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  • Fisheries  (13,670)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 9 (1985), S. 220-236 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Resource economics, UK
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 8 (1984), S. 137-150 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Fisheries ; International organizations ; Management
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 6 (1982), S. 131-139 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Economic measurements ; Fisheries ; Pacific
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 7 (1983), S. 267-278 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Environment ; Fisheries ; Resource management
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 8 (1984), S. 239-258 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Antarctica ; Fisheries ; Krill
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 9 (1985), S. 39-52 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries ; Marine resources
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 6 (1982), S. 219-235 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Canada ; Fisheries ; Foreign relations
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 9 (1985), S. 120-125 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Exclusive Economic Zones ; Fisheries ; Law of the Sea
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 9 (1985), S. 126-133 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Government ; USA
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 6 (1982), S. 27-42 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Fisheries ; International law ; United Nations Organization
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 6 (1982), S. 43-57 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Atlantic ; Fisheries ; Management
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 6 (1982), S. 61-62 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Marketing ; UK
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 6 (1982), S. 66-68 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Regional government organizations ; West Africa
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 7 (1983), S. 197-211 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Management ; Property rights
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Marine Policy 6 (1982), S. 121-130 
    ISSN: 0308-597X
    Keywords: Atlantic ; Fisheries ; Management
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Political Science , Law
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Phosphorus ; Contaminants ; Ecosystem ; Management ; Simulation model ; Great Lakes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A simulation model was developed to describe linkages among fish food web, nutrient cycling, and contaminant processes in the southern basin of Lake Michigan. The model was used to examine possible effects of management actions and an exotic zooplankter (Bythotrephes) on Lake Michigan food web and contaminant dynamics. The model predicts that contaminant concentrations in salmonines will decrease by nearly 20% ifBythotrephes successfully establishes itself in the lake. The model suggests that this decrease will result from lowered transfer efficiencies within the food web and increased flux of contaminants to the hypolimnion. The model also indicates that phosphorus management will have little effect on contaminant concentrations in salmonines. The modeling exercise helped identify weaknesses in the data base (e.g., incomplete information on contaminant loadings and on the biomass, production, and ecological efficiencies of dominant organisms) that should be corrected in order to make reliable management decisions.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Reservoir ; Fisheries ; Breeding and wintering waterbirds ; Raising water levels ; Habitat change
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A new, higher dam was installed at Kerkini Reservoir in 1982, causing habitat and landscape disruption. A decrease in the area of grassland and shallow water areas, the rapid disappearance of reedbeds, the appearance of beds ofNymphaea, and the disappearance of half the forest area were all observed between 1982 and 1991. With the new hydrological regime, a lacustrine system was created, with an extensive, rather deep (4–8 m), pelagic zone favorable for the development of coarse fish species throughout the year. After 1982, an increase in fishing effort and a change in the relative abundance of fish species in the catch, including the disappearance of eels and wels, were observed. The impact of the rise in the water level of breeding aquatic birds led to a general decline in species typical of marshy habitats in favor of species preferring deeper open water habitats. A decrease was recorded in bird species that feed largely on invertebrates and to a lesser extent fish (e.g., glossy ibis) and that require extensive shallow feeding areas. There was a decline in geese, whose nests were regularly flooded, and a major increase in piscivorous birds, particularly diving birds (e.g., cormorants), which prefer deeper open water and benefitted directly from the large increase in coarse fish biomass. The disappearance of birds breeding in flooded meadows (e.g., black-winged stilts) and of those restricted to reedbeds (e.g., marsh harrier) occurred from 1983. Over the same period, the changes in populations of wintering birds at Kerkini were different from those occurring in other wetlands in northern Greece. The changes recorded in the populations of wintering birds at Kerkini did not therefore result from overall regional trends but from the major habitat modifications that occurred to this wetland. As for breeding birds, strictly piscivorous species increased greatly as a result of the increased availability of fish, but also due to the appearance of many suitable night roosting sites (flooded trees) and to the great increase in the area of open water greater than 2 m deep. Today, Kerkini has become the most important breeding site in Greece for a majority of colonial waterbirds. In contrast, wintering shorebirds practically disappeared. The many changes recorded in the status of breeding and wintering birds at Kerkini can mostly be explained by the changes that occurred in the functioning of the ecosystem and in the habitat structure following the inauguration of the new hydrological regime. These changes did not all occur at the same time: some were immediate and others required a delay before they could be detected.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Flushing ; Scouring ; Channel Maintenance ; Fisheries ; Trinity River
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The operation of Trinity and Lewiston Dams on the Trinity River in northern California in the United States, combined with severe watershed erosion, has jeopardized the existence of prime salmonid fisheries. Extreme streamflow depletion and stream sedimentation below Lewiston have resulted in heavy accumulation of coarse sediment on riffle gravel and filling of streambed pools, causing the destruction of spawning, nursery, and overwintering habitat for prized chinook salmon (Salmo gairdnerii) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha). Proposals to restore and maintain the degraded habitat include controlled one-time remedial peak flows or annual maintenance peak flows designed to flush the spawning gravel and scour the banks, deltas, and pools. The criteria for effective channel restoration or maintenance by streambed flushing and scouring are examined here, as well as the mechanics involved. The liabilities of releasing mammoth scouring-flushing flows approximating the magnitude that preceded reservoir construction make this option unviable. The resulting damage to fish habitat established under the postproject streamflow regime, as well as damage to human settlements in the floodplain, would be unacceptable, as would the opportunity costs to hydroelectric and irrigation water users. The technical feasibility of annual maintenance flushing flows depends upon associated mechanical and structural measures, particularly instream maintenance dredging of deep pools and construction of a sediment control dam on a tributary where watershed erosion is extreme. The cost effectiveness of a sediment dam with a limited useful economic life, combined with perpetual maintenance dredging, is questionable.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Water control ; Floodplain ; Fisheries ; Bangladesh ; Chandpur
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges—Brahmaputra—Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15–20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental management 3 (1979), S. 133-144 
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Coastal zone Management ; Fisheries ; Marshes ; Wetlands ; Louisiana
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This paper examines causes and consequences of wetland losses in coastal Louisiana. Land loss is a cumulative impact, the result of many impacts both natural and artificial. Natural losses are caused by subsidence, decay of abandoned river deltas, waves, and storms. Artificial losses result from flood-control practices, impoundments, and dredging and subsequent erosion of artificial channels. Wetland loss also results from spoil disposal upon wetlands and land reclamation projects. Total land loss in Louisiana's coastal zone is at least 4,300 ha/year. Some wetlands are converted to spoil banks and other eco-systems so that wetland losses are probably two to three times higher. Annual wetland losses in the Barataria Bay basin are 2.6% of the wetland area. Human activities are the principal determinants of land loss. The present total wetland area directly lost because of canals may be close to 10% if spoil area is included. The interrelationship between hydrology, land, vegetation, substrate, subsidence, and sediment supply are complicated; however, hydrologic units with high canal density are generally associated with higher rates of land loss and the rate may be accelerating. Some cumulative impacts of land loss are increased saltwater intrusion, loss of capacity to buffer the impact of storms, and large additions of nutrients. One measure of the impact is that roughly $8–17 × 106 (U.S.A.) of fisheries products and services are lost annually in Louisiana. Viewed at the level of the hydrologic unit, land loss transcends differences in local vegetation, substrate, geology, and hydrology. Land management should therefore focus at that level of organization. Proper guideline recommendations require an appreciation of the long-term interrelations of the wetland estuarine system.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental management 7 (1983), S. 151-160 
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Grass carp ; Biological control ; Nuisance aquatic weeds ; Fisheries ; Aquaculture ; Reproductive requirements ; Arkansas management plan ; Sterile hybrids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) were introduced into the United States in 1963 as potential biological control agents for nuisance aquatic weeds. Since that time an oftentimes bitter controversy has raged over its effects on sportfishing, and its possible natural reproduction and naturalization in North America. This review considers the history, ecology, and present status of grass carp in the United States in light of the voluminous scientific research conducted since its importation. Particular attention is given to the role of grass carp in the fisheries management plans of Arkansas. Recent development of a sterile, triploid grass carp hybrid may lead to widespread use of grass carp to control nuisance aquatic weeds in culturally eutrophicated waters of the United States.
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-10-19
    Description: Efficiency of various meshes of gillnets and trolling gear was investigated for catching kingfish (Scomberomorus commerson) in coastal waters of Sistan and Baluchestan province in 2007. In gillnets with mesh sizes between 57 to 110 mm and netting of monofilamnet and multifilament, the size distribution of kingfish ranged between 40 to 78 cm of fork length, which all specimen caught were immature. In mesh size of 146 mm and 171 mm, the length range of the species was larger, in which the frequency of immature fish for the respective mesh sizes was 19 and 11. In general, most fish was captured by wedging in the all mesh sizes. The size range of kingfish captured by the trolling was between 52 and 147 cm, of which more than 50 percent of caught fish were immature. The proportion of kingfish catches in the gillnets of 57-110 mm mesh sizes is about 13% of the total catch composition, for which the mesh sizes are considered as the dominant gillnets for capturing the species in this area. The conribution of kingfish catches in 133, 146, and 171 mm mesh sizes was 1.1, 52.3 and 18.9% respectively, with a 146-mm mesh size is considered as a dominant gillnet for this species. The implementation of the ban on the use of 57 to 110 mm mesh sizes for exploitation of kingfish is mandatory, which the mesh size of 146 mm and above seems to be appropriate for responsible fishery of the species. However, recommendation of standard mesh size needs to be re-examined in field trials.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-10-11
    Description: The process of smoking squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) locally known as “Bakag” was enhanced. Chilling and marinating of squid mantle before smoking was introduced to improve taste and texture. The acceptable product was determined through sensory evaluation using a 5 -point hedonic scale rating. Chemical and microbial properties were determined using the standard method of analysis. Smoked squid which was chilled before smoking and those flavoured with Sprite soda was the most acceptable. The microbiological test revealed levels within acceptable limits.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 24
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    Maryland Department of Research and Education
    Publication Date: 2018-10-23
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 25
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    Maryland Department of Research and Education
    Publication Date: 2018-10-29
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 26
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    Ministère de la Pêche et de l’Economie Maritime. Direction de la Pêche Continentale
    Publication Date: 2018-10-22
    Description: Le sous-secteur de la pêche continentale est une composante essentielle de l’activité halieutique et revêt une importance capitale pour l’économie des régions continentales (Source importante de protéine et de revenues). La Pêche continentale est pratiquée aussi bien au niveau des principaux fleuves qu’au niveau des mares et autres plans d’eau aménagés. Elle est une activité artisanale qui cherche à s’améliorer de jour en jour avec l’aide de l’Etat à travers des aménagements d’infrastructure et autres donations et subvention d’équipements. La Production de la continentale varie d’une région à une autre du fait de la configuration hydrographique, des écosystèmes et du professionnalisme des acteurs.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-02-21
    Description: Presented in this paper are the statuses of marine fisheries in west and east coasts of Malaysia. Moreover, it provides data on catch landings of demersal and pelagic species, semi-pelagic species, pelagic schooling species such as chub, mackerel, anchovies, tunas, sardine and herrings, trevally, round scad and yellow banded scad, prawns and the minor group comprising shrimps, crabs, squids, and cuttle-fish, bivalves and molluscs.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-02-18
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , PeerReviewed
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-01-08
    Description: A workshop to strengthen small-scale fishery communities in the context of the SSF Guidelines was held on 28 September 2018 at the National Science Foundation in Colombo, Sri Lanka. A workshop was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka for the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines). The workshop, held on 28th September, 2018 was attended by 45 participants from the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development (MFARD), the Director General of the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development (DFARD), National Aquaculture Development Authority (NAQDA) and Ceylon Fisheries Corporation (CFC), and 15 officers from Coast Conservation Department (CCD), Agriculture Department, Ministry of Tourism, Department of Wildlife, Coast Guard (Navy) and Marine Environmental Protection Agency (MEPA).
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-01-07
    Description: Social contexts inevitably influence entry into the occupation and how fishing lives are shaped by the unfolding of non-fishing identities. Temporal perspectives can help us understand what it means to be a fisher – including the importance of social contexts for entering the occupation and how non-fishing identities shape the unfolding of fishing lives.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 31
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-07
    Description: Only collective action in small-scale fisheries can overcome the problems of poverty, marginalization, insecure tenure rights and powerlessness.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Sociology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 32
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    Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-01-22
    Description: The paper describes a simple and inexpensive method of handling and transporting wild sabalo captured from the sea.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Presented in this paper are the statuses of marine fisheries in west and east coasts of Malaysia. Moreover, if provides data on catch landings of demersal and pelagic species, semi-pelagic species, pelagic schooling species such as chub, mackerel, anchovies, tunas, sardine and herrings, trevally, round scad and yellow banded scad, prawns and the minor group comprising shrimps, crabs, squids, and cuttle-fish, bivalves and molluscs.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-01-22
    Description: From 10 May to 16 June, 1975, 106 adult milkfish were captured in an otoshi-ami 500 meters offshore. Of the 106 specimens, 37 were females in various stages of gonadal development or spent and 69 were males of which 41 were sexually mature. The age of these fishes were estimated to be between 3 and 5 years.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 35
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    Japan International Cooperation Agency
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: The paper presents a method by which the optimum number of hauls for an area can be estimated when the desired precision for estimating fish abundance is given. This method is applied to an area along the east coast Gulf of Thailand. The area was divided into three subareas according to the various features of fishing conditions. Subarea-I contains 13 blocks and is located in the southernmost part of the area; subarea-II comprises 17 blocks in the northernmost part and extends eastwards in the form of a rectangle. The remaining 31 blocks are contained in the subarea-III which occupy the intermediate and off-shore regions of the two subareas. The superiority of trawl fishing ground is in the order of the subareas II, I and III. If an error of 20% can be tolerated for the estimate of fish abundance, sixty hauls are necessary for subareas I and III, while thirty hauls are sufficient for subarea-II.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 36
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    International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF)
    Publication Date: 2019-01-08
    Description: SAMUDRA Report No. 80, dated December 2018, features articles on fisheries from around the world that focus on a diverse range of issues, from small-scale fisheries and community fisheries to illegal fishing, the SSF Guidelines, conservation of manta rays and fisheries governance, among other topics. The editorial Comment in this issue discusses how the Regional Plan of Action for Small-scale Fisheries in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea is a model for other regional fisheries management organizations. The tide of fortune for small-scale fisheries in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea is turning, says the opening article. The article from Cambodia shows how extensive and well-developed is the nation's system of community fisheries. Sri Lanka's SSF communities can be strengthened in the context of the SSF Guidelines, argues another article, while a report from Vietnam on a recent consultation workshop discusses illegal fishing and co-management in the central coastal region. The piece from Indonesia discusses how Lamakera village has initiated a programme for the conservation of manta rays. From Pakistan comes a report on a Peoples Long March against dams on the Indus River. Effective fisheries governance has led to democratization and decentralization in Myanmar, according to another article. The social contexts and lives of fishing communities are analyzed in another article, while the last article in the current issue points out that only collective action in SSF can overcome the problems of poverty and marginalization. SAMUDRA Report No. 80 also features the regular Roundup section that carries news snippets, analysis and tidbits on fisheries from around the world. SAMUDRA Report No. 80 can be accessed at: https://www.icsf.net/en/samudra/article/EN/80.html?limitstart=0
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 37
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    Japan International Cooperation Agency
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: An echo-sounder is an effective method of location and evaluation of fishing grounds, although its scope of coverage is narrow and the intensity of its echogram tracing as a means of estimating the size of fish schools is still a problem. Approximately 800 hours of echo-sounder recordings made in the South China Sea and Andaman Sea during the survey cruises of R/V CHANGI from 1970 to March 1973 were analysed. The results show that there is a definite correlation between fish catch and the gradings of fishing grounds as evaluated from the echograms obtained from the same area. This is especially so in areas where the values of mean catch per hour are more than 200 kg. The presence of upwelling, current rip and boundary layer, important factors for the formation of good fishing grounds can be clearly detected by an echo-sounder. During drifting, the growing size of fish schools attracted to the vessel’s light in the hours of darkness, as appeared on the echogram, may indicate abundance of fish in that area. The different modes and types of fish schools of some large fishes are easily recognisable on the echograms.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 38
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    Japan International Cooperation Agency
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Based on the catch statistic derived from the official returns which were offered from all Taiwan paired trawlers operated in the South China Sea, dating from 1969 to 1971, the author made an investigation on the species composition, the seasonal changes of the demersal fishes appeared in their catches. The magnitude and potential of the demersal fish resources in these areas have also been assessed.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 39
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    Japan International Cooperation Agency
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: The production from commercial and municipal fishing are presented for a period of 10 years showing a continuous increase. The commercial fishing production is broken down into production by major fishing grounds for a closer evaluation. The trend by type of fisheries for the same period is also presented. Purse seine and trawl fisheries show advancement with increase in production and number of fishing vessels in operation.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: This paper reports the distribution of chaetognaths in the southern part of the South China Sea, based on the plankton samples collected by the research vessel CHANGI from April 1970 to April 1972. The chaetognath specimens collected in April, 1972 were identified. Altogether 22 species belonging to 5 genera were discerned. Sagitta enflata was the dominant species and was widely distributed in the areas surveyed. While the common species in the neritic waters are S. bedfordii, S. bedoti, and S. Oceania, the common species in the oceanic province are Krohnitta pacifica, K. subtilis, Pterosagitta draco, S. bipunctata, S. hexaptera, S. lyra, S. minima, S. pacifica and S. regularis. S. enflata and S. ferox are common in both neritic and oceanic provinces. The individual numbers of chaetognaths varies from 400 to 13,000 per 100 m3 of water. In general, the chaetognaths are abundant in coastal waters but decline towards the open sea. Based on the occurrence of the various species, the importance of chaetognaths as biological indicators of water masses are discussed. P. draco, S. hexaptera, S. minima and S. pacifica are useful indicators of the presence of oceanic water in the neritic province. The presence of these species in some neritic waters adjacent to the oceanic province suggests the mixing of oceanic water and neritic water in the respective areas during the survey.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2019-02-06
    Description: One of the mainly valuable consumed colloid proteinmaterials in pharmaceutics, medical and food industries is Gelatin. Fish gelatin near warm water is similar mammal gelatin. Due to the amount of catch of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) use in factory. Fish skin is peel off and wasted in factory every day. Analysis factors were extracted alkaline method gelatin from skin, physiochemical and rheological test (amino acid composition (HPLC), electrophoreses, fourier transform infrared, moisture content, pH, setting point , setting time, melting point and melting time, color and gelatin yield) with access method of National Iran Standard. Prepared gelatin nanoparticles from gelatin with desolvation method. Determination of particles size, size distribution, zeta potential for characterize the surface and morphology. Antibacterial assay with disc diffusion method and determined MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC(minimum bactericidal concentration) for Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. For nanoparticles gelatin antibacterial assay (MIC and MBC) turbidimetry. Statistical processing were linear regression and modeling and forecasting regression. Albeit antibacterial compared gelatin and gelatin nanoparticles.It produced 0.034g gelatin for one gram of yellowfin tuna. Yellowfin tuna had higher gelatin content (Proline and Hydroxyproline) than mammalian gelatin content. SDS-electrophoresis for yellow fin gelatin showed protein band (α, β, γ) same as mammalian protein band. Fourier transform infrared had the same spectra for both of them. Factors were pH (6.1), Moisture (8.5%) Setting temperature and time respectively 4(°C) and 60(s) and Melting temperature and time respectively were 50(°C) and 45(s). The color was transparent. The mean size of the gelatin nanoparticles was 132 nm and PI (polydispersity) and zeta potential were respectively 0.248, -31 MV. pH, speed of addition of acetone, percent of glutaraldehyde depends on size of nanoparticles gelatin. (Statistically significant was P〈0.05). Gelatin nanoparticles had antibacterial in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus while gelatin had antibacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nanoparticle gelatin had higher MIC and MBC than gelatin. Statistically significant was P〈0.05. Antibacterial assay for gelatin particles has evaluated for foodstuffs packing and it may use drug delivery. This kind of gelatin is lawand similar mammalian gelatin. Antibacterial properties are more useful for usage in foodstuffs packing and may using drug delivery.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
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    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-10-23
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 43
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    Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-08
    Description: Presented in this paper is the status of the fishery industry in Brunei Darussalam. Specifically, it discussed the following topics: fishery management strategies, zonation scheme, licencing, the use of poisons and explosives, the minimum cod-end mesh size for trawlers, closed areas, enhancement of fishing grounds, and the enforcement activities.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 44
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    Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: World economic growth has led to considerable changes in the ecosystem in many places and has raised concerns on global resource management particularly aquatic animal resources and their living environment. In Vietnam, aquatic animal resources play an important role in the national economy and are one of the targets for economic development. However, under high population pressure, high demand for seafood has resulted in unfavorable living environment. Aquatic animal resource has been over-exploited and in some places reported to be declining; hence some species have become extinct or endangered. This paper provides a list some endangered freshwater, brackishwater, and marine species. Moreover, the seed production activities and the release strategies for resource conservation of the government of Vietnam are also presented.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
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  • 45
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    Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-01-22
    Description: The existence of races and/or subpopulation in milkfish, a widely distributed species, is suggested by many workers. Comparison of mean numbers of vertebrae is one of the useful method of distinguishing subpopulations. The present paper reports the results of preliminary studies made on the vertebral counts of milkfish fry collected from several areas. The results obtained, though not conclusive, suggest the scope for further study in the line.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 46
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    Japan International Cooperation Agency
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Among the red snappers caught by trawling in the South China Sea, L. sanguineus is the most important species, comprising more than 10% of the total catch. Although L. sanguineus is widely distributed in the South China Sea, its pattern of distribution seems to be rather patchy. However, they were most abundant at 35—80 m. water depth and inhabit muddy-sand areas especially where “Neptune’s cup” are abundant. Size frequency histograms indicate four to six size groups, with peaks of almost the same height. The growth rate of fish of 23 cm. was taken to be approximately 2 cm. per month. As no significant difference in length-weight relationship between male an female was observed, the following formula can be applied for both sexes. W = 7.64 x 10–5 L2.823 where, W = body weight (g). L = body length (mm). The number of ovarian eggs ranged from 69 to 260.104 and the regression between the number of eggs in thousand (N) and fish weight in gram (W) was N =0.4459W + 83.2. High values of gonadal index from March to November with a peak in April—June suggests a prolonged spawning season.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
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  • 47
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    Japan International Cooperation Agency
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: During the experimental bottom long line fishing conducted in June and September, 1972, near the Gulf of Thailand and off Kuching, Sarawak respectively, simultaneous oceanographic surveys were also carried out. The analysis of the data suggested possible relation between oceanographic and fishing conditions. Throughout the two trips it was a common feature that good catches were often obtained near the boundary between the nearshore warm water and the deeper cold water. Through oceanographical consideration of the data obtained, the following conclusion was deduced. There is a possibility that good fishing grounds are located along the canyon off Kuching throughout all seasons. However, their locations may be altered with the change of oceanographic conditions. In the area off the Gulf of Thailand, good fishing grounds may be formed only in certain specific seasons.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Oceanography
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  • 48
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    Japan International Cooperation Agency
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: The fishery resources of Vietnam have not been neither rationally managed nor exploited up to the present time. Fisheries organizations both on the government side and in the private sector were first established in 1957. Since then, fishery production has increased annually. The total catch in 1972 was 677.000 MT and if the rate of increased production can be mentioned is expected to reach about 1 million MT by 1975. With the gradual coming of peace, it can be expected for a variety of reasons that the fisheries of Vietnam will be expanded significantly and become a bigger contribution to our food supply as well as export production. At present, there are 340,000 fishermen operating 95,000 wooden fishing boats of which 55,000 are mechanized. The marine coastal area is intensively exploited by small boats while 20 large steel trawlers recently have begun to fish offshore. A joint project (UNDP-FAO and government of Vietnam) survey in the South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand was set up 3 years ago and should continue to operate for some time to come. The inland fisheries, the production of which represents one sixth of the total annual catch, is carried out in rivers, streams and flooded areas in the Mekong delta and also by fish culture in fresh water and brackish water ponds and in floating cages in rivers. With improved methods of aquaculture the yield of fish ponds increases constantly. With a rapid expansion of the commercial fisheries, and rapid increases in exports, which tend to be concentrated on a few high value species, there may be a danger of over-exploitation in one area or another. There is also a danger that investment in plants, fleets, and shore facilities may be improperly timed and inefficiently utilized. Therefore, a thorough basic study of the entire commercial fisheries is needed, and a well coordinated plan for investment and development made. Plans are now being made to accomplish this important objective.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 49
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    Japan International Cooperation Agency
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: The semi-commercial bottom trawl fishing by the training vessel JURONG in the South China Sea in 1971 and 1972 was confined to three areas at its south western portion. The positively skewed frequency distributions of catch per hour assumed approximately the shape of a normal curve when the yield was transformed logarithmically. Sample statistics from these transformed values form the basis of discussion of the yields for 1971 and 1972 in relation to fishing seasons and types of nets used. Yield records from JURONG showed that the catch in waters off Terengganu (northeast coast of West Malaysia) was poorer than that of Homan and Sarawak. These yields were briefly discussed together with values obtained by the R/V CHANGI. In the area off Sarawak, the Engel II net obtained much better catches than the four seam net. The percentage composition of dominant fish categories from Tioman and Sarawak are also discussed.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: The paper presents the research activities of the Marine Fisheries Research Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. The results of the Department's trawl fishing activities, longline and vertical handline operations, tuna longline operations and oceanographic observations were also presented. Also presented in the paper are the future plans of the Department.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Description: Presented in this paper is the development of fisheries industry in Thailand. The data on the production of the principal fisheries species and major fishing methods are also presented. Also included are the recommendations for the future developments of the fishery industry in the country.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 52
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    Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Presented in the paper are the stock enhancement programs of the Union of Myanmar which is being implemented by the Department of Fisheries. The State’s vision is to assist the national economy by promoting livelihood programs for rural people through the development of the fisheries sector. To achieve such goal, one of the major activities is to undertake a stock enhancement program which has been implemented since 1983. The DOF subsidizes the annual seeding of freshwater fish and prawns into natural waters. Species used in seeding include common carp (Cyprinus carpio), tilapia (Oreochromis), rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla), and featherbacks fish (Notopteridae), freshwater prawn Macrobrachium and tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Activities include annual stocking of seeds in the Ayeyarwaddy River and its tributaries, lakes, reservoirs, dams and other bodies of water.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
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  • 53
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    Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: In the 1960s, the Japanese economy was starting to industrialize. The rapid increase in business investment in new factories and equipment stimulated a yearly economic growth rate of approximately 12% (METI 1970). However, these developments have disrupted coastal landscapes through land reclamation and industrial effluents (Fishery Agency 1980a). Furthermore, overfishing has accelerated with increased consumer spending and demand for fish protein. Consequently, coastal fish resources such as red sea bream (Pagrus major), kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) and swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) have been depleted and income of coastal fisherfolk has decreased (Fishery Agency, 1980). Under such conditions, the Japanese government initiated the Stock Enhancement Program in 1963 (Fishery Agency, 1980; Imamura, 1999). The program initially targeted red sea bream and kuruma prawn in the Seto Inland Sea in southern Japan which covers almost 3,000 islands (Imamura, 1999). Because the fundamental concept of stock enhancement programs was to compensate juvenile loss caused by high larval mortality in the ocean, development of mass juvenile production techniques was emphasized (Fishery Agency 1980a; Matsuoka, 1989). Therefore, the release of juveniles became a typical form of stock enhancement in Japan. The current number of target species for stock enhancement has increased to almost 80 species. Stock enhancement is undertaken by both the national government and local governments together with conservation of fishing ground and regulation of fish catches for resource management (Resource Association 1983a; Imamura 1999; Fishery Agency 2000; JASFA 2003a). This article reports the present status of stock enhancement in Japan from the organizational and technical viewpoints.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
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  • 54
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    Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-08
    Description: The presence of a large number of species that are low in quantity in Japan's coastal waters has resulted in the evolution of a food culture that has historically utilized most of the catch species and sizes that are caught in coastal trawls. This has resulted in a diverse range of species and sizes captured and amounts to 40% of total animal protein intake. Sustainable fisheries in Japan are necessary for preserving food culture as well as employment and income and great efforts are being made to conserve resources. Three strategies have been carried on for conservation of fisheries in Japan, are (1) Enhancement of Fish stocks, (2) Improvement of fishing grounds and (3) Improving the selectivity of fishing gears. Increasing mesh size and release of fish juveniles after capture has already been accepted by fishers. Fishers and scientists together have become a team in developing and testing selective fishing gears. Selectivity has been investigated on a practical basis with the aim to reduce fish discards and to release fish juveniles. However, unlike many western countries, guiding net panels and grids to improve selectivity have not been successful in Japanese coastal multi-species fisheries. The variations in size, shape, price and seasonally of species make development of selective fishing gears extremely complex. Our practical target is to promote live capture technology, improve utilization of species captured and refine catch records for investigation of fish stocks.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 55
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    Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: The paper provides the lists of fisheries related species perceived to be extinct, rare, threatened and endangered as covered under the CITES, IUCN and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR)-Fisheries Administrative Order (FAO) No. 208. The listings of freshwater fisheries resources constitute mostly finfishes that are all, except for one, found in the CITES list, the rest under the IUCN red lists and none in the BFAR list. Majority of the listed species are also specific to some areas like Lanao Lake, few in the RINCONADA lakes of Bicol and scarce in some other minor lakes where they are found to be endemic. Most of the indigenous cyprinid species are of commercial value to the locality and are the main source of fish protein in the daily life of the fisherfolk. The listings of marine finfishes constitute mostly sharks and seahorses which are all, except for one, found in the CITES list, the rest under the IUCN Red List and none in the BFAR-FAO list. Although BFAR listed 20 species of whales and dolphins under its FAO 208, marine mammals are not included in this report. Most of the indigenous shark species are becoming rare and extinct due to the rampant shark Status of Threatened Species and Stock Enhancement Activities in the Philippine Fisheries with the rising demand of shark fins smuggled or exported abroad. These marine finfishes are distributed in coastal waters. The listings of marine gastropods, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms are all found in the BFAR-FAO listings as Rare, Threatened and Endangered, while few and selective under the CITES and IUCN lists. Accordingly, these are the most common marine resource commodities that are over-exploited, gleaned and gathered illegally, and frequently exported or smuggled out of the country by unscrupulous traders.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 56
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    Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The paper provides a comprehensive list of endangered freshwater, brackishwater, and marine aquatic species in Thailand. The Thai Department of Fisheries is breeding some of the endangered species under the “Rehabilitation of Thai Local Fishes and Aquatic Animals Project.” Some of these species are bred for restocking in the wild.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Fisheries
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  • 57
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    Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-08
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: An exploratory tuna longline fishing survey was conducted using the research and training vessels of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, the 1,178 GT MV SEAFDEC and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, the 165 GT MV MAYA-MAYA in the South China Sea Waters, West of the Philippines from April to May, 1998. A total of 3,796 hooks was set in sixteen (16) fishing stations. There were no tuna caught during the entire survey but only minor and irrelevant species like the Pacific lancetfish, sharks and an opah species, Lampris guttatus. The important fishing and oceanographic factors during the survey and other research results on longline are described and analyzed. Additional longline studies within and near the Philippines territorial waters are also presented to substantiate the research results of the joint SEAFDEC/BFAR resource exploratory.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: Round scad exploration by purse seine in the waters of western Philippines was conducted from April 22 to May 7, 1998 for a period of five (5) fishing days with a total catch of 7.3 tons and an average of 1.5 tons per setting. Dominant species caught were Decapterus spp. having 70.09% of the total catch, followed by Selar spp. at 12.66% and Rastrelliger spp. 10.70%. Among the Decapterus spp. caught, D. macrosoma attained the highest total catch composition by species having 68.81% followed by D. kurroides and D.russelli with 0.31% and 1.14% respectively. The round scad fishery stock was composed mainly of juvenile fish (less than 13 cm) and Age group II (13 cm to 14 cm). Few large round scad at Age group IV and V (20 cm to 28 cm) stayed at the fishery. Other fishes caught were: Auxis rochei (0.85%), A. thazard (0.12%), Caranx spp. (0.45%), Emmilichthys nitidus (0.58%), Euthynnus affinis (0.42%), Leiognathus ruconius (0.58%), Loligo sp. (0.31%), Megalaspis cordyla (0.09%), Rastrelliger spp. (10.70%), Sardinella longiceps (0.03%), Scomberoides lysan (0.24%), Selar spp. (12.66%), Sphyraena spp. (0.90%), Thunnus albacares (0.96%) and others (1.02%). Tuna and tuna like fishes such as yellowfin tuna, eastern little tuna, bullet tuna, frigate tuna and oceanic squid are distributed in the upper latitudes of the survey area. On the other hand, round scads, big-eyed scads and Indian mackerels are dominantly present in the lower latitudes of the survey area.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: Composition, abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton were investigated in the South China Sea, western Philippines. Larval fish samples were collected at 31 stations by surface and double oblique tows in April/May 1998. A total of 7371.67 fish larvae, representing 85 families, were collected in the samples. Abundance of fish larvae were dominated by the Myctophidae followed by the Gonostomatidae. The ten most abundant families of fish larvae found in this study were separated into three broad categories: (1) inshore fishes, represented mainly by the Bregmacerotidae, Gobiidae, Apogonidae, and Carangidae;(2) mid zone fishes represented mainly by the Hemiramphidae, Labridae and Engraulidae;(3) offshore fishes represented mainly by the Myctophidae and Gonostomatidae. Depth and time of day appeared to affect the abundance of fish larvae and fish eggs. Fish larvae were found mainly in double oblique tows while fish eggs were found mostly in surface tows. The larvae caught at night were more abundant than larvae caught during the day. Abundance and distribution of tuna larvae are also discussed.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Oceanography
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: In an attempt to come up with initial jigging fishery on oceanic squid in the Southeast Asian Region SEAFDEC conducted a comparative study on the squid in the Philippines Exclusive Economic Zone off the coast of Western Philippines from 17 April to 9 May 1998. The survey objectives are to determine the distribution and abundance of the oceanic squid in relation to oceanographic conditions and to examine the feasibility of harvesting squid with jig gear. Results from 11 sampling stations show that only one species of the purpleback flying squid, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis (Lesson, 1930) were caught by automatic squid jigging gear. The distribution and abundance of the purpleback flying squid in term of the catch-per-unit effort (CPUE, number of squid per line hour) are presented. Over the entire survey area, the CPUE of the squid averaged 5.7 squids/line hour. Drop-off rates for jigs fished on the jigging machines ranged from 0 to 0.33 squid/line hour. Angling depth where the squid were abundant ranged from 50 m to 100 m. The squid had a mean overall mantle length of 147 mm and an average weight of 0.17 kg. A total of 2,592 squid were measured and mantle length ranged from 90 to 250 mm. Female dominated the catch, accounting for 1,380 squid or 81% of the 1,701 squid sexed. Males were generally smaller than females. The mantle length composition for males was single peak mode at between 120 and 130 mm. Females also had one peak between 140 and 150 mm mantle length. A similar length-weight relationship coefficients between male and female was found. The squid were found in a warm water mass where the sea temperature ranged from 14°C to 31°C at the depth from 150m up to sea surface at night. Good fishing grounds of the squid were at 18°N latitude (18.5 squids/line hour) and at 19°N latitude (11.6 squids/line hour) off the San Fernando and Currimao coasts, respectively where the upwelling occurred. Dissolved oxygen where squid abundant was ranged from 3.27 to 4.4 ml/l. Downwelling was found at 16°N along the 118°E where less potential of the squid, the water transparency depth in this area was deep of about 44 m. A period of 6 days before and after full moon day was good fishing day, while the percent illumination of the moon was less than 30%.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 62
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    Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The marine fisheries status has declined in stock and become very critical issue at present. Fisheries regulations and notifications have been issued for solving the problems of fisheries management. Responsible fishing is a new concept developing for the fisheries resources recovery that required more rehabilitation training and extension programs. In Thailand efforts to conserve the fisheries resources such as fisheries regulations by means of close area, close season and mesh size limitation are being enforced. Training and extension programs for fishermen and other people concerned including many conservative projects have been done by the Department of fisheries.
    Keywords: Fisheries
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  • 63
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    Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The paper documents the application of the services of International Maritime Satellite Organization (Inmarsat) to responsible fisheries. Currently known as International Mobile Satellite Organization, offers an increasing array of telecommunication services to business travelers, landmobile, aeronautical, and maritime users, etc. For the maritime industry Inmarsat provides satellite vessel monitoring. The position reports, which optionally may include course and speed, from one or more fishing vessels may be incorporated into a system comprised of hardware and software at a shore-side control station.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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    Unknown
    Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: Because of the importance of shrimp trawling fisheries in a number of countries in Asia and the Indian Ocean region and recommendations for more research work in the field of selectivity, in particular through more cooperation between countries, a Cooperative research network in the Asia and Indian Ocean region on selective tropical shrimp trawling was initiated in December 1995 by the Fishing Technology Service of FAO. The overall objective of this on-going networking programme is: in the short term, to gather accurate information on on-going shrimp trawling and catches, data which is necessary for further improvement of the selectivity of these fisheries, and to review recent progress in the region in this field; in the medium term, to facilitate further research on the subject. Details of the activities proposed within the programme are given, as well as the expected participation for its execution. Progress, up to May 1997, is briefly reported. Activities such as field surveys in several countries and a regional workshop soon were not too difficult to arrange. However, cooperation for research work at sea with the participation of experts from several countries is not so easy.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: An acoustic resource survey off western Philippines waters from April 18 to May 07, 1998 was conducted by MFRDMD in collaboration with BFAR by using M/V SEAFDEC. A scientific echosounder FQ-70 developed by the Furuno Electric Co. of Japan was used to collect the SV data along the transects of 60 nautical miles apart. The raw data of backscattering strength (SV) collected from the 200 kHz transducer were carefully corrected and filtered to eliminate the influence of noises such as planktons. The corrected SV values were used to estimate the biomass of multi-species pelagic fish. Decapterus macrosoma was selected as representative species based on catch composition caught by M/V MAYA-MAYA during fishing operations. From the catch, the standard length (SL) and average weight of Decapterus macrosoma were obtained. Then the target strength (TS) of the representative species was calculated using formula, TS=20log (SL) - 66. The distribution of the SV values showed geographical difference. SV values were higher in the northern area and the southern waters of Manila. TS was estimated at -45.8 dB with the standard length of 10.2 cm. The estimated density and biomass of multispecies pelagics along the coastal waters were 18.9 tonnes/km2 and 1.672 million tonnes respectively. Meanwhile the total area and depth layer used were 88,362 km2 and 190 m respectively.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to determine a suitable type of Turtle Excluder Device (TED) attached to the body of a shrimp trawl to avoid inflicting harm on marine turtles. Seven types of the TEDs were tested; three brought from U.S.A. namely the Anthony Weedless, the Super Shooter and the Bent Pipe, two brought from Mexico namely the Georgia Jumper and the Mexican, and two were designed by Kasetsart University and SEAFDEC/TD, Thailand, namely the Thai-KU and Thai Turtle Free Device (TTFD), respectively. No turtles were caught in any of the areas off Chumporn and Songkhla during a total of 120 hauls. The escape rate by weight of the Super Shooter and TTFD were found to be 2.67% and 1.80% for day-time operation and 1.91% and 1.04% during the night, respectively, this indicated that they were the most efficient TED. The fuel consumption for all TEDs showed little difference. In terms of convenience in operation, the TTFD was found to be the best and the most suitable TED for the use by Thai fishermen.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: Several species of oceanic squids are believed to occur in the South China Sea, especially off the west coast of the Philippines. Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was one of the species that dominated the catch during the research survey off western Philippines in April to May 1998. Preliminary study was carried out on some biological features of Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, particularly on maturity pattern, sex ratio and stomach content. There was a similarity in maturity pattern throughout the study areas with the same proportion of mature and immature squids. In all stations, the female squids outnumbered the male and the size of the female was general bigger than the male squids. ML50% of female was estimated to be at 175 mm while range of mature female was between 110 - 240 mm. Fish and cephalopods were the most frequently occurring prey taxa found in the diet of Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, contributing between 37% - 46% and 30% - 43% respectively. Identification of prey taxa especially to species level was strictly limited, due to lack of proper references and understanding of the nature of fish species composition within the study areas. Results discussed in this paper may serve as early information for future biological study on S. oualaniensis.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: A survey on the zooplankton in the waters of western Philippines was carried out from April 18 to May 9, 1998. The estimate of zooplankton biomass ranged from 0.92 mg/m3 to 20.85 mg/m3 with a mean of 5.70 mg/m3. Maximum and minimum densities of zooplankton recorded were 4683/m3 in station 16 and 446/m3 in station 5, respectively. The zooplankton communities were comprised of 37 different categories of animal groups. Copepods were the most dominant group in zooplankton communities at all stations but their abundance varied from 5% to 43% of the total zooplankton.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 69
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    Unknown
    Secretariat, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-21
    Description: The findings are presented of observations made during the SEAFDEC cruise conducted in western Philippines waters during the period mid April-mid May 1998 regarding the geostrophic and tidal currents. The dynamic high and low in the study area were owed to the relative vertical movement of water. The high area reflected a downward movement or downwelling in which as far as fisheries is concerned, is less potential for fisheries. The low dynamic surface due to cyclonic eddy caused by wind turbulence near the head of Luzon Island indicated a potential fishing ground for this season. Wind-dominated circulation with some orographic effects suggested that potential fishing grounds might be located for each season from wind data from coastal as well as ship stations.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 70
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    Unknown
    Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The fisheries of many countries in Asia are heavily reliant upon fisheries as a major source of food protein with fish consumption levels two to three times higher than those of western countries and collectively, the region harvests approximately forty percent of the world's marine fishes. With many of the region's fish resources fully exploited or over fished, identification, quantification and reduction of biological waste in commercial fisheries has become a regional priority. However, given the complexity of multi-species fisheries and fish utilization practices as well as the technological difficulties already encountered make finding practical solutions by individual researchers or institutes extremely difficult. Within the region exist human resources, research and development facilities and equipment that if shared could significantly speed up the process of biological waste mitigation. This paper, identifies some of the current problems associated with biological waste mitigation and proposes that resolving these issues is best achieved through information, facility and human resource sharing. An initial target of setting minimum standards for fishing trials, experimental protocols and analytical techniques is proposed with a second step being the establishment of information databases of technologies to reduce biological waste. Administrative support, strategic planning and management of regional databases and the activities of scientists and technologists can only be carried out by a regional agency such as SEAFDEC or ICLARM. International cooperation between agencies, institutes and researchers is a pre-requisite for long term resolution of technological problems.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 71
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    Unknown
    Secretariat, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: This paper presents the preliminary result of the exploratory fishing for oceanic squid by automatic jigging method in the South China Sea Area III: western Philippines. This was part of SEAFDEC’s collaborative research survey on the fisheries resources of Area III with focus on tuna, oceanic squid and other migratory species. The research vessel M/V SEAFDEC covered 31 predetermined stations for oceanographic and fisheries survey, 10 of which were squid jigging stations. Jigging effort of four automatic jiggers at each station varied from 2-8 hours. The Indo-Pacific squid, Sthenoteuthis (Symplectoteuthis) oualaniensis (Lesson, 1830) was the only species caught throughout the fishing area. The total catch for 51.6 fishing hours consisted of 2538 individuals weighing 393.1 kg. The female-dominated catch had individuals with mantle length ranging from 9.8-24 cm and average weight of 155g. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of automatic jiggers averaged 6 ind/line/hour (968 g/l/h) or 0.4 ind/jig/h (45 g/j/h). High concentration of squid was observed at the northern portion of the survey area. Catch rates were high within 0-100 m jigging depth. S. oualaniensis in Area III occurred in two forms: the dwarf, early-maturing form without dorsal photophore (9.8-12 cm mantle length;43 g average weight) and the middle-sized form with dorsal photophore (12-24 cm ML;174 g average weight). The middle-sized form dominated the catch representing 86% of the total catch. The dwarf form was less abundant in all catches but occurred throughout the area. The middle-sized and dwarf forms had total weight of 377.5 kg (2175 individuals) and 15.6 kg (363 individuals), respectively. The females were dominant in both forms. The biomass of S. oualaniensis standing stock in the SCS Area III was estimated at 283 thousand metric tons.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: Studies on age and growth using statolith of oceanic squids, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis collected from Western Philippines, South China Sea, Area III have been conducted from 7 April - 19 May, 1998 by MV SEAFDEC Cruise No. 50-4/1998. A total of 1,707 squids were sampled and measured onboard. 74 statoliths which consist of 53 statoliths from female specimens and 21 from male specimens were extracted and processed using statolith ageing techniques with the body mantle length range from 107 - 217 mm and 115 - 167 mm, respectively. The male is small than the female where the male does not exceed 180 mm and the female can grow up to 260 mm. There is slightly a different dimension of growth at the statolith microstructure between the male and female specimens. In the ground statolith, growth increments were examined and grouped into four growth zones distinguished mainly by the width of the increments. It was found that the male exhibit slower growth and maturation occur at the same time with the female but at smaller size. The age of the male and female ranged from 135 - 259 days and 95 - 275 days, respectively. The life span of the species was considered within one year. It was also observed that the putative microcohort of the female could be explained from the length frequency distribution of the immature and mature female and a pool data of length frequency distribution from all stations.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-02-22
    Description: Zooplankton samples from 31 stations in the western Philippines water were collected by M.V. SEAFDEC on 7 April - 19 May 1998. Six major groups were identified: Euphausiacea, Natantia (Penaeidea and Caridea), Reptantia, Brachyura, Stomatopoda and cephalopod paralarvae. Three genera of Euphausiacea were found, they belong to one family: this group formed 25.1% - 90.9% of total taxonomic groups at different stations. The superfamiiy Penaeidea consisted of seven genera belong to four families. Caridea larvae were composed of 11 families including 19 genera. Retantia consisted of three infraorder: Stenopodidea, Thalassinidea and Parinuridea. The infraorder Parinuridea comprised two families: Palinulidae and Scyllaridae. Fourteen families of Brachyura larvae occurred in the study area. Stomatopoda was composed of three families including three genera. Cephalopoda paralarvae were presented in the plankton samples by six families representing eight genera. The maximum counts for malacostraca larvae and cephalopod paralarvae was observed at station 16. The present study reveals that some economic species such as Penaeus spp., Parapenaeus spp., Panulirus spp., Scyllarus spp., Portunus spp. and Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis were important components of the zooplankton assemblages in the western Philippines.
    Keywords: Fisheries ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 74