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  • 1
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    Düsseldorf: Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftliches Institut (WSI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: In economics and other social sciences, complex processes are often represented by numerical models of reality which more or less well reflect behavioral relationships and interactions. Such attempts are the subject of a lecture course 'Mathematical Theory of Democracy' by the author at the Faculty of Economics of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. One new result in this field is presented here in the form of a statistical test to decide whether a political party or coalition of parties represents a majority of the population. For this purpose, party or coalition positions on a sample of policy issues, like introduction of a legal nationwide minimum wage, privatization of railways, and others, are compared with the results of public opinion polls on the same issues. The test is based on estimating the statistical significance of the coincidence observed (i.e. how likely is the coincidence by chance) to the end of accepting or rejecting the representativeness hypothesis. The test is developed for single parties and coalitions of two or three parties. It is illustrated with an estimation of representativeness of five major German parties and their potential coalitions basing on the official party manifestos published before the German parliamentary elections 2009 and on relevant polls of public opinion.
    Description: In der Ökonomie und den anderen Sozialwissenschaften wird immer wieder versucht, komplexe Prozesse der Wirklichkeit durch numerische Modelle abzubilden - was mit Abstraktionen für z. B. Verhaltens- und Wirkungsrelationen mehr oder weniger gut gelingt. Solche Versuche sind Gegenstand einer Vorlesungsreihe 'Mathematische Theorie der Demokratie' des Autors an der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät des Karlsruhe Institut für Technologie. Ein neues Ergebnis in diesem Bereich wird hier vorgelegt in Form eines statistischen Tests, der entscheiden soll, ob eine politische Partei oder eine Parteienkoalition repräsentativ im Sinn der Bevölkerungsmehrheit agiert. Zu diesem Zweck wird die Übereinstimmung von Parteien- oder Koalitionspositionen mit Ergebnissen von Meinungsumfragen in der Bevölkerung verglichen, etwa zur Einführung eines bundesweiten gesetzlichen Mindestlohns oder der Privatisierung des Schienenverkehrs und anderem mehr. Der Test basiert auf der Einschätzung der statistischen Signifikanz der beobachteten Übereinstimmung (d.h. wie wahrscheinlich ist eine nur zufällige Übereinstimmung), um die Hypothese von der Repräsentativität der Politik zu akzeptieren oder abzulehnen. Die Studie spielt die Repräsentativität von einzelnen Parteien sowie von Zweier- und Dreier-Koalitionen durch. Darunter ist auch die Konstellation der fünf großen deutschen Parteien und ihrer potentiell möglichen Koalitionen auf der Basis der Bundestagswahl von 2009.
    Keywords: C12 ; C44 ; C63 ; D71 ; D72 ; ddc:330 ; mathematical theory of democracy ; statistical test ; parties ; coalitions ; representativeness ; Bernoulli matrices ; sums of random vectors ; Demokratie ; Politische Partei ; Öffentliche Meinung ; Wahlverhalten ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: Vor dem Hintergrund des Klimawandels und der Endlichkeit fossiler Ressourcen steht eine Vielzahl regionaler Landnutzungsentscheidungen an. Hierbei sind unterschiedlichste landwirtschaftliche und forstwirtschaftliche Konfliktfelder zwischen Produzenten, Stakeholdern und der regionalen Governance einzubeziehen. Im Rahmen des Verbundforschungsvorhabens "Bioenergieregionen stärken" beschäftigt sich das Cluster SÖB im Rahmen des Verbundforschungsvorhabens "Bioenergieregionen stärken" (BEST) mit der sozioökonomischen Bewertung von Nutzungskonzepten und regionalökonomischen Wertschöpfungsoptionen. Zentrale Ziele des Clusters sind die sozioökonomische Bewertung der energetischen und stofflichen Nutzung von Biomasse, die Unterstützung der regionalen Governance durch Bereitstellung sozioökonomischer Bewertungsergebnisse, die synoptische regionalökonomische Bewertung konkurrierender Wertschöpfungsoptionen, die betriebswirtschaftliche Bewertung vorhandener Nutzungsoptionen sowie die Bewertung der relativen Vorzüglichkeit klassischer landwirtschaftlicher Produktionsverfahren und Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Für das gesamte Verbundforschungsvorhaben sind zwei Modellregionen in Niedersachsen und Thüringen definiert. Ziele dieses Beitrages sind die Herausarbeitung regionsspezifischer Ergebnisse der beteiligten Teilprojekte und die Ableitung sowie Synthese gemeinsamer Schlussfolgerungen und Handlungsempfehlungen für die regionale Governance. Zur Umsetzung werden im folgenden Kapitel zunächst die Untersuchungsregionen aus soziodemographischer, agrarstruktureller und forstlicher Perspektive näher beschrieben. Hierauf folgt im dritten Kapitel eine Darstellung der verwandten Methodik und der regionsspezifischen Ergebnisse der vier beteiligten Teilprojekte. Der Beitrag wird durch gemeinsame Schlussfolgerungen und Handlungsempfehlungen der vier Teilprojekte beschlossen.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 3
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    Vienna: The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: After the EU enlargement of May 2004, the exchange of agro-food goods between the EU 15 and the new member states (NMS) has accelerated considerably. In particular the expansion of Polish exports in 2005 resulted in the highest surplus registered by the NMS 4 (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia) in the past decade. Lower production costs in agriculture, especially for labour, are a fundamental cause of Poland's success to date. Despite remaining net importers, the Czech Republic and Slovakia have also slightly improved their position on the EU agro-food markets. Hungary's great ambitions - prior to EU accession - to further expand to EU markets have so far not materialized. The Hungarian setback is rooted in higher production costs, in particular in the livestock sector, and delayed preparations needed to meet European standards. Backed mostly by direct payments and by high EU internal farmgate prices for a number of products, the economic situation in agriculture in the NMS-4 has improved substantially after accession to the EU. In the years to come, price competitiveness in the NMS will erode as the slight deterioration in agricultural terms of trade visible in the past decade will continue. With ongoing integration into the EU, labour costs and land prices will be on the rise, while farmgate prices in the EU, under pressure from the WTO, will drop in the long run. Further liberalization of the agro-food markets and rising labour productivity will result in a reduction of agricultural jobs in the EU. Consequently, the production of organic foodstuffs and other labour-intensive regional specialties may become an increasingly attractive option to survive. The size and structure of farms will vary between countries depending on the different natural and climatic conditions, as well as their previous histories. It can be expected that large market-oriented farms will continue to constitute the majority in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and, to a lesser extent, in Hungary; the significance of smaller market-oriented farms is likely to dwindle. In Poland, this concentration process will ensue at a much slower pace owing to the country's completely different post-war development. Mounting WTO pressure and the growing reluctance of rich EU member states to contribute to the Brussels budget for the development of poorer countries of the Union will lead to a weakening of redistribution processes. As a result, the total amount of money available from Brussels for redistribution under the CAP will be less than today.
    Keywords: F15 ; H71 ; J33 ; J43 ; O13 ; O57 ; P32 ; Q14 ; Q15 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; Central and East European new EU member states ; agriculture ; food industry ; agro food trade ; EU integration ; regional development ; Common Agricultural Policy ; WTO
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 4
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Department für Agrarökonomie und Rurale Entwicklung (DARE)
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bioenergie ; Landwirtschaft ; Betriebliche Investitionspolitik ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: We study the labor market outcomes of a deregulation reform in Germany that removed licensing requirements to become self-employed in some occupations. Using longitudinal social security data, we implement a matched difference-in-differences design with entropy balancing to account for observable characteristics and unobserved individual heterogeneity. The reform tripled the number of businesses within ten years and led to slower earnings growth and higher unemployment for incumbent workers in deregulated occupations. However, the reform effect seems rather small, which we attribute to the relatively low competitiveness of new businesses. Supporting this view, the reform did not lead to overall employment growth.
    Keywords: J31 ; J24 ; L11 ; ddc:330 ; deregulation ; entry barriers ; self-employment ; labor market outcomes ; entropy balancing ; matched difference-in-differences
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: ENGLISH: The population structure and production of Pacific yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, were examined by studying most of the basic data available on stock assessment, as well as other data, for the period 1965 to 1972. The data were obtained mainly from the Japanese longline fishery in the Pacific Ocean east of about 1200E and from the purse-seine fishery in the eastern Pacific east of about 140oW. Data from genetic studies of subpopulations were not used due to their preliminary nature. It was concluded that the concept of "semi-independent" subpopulations proposed by Kamimura and Honma (1963) and Royce (1964) defines the population structure of Pacific yellowfin. At least three stocks (i.e. western, central and eastern), relatively independent of each other, are thought to exist, but the actual number and location of subpopulations is still unclear. Possible north-south separations, indicated to some extent by genetic studies and tagging, could be neither substantiated nor rejected on the basis of this study. Finally, unless some major change in the fishing technology occurs, it is doubtful if any significant sustainable increase in yellowfin production from the Pacific is possible. The greatest potential for increase, if any, appears to be based on changing the size structure of yellowfin in the catch from the central Pacific. SPANISH: Se examino la estructura de la población y la producción del atún aleta amarilla del Pacifico Thunnus albacares para estudiar la mayoría de los datos básicos que se tenían sobre el avalúo de la población, como también otra información correspondiente al periodo de 1965·1972. Los datos fueron obtenidos principalmente de las pescas palangreros japonesas del Océano Pacifico al este de los 1200 E y de las pescas con redes de cerco del Pacifico oriental, al este de los 140oW. No se emplearon los datos de estudios genéticos de las subpoblaciones porque eran mas bien preliminares. Se concluyo que el concepto propuesto por Kamimura y Honma (1963) y Royce (1964) de subpoblaciones "semiindependientes" define la estructura de la población del aleta amarilla en el Pacifico. Se cree que existen por 10 menos tres existencias (e.d. la occidental, central y oriental), relativamente independientes la una de la otra, pero no se conoce con certeza cuantas subpoblaciones hay y donde se encuentran. La posible separación norte-sur, indicada, hasta cierto punto, por los análisis genéticos y del marcado, no puede ni confirmarse ni rechazarse basados en este estudio. Finalmente, a no ser que ocurra algún gran cambio en la tecnología pesquera es dudoso que sea posible obtener un aumento constante e importante en la producción del aleta amarilla del Pacifico. El potencial mayor de aumento, si es que existe alguno, parece que se basa en el cambio de la estructura de talla en la captura del aleta amarilla del Pacifico central. (PDF contains 169 pages.)
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
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    Beaver Creek, Ontario: Canadian Center of Science and Education
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: The aim of this paper is to examine whether and how some structural characteristics of the Italian Network contract (NC) influence small firms’ performance. Since the ‘70s Italy has had a long history of network alliances characterized by the establishment of the industrial districts. However, this type of informal agreements have proved to be inadequate to counter the effects of globalization and of the changes that have occured in the international economic scenario. Consequently, the legislator has enacted the law n. 33/2009 by introducing a new type of formal agreement, named NC, in order to increase firms' competitiveness. Research findings on the Italian NC have shown the existence of positive effects on firms’ performance. However, in most cases the analyses have been based on a limited number of firms and have not verified the influence of some network structural characteristics. This research wishes to fill this gap by increasing the existing literature on the subject. The empirical analysis, based on a firm level panel data, highlights that in networks composed of small firms the results are not always consistent with prior studies. Network characteristics differently influence the firms’ performance measures. The analysis shows that network diversity and network's geographical openness are negatively related to firms’ performance. Instead, network size has a limited impact on firms' performance expressed only by the ROA.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Network agreements ; Network diversity ; Network’s geographical openness ; Network size ; Small firms’ performance ; Italian SMEs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Duncker & Humblot | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: I. Vierteljährliche volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnung für Deutschland - II. Beschäftigung und Arbeitnehmereinkommen, Jahreszahlen 1991 und 1992, Vierteljahreszahlen I/1991 bis II/1993
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 9
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    Bonn: Bundestag
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wirtschaftslage ; Wirtschaftspolitische Beratung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 10
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    Bonn: Bundestag
    Publication Date: 2019-08-01
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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