of the radar scattering is caused by parallel elongated structures lying almost directly overhead. Possible physical sources for such structures include gravity waves and roll vortices.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 274-279
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The feasibility of the MST radar as a tool for investigating turbulence spectra is discussed. Power spectral measurements using radar data are discussed. The characteristics of stratospheric turbulence are described. A model of the mesoscale turbulent process is developed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 250-255
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  • 66
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Meteorological and dynamical requirements pertaining to the specification of middle atmosphere tides by the MST radar technique are outlined. Major issues addressed include: (1) the extraction of tidal information from measurements covering a fraction of a day; (2) the ramifications of transient effects (tidal variability) on the determination and interpretation of tides; (3) required temporal and spatial resolutions and; (4) global distributions of MST radars, so as to complement existing MST, meteor wind, and partial reflection drift radar locations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 22-29
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  • 67
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The present configuration of the greenstone belts is explained. Three ages of granite-greenstone terrain can be recognized within the Zimbabwe Archean Craton. The oldest greenstone belt remnants constitute the volcano-sedimentary Sebakwian group dated at c. 3.5 Ga minimum on the evidence from various granites and gneisses. The more extensive, main greenstone belts comprise the dominantly volcanic Bulawayan Group and dominantly sedimentary Shamvaian Group. An unconformity within the Bulawayan Group allows its subdivision into the Lower and Upper Greenstones. The Lower Greenstones possibly form part of a granite-greenstone terrain about 2.9 Ga old. The widespread Upper Greenstones and the locally developed, unconformably overlying Shamvaian Group are about 2.7 Ga old. Two suites of late granites post-date the main greenstone belts. These comprise that tonalitic Sesombi Suite at c. 2.7 Ga and the more potashrich Chilimanzi Suite at c. 2.6 Ga.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 98
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Granitoids, felsic volcanic rocks and clastic metasediments are typical rocks in Archean granite-greenstone belts that could have formed from preexisting continentasl crust. The petrogenesis of such rocks is assessed to determine the relative roles of new crust formation or old crust formation or old crust recycling in the formation of granite-greenstone belts.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 83-86
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The Wawa area, part of the Michipicoten greenstone belt, contains rock assemblages representative of volcanic sedimentary accumulations elsewhere on the shield. Three mafic to felsic metavolcanic sequences and cogenetic granitic rocks range in age from 2749 + or - 2Ma to 2696 + or - 2Ma. Metasedimentary rocks occur between the metavolcanic sequences. The total thickness of the supracrustal rocks may be 10,000 m. Most rocks have been metamorphosed under greenschist conditions. The belt has been studied earlier and is currently being remapped by Sage. The sedimentrologic work has been briefly summarized; two mainfacies associations of clastic sedimentary rocks are present - a Resedimented (Turbidite) Facies Association and a Nonmarine (Alluvial Fan Fluvial) Facies Association.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 66-70
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  • 70
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Isotope measurements on carbonatite complexes and komatiites can provide information on the geochemical character and geochemical evolution of the mantle, including the sub-continental mantle. Measurements on young samples establish the validity of the method. These are based on Sr, Nd and Pb data from the Tertiary-Mesozoic Gorgona komatiite and Sr and Pb data from the Cretaceous Oka carbonatite complex. In both cases the data describe a LIL element-depleted source similar to that observed presently in MORB. Carbonatite data have been used to study the mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield one billion years (1 AE) ago. The framework for this investigation was established by Bell et al., who showed that large areas of the province appear to be underlain by LIL element-depleted mantle (Sr-85/Sr-86=0.7028) at 1 AE ago. Additionally Bell et al. found four complexes to have higher initial Sr ratios (Sr-87/Sr-86=0.7038), which they correlated with less depleted (bulk earth?) mantle sources, or possibly crustal contamination. Pb isotope relationships in four of the complexes have been studied by Bell et al.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 92-94
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The composition of the upper crust is well established as being close to that of granodiorite. The upper crustal composition is reflected in the uniform REE abundances in shales which represent an homogenization of the various REE patterns. This composition can only persist to depths of 10-15 km, for heat flow and geochemical balance reasons. The composition of the total crust is model dependent. One constraint is that it should be capable of generating the upper granodioritic (S.L.) crust by partial melting within the crust. This composition is based on the andesite model, which assumes that the total crust has grown by accretion of island arc material. A representation of the growth rate of the continental crust is shown. The composition of the lower crust, which comprises 60-80% of the continental crust, remains a major unknown factor for models of terrestrial crustal evolution. Two approaches are used to model the lower crust.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 87-91
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Data from an initial set of Banded Gneiss Complex (BGC) east of the city of Udaipur are given. In this region the BGC comprises typical grey gneiss with variably abundant granitic and mafic components. Efforts to date were concentrated on the mafic components which, based on chemical data, appear to be metavolcanic. All samples examined were recrystallized under amphibolite or upper amphibolite facies conditions. Pertinent chemical data for a small number of amphibolites analyzed so far are: SiO2: 49-53%; MgO: 5.7-7.3%; K2O: 0.24-0.50%; Ni: 106-140 ppm; Zr: 37-159 ppm. From Sm/Nd data, all amphibolites show small to moderate LREE enrichments.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 55-56
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: In southern India, it is possible to study the transition from an Archean granite-greenstone terrain (the Karnataka province) into high grade charnockites. The transition occurs over an outcrop width of 20-35 km and appears to represent burial depths ranging from 15 to 20 km. Field and geochemical studies indicate that the charnockites developed at the expense of tonalites, granites, and greenstones. South of the transition zone, geobarometer studies indicate burial depths of 7-9 kb.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 34-37
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2016-05-05
    Description: Various topics relevant to crustal genesis, especially the relationship between Archean low - and high-grade terrains, were discussed. The central Superior Province of the Canadian Shield was studied. Here a 120 km-wide transition from subgreenschist facies rocks of the Michipicoten greenstone belt to granulite facies rocks of the Kapuskasing structural zone represents an oblique cross section through some 20 km of crust, uplifted along a northwest-dipping thrust fault.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-175451 , NAS 1.26:175451 , LPI-TR-83-03
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: This report describes the entries in sufficient detail so that the data base might be useful to others. The characteristics of the MFR sensor are briefly discussed and a complete index to the data base tapes is given.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-170370 , DE83-007308 , UCID-19690 , NAS 1.26:170370 , NAS 1.26:170370
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Abnormal refractivity gradients may cause radio waves to be trapped within tropospheric layers, thus producing regions through which the waves do not pass called radio holes. For some locations and for many applications, refractive corrections based on the surface refractivity are adequate for elevation angles above a few degrees. However, new systems which operate at elevation angles near the horizon often require improved accuracies. Techniques for obtaining these improved corrections are reviewed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Proc. of the 16th Ann. Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Appl. and Planning Meeting; p 247-248
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A plausible scenario for the existence of a persistent back-ground of turbulence in the free atmosphere is described. The MST radar technique is the only existing technique that can be used to describe the morphology of occurrence of turbulence as a function of altitude, wind speed, shear, weather conditions, geographical location, etc. This technique was used also to assess the degree of universality of shape and amplitude of the buoyancy wave spectrum and the relation between the buoyancy wave spectrum and turbulence.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol.
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: One of the most important atmospheric measurements that is needed is a measure of the gravity-wave spectrum. The MST radar has been investigated as means to measure the temporal resolution required to determine gravity-wave oscillations. The required vertical and horizontal resolution is dependent on the particular part of the gravity wave spectrum that is analyzed. Horizontal spacing is also discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 247-249
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Several hundred hours of wind velocity measurements made with the Arecibo 430-MHz radar during the past few years have indicated the presence of persistent wave like structures just above the tropopause. To further investigate these structures, a nearly continuous times series of wind measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere was made from May 5 to May 12, 1982 at Arecibo. Each of 16 compass points was sampled as the 430-MHz feed was rotated in a velocity azimuth display (VAD) mode at a zenith angle of 15 degrees off-vertical. Using a nonlinear least squares parameter estimation technique line of sight velocities were calculated from Doppler shifts of the received spectra. These velocities were reduced to zonal and meridional components of the wind vector; the vertical component of the wind vector will be available after further reduction.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: International Council of Scientific Unions Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 9; p 34
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The greenschist to amphibolite facies tonalite-greenstone terrain of the Gods Lake subprovince grades - in a northwesterly direction - into the granulite facies Pikwitonei domain at the western margins of the Superior Province. The transition is the result of prograde metamorphism and takes place over 50 - 100 km without any structural or lithological breaks. Locally the orthopyroxene isograd is oblique to the structural grain and transects greenstone belts, e.g., the Cross Lake belt. The greenstone belts in the granulite facies and adjacent lower grade domain consist mainly of mafic and (minor) ultramafic metavolcanics, and clastic and chemical metasedimentary rocks. Typical for the greenstone belts crossed by the orthopyroxene isograd are anorthositic gabbros and anorthosites, and plagiophyric mafic flows. The Pikwitonei granulite domain has been interpreted as to represent a lower crustal level which was uplifted to the present level of erosion. On the basis of gravimetric data this uplift has been modelled as an obduction onto the Churchill Province during the Hudsonian orogeny, similar to the Ivrea Zone. The fault between the Churchill and Superior Province is described.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 95-97
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The Wawa greenstone belt is located in the District of Algoma and extends east-northeast from Lake Superior to the western part of the Sudbury District in Ontario, Canada. Recent mapping by Attoh has shown that an unconformity at the base of the Dore' Formation and equivalent sedimentary rocks marks a significant stratigraphic break which can be traced throughout the volcanic belt. This break has been used to subdivide the volcanic-sedimentary into pre- and post-Dore' sequences. The pre-Dore' sequence includes at least two cycles of mafic-to-felsic volcanism, each capped by an iron-formation unit. The post-Dore' sequence includes an older mafic-to-felsic unit, which directly overlies sedimentary rocks correlated with the Dore' Formation, and a younger felsic breccia unit interpreted to have formed as debris flows from a felsic volcanic center. In the present study, samples of both the pre-and post-Dore' volcanic sequences were analyzed for major and trace elements, incuding rare earths (REE). This preliminary study is part of an ongoing program to assess the petrogenesis of the volcanic rocks of the Wawa greenstone belt.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 81-82
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  • 82
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Meta-sediments from Isua, West Greenland were analyzed by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis (ITNAA). These sediments are chemical precipitates having some layers of remarkably high Cr content. The latter were compared to Cr poor layers. It turned out that the Cr enriched layers had higher Ir and Ni contents than the samples from the Cr poor layers. Compared to phanerozoic samples the highest Ir contents are not extraordinarily higher than in a modern sediment, and the Cr poor layers, representing more or less phanerozoic shale. From the cratering record of the Moon one can assume a similar cratering of the Earth at about the time when the Isua rocks were formed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 71-75
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Fluid inclusions can be used to determine the compositional evolution of fluids present in high grade metamorphic rocks (Touret, 1979) along with the general P-T path followed by the rocks during uplift and erosion (Hollister et al., 1979). In this context, samples of high grade gneisses from the Kapuskasing structural zone (KSZ, Fig. 1) of eastern Ontario were studied in an attempt to define the composition of syn- and post-metamorphic fluids and help constrain the uplift and erosion history of the KSZ. Recent work by Percival (1980), Percival and Card (1983) and Percival and Krogh (1983) shows that the KSZ represents lower crustal granulites that form the lower portion of an oblique cross section through the Archean crust, which was up faulted along a northeast striking thrust fault. The present fluid inclusion study places constraints upon the P-T path which the KSZ followed during uplift and erosion.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Workshop on A Cross Section of Archean Crust; p 76-80
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  • 84