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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2009-12-28
    Description: Rotating-specimen furnace for use in determining spectral & total emittance of materials from measurement of radiant flux from specimen surface
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids; NASA-SP-31
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2009-12-28
    Description: Emittance measurement for refractory materials to 5000 deg f - temperature & structure dependence
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids; NASA-SP-31
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2009-12-28
    Description: Emittance measurements of ceramic coatings up to 2900 deg kelvin
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids; NASA-SP-31
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2009-12-28
    Description: Emittance measuring apparatus for temperatures up to 4000-deg f
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids; NASA-SP-31
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2009-11-16
    Description: Measurements of the members of the HO(x) family (OH, HO2, and H2O2) and their major source gases, H2O, and CH4 are discussed. Emphasis is placed on measurements which were made since the 1982 World Meteorologic Organization (WMO) report. Measurement techniques, available data, an assessment of data reliability, and a comparison of the data with theoretical distributions of stratospheric HO(x) species predicted from one and two dimensional photochemical models are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Atmospheric Ozone 1985. Assessment of our Understanding of the Processes Controlling its Present Distribution and Change, Volume 2; 58 p
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2009-11-16
    Description: Aurora formation by electron injection and drift in upper atmosphere
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NSSDC-ID-67-073A-11-PM , NIFICANT ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN SCI. AND TECHNOL. AT GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER 1970; P 69-72
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During December 1988, 24 hours of darkness and clear sky conditions permitted continuous observations of the O I(6300 A) airglow by a Fabry-Perot interferometer located at Thule Air Base, Greenland. Thus a continuous record of the F region neutral winds was obtained for that month. During this same time period, a digital ionosonde located at Qanaq, Greenland (110 km north of Thule Air Base), was in operation measuring electron density profiles and F region ion drifts. This combination of ground-based observations allowed the investigation of ion/neutral coupling at a temporal resolution of about 15 min. Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data from the IMP 8 satellite were also available from December 16 to 24 and indicated intervals of B(sub z) northward IMF conditions during this period. Here we investigate the observed response of the neutral wind to convection changes in the ion drift inside the polar cap for southward and northward IMF B(sub z) conditions. In particular, we establish a control day illustrating the typical antisunward neutral wind and ion drift patterns observed for southward B(sub z) over Thule and Qanaq, and we compare it with observations made when the IMF B(sub z) is directed northward. The observations during periods of northward B(sub z) display sunward directed ion drifts over the polar cap accompanied by decreasing antisunward directed neutral winds. We investigate these times of northward B(sub z) further and demonstrate that the ion drag term alone cannot describe the observed response in the neutral wind during northward IMF.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,189-12,199
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: During the later stages of the auroral substorm the luminosity distribution frequently resembles a double oval, one oval lying poleward of the normal or main UV auroral oval. We interpret the double oval morphology as being due to the plasma sheet boundary layer becoming active in the later stages of the substorm process. If the disturbance engulfs the nightside low-latitude boundary layers, then the double oval configuration extends into the dayside ionospheric region. The main UV oval is associated with the inner portion of the central plasma sheet and can rapidly change its auroral character from being diffuse to discrete. This transition is associated with the substorm process and is fundamental to understanding the near-Earth character of substorm onset. On the other hand, the poleward arc system in the nightside ionosphere occurs adjacent to or near the open-closed field line boundary. This system activates at the end of the optical expansion phase and is a part of the recovery phase configuration in substorms where it occurs. These two source regions for nightside discrete auroral arcs are important in resolving the controversy concerning the mapping of arcs to the magnetosphere. The dayside extension of this double oval configuration is also investigated and shows particle signatures which differ considerably from those on the nightside giving clues to the magnetospheric source regions of the aurora in the two local time sectors. Near-Earth substorm onsets are shown to be coupled to processes occurring much further tailward and indicate the importance of understanding the temporal development of features within the double oval. Using 'variance images,' a new technqiue for the investigation of these dynamics is outlined.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 12,075-12,092
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Magnetic field rotations in the high ion beta magnetosheath that are part of the magnetopause structure are expected to have only a small normal component. We have studied the properties of rotational discontinuities (RDs) under these conditions, viewed as the limit of weak intermediate shocks (ISs), by performing hybrid simulations with a reflecting wall boundary condition (piston method). With this dynamic formation, the sense and size of rotation are not arbitrarily predetermined, but rather evolve from the given upstream (magnetosheath) and downstream (magnetospheric) boundary conditions, similar to what takes place at the magnetopause. This work focuses on several aspects: the observed minimum shear of RDs, their width, their internal signature, and their relation to ISs in isotropic plasmas. Our simulation results are in agreement with the minimum shear observations, that is, the RDs choose the sense of rotation that corresponds to the minimum angle between the upstream and downstream field vector. The RDs are stable, with a unique scale size. Typical gradient scale half widths are one to four ion inertial lengths with a total width up to ten times of that, in agreement with magnetopause observations. We develop a generalized fluid theory of RDs and discuss the characteristic internal signatures of the rotational layer, comparing the kinetic simulation results to predictions from the generalized fluid theory. The results show that ion inertia, anisotropic pressure, finite Larmor radius effects, nonzero ion heat flux, and reflected ions all contribute to the signatures of RDs on kinetic scales. The RDs may have upstream or downstream wave trains, which become weak for high ion beta and small normal components of the magnetic field. We explain the presence and direction of wave trains in terms of the kinetic properties of the Alfven/ion-cyclotron mode. Away from the RD limit there is a smooth transition to weak intermediate shocks, which have small jumps close to expected Rankine-Hugoniot values. Apart from that, there are few kinetic plasma signatures that distinguish RDs from their neighboring ISs. However, noncoplanar ISs evolve in time into thin RDs. Using the properties of RDs and ISs, we make specific suggestions how these discontinuities can be distinguished observationally in the case of an isotropic plasma.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,981-11,999
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  • 10
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Electromagnetic wave generation and resulting cross-field diffusion of plasma are considered at a tangential discontinuity, which characterizes the magnetopause for northward interplanetary magnetic field. Two-dimensional hybrid (particle ions, massless fluid electrons) simulations, in which the tangential discontinuity is generated self-consistently via a stream-stream interaction, are used to show that wave growth occurs when the ambient magnetic field is predominantly perpendicular to the direction of the density gradient. Low-frequency (much less than ion gyrofrequency) waves, with amplitudes delta B/B less than or equal to 0.2 and anticorrelated density fluctuations delta n/n less than or equal to 0.6, are generated at the discontinuity, resulting in cross-field diffusion that is comparable to the Bohm rate. Both the fluctuation level and the lack of ion heating in the calculations are consistent with observations at the magnetopause. The magnitude of the diffusion is considered in the presence of numerical effects and in the context of the inferred diffusion rate at the magnetopause. The relation of the low-frequency waves and their consequences to faster growing, short-wavelength waves due to the lower hybrid drift instability is also addressed. The overall conclusion of this initial study is that diffusion due to low frequency waves is not likely to be a major effect at the magnetopause.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; A7; p. 11,923-11,933
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