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  • Fisheries  (14,558)
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  • 1
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    North West Water Authority
    Publication Date: 2013-03-22
    Description: This is the report from the Central Area Fisheries Advisory Committee meeting, which was held on the 31st March, 1982. It includes information on the River Leven smolt rearing scheme, the annual report on match fishing at Skerton and Mitton fisheries, and the report by the area fisheries officer on fisheries activites from September 1981 to January 1982. The report covers information on river conditions and fishing, migratory fish movements, an update on the work at Middleton hatchery, Salmon cages on the Leven and Langcliffe hatchery. It also includes information on fish disease, fish mortalities, management work and monthly salmon and sea trout catches for rod, line, nets and fixed engines for the 1981 season. The Fisheries Advisory Committee was part of the Regional Water Authorities, in this case the North West Water Authority. This preceded the Environment Agency which came into existence in 1996.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Limnology ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    North West Water Authority
    Publication Date: 2013-03-05
    Description: This is the report from the South and West Cumberland Fisheries Advisory Committee meeting, which was held on the 16th October, 1978. It covers information on fisheries income and expenditure, the study of salmon propagation in England and Wales, work on the future programme of fisheries work, keep nets, and the drought order for the reduction of compensation water from Lake Ennerdale. It also covers the report by the area fisheries officer on fishing activities including river conditions and fishing, migratory fish movements, and an update on Holmwrangle hatchery. The report also looks at stocking numbers of salmon and sea trout in various rivers, predator counts for various rivers, fish mortalities and fish disease. The Fisheries Advisory Committee was part of the Regional Water Authorities, in this case the North West Water Authority. This preceded the Environment Agency which came into existence in 1996.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Limnology ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Geneva: World Trade Organization (WTO)
    Publication Date: 2020-04-21
    Description: In order to ensure transparency and to keep abreast of trade policies in support of sustainability, the WTO Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE) mandated the WTO Secretariat to compile and collate all environment-related measures notified to WTO. The database also includes environment-related entries found in Trade Policy Reviews (TPRs). This information, which is updated annually, is contained in the WTO Environmental Database (www.wto.org/edb). It has nearly 11,500 measures drawn from WTO notifications and over 7,800 trade policy review entries. By analysing the trade policy review entries over time, we can better understand how the relationship between trade and environment is evolving in Members' trade policies, the relevant sectors involved, and the types of instruments which are most frequently used to pursue environmental objectives.
    Keywords: F13 ; F18 ; F42 ; F64 ; F68 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Agriculture ; Circular Economy ; Climate ; Energy ; Environment ; Environment and Trade ; Fisheries ; Forestry ; International Trade ; Policy Making ; Trade ; Trade Policy ; Services ; Waste ; Wildlife ; WTO
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF)
    Publication Date: 2020-05-07
    Description: SAMUDRA Report No. 82, dated February 2020, features articles on fisheries from around the world. The current issue has extensive analysis and commentary on the Blue Economy and Blue Growth. The article from Seychelles analyzes the several contradictions in the conservation initiative of the country’s Blue Bond scheme, while the one from Sri Lanka points out that the National Fisheries Policy needs to be remodelled to incorporate the SSF Guidelines. Yet another says that women in fisheries can utilize the SSF Guidelines to advance their interests and build a common vision. The biggest-ever oil spill disaster in Brazil's history points to the need for State-sponsored disaster management, says another report. From neighbouring Chile comes a piece that argues for a new type of autonomous social movement to create a democratic and representative Constitution. India's draft National Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy (NIFAP) is analyzed in one article, while another explains how artisanal fishers’ experiential knowledge can help address many problems, including climate change. SAMUDRA Report No. 82 also carries an obituary tribute to Sidney Holt, a towering intellect and a committed conservationist, who died late last year.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-05-26
    Description: Five of the seven species of pawikan (sea turtles) are found in the Philippine seas. These are Olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), Green sea (Chelonia mydas), Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta), and Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). All of these are threatened species due to predation (animals and humans), climate change, harvesting of eggs, juveniles and adults, bycatch, and habitat degradation. Thus, to protect the species, several laws, policies, and programs have been passed and implemented by the Philippines government since 1979 (Marine Wild Fauna Watch of the Philippines (MWFWP), 2014). However, despite the efforts to protect the pawikan, reports about dead sea turtles due to various causes are becoming frequent than ever. Furthermore, public posts on Facebook about dead pawikan by private individuals are increasing. On the other hand, data on the mortality causes of sea turtles remain scarce as of the moment. Hence, to provide additional data, this study was conducted.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Ecology ; Environment ; Fisheries ; Information Management ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: The 60th issue of Yemaya, being brought out after a gap of a year, coincides with a time of global crisis, when nations and communities across the world are battling the effects of the COVID 19 pandemic. It is a time for sombre thought and reflection. This pandemic has also locked down coastal fishing communities and seriously impacted livelihoods. The case study from Maharashtra, India, in this issue of Yemaya, details the impact on women fishers. Earnings have dropped because of lack of fish, market access, traditional credit sources and clear government policy enabling relief. In India, the government’s move to keep the fishing sector open during lockdown helped to vindicate the importance of the sector but the curfew-like conditions of the prevailing lockdown prevented women fishers from availing the benefits of the move. Clearly, the challenges before women fishers and fishworkers have multiplied.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: The RISE UP Blue Call to Action is a joint call by civil society, fisherfolk, Indigenous Peoples and philanthropic organizations for bold action to safeguard the ocean at the next UN Ocean Conference in Portugal from 2-6 June 2020. This is a joint statement by: Oceano Azul Foundation Ocean Unite Oak Foundation The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Marine Conservation Institute Hish Seas Alliance Oceana NRDC Waitt Institute Waitt Foundation The Nature Conservancy Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation Conservation International The Ocean Policy Research Institute, Sasakawa Peace Foundation RARE Seas at Risk Wildlife Conservation Society Oceanario de Lisboa Monterey Bay Aquarium World Forum of Fish Harvesters and Fish Workers World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Ocean Conservancy International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF) Monaco Blue Institute L’Institut Océanographique de Monaco The ICCA Consortium
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Management ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: On 19 March 2010, in Banjul, The Gambia, men and women professionals from the artisanal fishing sector from nine West African countries presided over the formation and launch of the African Confederation of Artisanal Fishing Organisations: CAOPA. Ten years later, CAOPA has become an advocacy platform for African artisanal fishing community rights, entering into dialogue with African decision makers, as well as with international partners, like the EU and the FAO. CAOPA is now also stronger: it has member organisations in 24 countries from West, East, and North Africa and from the Indian Ocean. Every 21st November, CAOPA uses the occasion of the World Fisheries Day to establish its advocacy agenda for the year to come.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Women’s small-scale, part-time fishing and gleaning activities globally may contribute nearly 3 million tonnes of seafood, with a landed value of around $5.6 billion. In many cultures and contexts around the world, fishing (like hunting) is considered a male domain and is closely associated with masculinity. Moving along the fish value chain from fishing to processing, more women appear. In fact, much of the labour needed to convert fish into consumable products is done by women. The role of women is more visible in seafood processing, especially on an industrial scale, than in fishing activities.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: The Practical Guide for Gender Analysis in Small-scale Fisheries and Aquaculture is aimed at providing guidance to SEAFDEC (Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center) Departments and ASEAN Member States in the implementation of the SEAFDEC gender strategy as well as human rights-based and gender-equitable approaches in the whole value chain of small-scale fisheries and aquaculture in Southeast Asia. Program/project managers, researchers, and fishery officers of the ASEAN Member States (AMSs) and fisheries-related organizations including SEAFDEC are the target audience.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: AKTEA is the European network of women in fisheries and its main objective is to lobby at European Union level for women rights in fisheries. It was established in 2006 by fisherwomen organisations from different European countries who collectively volunteered to take this movement forward. For several years AKTEA was unable to organise its annual meeting due to lack of financial resources, amongst other reasons. In February 2020, however, the network was able to meet thanks to the partnership collaboration established with Low Impact Fishers in Europe (LIFE) and the financial support provided by the MAVA foundation.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Planning ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Arius maculatus, commonly known as spotted catfish and locally known as Tambangongo, has a great potential as an aquaculture species, but there is very limited information known for the stocks in Panguil Bay. This study aimed to assess the wild stocks of A. maculatus, and make an inventory of the fishing boat and gears in two stations in Panguil Bay, namely: Tangub, Misamis Occidental and Baroy, Lanao del Norte. Length frequencies were analyzed to provide estimates of growth, mortality, exploitation ratio, and recruitment pulse of A. maculatus in the bay. A total of 589 boats (324 motorized boats and 265 non-motorized boats) were recorded from the sites. There were 473 units of 15 types of fishing gear used in the sites and 6 types of these were only used in catching A. maculatus. A total of 3,259 specimens were collected for 12 months from the sites. The aquatic habitat of A. maculatus from the two sites was characterized by a pH range of 7.9-8.1, temperature of 28.5-29.1°C, salinity of 13.31-15.9 ppt, dissolved oxygen levels of 4.0-5.41 ppm, and total suspended solid values of 0.1-0.6 g/L. Reproductive biology analysis indicates that eggs start to mature from October to December, then spawning starts from January to March, and the fish fry recruitment starts in April and May. A. maculatus can grow up to 98.95 cm with an asymptotic length of 98.86 cm (K value = 0.35) equivalent to asymptotic weigth of 8,750 g. Mortality Z = 0.99, with natural mortality M = 0.67 and fishing mortality F = 0.33. This study revealed that A. maculatus in Panguil Bay is not over-exploited since the exploitation rate (E = 0.33) is minimal and large individuals can still be collected from the field.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Management ; Planning ; Policies
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is primarily caused by ingesting reef fishes contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTX) produced by the Gambierdiscus species. The unpredictability of this type of food poisoning poses risks to public health and adversely affecting the fish trade industry. This study aimed to provide useful information on ciguatera in the Philippines. Different reef fish species and host-macroalgae for benthic dinoflagellates were collected in Visayan and Sibuyan Seas. Ciguatoxins were extracted from reef fish samples, and toxicity was determined qualitatively using mouse bioassay. Meanwhile, cell density estimation of toxic benthic dinoflagellates isolated from the host-macroalgae was done through microscopy. It was observed that 4.46% of the total reef fish samples were positive with ciguatoxins. Spatially, Carles, Iloilo in Visayan sea had the highest number of toxic specimens belonging to Epinephelus merra, Lethrinus lentjan, Lutjanus campechanus, Scarus quoyi, Siganus guttatus, and Sphyraena barracuda. Based on data gathered from three sampling sites, fish toxin occurrence is observed to be site-specific. Geographical conditions affect the frequency of toxic samples. Moreover, fish weight is not a good predictor of fish toxicity. For toxic benthic dinoflagellates, Gambierdiscus spp. were observed to have the lowest cell density count among other dinoflagellates averaging 7-115 cells per 100 g macroalgae. On the other hand, Ostreopsis spp. had the highest average cell density of 118-1,455 cells per 100 g macroalgae, followed by Prorocentrum spp. (207-594 cells per 100 g macroalgae). Fish toxicity is directly proportional to the occurrence of benthic dinoflagellates in areas as seen during dry season. Monitoring and management of CFP on identified reef fish vectors and its causative benthic dinoflagellates in the area are necessary to promote food safety and fair trade practice.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology ; Fisheries ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Tridacna gigas (Cardiidae: Tridacninae) is the largest extant reef-associated bivalves that occur abundantly in the Indo-West Pacific Region. However, unregulated exploitation had caused localized extinction in many parts of its distribution range. In Palawan, the species was considered virtually extinct in the 1980s, and since then, no study has been done to monitor their status in the wild. In the absence of updated studies about T. gigas, we gathered information through field reports, key informants, and field visits. Within five months of data gathering, we recorded 97 empty shells (14 in pairs and 83 single shells) with 65.86 cm (range: 42-112 cm) average shell length, which were estimated to be from 5 to 〉76 years old. Most (78.36%) of the empty shells were used for decoration and landscaping. On the other hand, 29 live individuals with 73.69 cm (range: 42-109 cm) average shell length were estimated to be 5 to 〉76 years old. Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park and some island resorts harbored the highest number of live T. gigas. The presence of live T. gigas in these areas reflects years of effective management and the resorts’ essential contribution to resource conservation. These remaining live individuals could be used in breeding and restocking programs to restore their lost populations.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Access of Philippine traditional fresh/ice-chilled seining vessels to High Seas Pocket 1 (HSP-1) lessens fishing pressures in the Philippine Exclusive Economic Zone where juvenile oceanic tunas are more likely to be found. However, catch landed by carrier boats from HSP-1 were observed to be of reduced quality, thus eliciting lower market value. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of icechilled carrier boats by generating data on the magnitude of post-harvest losses incurred in landed catch from HSP-1. Exploratory Fish Loss Assessment Method and Questionnaire Loss Assessment Method were used to estimate quality losses. Landed catch of ice-chilled carrier boats from HSP-1 recorded an estimated loss of 17.25%. Key players incurred an estimated financial loss amounting to PHP 223 million (USD 4.3 million). Low quality catch commonly sold as raw materials for canning, smoking, and fishmeal processing entail cheaper prices, thus regarded as losses. A positive correlation was established between fishing duration and losses. Results indicate that the current preservation technique in carrier boats could induce quality deterioration in fish given the long distances and transit times involved. Thus, the use of carrier boats with freezing system should be allowed in HSP-1 to sufficiently preserve the quality of the catch. This will reduce losses in post-harvest fisheries, thereby increasing the potential income of HSP-1 players.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management ; Planning
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 16
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: As a result of the coronavirus pandemic and nationwide lockdown, fisherwomen in Maharashtra, India, have few fallback options. The Guhagar fishing village lies in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra state in India. It has about 450 fisher families. Earlier, the regular routine for the fisherwomen of the village centred around visiting the beach and fish landing sites early in the morning to gather and buy fish that they would later sell. Since 25 March this year, India has been under an unprecedented nationwide lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19, the novel coronavirus disease. This has severely impacted all economic activity in the country. For fish workers along the fish value chain this has meant a total stoppage of all work, and loss of income. ‘Because of COVID-19, for almost a month, all fishing activities have stopped and fishers have no income. Traditional fishers are like daily wage workers who go to the sea daily to catch fish and earn their livelihood,’ said Ujwala Jaykisan Patil, a Mumbai based fisherwoman leader of the Maharashtra Machhimar Kruti Samiti.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Health ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Various factors in P. pelagicus seed production and grow-out culture were investigated in this study. Experiments were conducted to 1) compare natural and artificial feeds for larval production, 2) evaluate indoor tank and outdoor net cages as rearing media, and 3) assess different stocking densities for grow-out culture. Growth, development, and survival were assessed for the performance of each variable. (I) In larval production, the development of megalopa larvae into crab instar was synchronous in both natural and artificial feed treatments in a 5-day rearing observation. Crab instars began to appear on Day 4 with 27% composition in both feeds. Although survival appeared to be relatively higher in natural feed (43.96 ± 6.04%), this was not significant from survival in artificial feed treatment (33.33 ± 13.34), (t = 0.726, p 〉 0.05). (II) In Phase I grow-out culture, a two-variable design experiment was conducted to assess growth performance and survival of crab juveniles reared in indoor tanks and outdoor net cages at different stocking densities. Specific growth rate (SGR) differed significantly (t = 2.937, p 〈 0.05) between indoor tanks (6.39 ± 0.24%.d-1) and outdoor net cages (8.31 ± 1.11%.d-1). However, mean survival rate was better in indoor tanks (20.83 ± 9.24%) than outdoor net cages (8.94 ± 3.58% only), (t = 2.938, p = 0.015). In terms of stocking density, SGR was highest in 75 ind.m-2 (7.87 ± 2.44%.d-1). However, growth performance and survival of juveniles among different stocking densities were not significantly different (p 〉 0.05). Furthermore, two-factor ANOVA results have shown that growth performance of the juveniles was influenced by both the differences in rearing medium and stocking density, but not in terms of survival (F = 0.120, p = 0.888). (III) In Phase II grow-out culture, juveniles attained highest SGR (3.54 ± 0.56%.d-1) at 5 ind.m-2 stocking density. This was followed by 15 ind.m-2 (3.45 ± 2.39%.d-1) and by 10 ind.m-2 (2.33 ± 0.50%.d-1) (p 〉 0.05). However, survival rate was highest in 15 ind.m-2 (46.67 ± 0.00%), but the differences among other stocking densities were not statistically significant (p 〉 0.05). Overall, results suggest that artificial feed can be an alternative for Artemia in rearing megalopae to crab instar stage. Stocking density in Phase I and II grow-out culture did not substantially affect growth performance and survival of juvenile P. pelagicus. However, higher stocking density increases incidence of cannibalism among reared crabs.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Conservation ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: The Gender Climate Tracker (GCT) mobile app and online platform provides experts, practitioners, decision-makers, negotiators, and advocates with easy, on-the-go access to the latest and regularly updated information on policies, mandates, research, decisions, and actions related to gender and climate change. The app, available through the AppStore and GooglePlay, and online platform (https://wedo.org/gender-climate-tracker-app/) serve as a hub of information related to gender mandates within climate policy, the participation of women in climate negotiations, and tracking of gender-specific progress in each country.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Against the backdrop of the need to operationalize the SSF Guidelines in a participatory manner, the role of the local governance system of India cannot be overemphasized. As a complement to the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (the SSF Guidelines). The objectives of the SSF Guidelines are to be achieved “...by empowering small-scale fishing communities, including both men and women, to participate in decision-making processes”, paying “...particular attention... to decentralized and local government structures directly involved in governance and development processes together with small-scale fishing communities...”. The CCRF and the SSF Guidelines are global instruments aimed at states and fishing communities, in particular, towards long-term sustainable use of fisheries resources and sustainable development.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management ; Planning ; Policies ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Women fishers, shrimp peelers and mollusk workers in Costa Rica identify priority areas for the recognition and formalisation of their work.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 21
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Health ; Information Management ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: A report on gender and equity in the global health and social workforce. How do we address the question of inequality in global health infrastructure, especially during the pandemic grip of COVID-19? The report, produced by the WHO Global Health Workforce Network’s Gender Equity Hub is the latest gender and equity analysis on the health workforce – looking collectively for the first time at issues of leadership: decent work free from all forms of discrimination and harassment, including sexual harassment; gender pay gap; and occupational segregation across the entire workforce.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 23
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: The exclusion of women from organizing bodies is a key challenge facing women in Japan’s coastal fisheries. In Japan, the Fishery Cooperative Associations (FCAs) are key entities in the effort to protect the environment in coastal fisheries. They manage traditional fishing rights with legal support from the government, and are embedded into a multi-layer management system – including Total Allowable Catch controls for some species, effort control by Total Allowable Effort, prefectural government licensing systems, and traditional rights based management. Women in Japanese coastal communities have been organized and connected to FCAs for many years.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Declining incomes and ageing villages mean that women are likely to be the mainstay of families and communities in the small-scale fisheries in Southeast Asia. In the last few decades, attention on and analysis of women in fisheries and aquaculture have changed tremendously, especially in Southeast Asia. In the 1990s, just talking about women’s role in fisheries was considered to be new. Later on, women in the fisheries network emerged with the leadership of the Mekong River Commission, and Gender in Aquaculture and Fisheries symposiums started to be organized. However, the discussion was mainly around gender division of labour.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Did you know that there is a small fishing village called Marianad, in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India, which owes a lot of its history to a public health nurse from Bergamo – the epicentre of the novel coronavirus outbreak in Italy? This nurse, Lauretta Farina, 86, passed away on 12 March 2020, in a retirement home in Bergamo.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: Asian moon scallop, Amusium pleuronectes, is among the most common commercially harvested scallop in the Philippines. This study investigated suitable conditioning methods, induced spawning, and documented scallop larval development at the Marine Fisheries Research and Development Center (MFRDC) Guiuan, Eastern Samar. Scallops held in tanks with flow-through water system without substrate yielded high survival rate of 48.06 ± 5.95%. Optimum water temperature was 28-29°C for maintaining scallops. Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans were suitable microalgal feed for A. pleuronectes consumed at 7,388,888 cells min-1 per scallop. These significant results were applied in maintaining scallops at the hatchery. As a result, scallops with an average 19.8 mm shell length (SL) reached 37.5 mm SL within four months with a survival rate of 96.57 ± 2.04%, average daily growth rate (ADGR) of 0.13 ± 0.04 mm.day-1, and specific growth rate (SGR) of 3.92 ± 1.31%.d-1. Natural spawning was successful under controlled conditions while induced spawning trial through thermal stimulation, food shock, sexual stimulation, and serotonin injection resulted unsuccessful release of sperm and eggs. The estimated number of fertilized eggs per spawning ranged from 0.22-1.4 million. Fertilized eggs appeared spherical and dark in color with 54.2-62.57 µm in diameter. After nine hours, the larvae developed into trochophore stage with 59.08-84.4 µm in length. D-veliger with 120.37-157.07µm shell length developed after 24 hours. Development of the early umbone stage was reached on day 5; and on day 7, the umbo larvae become well-developed with shell length of 135.45-173.36 µm. On day 9, pedi-veligers were observed in the culture. Spat grew 312.41-509.48 µm on day 16 and survived until four months with final shell length of 4-10 mm. For the larval rearing, stocking density of A. pleuronectes larvae observed highest survival rate of 0.04 ± 0.03% at 200 larvae/L, while no larvae survived at 800 larvae/L due to contamination of protozoans in the culture medium.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: In support to policy formulation of fisheries in Agusan Marsh, a stock assessment was conducted for the period of May 2014 to December 2016 using the data collected from Lapaz and Talacogon, Agusan del Sur within the Agusan Marsh. Results showed that Lapaz contributed 54% of the catch over Talacogon. A total of eighteen species, belonging to 13 genera and 11 families with 7 native and 11 introduced species were found in the marsh. Majority of the total catch consisted of Channa striata, Oreochromis niloticus, and Cyprinus carpio (35%, 27%, and 26%, respectively). Osphronemus laticlavius, Glossogobius celebius and Mugil cephalus were listed as seasonal species. An invasive janitor fish (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus) was observed as by-catch. A strong pattern of high catch rates occurred during the rainy months of January, February, June, and December. Ten types of commonly used fishing gears were found, majority of which include fish pots, set gillnets, electrofishing and set long lines. Multivariate analysis showed similarity in species composition both in Lapaz and Talacogon. Exploitation of dominant species showed unsustainable level for O. niloticus, C. batrachus, C. caprio, andC. gariepinus, mainly due to excessive capture of immaturesized fishes by major fishing gears. The estimated exploitation rate is beyond the optimum level for O. niloticus and C. carpio in both years and followed by C. striata and C. gariepinus in 2016. Only C. bartachus is estimated to be exploited below the optimum level. Generally, the key species in Agusan Marsh are at risk of overfishing, hence, immediate policy measures must be given high attention.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Ecology ; Fisheries ; Management ; Planning ; Policies
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  • 28
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-06
    Description: The Yemaya Supplement, Turning Points: A decade of change for women in fisheries, focuses on a change that has happened over a decade: a truthful appreciation of women’s role in fisheries. Their involvement in the sector follows a similar arc the world over, despite wide differences in society, culture, politics and economics. This supplement is an effort to understand and identify the main factors affecting this over the decade -- the causes that have shaped their role, both positively and negatively.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: Healthy oceans and coastal communities cannot exist without investments in the long-term sustainability, social development and values of small-scale fisheries.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Management ; Sociology
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: Oil spill disasters in the ocean often devastate marine and coastal ecosystems, profoundly affecting fisheries resources and fishing communities. Urgent and early-warning actions are needed to avoid a tragedy in biomes and communities when such accidents occur. In late-July 2019, Brazilian fishers alerted the first oil slick reaching the coast of Paraíba, weeks before the recognition of the biggest-ever oil spill disaster ever recorded in Brazil, extending across the entire North-eastern coast of the country. Their early voices were not properly heeded but those signals escalated into a gigantic spread of petroleum slicks. Almost 1,000 different localities were affected, including beaches, mangroves, rivers and “protected” areas. All the nine states of the region, encompassing a 2,300-km long shoreline, switched on a red light.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Environment ; Fisheries ; Oceanography ; Policies ; Pollution
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: With the death of Sidney Holt late last year, the world lost a man blessed with a towering intellect, boundless curiosity and an unwavering commitment to conservation. Sidney began his professional life in 1947 at the Fisheries Laboratory in Lowestoft, UK. Michael Graham was the lab’s director then and he set Sidney on the path that led, a decade later, to the publication of what is often called the Bible of fisheries science and which he co-authored with Ray Beverton. Titled On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations, that seminal work, frequently described as the most-cited reference in fisheries science, continues to underpin fisheries management to this day. Not bad for a first effort!
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: For the first time in Chile, a new type of autonomous social movement, including fishworker organizations, seeks to create a democratic and representative constitution. Three major organizations in Chile have rejected the Social Agenda for Artisanal Fishers that President Sebastián Piñera’s government had proposed. (The proposal is called ‘Agenda social para los pescadores artesanales’ in Spanish.) The three organizations—the Consejo Nacional por la Defensa del Patrimonio Pesquero (Condepp), the Confederación de Federaciones de Pescadores Artesanales de Chile (Confepach), and the Red Nacional de Mujeres de la Pesca Artesanal de Chile—together represent 80 per cent of the artisanal fishers in the South American country.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries ; Management ; Policies
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  • 33
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: Women in fisheries can utilize the SSF Guidelines to advance their interests, even as they relate to one another and build up solidarity and a common vision. In India, in 2016, the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF) had organized a large national workshop to discuss the provisions of the SSF Guidelines with women in fisheries from various states (provinces). A follow-up workshop was organized in August 2019, this time focusing on states where women are better organized, in order to help them take the discussion towards concrete action. This was also in the backdrop of the National Policy on Marine Fisheries (NPMF), which was notified in late 2017 by the Government of India. It was deemed necessary to understand whether or not there was convergence of this national policy with the provisions of the SSF Guidelines.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Policies ; Sociology
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  • 34
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: Artisanal fishers’ experiential knowledge contains qualities that can help the world face some of its most difficult problems including climate change. We need to value their wisdom.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Management
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  • 35
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: Sri Lanka’s National Fisheries Policy needs to be remodelled to incorporate the SSF Guidelines in order to attain the goal of securing sustainable small-scale fisheries. The Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development (MFARD) of Sri Lanka recently prepared a White Paper on National Fisheries Policy in 2018, which was approved by the Cabinet and is expected to be presented to the parliament. It fails to address a number of compelling needs of the small-scale fisheries sector. The Sri Lanka Forum for Small-Scale Fisheries (SLFSSF) responded to this need; it embarked on a process to implement the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (the SSF Guidelines) between July 2018 and May 2019, with assistance from the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), as part of efforts of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) towards global implementation of the SSF Guidelines. Following the FAO Project Results Matrix, the SLFSSF took up a number of activities.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Limnology ; Policies
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  • 36
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: Without proper implementation of the SSF Guidelines, plans for the Blue Economy and Blue Growth will come to naught for small-scale fisheries. The European Union presents the Blue Economy and Blue Growth as follows: “Europe can unlock the untapped potential for growth in its blue economy while safeguarding biodiversity and protecting the environment. Traditional sectors such as maritime transport and maritime and coastal tourism will gain in competitiveness. Growing emerging sectors, such as ocean renewable energy and blue biotechnology, can become a key to creating more jobs, clean energy, and more products and services.”
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management ; Policies ; Sociology
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: Reflections on the ICSF workshop and recommendations to India’s draft National Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy (NIFAP), September 2019. The International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF) organized a national workshop to discuss the draft National Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy (NIFAP), being finalized by India’s Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare. The main objectives of the workshop, held in Kolkata on September 6-7, 2019, were to review existing social and ecological knowledge-gaps, to develop long-term and short-term recommendations—action points—for implementation, to integrate the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (the SSF Guidelines) with NIFAP, and to build capacity and awareness of fishers and fishworkers about the draft policy and its realization.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Conservation ; Fisheries ; Limnology ; Management ; Policies
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  • 38
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: For the 21st year running, the Collectif Pêche & Développement celebrated world Fisheries Day (November 21, 1997) at a symposium organized with UBS university and student participants on the theme ‘Recognizing fishers’ knowledge’. There is a trend towards the marginalization of fishermen, as highlighted in a statement to the European Commissioner for the Oceans: “Fisheries... is absent from the European Commission’s strategy to ensure the growth of the blue economy”... and “sustainable fisheries and fishing communities are likely to be the losers.” A student from Djibouti named Djoumah Ali observed: “It is not a question of denouncing all the measures or activities related to the blue economy but of taking into account the fishermen’s opinions. This is not really the case today at the international level in the debates on the future of the oceans.”
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
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  • 39
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: In this book, Svein Jentoft argues, with concise and precise logic, that we should not lose sight of communities when extending our perspective to the world of fisheries at large Life above Water: Essays on Human Experiences of Small-Scale Fisheries. TBTI Global Book Series 1, 2019
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
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  • 40
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: The fishing industry in south-central Vietnam relies on co-management and the ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management (EAFM) to sustain the health of coastal marine areas. Vietnam’s 3,260-km coastline hosts a diversity of marine resources such as coral reefs and seagrass beds as well as more than 1,080 species of fish. The health of Vietnam’s coastal and marine ecosystems is fundamental to the food security, livelihoods and social stability of more than 4 mn Vietnamese people who directly or indirectly benefit from the exploitation of marine resources. Small-scale fisheries are abundant in Bind Dinh, located in the south-central coast of Vietnam, making up nearly 40 per cent of the country’s small-scale fishing fleet. Fishing is a common source of livelihood and income generation at the household level.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries ; Management ; Sociology
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2020-08-07
    Description: The Darawa community in the Wakatobi National Park, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, manages their octopus fishery by working tirelessly with community-based organizations. It was a beautiful and sunny Sunday. The Darawa village community in the Wakatobi National Park, in Indonesia’s Southeast Sulawesi, was preparing to celebrate. The occasion was the first opening of Fulua Nto’oge, the 50 ha fishing site off One Mbiha beach which had been closed for three months. White steam billowed from four large cooking pots, stacked neatly over the fires. There were intoxicating aromas of lapa-lapa (rice cakes wrapped in coconut leaves) and seafood stews made from the most recent catch of crabs, squid, clams and snappers.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Environment ; Fisheries ; Management ; Sociology
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  • 42
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    Publication Date: 2020-08-11
    Description: Yemaya No. 60, dated April 2020, features articles from India, Costa Rica, Japan, European Union, and a special supplement, Turning Points: A decade of change for women in fisheries. The article from India details the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on women fishworkers in Mumbai. The Costa Rican article shows how the women fishers, shrimp peelers and mollusc workers identify their priority areas for the recognition and formalization of work. The article from Japan looks at the challenge of excluding women from fishery cooperative associations. The article from Africa looks at the gradual transformation of the African Confederation of Artisanal Fishing Organization (CAOPA) from 2010 onwards. The article talks about how the organization made gender issues as a priority area in their advocacy work. The article on Southeast Asia narrates the story of how declining incomes and ageing villages mean that women are likely to be the mainstay of families and communities in the small-scale fisheries. The article on small-scale fisheries and the contribution of women highlights that part-time fishing and gleaning activities globally may contribute nearly 3 million tonnes of seafood, with a landed value of around US$5.6 bn. The article on AKTEA, The European Network of Women in Fisheries and Aquaculture, looks at what are the challenges and the way forward for the network. In her review of the recently published book, "Practical Guide for Gender Analysis in Small-scale Fisheries and Aquaculture in Southeast Asia", Susana Siar looks at how the book is designed to support the SSF Guidelines. The Yemaya Supplement, Turning Points: A decade of change for women in fisheries, focuses on a change that has happened over a decade: a truthful appreciation of women’s role in fisheries. Their involvement in the sector follows a similar arc the world over, despite wide differences in society, culture, politics and economics. This supplement is an effort to understand and identify the main factors affecting this over the decade -- the causes that have shaped their role, both positively and negatively. The Profile column looks at how a fishing village in India mourns the death of an Italian nurse, Lauretta Farina of Bergamo. The Milestones column features a recently published report of the WHO Global Health Workforce. The report calls for gender-transformative policies and measures to be put in place if global targets for better health and gender outcomes are to be followed.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Environment ; Fisheries ; Management ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2020-12-11
    Description: Los estudios de la captura incidental asociada a la pesca de arrastre de camarones en la costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica no evalúan a los organismos pequeños (〈 10 cm TL) y especies no dominantes (〈 0,1% de la captura total). Hay un vacío en la evaluación del mantenimiento de la ecología y el ecosistema del que depende la pesquería. Además, el Tribunal Constitucional de Costa Rica prohibió la renovación de las licencias de arrastre de fondo de camarones existentes y la emisión de nuevas licencias de arrastre de fondo de camarones, lo que indica la necesidad de más información científica sobre los impactos de esta pesquería. Presentamos los resultados de un estudio de 23 meses de la pesquería de arrastre de fondo de camarones realizada entre 50 y 350 m de profundidad en la costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica. Se recolectó un total de 109 especímenes (seis especies y dos familias). Paguristes cf. holmesi fue la especie más común. La Zona II presentó la mayor riqueza y abundancia de especies. La mayoría de los especímenes (81,8%) fueron capturados en aguas poco profundas (50-149 m). Más del 45% de los arrastre presentaron cangrejos ermitaños. Los resultados sugieren que la temperatura podría estar afectando la distribución de los cangrejos ermitaños capturados. Es imprescindible evaluar más a fondo los efectos de arrastre en la fauna bentónica no comercial y los cambios en las relaciones depredador-presa antes de emitir nuevas licencias para camarones.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2020-12-11
    Description: Se generaron ecuaciones de regresión predictiva para estimar la longitud total del mero (Acanthistius patachonicus) utilizando el cráneo y los huesos de la cintura pectoral, así como medidas del cuerpo específicas y la longitud de los otolitos. Las regresiones usando el cráneo, los huesos de la cintura pectoral, medidas específicas del cuerpo y longitudes de otolitos fueron todas estadísticamente significativas. Generar regresiones de las características óseas y externas del cuerpo de los peces aumenta significativamente la capacidad de analizar la información que se puede obtener del estudio del contenido de los estómagos de los depredadores de peces del Océano Atlántico Sudoccidental.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2020-12-11
    Description: El presente trabajo está referido a los primeros resultados obtenidos sobre marcado y recaptura en el gatuzo, Mustelus schmitti, como medio para reconocer sus desplazamientos y migraciones en el Ecosistema Costero Bonaerense (ECB). Este tiburón es relevante no sólo por su gran abundancia a lo largo del ECB sino también por su importancia comercial para la flota pesquera de arrastre argentina. Entre noviembre de 2010 y mayo 2011 se marcaron 2.483 ejemplares cerca de Monte Hermoso, dentro del sector marino conocido como “El Rincón”, utilizando como plataforma una embarcación de la flota artesanal. Se logró recuperar 43 individuos entre 2010 y 2013. A partir del análisis de los individuos recapturados se señalaron los patrones de movimientos, migración, distribución espacial y temporal en el ECB, y además se discutieron y relacionaron dichos patrones con el ciclo de vida. Los resultados pusieron en evidencia la utilización por parte del gatuzo de áreas extensas, mayoritariamente costeras, sin alta afinidad con áreas particulares. Este es el modelo tradicional propuesto para tiburones pequeños como el gatuzo. Sin embargo, la modalidad reproductiva indicaría un ajuste al modelo señalado para grandes tiburones. Por lo tanto, el gatuzo en su comportamiento parece contener aspectos correspondientes a ambas modalidades con fidelidad por los sitios de reproducción pero sin evidencias de filopatría.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2020-12-12
    Description: En el presente trabajo se realizó la estandarización de la captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE) de polaca (Micromesistius australis) accesible a la flota surimera que operó en el Océano Atlántico Sudoccidental durante el período 1993-2018. Se aplicaron modelos lineales mixtos (MLM), a partir de la información de la estadística pesquera (MLMEST) y la colectada por los observadores a bordo (MLMOBS) de los buques que componen dicha flota, con el objetivo de comparar los modelos realizados a partir de ambas fuentes de información y el modelo utilizado para la estimación de índices de abundancia de polaca. La aplicación de los MLM mejoró el ajuste con respecto al modelo utilizado hasta la actualidad, sin variar abruptamente la tendencia estimada, lo cual permitiría predecir con mayor exactitud los valores medios de CPUE estandarizados a lo largo de los años. El MLMOBS mostró un mejor ajuste y una mayor variabilidad explicada que el MLMEST. A fin de obtener estimaciones más certeras y, de esta forma poder calibrar adecuadamente los modelos de evaluación de la especie, se recomienda utilizar ambas fuentes de información, teniendo en cuenta el mayor o menor grado de representatividad de los datos.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2020-12-12
    Description: Este estudio describe eventos competitivos de pesca desde la costa en Ilhéus, sur de Bahía (Brasil), incluida la composición de la captura, y proporciona información sobre el perfil de los pescadores recreativos que participan en estos eventos. La información se recopiló en todos los eventos promovidos por el Clube de Pesca de Ilhéus (CLUPESIL) en 2007-2008. Se organizaron un total de 26 eventos de pesca competitiva durante este período con 47 especies capturadas. Las principales especies fueron: Cathorops spixii, Menticirrhus littoralis, Trachinotus goodei, Eucinostomus melanopterus, Polydactylus virginicus, Atherinella brasiliensis y Eucinostomus argenteus. Estas siete especies representaron el 87% de la captura total en número y el 78% en peso. Menticirrhus littoralis y Polydactylus virginicus son especies de interés comercial y su captura estuvo dominada por juveniles. Los pescadores recreativos locales eran predominantemente hombres de mediana edad, que solían usar anzuelos pequeños y principalmente camarones como carnada. Estaban orientados al consumo, pero también liberaron peces pequeños. Durante las competiciones, los pescadores usaron anzuelos incluso más pequeños. La mayoría de ellos percibió a el arrastre de camarones como el principal factor que afecta la pesca recreativa. Se sugiere el uso de anzuelos más grandes y un tamaño mínimo de 20 cm para disminuir la captura de juveniles, principalmente los de especies de importancia comercial. Este estudio establece una línea de base a partir de la cual se pueden proponer nuevos estudios para acceder al estado actual de la pesca recreativa local.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2020-12-12
    Description: La metamorfosis de los peces es un proceso ontogenético importante con un papel clave en la supervivencia de las primeras etapas y en el reclutamiento exitoso a las poblaciones adultas. La corvina rubia (Micropogonias furnieri) es un recurso comercial importante para las pesquerías costeras de la Argentina y Uruguay. Se estudió su metamorfosis mediante análisis morfométricos y morfológicos durante el desarrollo larvario. Se utilizaron los cambios en los caracteres morfomerísticos antes y después de la metamorfosis para determinar el intervalo de duración de esta transición mediante el Análisis de Componentes Principales. Se colectaron individuos (n = 430) de 4 a 41 mm de longitud estándar (LE) en el estuario del Río de la Plata (35,45° S, 56,35° W) en marzo de 2006. Los rangos de longitud de las etapas de desarrollo de los individuos se asociaron con la presencia de caracteres morfológicos clave. Durante las primeras etapas de vida, M. furnieri cambia de una larva de cabeza grande y forma robusta a una forma corporal más delgada y alargada. La mayoría de las variables morfométricas mostraron un punto de inflexión a los 15,2 mm LE, con un intervalo de confianza del 95% de 14,0-16,4 mm. La parte anterior del cuerpo crece más rápidamente durante las primeras etapas, probablemente relacionada con una estrategia de actividad alimentaria intensa. La adquisición del número definitivo de radios de la aleta pectoral y el inicio de la escamación determinan el comienzo de la metamorfosis a los 11-12 mm LE. Alrededor de los 18 mm LE, termina la escamación, se desarrollan las primeras barbillas y se cierra el primordio de los otolitos sagittae. La longitud-de-metamorfosis para M. furnieri se estableció entre 9 y 18 mm LE, dado el alto grado de superposición que presentaron los caracteres de desarrollo estudiados. Todos esos procesos son indicativos del inicio del período juvenil asociado al asentamiento y al comienzo de un estilo de vida orientado hacia el fondo.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2020-12-12
    Description: Se recopilaron registros georreferenciados de peces demersales profundos del Mar Caribe colombiano con el fin de evaluar el nivel de cobertura de la prospección y la integridad geográfica de los inventarios de riqueza específica a una escala de celdas de 15 min por 15 min, en vista de las amenazas de la pesca y la explotación de petróleo y gas. Identificamos una rica fauna con un mínimo de 362 especies registradas. Se identificaron áreas con alta riqueza específica observada y predicha. La cobertura de los registros y la completitud geográfica de la riqueza resultaron ser deficientes sin que ninguna celda alcanzara el estado de unidad espacial bien muestreada, estando el 83% de los fondos de la Zona Económica Exclusiva del Caribe colombiano sin explorar, en particular aquellas profundidades superiores a los 1.000 m. Se hace un llamamiento para renovar los esfuerzos de prospección con un enfoque en la protección de la biota de aguas profundas del Caribe colombiano.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2021-02-05
    Description: Between August and October 2020, ASFA ran a survey to assess the impact of COVID-19 on aquatic science libraries around the world. With restrictions in many places library staff and patrons were unable to access buildings, we were interested to find out what impact this was having on staff and learn whether libraries were helping their communities respond to the virus. This article presents a summary of the survey results, further analysis will be undertaken by the ASFA Impact and Strategies Working Group, looking particularly at ways in which libraries can mitigate the impact of the pandemic. Librarians have many transferable skills which can be of use to local and global communities during these difficult times and it is vital we let communities know what we can offer.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries ; Information Management
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  • 51
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    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: By reminding us of the connection between food, health systems, sustainable development and human rights, the global COVID-19 pandemic offers an opportunity to build forward better. Even as we celebrate the contributions of small-scale fisheries to nutrition and food security within a rights-based framework, which is part of an ICSF campaign, we ought not to forget the context in which these are located. The global pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), commonly referred to as COVID-19, has swung the spotlight to illness, wellness and immunity. Precisely therein lies the importance of fish as food in various contexts and for diverse actors along the marine and inland fisheries value chain.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries ; Sociology
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  • 52
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    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: Not only is fish an important part of nutrition in the Southern African Development Community (SADC), but it is also a major–and unrecognized–element of trade. Fish and fish products are a primary source of protein and essential nutrients in the human diet. Various fish and other aquatic species are available from both marine and fresh water in every country of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. These fish make a significant contribution to the nutrition and food security of people in southern Africa.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: While small-scale fishers in Indonesia have not been hit by COVID-19 infections, the lockdown measures and economic policies have left them more vulnerable. The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has forced changes across the world. After cases spread rapidly outside Wuhan, China since January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. As the number of confirmed cases of infection crossed 31 mn in September, with more than 1 mn deaths, the pandemic has spread to about 200 countries. The United States, Brazil, India and Russia have recorded the greatest numbers.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries ; Sociology
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: Apart from exposing vulnerable indigenous communities to infection, COVID-19 threatens a programme that provides livelihood to the vulnerable and helps conserve freshwater fish species. Indigenous people and rural communities in Brazil’s Amazon region have been dramatically hit by COVID-19. A note issued on 10 June by the Coordination of Indigenous Organizations of the Brazilian Amazon (COIAB), in response to the Brazilian government, said the actions of the official agencies in response to the pandemic are regrettable: “So far the responses of the National Indian Foundation (FUNAI) and of the Special Secretariat of Indigenous Health (SESAI) to the COVID-19 have been slow, unco-ordinated and insufficient.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 55
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    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: Small-scale fisheries are important for the food security of the United States. Yet relief measures during the COVID-19 pandemic favour industrial operators, and are unsustainable. When the global COVID-19 pandemic hit the US in March 2020, no one knew for certain what it would mean for the seafood industry, let alone small- to mid-scale fishing operations. With most restaurants, hotels and catering services forced to shut down or drastically curtail operations, and with the complete shutdown of schools and universities, the demand for seafood reduced by nearly 80 per cent. Alongside this, transportation restrictions to stem the tide of the virus broke the supply chains of fishing operations.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 56
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    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: At the core of the unique flavours and tastes of the East Java cuisine of Indonesia is the traditional artisanal fish processing technique of pindang. Sumenep Regency is located at the eastern end of the Madura Islands in Indonesia’s East Java province. It is known for its large fishery and marine potential. Several types of fishing gear exist in Madura, mainly the payang, a type of seine net, very common and essential among fishermen. The payang resembles a trawl net. By design, it has wings and a ‘cod end’ on the upper part of the net, supported by floats, and weights that secure the lower end. The second type of gear, introduced by the Indonesian government in Madura in 1976 to promote efficiency, is the purse seine. The purse seine fishery is characterized by high productivity and a larger scale, compared with the payang seine.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: Innovative research in the Southeast Asian island nation of Timor-Leste has obtained data to help close the gender gap and provide food security for the local community. In October 2018, Leocaldia de Araujo, a fisherwoman from a village of 300 people at the northern tip of Timor-Leste’s Atauro Island, stepped quietly but confidently on to a stage in the capital, Dili. She was representing women fishers and fishworkers at the National Fisher Forum, the largest fisheries-focused gathering in Timor-Leste since independence. Her presence in front of a predominantly male crowd represented the start of a change taking place in Timor-Leste and its fisheries. She referred to herself and her community as an example of ami povu ki’ik (the poor and marginalized) that need to be heard.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: Amélie Dennebouy has challenged gender stereotypes to become a successful mussel entrepreneur in Pénestin, France. “ We don’t employ women!” Just how many times Amélie Dennebouy, a mussel farm worker, heard that phrase since she began working in the sector at age 17, it would be impossible to say. “Ten years ago, I realised that it would be difficult to find employment in the production segment because I am a woman,” says Amélie. Stories flood her mind: managers laughing at her when she handed in an application for work as a production worker, pushing her to the sales department instead; the crude questioning of some: “Have you passed under the desk?”
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: More than the COVID-19 pandemic itself, the lockdowns to prevent its spread have harder hit Nigeria’s unorganized small-scale fishers. The COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally struck all facets of life in affected countries and the small-scale fisheries (SSF) of Nigeria are no exception. The pandemic has hit the country’s small fishers both directly and indirectly. Small operators are the bulk of Nigeria’s fisheries sector. They account for 70 per cent of the domestic fish production, and sustain the livelihoods of millions of people in one way or another; the dependence on local fish species for economic and food security is evidently large. SSF provides an accessible, cheap and rich source of protein and essential micronutrients to the rural population. Their impact on social, economic and cultural spheres is immense.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 60
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    The International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF)
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: The latest issue of the women-in-fisheries newsletter of the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), Yemaya No.61, dated August 2020, features articles and interviews from Brazil, Costa Rica, France, India, Indonesia, Mexico and Senegal. The lead article is on small-scale fisheries and food security and the issue also carries a photo essay on the practice of Aratu fishing in the mangrove forests of Brazil. The Costa Rica article, by Maria Suarez Toro, looks at how the harsh economic impact of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic-related lockdown has spurred fisherwomen to return to their traditional sources of livelihood. Emmanuelle Yhuel -Bertin looks at the impact of the Covid-19 lockdown on small-scale fishing in Lorient, France, and how it is vividly captured in the pages of a diary maintained by a gillnetter skipper’s spouse. The article has been translated from French by Daniele Le Sann. The article from Indonesia, by Dedi Adhuri, points out how incomes from both harvest and post-harvest activities have dried up, leaving fishers in the lurch, adding to the anxieties of women who must make arrangements to survive from one day to the next. Inés López-Ercilla, Jorge Torre, Neyra Solano, and Francisco Fernández, in their article on Mexico, argue that, as in other countries, the experience of sheltering at home has led to increased domestic violence against women. Women in the small-scale fishing sector in Mexico are key drivers ensuring food security and community wellbeing during the Covid-19 pandemic. Ria Fitriana and Maria Kurupat, in their article on Indonesia, looks at how the changing land-use patterns threatens the livelihood of female crab collectors in Merauke, Papua, Indonesia. The article by Julie Lalluet-Geffroy,translated from French by Gildas, portraits a resolute mussel farmer, Amélie Dennebouy, who has challenged gender stereotypes to become a successful mussel entrepreneur in Pénestin, France. Nicole Franz, in her article, provides a brief overview of relevant international legal instruments and processes on small-scale fisheries contributions to rights to food and nutrition security, with a focus on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). In Assane Deme’s interview (transcript prepared by Beatrice Gorez and translated from French to English by Gildas) with Mme Diaba Diop, general secretary of Pencum, Senegal, she points out that it is imperative that States extend all possible support to fishing communities, particularly to women and other vulnerable sections, in order to mitigate the dual challenge of growing food insecurity amidst the spread of Covid-19. There is a need for rehabilitating the processing sites, she added. Women would require field training to master new techniques. Beatriz Mesquita,Lorena Franca and Luciecia Cristina Moraiss da Silva, in their interview with Sandra Gomes, President of the Association of Indigenous Communities of the Middle Negro River ( ACIMRN), speaks about the challenge indigenous communities are facing due to Covid-19. Vishakha Gpta, in the Yemaya Recommends section, poins out that the film, Seguridad Alimentaria (Food Security) shows how activities such as fishing and clam gathering are experiences through which the community connects and continues to pass on their heritage. In the Profile column, Nasser Kasozi writes about how the work of Lovin Kobusiye is an example of new entrepreneurship emerging in pan-African fisheries and aquaculture. In the Whats New Webby? section, Manas Roshan writes about how ICSF’s new website, https://covid.icsf.net presents information on specific sectoral issues affected by Covid-19 and also disseminates new information as signs of recovery from the pandemic. In the Milestones section, Ahana Lakshmi speaks about how the new book, "The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020", indicates that women now have better access to decision-making positions at the local level, mainly through legislated quotas. This issue of the Yemaya also carries the ever-popular cartoon strip, Yemaya Mama ('A fishy deal’). The current issue can be accessed at: https://www.icsf.net/en/yemaya/article/EN/61.html?limitstart=0
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 61
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    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: If managed sensibly, inland water bodies can go a long way to provide India with a sustainable future and food security for its population. Fish production in India registered a remarkable 16-fold increase during the last six decades to reach 12.59 mn tonnes (MT) in 2017-18, propelling the country to the position of the second-largest fish-producing nation in the world. During this period, the share of inland fish production has increased from 30 per cent to 70 per cent, and the present inland fish production has reached 8.9 MT. More than 14 mn fishers and fish farmers depend on fishing and fish farming for their livelihoods; many times more than that number eke out their living through support and ancillary activities like fish processing, trade and making of fishing craft and gear.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: The fish-processing industry’s path of using fishmeal to grow shrimp amounts to exporting the precious nutrition that India’s children badly need. In the early morning of 25 September 2019, on the shores of Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu, India, the humble sardine commenced its journey. The journey of its afterlife, that is. A group of women waited together, empty baskets in hand, chatting while waiting for the boats to arrive. Their expectations do not remain unanswered. Boats bulging with little shiny sardines return from calm seas. Boats carrying sardines, along with their histories of struggle. Big trawlers, small trawlers, ring seines, fibreglass boats: everyone has been scooping up schools of sardine today.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: The international democratic process has come a long way in realizing the role of fish in the right to food and nutrition–and yet, a map of the road ahead needs to be laid out. Even though the last century has seen great socioeconomic advances and improvement in human well-being worldwide, much work remains to be done to realize the ultimate goal of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to contribute to a “world free from hunger and malnutrition, where food and agriculture contribute to improving the living standards of all, especially the poorest and marginalized in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable manner”.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Health
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  • 64
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    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: The 1960 UN Conference on the Law of the Sea failed to reach agreement on the breadth of the territorial sea and fishing limits, with India, Chile and Ecuador playing decisive roles. The road to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) was littered with failed treaty-making conferences. In 1930, a League of Nations conference broke up without a decision over territorial waters. In 1958, a UN conference failed to agree on the breadth of the territorial sea and associated fishing limits. In 1960, a follow-up UN conference to decide these two outstanding questions collapsed.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries ; Law
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  • 65
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    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: There is no reason to wait for consensus on what is justice before we do something about injustice in small-scale fisheries. With the Blue Economy/Blue Growth now spreading around the world, I believe the issue of social justice for small-scale fisheries is an important and increasingly urgent issue, also for social research. We now have the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines), a landmark achievement when member-states of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) endorsed them in June 2014. I believe that if states do nothing to implement the guidelines, the Blue Economy will come at a loss to small-scale fisheries. Then the many injustices they have faced for so long will only exacerbate.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries ; Sociology
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: The harsh economic impact of the ongoing pandemic-related lockdown has spurred fisherwomen in Costa Rica to return to their traditional sources of livelihood. Although there have been very few COVID-19 cases in the area, the suspension of tourism with the COVID -19 pandemic has had an enormous impact on the southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Until recently, tourism was the mainstay of the local economy in the coastal communities of Puerto Viejo, Cahuita, Manzanillo and Cocles. However, the crisis has brought about a re-activation of traditional ancestral livelihoods where fishermen and women take to the sea in boats and kayaks bringing food to their families and communities.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 67
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    The International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF)
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: This issue was designed as a special edition to complement ICSF's campaign celebrating the contributions of small-scale fisheries to nutrition and food security within a human-rights-based framework. As the SAMUDRA Comment notes, the COVID-19 pandemic reminds us of the connection between food, health systems, sustainable development and human rights, and offers an opportunity to build back and build forward better. The articles in this edition of SAMUDRA Report – from 10 countries in Africa, Asia, South America and Oceania – reflect on the pandemic's impacts on fisheries, and situates the components of food security in the lives and livelihoods of SSF in several countries. The individual articles are as follows: Indonesia: COVID-19 lockdown measures have struck small-scale fishers United States: COVID-19 relief measures have favoured industrial operators Brazil: COVID-19 threatens the lives and livelihoods of vulnerable indigenous communities in the Amazon Malawi: Fish is an unrecognized element of trade in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Ghana: A study explored how access to affordable small fish will reduce hunger and improve nutrition Indonesia: The unique flavours of the East Java cuisine come from the traditional fish processing technique of pindang Timor-Leste: The island nation is closing the gender gap while also providing food security India: Managed sensibly, inland water bodies can provide the country with sustainable food security India: The use of fishmeal to grow shrimp is exporting the precious nutrition that India’s children deserve Analysis: A roadmap is needed for the role of fish in the right to food and nutrition Nigeria: More than COVID-19 itself, the lockdowns have hit the country's unorganized small-scale fishers harder Pacific Islands: The push for 30 percent MPAs must not bypass the democratic route used by small island nations to improve fisheries and incomes Analysis: The 1960 UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) failed to reach agreement, with India, Chile and Ecuador playing decisive roles SSF / Blue Economy: There is no reason to wait for consensus on what is justice before acting on injustice in small-scale fisheries Review: An award-winning film captures the complexities of small-scale fishers and fish processors in West Africa
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: Access to affordable small fish is key to achieving zero hunger and improved nutrition in Ghana’s poor urban households, a new study shows. Small fish are indeed the backbone of Ghana’s animal protein supply in the poor urban neighbourhoods of Accra (such as Nima, Chorkor, Ga Mashie and James Town) and Tamale (such as Sagnarigu, Kukoo, Sakasaka and Salamba). This is the conclusion of a recent research project called Fish4Food. The academic team behind the project drew from the University of Amsterdam (UoA), the University of Ghana (UoG) and the Kwame Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Until recently, this critical aspect was largely overlooked. The research findings demonstrate that despite the high appeal of large-sized fish–not to mention the increasingly popular farmed fish like tilapia and catfish–the urban poor prefer smaller pelagics like anchovies, herrings and mackerels.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries ; Sociology
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  • 69
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    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: Renewed calls for marine conservation must not bulldoze the democratic route that has allowed small island nations to improve fisheries and incomes without damaging the marine ecology. I wanted to share some concerns regarding the danger that threatens to disrupt the management of the Pacific Islands’ signature fisheries and main independent source of income. There have been renewed calls for 30 per cent marine protected areas (MPAs) that sound suspiciously over-simplistic. Community-conserved areas come at many scales and the Pacific Islands’ chances of ensuring a multinational indigenous conserved area are threatened.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Fisheries
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  • 70
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    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: According to the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020 (SOFI 2020) released in July amidst the devastating impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of people affected by hunger is steadily rising globally. People with higher risk of food insecurity include those with the lowest levels of income and education, the unemployed, those with health problem, those living in rural areas, and those separated or divorced. The report, which carries recent and authoritative estimates of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition around the world, also revealed disturbing gender specific aspects of hunger: moderate to severe food insecurity is more prevalent among women than men; there is a growing gender gap in accessing food; and the most disadvantaged and vulnerable are often adolescents, women and children living in the poorest households in rural areas but also urban areas. When viewed in the context of a pandemic induced global economic crisis, these findings have serious implications for the lives of women in the small-scale fisheries.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: The impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on a small-scale fishing in Lorient is vividly captured in the pages of a diary maintained by a gillnetter skipper’s spouse. In March 2020, Emmanuelle Yheul-Bertin, wife of a gillnet skipper who runs a 13-metre gillnetter vessel with four men on board, began recording the experiences of skipper and crew during the COVID-19 lockdown. Her diary covers the period from mid-March to early May. The first entry signals a gathering cloud of anxieties. “The media is reporting lockdown restrictions to prevent the spread of COVID,” writes Emmanuelle, “but the artisanal fishery in Lorient is yet to recover from the impact of the winter’s numerous storms.”
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2021-02-14
    Description: An award-winning film, made on a tight budget, captures in powerful images the complexities of small-scale fishers and fish processors in West Africa. I’m in search of happiness. That’s how a young Guinean surprises us in the smoky atmosphere of a sardinella smoking oven in Casamance, Senegal, in a sequence from the film Poisson d’or, poisson africain. Thomas Grand and his friend Moussa Diop show us the price to pay for trying to make a living on this bustling beach. They give us a scalpel-sharp analysis of the complex realities of a temporary community that brings together, for six months of the year, men, women and children from all over West Africa, around the exploitation of fish.
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries
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